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Pro/ENGINEER
Complex Milling
Training Guide
Release 20.0
T021-20-01
Pro/ENGINEER
Complex Milling Training Guide
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PRINTING HISTORY

Document
Date Description
Number
05/01/98 T021-19-01 Initial Printing of Pro/ENGINEER Complex Milling Training
Guide for Release 20.0

Order Number DT-021

Printed in U.S.A.
Pro/MANUFACTURING Advanced Milling
Training Agenda
PARAMETRIC
TECHNOLOGY Pro/ENGINEER - Release 19.0
C O R P O R AT I O N

Day 1

Introductions
Lecture - Review Pro/Manufacturing concepts
Lab - General machining
Lunch
Lecture - Specific techniques for Mill Volumes and Mill Windows
Lab
Day 2

Lecture - Mill Surfaces and Surface sequences


Lab
Lunch
Lecture - Index Tables, Patterns, Subroutines
Lab
Day 3

Lecture - Trajectory and Customize techniques


Lab
Lunch
Lecture - Manufacturing UDF’s
Lab
Day 4

Lecture - Parameter issues and manipulation


Lab - Fix tool path problems
Lunch
Lab - Select milling job - applying advanced techniques
Day 5

Lecture - System Set Up : Config.pro, Tool Library, MDB and Relations


Lab
Lunch
Lab - Continue labs of personal interest
A d va nc e d Milling

Advanced Milling
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................... Intro-1
OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... Intro-1
TRAINING GUIDE INTENT................................................................................. Intro-1
TRAINING GUIDE FORMAT .............................................................................. Intro-1
TRAINING GUIDE CONVENTIONS................................................................... Intro-1
TRAINING GUIDE TERMS.................................................................................. Intro-2
EXERCISE 1 ......................................................................................................................... 1-1
SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING............................................................... 1-1
Setting up the Manufacturing Process ...................................................................... 1-4
Face Milling .............................................................................................................. 1-7
Trajectory Milling..................................................................................................... 1-8
Contour Surface Milling ......................................................................................... 1-11
Holemaking............................................................................................................. 1-13
Modifying the Model .............................................................................................. 1-14
Optional Steps......................................................................................................... 1-15
EXERCISE 2 ......................................................................................................................... 2-1
MILL VOLUMES......................................................................................................... 2-1
Volume Milling....................................................................................................... 2-10
Creating a Volume Using Sketch, Trim, and Offset............................................... 2-11
Mill Volume Regions.............................................................................................. 2-19
Creating Volume Using the Cap Plane ................................................................... 2-21
EXERCISE 3 ......................................................................................................................... 3-1
MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS ......................................................................... 3-1
Additional Mill Surfaces......................................................................................... 3-12
EXERCISE 4 ......................................................................................................................... 4-1
USING AN INDEX TABLE AND FIXTURES........................................................... 4-1
Setting Up the Fixture............................................................................................... 4-1
Preparing the Manufacturing Model......................................................................... 4-3
Creating the Manufacturing Model........................................................................... 4-4
EXERCISE 5 ......................................................................................................................... 5-1
TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS............................................. 5-1
Creating the Model ................................................................................................... 5-2
Setting Up for Manufacturing................................................................................... 5-2
Milling the Flange and the Bore ............................................................................... 5-3
4-Axis Trajectory Sequences .................................................................................. 5-12
EXERCISE 6 ......................................................................................................................... 6-1
Manufacturing User Defined Features .......................................................................... 6-1
Creating the Sequences ............................................................................................. 6-2
Defining The UDF .................................................................................................... 6-6
Placing the UDF........................................................................................................ 6-7

Complex Milling i
T A B LE OF CONT E NT S

Additional UDF Example......................................................................................... 6-9


EXERCISE 7 .......................................................................................................................... 7-1
PARAMETER ISSUES AND MANIPULATION........................................................ 7-1
Problem 1.................................................................................................................. 7-1
Problem 2.................................................................................................................. 7-4
Problem 3.................................................................................................................. 7-5
Problem 4.................................................................................................................. 7-6
Problem 5.................................................................................................................. 7-7
Problem 6.................................................................................................................. 7-8
Problem 7.................................................................................................................. 7-9
EXERCISE 8 .......................................................................................................................... 8-1
SAMPLE MILLING PARTS ........................................................................................ 8-1
Model 1..................................................................................................................... 8-1
Model 2..................................................................................................................... 8-2
Model 3..................................................................................................................... 8-3
Model 4..................................................................................................................... 8-4
Model 5..................................................................................................................... 8-5
Model 6..................................................................................................................... 8-6
Model 7..................................................................................................................... 8-7
EXERCISE 9 .......................................................................................................................... 9-1
SYSTEM SETUP AND CONVENTIONS ................................................................... 9-1
EXERCISE 10 ...................................................................................................................... 10-1
MANUFACTURING RELATIONS ........................................................................... 10-1
Gathering Information ............................................................................................ 10-1
Setting Up Relations............................................................................................... 10-2
APPENDIX A ........................................................................................................................ A-1
CONFIGURATION FILE OPTIONS .......................................................................... A-1
FILENAMES FOR OUTPUT OF MODEL INFORMATION .................................... A-2

ii Complex Milling
I NTRODUCTI ON
INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE
The Pro/ENGINEER Advanced Milling course is designed to familiarize you with the tech-
niques of creating manufacturing operations to produce NC data files necessary for machining
parts.

TRAINING GUIDE INTENT


This Pro/ENGINEER Training Guide is a supplement to instructor lead training in the use of
Pro/ENGINEER.

TRAINING GUIDE FORMAT


The Training Guide is divided into Manufacturing Engineering Exercises with step-by-step in-
structions for machining the models. These exercises are designed to teach you the advanced
techniques of milling with Pro/MANUFACTURING. As you work through the exercises, each
new task will utilize knowledge gained from the previous ones.
You will be provided with all the object files necessary to complete this course. They will be
found in separate sub-directories under your directory, and will be called up during each exer-
cise.
For more information on any topic, refer to the appropriate section in the “Manufacturing User’s
Guide”.
The Training Guide is concluded by a set of Sample Parts. You have to machine the parts in this
section on your own, using the information you have received in this course.

TRAINING GUIDE CONVENTIONS


In order to clarify the discussion of various topics, the following conventions have been em-
ployed throughout the manual:
Boldface type indicates a menu option (Part). However, only when the name refers to the actual
option will it appear in boldface type.
UPPERCASE indicates the name of a menu (PART).
UPPERCASE boldface type indicates the name of an object you are creating or retrieving
(TESTPLATE).
Italics will be used to indicate a naming convention. For example, partname.prt means that
Pro/ENGINEER will substitute the name of a specific part where partname occurs.
When you need to enter information using the keyboard, it will appear like this: [bolt]. Type
everything between the brackets exactly as shown. User input (such as parameter modifications,
etc.) will also appear in the same format, to better stand out.
All mouse clicks assume that the mouse has been configured as right-handed.

Complex Milling Intro - 1


IN TRODUCTI ON

Words between the <> symbol indicate the name of a keyboard key (<CR>).

TRAINING GUIDE TERMS


There are a few very important terms that are used frequently in the Training Guide; they are
defined below.
Choose - Click the left mouse button when a menu option is highlighted.
Click - Position the pointer on an item and then press and quickly release a mouse button.
Mode - An environment in which Pro/ENGINEER allows you to perform a certain group of
closely related functions (e.g. Drawing).
Model - A part or an assembly.
Object - An assembly, part or drawing.
Pick - Select an item on the screen by clicking the left mouse button.

Intro - 2 Complex Milling


0 EXERCISE 1
1
1
SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING
Start by setting up a config.pro file which will include manufacturing specific items which will
help organize your work during the course. Create the config.pro by entering the lines in the sys-
tem editor or create the config.pro file from within Pro/ENGINEER. If you create the config.pro
from within Pro/ENGINEER, make sure and exit before continuing with the exercise. At least
the following items should be entered in the config.pro file:
PRO_MDB_DIR ./system_setup/mdbase
PRO_MF_CL_DIR ./system_setup/clfiles
PRO_MF_PARAM_DIR ./system_setup/params_mfg
PRO_MF_TPRM_DIR ./system_setup/params_tool
PRO_MF_WORKCELL_DIR ./system_setup/workcells

The first exercise will be utilizing the following models: HOUSING_01.PRT as the reference
part and HOUSING_01_WP.PRT as the workpiece (casting).

reference part workpiece

Figure 1-1
1. Change directory to housing.
2. To create the Manufacturing Model, select File, New, and select Manufacturing, NC Part.
Name the model [housing_01]. Retrieve the design model called housing_01.prt from
the next window that appears.
3. You will be machining the base of this model, so, to reorient the view, select View,
Spin/Pan/Zoom. When the ORIENTATION window opens select the button that represents
the Spin Center Axis. Then drag the bar for the Z-axis all the way to either side (so the value
reads 180). Then, select the SAVED VIEWS bar and type in the name [bottom_tri]. Save,
then Ok from the ORIENTATION window.
4. Check to see that the datum display is checked in the ENVIRONMENT menu.

Complex Milling 1-1 Exercise 1


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

5. Choose Layer, Part, and pick on the design model. Turn off the line through the eye next to
the layer named CVR_DTM, then choose Close, Done/Return from the LAYERS menu,
and Done/Return from the LEVEL SEL menu. Repaint the screen.
6. Choose Mfg Model, Assemble, Workpiece and select housing_01_wp.prt from the OPEN
window.
7. Select Coord Sys from the CONSTRAINT TYPE pull-down menu. Pick OP1_ZERO on the
workpiece then pick CS0 on the design model. Finish the assembly placement by choosing
Done.

Figure 1-2
Manufacturing Model
8. Choose View, Layer Display, and blank the workpiece part layer CVR_DTM.
9. Choose View, Layer Display, and blank the reference part layer CVR_DTM.

Exercise 1 1-2 Complex Milling


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

10. The following operational drawing was received from the manufacturing process engineer:

Figure 1-3

Complex Milling 1-3 Exercise 1


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

Setting up the Manufacturing Process


11. Based on the information above, create a 3 Axis mill workcell and add the proper tools.
Choose Mfg Setup, Workcell, Create, Mill, 3 Axis, and Done.
12. Choose Name and enter [3XMILL].
13. Choose Tooling from the CELL SETUP menu and set the following parameters:
• Set the 6.0" face mill as shown below:
POCKET: 1 OFFSET: 1
TOOL_ID: 6_0FACE TOOL_TYPE: MILLING

GEOMETRY
CUTTER_DIAM: 6 LENGTH: 2-
CORNER_RADIUS: - SIDE_ANGLE: --

ADVANCED
LENGTH_UNITS: INCH GAUGE_X_LENGTH: -
TOOL_MATERIAL: C2 GAUGE_Z_LENGTH: --
NUM_OF_TEETH: 8 TOOL_COMMENT: ROUGH FACE FLANGE-

• To finalize the tool, click the Apply button at the bottom of the window.
• Select File, New (in the TOOL SETUP windoe) to define the 3.0" shell mill:
POCKET: 3 OFFSET: 3
TOOL_ID: 3_0SHELL TOOL_TYPE: MILLING

GEOMETRY
CUTTER_DIAM: 3 LENGTH: 1.5-
CORNER_RADIUS: - SIDE_ANGLE: -

ADVANCED
LENGTH_UNITS: INCH GAUGE_X_LENGTH: -
TOOL_MATERIAL: C2 GAUGE_Z_LENGTH: --
NUM_OF_TEETH: 4 TOOL_COMMENT: FINISH FACE FLANGE-

• Apply the tool.


• For the 1.25" tool choose File, Open Tool Library, By Copy, then navigate to the
system_setup directory and into the solid_tools directory. Pick llmfemws.prt.
Choose By Parameter and scroll down until you see a CUTTER_DIAM of 1.25.
Pick the value, then scroll down in the parameter section until you see the
SHANK_DIA. Select a value for this parameter as 1.00. Select the name of the only
instance left and click Open. This retrieves a Tool Library model. You will have to
change the POCKET and OFFSET parameters, both to 5. Also, add a
TOOL_COMMENT that says [Mill Side].
• Apply the tool.
• For the 1/2” ball end mill, set the parameters as follows:
POCKET: 7 OFFSET: 7
TOOL_ID: L7 TOOL_TYPE: MILLING

GEOMETRY

Exercise 1 1-4 Complex Milling


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

CUTTER_DIAM: .5 LENGTH: 3-
CORNER_RADIUS: .25 SIDE_ANGLE: --

ADVANCED
LENGTH_UNITS: INCH GAUGE_X_LENGTH: -
TOOL_MATERIAL: C2 GAUGE_Z_LENGTH: -
NUM_OF_TEETH: 2 TOOL_COMMENT: SEMI FIN JOURNAL

• Apply the tool.


• Choose File, New to define a #2 center drill as follows:
POCKET: 9 OFFSET: 9
TOOL_ID: NO2_CTRDRL TOOL_TYPE: CENTER_DRILLING

GEOMETRY
CUTTER_DIAM: .3125 LENGTH: 1.125-
DRILL_DIAMETER: .08 DRILL_LENGTH: .08
CSINK_ANGLE: 60 POINT_ANGLE: 118

ADVANCED
LENGTH_UNITS: INCH GAUGE_X_LENGTH: -
TOOL_MATERIAL: COBALT GAUGE_Z_LENGTH: --
TOOL_COMMENT: SPOT FOR DRILL
• Apply the tool.
• For the 1/4" drill select File, Open Tool Library, By Copy, and pick sssmlt.prt and
select SSSMLT73 from the list of instance names. You will have to change the
POCKET and OFFSET parameters to 11. As well as, adding a TOOL_COMMENT
that reads [Drill .25].
• Apply the tool.
• For the countersink, input the values shown:
POCKET: 13 OFFSET: 13
TOOL_ID: 500CSINK TOOL_TYPE: COUNTERSINK

GEOMETRY
CUTTER_DIAM: .5 LENGTH: 2-
POINT_DIAM: - GAUGE_OFFSET: .08
POINT_ANGLE: 90

ADVANCED
LENGTH_UNITS: INCH GAUGE_X_LENGTH: -
TOOL_MATERIAL: COBALT GAUGE_Z_LENGTH: -
TOOL_COMMENT: CHAMFER HOLES
• Apply the tool. Check the Tool Table in the window and make sure it is similar to

Complex Milling 1-5 Exercise 1


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

the table below. After you are done choose File, Done.

TOOL TOOL
TOOL ID COMMENTS
POSITION OFFSET

1 6_0FACE 1 ROUGH FACE


3 3_0SHELL 3 FINISH FACE
5 LEM11 5 MILL SIDE
7 L7 7 SEMI FIN JOURNAL
9 NO2_CTRDRL 9 SPOT FOR DRILL
11 SSSMLT73 11 DRILL .25
13 500CSINK 13 CHAMFER HOLES

14. Select Show from the CELL SETUP menu to verify tools and parameters.
15. Save the workcell, then choose Done/Return from the WORKCELL menu.
16. Select CL Setup then PPRINT and Create then change the flag from NO to YES on those
items that you want to appear as comments in the NC documentation. Make sure that you
input YES for TOOL_POSITION_NUMBER, TOOL_NAME,
TOOL_OFFSET_NUMBER, TOOL_COMMENTS. Exit and select Done/Return from the
PPRINT menu.
17. Create a site file which will save you time from entering every manufacturing parameter at
NC Sequence setup time. Choose Param Setup from the MFG SETUP menu, then Site,
Create, and enter [3X], then choose Mill. Change the following parameters:
CUT_FEED 10
TOLERANCE .001
SPINDLE_SPEED 1000
CIRC_INTERPOLATION ARC_ONLY
COOLANT_OPTION FLOOD
CUTCOM_TYPE NO_Z_MOVES
NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 2
FIXT_OFFSET_REGISTER 54
CLEAR_DIST .1
18. After exiting the Site Tree, choose Save and choose 3X_MIL. Activate the site file by choos-
ing Activate from the SITE SETUP menu. Choose 3X_MILL, Done Sel, and Done/Return.
19. To set up the first operation, choose Operation, leave Workcell and Mach Csys checked
then choose Done Oper.
20. For the workcell, select the 3XMILL workcell created earlier. For the machine coordinate
system, select on OP1_ZERO. Choose Done Oper when the OPERATION menu appears,
then Done/Return.

Exercise 1 1-6 Complex Milling


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

Face Milling
21. To start the first sequence, choose Machining, then NC Sequence, Face, and Done. In the
SEQ SETUP menu leave Tool, Parameters, Retract, and Surfaces checked then choose
Done.
22. Select the 6_0FACE tool, then Set the following manufacturing parameters:
RETRACT_FEED 15
STEP_DEPTH 0.1
STEP_OVER 100
NUMBER_PASSES 3
BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW 0.05
END_OVERTRAVEL 0.1
START_OVERTRAVEL 0.1
INITIAL_EDGE_OFFSET -0.25
FINAL_EDGE_OFFSET -0.25
APPROACH_FEED 5
EXIT_FEED 15
INTER_RET_HEIGHT 0.5
APPROACH_DISTANCE 1
EXIT_DISTANCE 1
CLEARANCE_EDGE CENTER

23. Select Done from the MFG PARAMS menu. Set up a retract plane 1” up from the coordinate
system (Z depth).
24. Choose Model then Done from the SURF PICK menu. Pick the flange surface of the model
to machine, choose Done Sel and Done/Return. Choose Play Path then Done to view the
path similar to what is shown in Figure 1-4. Choose Done Seq to complete.

Complex Milling 1-7 Exercise 1


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

Figure 1-4

Trajectory Milling
This section of the exercise will have you create a Trajectory sequence to finish face the flange.
You are going to use a 3.0” shell mill. The path for the trajectory sequence will be rectangular
to sweep around the top surface of the model where the small holes are located.
25. Select NC Sequence, New Sequence, Trajectory, Done. From the SEQ SETUP menu
check Tool, Parameters then choose Done.
26. Select the 3_0SHELL tool. For the parameters Use Prev, 1: Face Milling (or the name of
the sequence if applicable), Set, and modify the parameters as shown below:
CUT_FEED 15
STEP_DEPTH .5
SPINDLE_SPEED 675
27. Select Done from the MFG PARMS menu.

Exercise 1 1-8 Complex Milling


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

28. Choose Insert, Sketch, Done, and Done from the CUT ALONG menu. Pick the top of the
flange surface as the sketching plane and create the section as shown in Figure 1-5. (Align
vertical lines to axes and dimension as needed).

Figure 1-5

Complex Milling 1-9 Exercise 1


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

29. Regenerate the section and choose Done Cut. Play the path then complete the sequence.

Select this edge for


Trajectory sequence
Figure 1-6

The next Trajectory sequence will mill the front side surface of the model where the
journal cut is found. See Figure 1-6. Select the edge as shown and offset the cutter as
necessary.

30. Select NC Sequence, New Sequence, Trajectory, Done, check Tool, Parameters then
Done.
31. For the tool, pick the RLMFEMWS22 tool.
32. Select Use Prev and pick 2: Trajectory Milling, and modify some of the parameters for this
sequence, then choose Done from the MFG PARAMS menu.
33. Choose Insert, Edge, Done, check Height, select Done. Pick the lower edge of the surface
as shown in Figure 1-6(use Query Sel), choose Done Sel and Done.
34. Choose Flip, Okay for direction of cut, offset Right.
35. For the cutting height, choose Make Datum, Offset, and pick the surface below the edge
that #2 is pointing to in the operational drawing.
36. Choose Enter Value and input [.15], then choose Done, Done/Return.
37. Choose Play Cut. Notice the multiple passes. To change to one pass, set STEP_DEPTH to
3.00” in the manufacturing parameter file.

Exercise 1 1 - 10 Complex Milling


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

38. Now select Ends, Start, Specify, Done, and pull out the start point of the cut motion to a
reasonable distance and pick with the left mouse button. Now choose Offset Plane, and pick
the left adjacent workpiece surface of the cut and input [1]. Repeat for the End, then
Done/Return from the CUT ENDS menu, then Done Cut.
39. Choose Play Path to view the results. Complete the sequence by choosing Done Seq.

Contour Surface Milling


The next section will have you create a Contour Surface NC Sequence to machine the topmost
journal feature in the model. A mill surface will be created that includes the topmost portion of
the journal feature only.
40. To semi-finish mill the topmost journal feature (position 3 in Figure 1-3), select NC Se-
quence, New Sequence, Contour Srf, Done, Surf/Surf, Done, check Tool, then select
Done. For the tool, select L7.
41. From the MFG PARAMS menu, set the following manufacturing parameters for this se-
quence:
STEP_OVER 0.2
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW 0.015
SCALLOP_HGT 0.02

42. Choose Mill Surface from the SURF PICK menu. Select Done, Create Srf, enter [jour-
nal]. Next select Add, Copy, Done.

Figure 1-7
43. Choose Include, Indiv Surfs, Query Sel, for the surface of the top of the journal feature ref
part. (Notice both sides highlight). Select Done from the SURF SELECT menu. Double click
EXLCD LOOP from the dialog box under elements and select the edge as shown in Figure
1-7. (You have just removed the lower journal from the copy feature.)

Complex Milling 1 - 11 Exercise 1


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

44. Select Done Sel, Done Refs, then Preview on the dialog box. Select OK to
finalize the surface creation. Select Done/Return from the SURF DEFINE menu. Choose
Okay for the side of the surface to be machined, and choose Select All, Show, Done/Re-
turn. Okay for cut direction.
45. Choose Play Path to check the tool path, then Done Seq.

Figure 1-8

Exercise 1 1 - 12 Complex Milling


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

Holemaking

The final three sequences will center drill, drill and chamfer the 1/4" holes. First, cre-
ate a drill group, then start the sequences by center drilling all holes.

46. Return to the MANUFACTURE menu and choose Mfg Setup, Mfg Geometry, Drill
Group, Create, and enter the name [250_holes]. Add the axis of each hole, then OK,
Done/Return from the DRILL GROUP menu and Done/Return from the MFG SETUP
menu.
47. Select Machining, NC Sequence, New Sequence, Holemaking, Done, and Done from the
HOLEMAKING menu. Under Seq Setup, check Tool, choose Done, Select the
NO2_CTRDRL. Set up the following parameters:
CUT_FEED 2
SCAN_TYPE TYPE_SPIRAL
48. Select Done from the MFG PARAMS menu, then Depth, Blind, Tip, Ok. Now pick the top
surface of the reference part as the start surface. Then input a Z depth of [.15] for the end
surface, Ok. Now select Groups, Add and pick 250_holes, Ok. Finally, select Done/Re-
turn.
49. Choose Play Path to view the result then Done Seq.

Figure 1-9

Complex Milling 1 - 13 Exercise 1


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

50. For the 1/4" drill, select NC Sequence, New Sequence, Holemaking, Done, Done, check
Tool, Done and pick SSSMLT73. Use Prev, Holemaking, and modify some of the manu-
facturing parameters for this sequence, then choose Done.
51. Select Depth, Thru All, Ok, Group, Add, 250_holes, Ok, Ok, Done/Return, Done, then
Done/Return. Choose Play Path to view the result, then Done Seq.
52. Now chamfer the holes making sure to select Countersink from the HOLEMAKING menu,
and from the SEQ SETUP menu check Tool and select the tool named 500CSINK. Use the
previous parameters and change the values if necessary.
53. Select the same surface as the Start plane, and use [.31] for the counter sink diameter, then
complete the sequence.
54. Choose CL Data, Operation, OP10, File, Done, and input [OP10]. Select Done Output,
NC Check, Filename and pick op10.ncl, then choose Run.
55. Save the manufacturing model.

Modifying the Model


To simulate a design change, the diameter and location of the journal feature will be changed.
Since the workpiece is a copy of the design model, the dimension of that model will be changed
as well. Be sure to regenerate in the manufacturing mode so the changes will take effect for ma-
chining.
56. Select Modify from the MANUFACTURE menu, Mod Ref, Sel By Menu, Number, and
input [9]. Modify the section diameter to [1.75] and the linear dimension to [3.5]. Regen-
erate. Also modify the locations of the holes from .38 to [.40].
57. The casting (workpiece) must also be changed, so repeat the above process but choose Mod
Work and make the same change to feature #9.
58. Return to the MANUFACTURE menu, select Regenerate, Automatic, and Done from the
REGEN TYPE menu.
59. Display the tool path for the operation to check that the manufacturing features have been
updated.
60. If you have extra time, create an additional Trajectory sequence on the opposite side of the
part along with a Surface Contouring sequence on the front journal. Reorder the sequences
for proper tool progression.

Exercise 1 1 - 14 Complex Milling


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

Optional Steps
1. Redefine the Trajectory NC Sequence for the side surface and add another cut motion that
machines the opposite side. Use Customize, Tool Motion, to connect the two cut motions.
2. Rough Mill the bottom journal.
3. Finish mill the top and bottom journal.
4. Run NC Check on entire operation.
5. Add assembly relations to ensure changes made to the diameter and location of the journal
will be made to the workpiece. Select Relations from the MANUFACTURING menu. To see
the dimensions for one part at a time, choose Sel By Menu, HOUSING_01.PRT, Number,
and enter [9]. Write down the values. Repeat the process to see dimensions on the workpiece.
You should have values similar to the following:
reference diameter = d204:8
reference distance = d205:8
workpiece diameter = d204:10
workpiece distance = d205:10
Enter a comment line along with the relation [d024:10 = d204:8]. Test the relationship by
modifying feature 9 and regenerating. Then enter the relation for the location of the bearing
journal and test.

Complex Milling 1 - 15 Exercise 1


SURFACE AND TRAJECTORY MILLING

Exercise 1 1 - 16 Complex Milling


1 EXERCISE 2
2
2
MILL VOLUMES
This exercise is primarily geared to providing practice with Mill Volumes and Volume sequenc-
es in general. The exercise will also allow the creation and use of both Mill Volumes and Mill
Windows.
The first example in this exercise will show how a Mill Volume can be created and used in a
rapid prototype situation. The part that is to be created will be fully machined on both sides as it
is held in place within the stock by “postd” that will be removed later by hand. The material used
in this case could be a type of foam or plastic. The exercise will show how to manipulate the Mill
Volume to cut the “posts” directly into the volume to allow the tool to avoid the area.
1. Change the directory to volume_surf.
2. Open the existing manufacturing model handle.mfg as shown below.

Figure 2-1

During this exercise, this part will be fully machined from this workpiece leaving a
1.00” border around the outside and held in by four horizontal posts connecting the
border to the reference part.

The first several steps of the exercise will be to create the Mill Volume with the posts
built into the volume. You will first create the basic shape of the volume, then Trim,
then Offset, then Remove the areas for the four posts.

Complex Milling 2-1 Exercise 2


MILL VOLUMES

3. Create a sketched rectangular volume starting at the small bottom surface of the reference
model extruded UpTo the top surface of the workpiece. Dimension the outside edges of the
volume to be within the edges of the workpiece by 1.00”. See Figure 2-2 for a view of the
finished step. DO NOT choose Done/Return from the CREATE VOL menu.

Figure 2-2
4. Next, choose Trim from the CREATE VOL menu. This will subtract out the reference mod-
el from the volume.

Exercise 2 2-2 Complex Milling


MILL VOLUMES

5. Next, to allow for some tool overlap along the bottom boundary of the reference model, the
bottom surface of the volume will be offset by 0.25”. Choose Offset from the CREATE VOL
menu and use Tangential to extend the draft downward then continue to complete the offset
feature. See Figure 2-3 for a view of the volume after the offset is complete.

Figure 2-3

The basic Mill Volume is now complete. You will now add to the volume the posts
that will hold the reference model in place. The posts will be created by removing a
piece of the volume by sketching a cut in the shape of a circle. There will be four
sketched circles each starting at the outside of the volume extruded up to the next sur-
face it “sees” in the volume.

Start the first post on the front of the surface of the volume extruded up to the next
surface of the volume. Figure 2-4 shows what the volume should look like after the
first post is added.

6. Start the first post by choosing Sketch from the CREATE VOL menu, then choosing Re-
move.
7. For the form of the feature, choose Extrude.
8. For the sketching plane, select on the front surface of the Mill Volume. Pick an orientation
plane. When placed in the sketcher, create a circle that is concentric to the circle in the end
piece of the reference model. Use 0.50” for the diameter. Regenerate the sketch then choose
Done.
9. When the arrow appear show what material to remove, make sure the arrow points toward
the inside of the sketch then choose Okay.

Complex Milling 2-3 Exercise 2


MILL VOLUMES

10. For the depth, choose UpTo Surface then select on the Mill Volume surface that is coplanar
with the surface of the end cap. When the feature is complete, it should appear similar to what
is shown in Figure 2-4.

Figure 2-4
11. Now, create three more posts total, one on each side of the Mill Volume just like what was
done in the previous steps. Start the next one on the right side of the volume about halfway
along the length of the volume. Use the position of the first and second posts to locate the
third and fourth posts. See Figure 2-5 for the final results with all four posts.

Figure 2-5

Exercise 2 2-4 Complex Milling


MILL VOLUMES

12. The Mill Volume is now complete. Choose Done/Return from the CREATE VOL menu
then save the manufacturing model.

The first operation will now be defined. Create a 3-Axis workcell and use the OPER10
coordinate system as home. The first sequence will be a Volume NC Sequence to
rough the area within the volume.

13. In the MFG SETUP menu, choose Operation and create the first operation. Create the work-
cell and select the machine coordinate system.
14. To start the first sequence, choose Machining from the MANUFACTURE menu. Start a
Volume NC Sequence.
15. Inside the SEQ SETUP menu, accept the defaults then choose Done.
16. Set up a 1/2” flat end mill to rough the volume.
17. Set the following parameters:
CUT_FEED 1
STEP_DEPTH .3
STEP_OVER .3
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW .03
ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW .03
BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW -
CUT_ANGLE 0
SCAN_TYPE TYPE_3
ROUGH_OPTION ROUGH_ONLY
SPINDLE_SPEED 1000
COOLANT_OPTION OFF
CLEAR_DIST .1
18. Make a retract plane 1.00” above the part. Select the existing Mill Volume.
19. Path the path to see similar results as shown in Figure 2-6.

Figure 2-6

Complex Milling 2-5 Exercise 2


MILL VOLUMES

20. Complete the volume sequence.

Now create a Conventional Surface NC Sequence. This sequence will use a 1/4” ball
end mill and reference the Mill Volume surface for machining.

21. To start the Conventional sequence, choose NC Sequence, New Sequence, Conventl Srf,
then Done.
22. For the sequence reference, check Tool, Parameters, Surfaces then choose Done.
23. Create a new 1/4” ball end mill.
24. For the parameters, set the required values using .1 for the STEP_OVER and 0 for the
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW.
25. When asked for the surface reference, choose Mill Volume then Done. Choose Select Vol
and select on the name of the existing volume.
26. When asked for the surfaces within the volume to reference, choose Select All, then choose
Remove and select the top of the volume and all four outside surfaces of the volume.
27. Path the path to see similar results as shown in Figure 2-7.

Figure 2-7
28. Complete the sequence and save the manufacturing model.
29. Blank the Mill Volume feature.

Now the second operation will be defined. The part will be flipped then roughed and
finished on the other side. Instead of using a volume to machine the bottom, a Mill
Window will be used. Both a Volume and Conventional NC Sequence will reference
the same Mill Window.

30. Flip the part over for the second operation. Choose View, Saved Views, then select on BOT-
TOM, and choose Set.

Exercise 2 2-6 Complex Milling


MILL VOLUMES

31. Create the second operation. Choose Operation from either the MFG SETUP menu or the
MACHINING menu and define a new operation. Use the existing workcell and select the
OPER20 coordinate system.
32. For the first sequence for the second operation, create a Volume NC Sequence.
33. From the SEQ SETUP menu, check Tool, Parameters, Retract, and Window then choose
Done.
34. Select the 1/2” flat end mill.
35. For the parameters, use the same values as for the first volume sequence.
36. For the retract plane, make a datum 1.00” from the face of the workpiece.
37. For the window, choose Create Wind then enter a name. Choose Select for the method of
defining the window profile.
38. The profile of the window should be all the outside edges of the reference model. Use the
method of your choice for selecting the entire chain.
39. Once the edges have been selected, the basic information for the profile has been defined and
the dialog box still remains. Scroll down the Element list in the dialog box until you are able
to pick on Tool Side. Define the tool side to be On. Complete the Mill Window.
40. Figure 2-8 shows the model after the Mill Window is complete.

Figure 2-8

Complex Milling 2-7 Exercise 2


MILL VOLUMES

41. Now that the sequence is defined, play the path to obtain a view similar to Figure 2-9.

Figure 2-9
42. Complete the volume sequence and save the manufacturing model.

The last sequence for this model will now be defined. Create a Conventional Surface
NC Sequence similar to what was created for the first operation.

43. Start a new Conventional sequence.


44. From the SEQ SETUP menu, check Tool, Parameters, and Window then choose Done.
45. Use the 1/4” ball end mill for the tool.
46. For the parameters, use the same set as for the previous Conventional sequence.
47. For the window, choose Select Wind and pick on the window name.

Exercise 2 2-8 Complex Milling


MILL VOLUMES

48. Play the path to obtain a view similar to what is shown in Figure 2-10.

Figure 2-10
49. If time permits, create a Set that includes the first and second operation. Play the CL Data
file that is generated from the set in NC Check to see the results as shown in Figure 2-11.

Figure 2-11

Complex Milling 2-9 Exercise 2


MILL VOLUMES

Volume Milling
This portion of the exercise will walk you through the creation of a Simplified Representation
of the design model that will be referenced. After the creation of the manufacturing model, the
first Mill Volume will be created on the top of the model to rough out the material around the
top area of the part. The first Mill Volume will exclude the area down into the center section of
the design model. That area of the Mill Volume will be cut away from the volume.
1. Create a Part manufacturing model called EX2, using the GENERIC of PART_EX2.PRT
as the reference part. Do not retrieve an instance of the model.
2. Select Modify, Mod Ref, Layer, and turn off the blanking of layer DEF_DTM.
3. Assemble the model STOCK.PRT as the workpiece by aligning datums as shown in Figure
2-12 (Assembly DTM1, DTM2, DTM3 Aligned together from each model).

Figure 2-12

You will now define a Simplified Representation by substituting an instance of the de-
sign model into the manufacturing model. The instance will not have the rounds or the
groove feature. The machining will be performed on the simplified version of the
model.

4. Define a Simplified Representation of this assembly: choose Simplfd Rep from the MFG
MDL menu, Create, and enter the name [vol_mill]. Select Include Comp, Substitute,
Sel By Menu, PART_EX2.PRT, Family Table Member, Browse, then select on
4AXIS_SPHERE, then choose OK, OK, Done and Done/Return.

Exercise 2 2 - 10 Complex Milling


MILL VOLUMES

Creating a Volume Using Sketch, Trim, and Offset


5. Return to the MANUFACTURE menu, select Mfg Setup, Mfg Geometry, Mill Volume,
and create a volume named [total_v].

Mill Volume

Top Surface
of Disk

inner loop
(Use Edge)

Figure 2-13
6. This volume will be created to machine all of the material along the outside down to the bot-
tom surface of the disk. The material within the inside portion of the model will not be in-
cluded in this volume. The three steps required to create the volume will include sketching
the entire area then using the Trim command to subtract the reference model then removing
the center area by sketching the boundary to exclude. Use the following technique when cre-
ating this volume.
• Use Sketch, Extrude, One Side, and select the bottom surface of the disk as the
sketching plane. Use the perimeter edges of the workpiece as your section. Complete
the section. Use Thru All for the depth.
• Choose Trim in the CREATE VOL menu.
• Choose Sketch, Remove, Extrude, One Side, and select the top surface of the disk
as the sketching plane. Use the outside perimeter edges of the top rectangle on the
reference part for your section. Flip the arrow toward the inside of the rectangle. Use
Thru All for the depth.
• Offset the outer surfaces of the Mill Volume by [1.5].

Complex Milling 2 - 11 Exercise 2


MILL VOLUMES

The Operation will now be defined using the 3 Axis workcell previously created. Add
the necessary tooling to the workcell either by setting the parameters or by retrieving
the tools in from the tooling library.

7. Set up an operation and retrieve the 3X_MILL workcell.


8. Use the 11 csys as the Mach csys.
9. Set up the following mill type tools:

CORNER
TOOL ID DIAMETER LENGTH FLUTES
RADIUS

2_0R 2.0 .12 4 2


2_0L 2.0 0.03 6 4
750_BAL .75 .375 2 2
500_BAL .5 .25 1.75 2

Create a Volume NC Sequence that will machine the entire area within the Mill Vol-
ume.

10. Create a Volume NC Sequence using the 2_0R tool and set the manufacturing parameters as
follows:
CUT_FEED 1
STEP_DEPTH 1.2
STEP_OVER 0.8
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW 0.06
ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW 0.06
BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW 0.06
CUT_ANGLE 0
SCAN_TYPE TYPE_SPIRAL
ROUGH_OPTION ROUGH_ONLY
SPINDLE_SPEED 800
COOLANT_OPTION OFF
CLEAR_DIST 0.2

Exercise 2 2 - 12 Complex Milling


MILL VOLUMES

11. Define a retract plane that is 5.00” up from the machine coordinate system. Select
TOTAL_V as the mill volume. Play the path.

Figure 2-14
12. Complete the sequence and save the manufacturing model

You will now create another volume sequence to remove the rough stock left from the
first volume sequence. This sequence will have the ROUGH_OPTION set to
PROF_ONLY.

13. Create a new Volume sequence. Check Tool, Parameters, Volume, and Excld Surfs in the
SEQ SETUP menu.
14. Use the 2_0L tool.
15. Use the previous set of parameters, setting stock allowances to 0.00 and ROUGH_OPTION
to PROF_ONLY.
16. For the volume, use the TOTAL_V.
17. When prompt for the surfaces to exclude from profiling, select on the four outside surfaces
of the Mill Volume.

Complex Milling 2 - 13 Exercise 2


MILL VOLUMES

18. Play the path.

Figure 2-15
19. Complete the sequence then blank the volume.

Exercise 2 2 - 14 Complex Milling


MILL VOLUMES

A new Volume NC Sequence will be created to rough mill the top of the rectangular
protrusion. A new mill volume will need to be created. Start the volume at the top of
the rectangular surface and use the 4 outside edges as the sketch. Offset the walls of
the volume as described in the step.

20. Create a new Volume NC Sequence. Use the same tool as the previous sequence and modify
the parameters as needed.
21. Define a mill volume using Sketch, Extrude, Thru All, using the top of the rectangle as the
sketching plane with the direction pointing upward. Use the outside perimeter edges of the
rectangle for the sketch. Offset the walls of the volume by [1.5].
22. Play the path then complete the sequence(Figure 2-16).

Figure 2-16

Material removal features will now be created referencing the last two NC Sequences.

23. Select Matrl Remove from the MACHINING menu, pick the last Volume NC sequence,
choose Done from the MAT REMOVAL menu.
‡Note: A material removal feature removes the material as defined by the referenced
mill volume - in this case TOTAL_V.

Complex Milling 2 - 15 Exercise 2


MILL VOLUMES

24. Repeat for the mill volume on top of the rectangle. The manufacturing model should look as
shown in Figure 2-17.

Figure 2-17

Exercise 2 2 - 16 Complex Milling


MILL VOLUMES

Now the pocket in the rectangular protrusion will be machined. First, a Mill Window
will be created in the model. Then a new volume sequence will be created using a 3/4”
ball end mill.

25. Create a Mill Window in Mfg Setup using Select and pick the four edges that form the
closed boundary as shown in Figure 2-18. You are also going to need a datum axis to use as
an approach point, so create one as shown.

create datum axis

Boundary
loop for
window

Figure 2-18
26. Define a new Volume sequence, use the 3/4" ball endmill, use the previous parameters and
modify the following:
STEP_DEPTH .3
STEP_OVER .34
SCAN_TYPE TYPE_SPIRAL
CUT_DIRECTION STANDARD
SPLNDLE_SPEED 1400
CLEAR_DIST .1

Complex Milling 2 - 17 Exercise 2


MILL VOLUMES

27. To use the start axis, choose Build Cut from the SEQ SETUP menu, Approach, Whole Vol-
ume, Axis, Done, and pick the datum axis that you just made. Choose Play Cut to check the
tool path and complete the sequence (Figure 2-19).

Figure 2-19
28. Write the CL file to disk and perform an NC Check on the operation.
29. Save the manufacturing model and close the window.

Exercise 2 2 - 18 Complex Milling


MILL VOLUMES

Mill Volume Regions


This next section of the exercise will allow you to spend more time with regions within Volume
NC Sequences. Regions are automatically defined within a Volume NC Sequence and can be
manipulated independently within each cut motion. Work through the first sequence then spend
more time setting up approach locations within each sequence if time permits.
1. Retrieve the manufacturing model MP. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE
menu, Mfg Geometry, Mill Volume, Create, and name the mill volume [top_pockets].
2. Select any horizontal, top surface to specify the upward direction. Choose Gather, Select,
Done, Surf & Bnd, Done, and pick a surface in one of the three pockets as the seed surface.

seed surface

first bounding surface

second bounding surface


(select all Round surfaces)

Figure 2-20
3. Accept the defaults and pick the top planar surface as the bounding surface (see Figure 2-20).
You just made a mistake. You should have picked the rounds as the bounding surfaces. To
correct the mistake, choose Done Sel, then Remove from the FEATURE REFS menu and
pick the planar surface you just selected as the bounding surface. This removes it as a bound-
ing surface. Choose Done Sel, Add, select all of the surfaces of the rounds on the top of the
block to define the bounding surface, then choose Done Refs and Done/Return.
4. Show Volume to see the gathered volume and return to the MANUFACTURE menu.
5. In the MFG SETUP menu, choose Operation. Check Name, Workcell, Mach Csys, From,
and Home, then Done Oper.
6. Give the operation a name then retrieve the 3XMILL workcell.
7. Select MACH as the machine coordinate system then select the point FROM_HOME for
both the from and the home point.
8. Define a Volume NC sequence. Choose Machining, NC Sequence, Done. Under Seq Set-
up, check Name, and choose Done.

Complex Milling 2 - 19 Exercise 2


MILL VOLUMES

9. Retrieve a 0.5 diameter, 2.6875 long end mill from the HOUSING directory by choosing
File, Open Tool Library, By Copy. Switch to the housing directory, then choose RLM-
FEMWS.PRT. Choose By Params and choose the value for CUTTER_DIAM and
LENGTH. Finalize the tool setup.
10. Choose Retrieve from the MFG PARAMS menu. Choose the parameter file
ROUGH_PKT.MIL.
11. Specify DTM5 as the retract plane.
12. Choose Select Volume, TOP_POCKETS. To machine by regions, check Build Cut from
the SEQ SETUP menu, choose Show Regions, and step through each region by choosing
Next.
13. Choose Play Cut and watch the tool path. Note that for TYPE_SPIRAL scan type the
STEP_OVER is greater than the radius of the tool.
14. Choose Skip Regions and pick the center pocket. Play the cut again. Choose Order Regions
and pick on the cyan edge of each region as you change their order. Play the cut again.
Choose Remove Slice and pick the front pocket cyan line.
15. Now choose Approach, Select Region, and Done. Select the cyan line on the top surface of
the pocket. Accept Datum Point by choosing Done and pick the point named APPROACH.
Choose Done/Return, and Done Seq to complete the sequence.
16. Choose CL Data, Output, NC Sequence, the name of your sequence, uncheck Tip and
check Kerf. Note that you can specify the kerf height and plane. Choose Done.
17. Add approach locations for each of the other regions if time permits.
18. Complete the sequence and save the manufacturing model.

Exercise 2 2 - 20 Complex Milling


MILL VOLUMES

Creating Volume Using the Cap Plane


This section will provide another example of a mill volume. A volume will be created to rough
all the material within the cavity of the design model.
1. Retrieve the manufacturing model DEPTH_FINDER. Define an operation and retrieve the
3XMILL workcell. Create a coordinate system as shown in Figure 2-21. Create a Volume
sequence. For the sequence references, retrieve the L7 tool, and retrieve the VOL.MIL pa-
rameters. Set a 1.0" retract plane Along Z Axis.

Bounding Surfaces

Seed Surface

Figure 2-21
2. For the volume, choose Create Vol from the DEFINE VOL menu and enter [rm_pocket].
Select Gather, Select Fill, Close from the GATHER STEPS MENU then done. Accept Surf
& Bnd, choose Done, and for the “seed surface” pick the bottom of the pocket where the
three cut-outs are located. For the bounding surfaces pick all of the top surfaces of the refer-
ence part including the cut at the left (Figure 2-21).
3. Select Done Refs, then Done/Return from the SURF BND menu. Next you are being
prompted to specify a surface to fill. Select the bottom of the pocket again. Choose Done Sel,
Done Refs, Done/Return. Next you will close the volume. Choose Done from the CLO-
SURE MENU. Pick the top of the workpiece as the surface to cap the volume and pick one
of the edges on the inside of the bounding surfaces on the reference part.

Complex Milling 2 - 21 Exercise 2


MILL VOLUMES

Figure 2-22
4. Select Done Sel, then Done from the CLOSURE menu. Choose Done/Return and Show
Volume, Done, and Done/Return from the CREATE VOL menu.
5. Customize the path if desired then complete the sequence. Save the manufacturing model
and close the window.

Figure 2-23

Exercise 2 2 - 22 Complex Milling


2 EXERCISE 3
3
3
MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS
This exercise is primarily geared to providing practice with Mill Surfaces and Mill Windows.
The exercise will not only allow for the creation of the features but also examples of their uses
and solutions to typical situations that arise based upon how a model is created.
The first section in this exercise will have you create a Mill Window and use the feature to create
two different volume sequences. The first sequence will rough out most of the material on the
top with one tool and the other sequence will profile the top surfaces to remove what is remain-
ing. The depth for machining will be controlled by the Mill Window.
The next section in this exercise will show how a Mill Surface can be used to group several sur-
faces together. Based upon how models are created, some surfaces include more references than
are required for the desired manufacturing method. The first exercise will show how to create a
Mill Surface to only reference the area of the part surface that is of interest based on how the
manufacturing model is to be machined.
Two different Mill Surfaces will be created to allow for you to make a decision of which method
will best fit your manufacturing preference. The first method shown will force you to create mul-
tiple Mill Surfaces but will allow for more control over the individual tool paths. The second
method will allow one Mill Surface to be created thus allowing less control over the direction of
the tool path in certain areas of the surface reference.
1. Change the directory to volume_surf.
2. Retrieve the existing manufacturing model button.mfg as shown below.

Figure 3-1

Complex Milling 3-1 Exercise 3


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

This part will placed on a 3-Axis VMC. During this exercise, the top of the part will
be rough milled with a 1/8” flat end mill. then rough profiled with a 1/16” flat end
mill. A Mill Window will be created for the reference for both of the sequences.

Once roughed, a 1/32” ball end mill will be used to finish machine the four pockets in
the top. Two different methods will be shown for the machining and you will choose
which is best based upon the amount of control that is needed over the tool path. Two
different methods for the Mill Surfaces will be used for the surface sequences.

The first several steps of the exercise will be to create the Mill Window. The boundary
of the window will be the outside edges of the workpiece. The depth of the window
will be defined by offsetting a datum plane 0.03” from the underneath surface of the
top features of the part. After the window is created and the Operation defined, the
first Volume NC Sequence will be created.

3. Go to the MFG SETUP menu and start the creation of the window. Use the name
[WIN_TOP] for the feature.
4. For the coordinate system reference, select on the MACH coordinate system located in the
model.
5. For the window plane, use the top of the workpiece.
6. For the method of defining the window, choose Select and pick on the four outside edges of
the workpiece.
‡Note: After the window is defined, do not complete the feature yet. The optional ele-
ments of Tool Side and Depth will be defined.
7. Define the Tool Side element to be On.
8. Define the Depth element by defining a datum plane that is offset 0.03” down from the un-
derneath flat surface of the top cylindrical feature.
9. Once all the elements have been defined, select OK to complete the Mill Window.
10. Choose Operation and define the operation using a 3 Axis Mill workcell and as the machine
coordinate system, select on MACH.

The first NC Sequence will be a Volume. A 1/8” flat end mill will be used to rough
the material within the window.

11. To start the sequence, choose Machining, NC Sequence, Volume, then Done.
12. Make sure that Tool, Parameters, Retract, and Window are checked then choose Done.
13. For the tool, create a 1/8” flat end mill with the TOOL_ID of FEM_0_125.
14. For the parameters, enter at least the following:
CUT_FEED 1
STEP_DEPTH .05
STEP_OVER .06
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW .015
ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW .015
SCAN_TYPE TYPE_SPIRAL

Exercise 3 3-2 Complex Milling


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

SPINDLE_SPEED 1000
CLEAR_DIST .1
15. For the retract plane, select on the datum that is 1/2” offset from the top of the workpiece.
16. For the window, select on the name of the Mill Window feature created earlier.
17. Play the path to obtain a view similar to what is shown in Figure 3-2.

Figure 3-2
18. Complete the sequence and save the manufacturing model.

To illustrate another use for the Mill Window, you will create another Volume NC Se-
quence. This time a smaller tool will be used and the sequence will be defined to only
profile the surfaces of the design model.

19. To start the new sequence, choose NC Sequence, New Sequence, Volume, then Done.
20. From the SEQ SETUP menu, check Tool, Parameter, and Window then choose Done.
21. For the tool, create a 1/16” flat end mill with the TOOL_ID of FEM_0_062.
22. For the parameters, choose Use Prev and select on the previous sequence. Choose Set and
change the following:
PROF_STOCK_ALLOW .01
ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW .01
BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW 0
ROUGH_OPTION PROF_ONLY
23. For the window, select on the same window that was used in the previous sequence.

Complex Milling 3-3 Exercise 3


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

24. Play the path to obtain a view similar to what is shown in Figure 3-3.

Figure 3-3
25. Make any desired changes then complete the sequence and save the manufacturing model.

The next area of the model to machined will be the pockets in the top. For this exer-
cise, a Conventional NC Sequence will be created to machine each of the pockets us-
ing a 1/32” ball end mill and a small step over. Prior to creating the sequence(s), mill
surfaces will be created.

The desired machining technique for this model is to have the tool machine the top
contoured surface of each pocket and down into the pocket itself. A Mill Surface will
be created to include all the desired surfaces with an extension to allow for tool over-
lap.

There are two different techniques for creating the Mill Surfaces that will be shown
here. One technique will have one Mill Surface that includes all the surfaces for each
pocket with the proper extensions as needed. The other technique will involve creat-
ing four Mill Surfaces, one for each pocket. Depending on how much control you
want over the CUT_ANGLE for each pocket will determine which approach you will
use.

The Mill Surfaces in this case will be a little tricky based upon how the model was
created. The inside sloped surface of each pocket is actually all part of one surface.
This makes it more challenging when only trying to create a Mill Surface that only
includes one pocket. You will be shown how to create the surfaces making good use
of the surface and bound technique and the exclude capabilities.

The next few steps will have you create the Mill Surface that will include the surfaces
for all four pockets. Once the surface is created, the edges will be extended for each
area.

26. To start the first Mill Surface, choose Mfg Setup, Mfg Geometry, Mill Surface, and Cre-
ate. Enter the name [msurf_all_pockets] at the prompt.

Exercise 3 3-4 Complex Milling


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

27. From the SURF DEFINE menu, choose Add.


28. For the method, choose Copy then Done.

The Surf & Bnd technique will be used here. You will select one of the sloped surface
inside a pocket for the seed, then for the bounding surfaces, you will select on all four
top contoured surfaces for each pocket. See Figure 3-4.

29. For the technique, choose Surf & Bnd. When asked for the seed surface, choose Query Sel
and select on the surface as shown in Figure 3-4. Choose Next until all four pockets highlight
then Accept.
30. For the Boundary, select on each of the small top contoured surfaces as shown. Choose Done
Sel when complete, then Done. DO NOT choose Done from the SURF SELECT menu.

Bounding
Surfaces Bounding
Surfaces

Seed Surface

Figure 3-4

At this point, each pocket should be highlighted indicating which surfaces are part of
the Mill Surface feature. You need to add the small top contoured surface of each
pocket to this surface. You will use the Include again and pick the four surfaces.

31. Choose Include, then leave Indiv Surfs selected and using Query Sel, pick on all four top
contoured surfaces. When done, choose Done Sel.
32. Notice what surfaces are highlighted now. If all the surfaces on the top are highlighted,
choose Done from the SURF SELECT menu.
33. To complete this portion of the surface, choose OK .

You should notice the yellow boundary for each pocket in the surface. You will now
extend the edges of each pocket by 0.02” to allow for tool overlap. These steps will
be repeated four times.

34. From the SURF DEFINE menu, choose Extend.

Complex Milling 3-5 Exercise 3


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

35. Choose Same Srf, Single Dst, Dist On Srf, then Done.
36. To select the first boundary, choose Bndry Chain, then select on the Mill Surface feature.
When one of the contours highlights, choose Accept then Select All and Done.
37. The system is now asking for a edge to measure the distance from. Pick on one of the outside
edges that make up the current boundary. Enter a distance of [0.02] at the prompt. Choose
Done Extend.
38. The first set of edges should be extended. Choose Extend again and repeat the above steps
to extend the other 3 boundaries on the other pockets. See Figure 3-5 for a view of the model
after all the edges have been extended.

Figure 3-5

The first Mill Surface is now complete. You can shade the surface to get a better rep-
resentation. The surface will now be blanked and a new Mill Surface feature will be
created.

The next Mill Surface will consist of only one of the pockets. Because the bottom sur-
face of one pocket is common to all pockets, a different technique will be shown to
create a Mill Surface for only one pocket.

You will first Add surfaces using the Surf & Bnd method and Individual. Then, the
unwanted loops of the other pockets will be excluded. Finally the top contoured sur-
face will be added, merged, and extended as done in the previous exercise.

39. Before starting this new Mill Surface, the existing surface should be blanked. From the
MILL SURFACE menu, choose Blank then select on MSURF_ALL_POCKETS.
40. To start the new Mill Surface, choose Create then enter the name [msurf_pocket1].
41. For the method, choose Add, then Copy and Done.

Exercise 3 3-6 Complex Milling


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

The first step will be to use the Surf & Bnd technique and pick one of the vertical sur-
faces in pocket as the seed surface. The boundary surfaces will be the bottom surface
of the pocket and the top contoured surface.

42. To include the surfaces, choose Surf & Bnd, then select on the vertical drafted surface for
the seed as shown in Figure 3-6.
43. For the boundary surfaces, pick on the bottom sloped surface and the top surface as shown.

Pick these edges


for Excld Loop
Step 1
Seed Surface
Boundary 1
Boundary 2

Step 2
Pick this surface

Step 3
Add then Merge
this surface

Figure 3-6
44. Choose Done Sel and Done. Choose Show then Mesh. You should have only the small ring
of surfaces within the first pocket, not including the bottom and top surface.

Now that the first step is complete, you will add the next reference for the surface. The
bottom surface needs to be included in this Mill Surface. You will now include the
surface and will notice the bottom surface for all pockets will be included. The Excld
Loop functionality will be used to remove the unwanted loops of the other pockets.

45. To add the bottom surface, choose Include, Indiv Surfs then pick on the bottom surface. The
bottom surface of all pockets should highlight. Choose Done Sel.
46. Complete the surface selections by choosing Done from the SURF SELECT menu.
47. Now to exclude the unwanted loops. From the dialog box, choose Excld Loop then select
Define .
48. Leave Add selected and pick an edge of each bottom surface in the three unwanted pockets
as shown in Figure 3-6. Choose Done Sel after each edge is selected.
49. Choose Done Refs then select on Preview . You should see only one pocket highlight.
50. Select OK to complete this portion of the Mill Surface.

Complex Milling 3-7 Exercise 3


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

The Mill Surface is not yet complete. The top surface of the first pocket will need to
be added then merged into the existing surface then extended. (The top surface could
have been selected when creating the other surfaces, but this will allow you to see how
two surfaces can be merged together to form one reference.)

51. To add the top surface of the first pocket choose Add, Copy, then Done.
52. Choose Indiv Surfs then select on the small top contoured surface of the first pocket.
53. After the surface is selected, choose Done Sel then Done. Select OK from the dialog
box.
54. To merge the top surface to the existing surface, choose Merge, then Join, then select on the
top contoured surface.
55. To extend the surface, choose Extend, Same Srf, Single Dst, Dist On Srf then Done.
56. Choose Bndry Chain and select on the surface. Choose Select All then Done.
57. For the distance, pick on one of the edges then enter a distance of [0.02]. Choose Done Ex-
tend.
58. Choose Done/Return from the SURF DEFINE menu. The surface should appear as shown
in Figure 3-7.

Figure 3-7

You could create the other Mill Surfaces for the rest of the pockets, but one will do
for what this exercise will illustrate.

You will now blank the Mill Surface for one pocket and unblank the Mill Surface that
includes all the pockets. Then, a Conventional NC Sequence will be created to show
the limited control over the direction of the tool path when cutting all four pockets us-
ing the same surface. Next, another Conventional NC Sequence will be created to
show how the cut angle could be controlled independently for each pocket.

59. Before starting the sequence, choose Blank and select on MSURF_POCKET1.

Exercise 3 3-8 Complex Milling


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

60. Choose Unblank and select on MSURF_ALL_POCKETS.


61. To start the first sequence return to the MACHINING menu and choose NC Sequence, New
Sequence, Conventl Srf then Done.
62. Check Tool, Parameters, and Surfaces then choose Done.
63. For the tool, create a .031” ball end mill with a TOOL_ID of BEM_0_031.
64. For the parameters, choose Set then change at least the following:
CUT_FEED 1
STEP_OVER .005
CUT_ANGLE 0
SPINDLE_SPEED 1000
CLEAR_DIST .1
65. For the surface reference, choose Mill Surface then Done. Choose Select Srf and pick
MSURF_ALL_POCKETS.
66. When the arrow appears, make sure it points upward then choose Okay. For the surface to
select, choose Select All then Done/Return.
67. Play the path to obtain a view similar to what is shown in Figure 3-8.

Figure 3-8

Complex Milling 3-9 Exercise 3


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

68. Change the CUT_ANGLE parameter to 45, then play the path again as shown below.

Figure 3-9

This path may be acceptable depending upon what you need. But, some areas of con-
cern may be that you cannot control the default start point for each pocket indepen-
dently. Another concern may be with the cut angle being different for each pocket. If
this concerns you, then change the surface reference for this sequence to the Mill Sur-
face that makes up only one pocket then create three more sequences.

The following steps will have you change the surface reference to the one pocket. If
time permits, you can come back to this exercise and complete the machining by cre-
ating three more Mill Surfaces.

69. To change the surface reference, choose Seq Setup, Surfaces, then Done.
70. Choose Mill Surface then Done. Choose Remove then Remove All.
71. Choose Change from the SELECT SRFS menu. Choose Select Srf then select on
MSURF_POCKET1.
72. When the arrow appears, make sure it points upward then choose Okay. Choose Add then
Select All. Choose Done/Return.

Exercise 3 3 - 10 Complex Milling


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

73. Play the path to view the results as shown in Figure 3-10.

Figure 3-10

This path can be controlled independently from the other pockets then repeated in the
other areas. You could change the cut angle, cut direction, or entry point. If time per-
mits, try different variations for this sequence.

74. Complete the sequence.


75. Save the manufacturing model and close the window.

Complex Milling 3 - 11 Exercise 3


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

Additional Mill Surfaces


This next exercise shows another example of when creating a Mill Surface is desirable. You will
use a different technique than in the previous exercise. This Mill Surface will make use of the
Fill capability to remove any interior holes in the surface. Also, multiple surfaces will be extend-
ed then intersected to form one surface to be used as a machining reference.
The model used in this exercise is simple but illustrates a common situation when machining sur-
faces from the design model. Adjacent surfaces are not always part of the same surface or are
not connected at all because of some other feature in between. This exercise will show how to
merge multiple surfaces together to form one Mill Surface. This Mill Surface will be used as a
surface reference for a Conventional NC Sequence.
You will need to create a new manufacturing model and retrieve the Reference model as shown
in Figure 3-11. The purpose of this exercise is to spend time with Mill Surfaces. A workpiece
and any roughing sequences will not be needed. You will immediately start creating the Mill
Surface. Once it has been created, the Conventional NC Sequence will be created.
The end result of this exercise will be to create a tool path to machine the top outside surfaces
from left to right, excluding the hole in the top and the top grooves on the left and right sides.

Figure 3-11
1. To get things started, create a new assembly manufacturing model named [surf2].
2. Retrieve the reference model spacer.prt.

The first section of this exercise will have you create the Mill Surface. The basic steps
will involve copying the top then extending both the left and right sides. Then the
sides will be copied and also extended up. Once the three areas are copied, they will
be intersected to create the final surface.

3. To start the Mill Surface, choose Mfg Setup, Mfg Geometry, then Mill Surface.
4. From the MILL SURFACE menu, choose Create then enter the name
[msurf_top_contour].
5. Choose Add, then Copy and Done.

Exercise 3 3 - 12 Complex Milling


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

6. Leave Indiv Surfs selected then pick on the top surface to copy as shown in Figure 3-12.

Pick This Surface

Fill This Loop

Figure 3-12
7. Choose Done Sel then Done.
8. To fill the opening in the surface, select Fill Loop from the dialog box then select Define
9. Choose Loops then select on the top edge of the round feature as shown in Figure 3-12.
Choose Done Sel then Done Refs and Done/Return.
10. To complete this step, select OK from the dialog box.

The next step will be to extend the left and right sides of the top surfaces. You will
need to use the Extend command twice, one for the left side and one for the right.

11. From the SURF DEFINE menu, choose Extend then Same Srf, Single Dst, Dist On Srf and
Done.
12. Using Query Sel, pick on the right side edge of the top surface. Make sure the proper edge
is selected then Accept and choose Done Sel and Done.
13. For the distance, select anywhere on the right edge then enter [0.25] as then extension dis-
tance.
14. For the extension method, choose Ext SideEdge then Done for both sides. Choose Done Ex-
tend to complete.
15. To extend the left side, choose Extend then follow the previous 4 steps to obtain a view as
shown in Figure 3-13.

Figure 3-13

Complex Milling 3 - 13 Exercise 3


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

A similar procedure will now be followed for the left and right sides. Independently,
they will be added to the existing Mill Surface then extended.

16. To copy the right side, choose Add from the SURF DEFINE menu, then Copy and Done.
17. Leave Indiv Surfs selected the pick on the two right side surfaces as shown in Figure 3-14.

Pick these surfaces

Figure 3-14
18. After the surfaces have been selected, choose Done Sel then Done. Complete the surface by
selecting OK .
19. Now to extend the top edge, choose Extend then follow the same steps as with the previous
extensions and use a distance of [0.25].
20. After the right side has been extended, the SURF DEFINE menu should appear. To start the
process for the left side, choose Add then Copy and Done.
21. Follow similar steps as before and copy the two surfaces on the left side then extend the top
edge upward 0.25”. Figure 3-15 shows the model at the completion of these steps.

Figure 3-15

At this point, the Mill Surface is made up of three distinct patches. You will now use
the Merge command to intersect the surfaces, keeping the good side and removing the
excess extensions.

22. To start the process, choose Merge, then leave Intersect selected and pick the surface on the
right side. When the arrow appears, make sure it points toward the side of the surface you
want to keep then choose Okay. Repeat for the next arrow.

Exercise 3 3 - 14 Complex Milling


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

23. The right side should be complete. To start the left side, choose Merge then select the left
side surface.
24. When the arrow appears, choose Okay when it points in the correct direction for each sur-
face.
25. From the SURF DEFINE menu, choose Done/Return. Shade the surface and it should ap-
pear as shown in Figure 3-16.

Figure 3-16
26. Return to the MANUFACTURE menu and save the model.

An Operation will now be defined and a Conventional NC Sequence will be created


to machine the Mill Surface.

27. Define a New Operation. Create a workcell and a machine coordinate system with the Z axis
pointing upward.
28. Start a new Conventional NC Sequence. Use a 1/4” ball end mill, set any appropriate param-
eters then select the Mill Surface as the surface reference.

Complex Milling 3 - 15 Exercise 3


MILL SURFACES AND WINDOWS

29. Play the path to obtain a view similar to what is shown in Figure 3-17.

Figure 3-17
30. Complete the sequence.
31. Save the manufacturing model

Exercise 3 3 - 16 Complex Milling


3 EXERCISE 4
4
4
USING AN INDEX TABLE AND FIXTURES
In this exercise you will perform assembly machining using an index table. The first section will
have you perform some setup on the fixture that will be used. Once the fixture is prepared, the
first manufacturing model will be created then assembled onto the fixture for further machining.
Once the main manufacturing model is started, you will create the sequences on one model then
use patterns and subroutines to perform the machining on the other sides of the tombstone.
1. Change directory to tombstone.

Setting Up the Fixture


2. In preparation for assembly machining, retrieve FSTB.PRT in Part mode and create a
coordinate system in the center of the fixture as follows:
First create a coordinate system called MACH at the intersection of DTM1, DTM3, and the
bottom of the tombstone. Have the coordinate system axes oriented as shown in Figure 4-1.
Also create 4 more coordinate systems at the same location with their Z axes oriented to-
wards the 4 faces of the tombstone. Using the names shown in Figure 4-1, rename the coor-
dinate systems by choosing Setup, Name, Feature. Use Query Sel to choose the correct co-
ordinate system.

Z direction for B90

Z direction for B180

Z direction for B0

Z direction for B270


Figure 4-1

Complex Milling 4-1 Exercise 4


USING AN INDEX TABLE AND FIXTURES

3. Create a datum point to be used as a from_home location. Choose Feature, Create, Datum,
Point. Use the Offset Csys option. Select MACH, choose Cartesian. Choose Enter Points
and enter [12] for X, Y, and Z.
4. Next create a circular datum curve and four datum points to serve as a fixed go to point for
the rotation of the B axis (as shown in Figure 4-2). Choose Feature, Create, Datum, Curve,
Sketch, and Done. For the sketching plane, choose Make Datum, Offset, a value of 10 from
DTM2. Accept the direction of viewing and choose Bottom and select DTM3 for the
reference. In sketcher, create a radius 12.0 circle with the center aligned to DTM1 and
DTM3. Regenerate the sketch and complete the feature.
5. Create four independent datum points at the intersection of the circular datum curve and
DTM1 and DTM3. Choose Create, Datum, Point, Curve X Srf. Pick the curve
approximately where it crosses DTM3 on the right side then pick on DTM3 then Done Sel.
Repeat 3 more times to have datum points at the four intersections of the curve and DTM1
and DTM3. Then, Rename the points B_0, B_90, B_180, and B_270 according to the side
they are on. When Renaming, you will need to use the Other option in the NAME SETUP
menu if the datum points were created as one feature.
6. Save the part and close the window.

Figure 4-2

Exercise 4 4-2 Complex Milling


USING AN INDEX TABLE AND FIXTURES

Preparing the Manufacturing Model


A manufacturing model will now be created. You will drill the holes in the model so the model
will be able to be assembled to the fixture in the next manufacturing model that will be created.
7. Create a manufacturing model called gimble using the generic version of GIMBLE.PRT as
the reference part and WP1.PRT as the workpiece. Assemble by aligning datums.

these holes will be


used for mounting
on the fixture

GIMBLE.PRT WP1.PRT

Figure 4-3
8. Set up an operation and retrieve the 3XMILL workcell(if available).
9. Center drill and drill the 5/8 holes for mounting on the fixture and create an Automatic
material removal.
10. Save the manufacturing model and close window.

Complex Milling 4-3 Exercise 4


USING AN INDEX TABLE AND FIXTURES

Creating the Manufacturing Model


The main manufacturing model will now be created. The reference model here will be the man-
ufacturing model that was machined in the previous steps. Once the model is retrieved, the fix-
ture will be assembled in, then the other manufacturing model will be assembled onto the other
sides of the tombstone.
11. Create a new manufacturing model and name it [gimble_rotate], but this time select
Assembly from the MFG TYPE menu. Choose Mfg Model, Assemble, Mfg Assem, and
enter the name of the manufacturing model you created earlier(gimble.mfg)
12. Choose Mfg Setup, Fixture, Create, enter a setup name, then choose Component,
Assemble and select the name of the tombstone assembly(fstb.asm). Assemble the fixture to
the manufacturing model.
13. Choose Setup Time and enter [45].
14. You will now create a simplified representation of this manufacturing model to remove the
display of the holes in the fixture. Choose Mfg Model, Simplfd Rep, Create, No_holes,
Include Comp, Substitute and pick on the fixture assembly from the table. From the
COMPONENT SUBSTITUTE window, pick Simplfd Rep, Browse, NO_HOLES and pick
Ok,Ok. Finish by selecting Done from the EDIT REP menu.
15. Return to the MANUFACTURE menu, select Mfg Model, Assemble, Mfg Assem, and
assemble the manufacturing model 3 more times around the tombstone (Figure 4-4).

Figure 4-4

Exercise 4 4-4 Complex Milling


USING AN INDEX TABLE AND FIXTURES

16. Set up operation_30 with PNT0 datum point as the From/Home position. Define a 4 axis mill
workcell with the following cell parameters:
ROTATE_MODE ABSOLUTE
ROTATE_DIRECTION SHORTEST
A_AXIS_ROTATION NO
B_AXIS_ROTATION YES
C_AXIS_ROTATION NO
MACHINE_ID HIT_003
LOCATION DEPT_610
CONTROLLER FANUC
SPINDLE_HP 15
RAPID_FEED_RATE 200
RAPID_FEED_UNITS IPM
TOOL_CHANGE_TIME 3.2
CELL_X_MIN -30
CELL_X_MAX 30
CELL_Y_MIN -15
CELL_Y_MAX 15
CELL_Z_MIN -15
CELL_Z_MAX 15
CELL_MAX_FEED 30
CELL_MAX_SPINDLE 10000
FROM_OUTPUT NO_FROM_S
Exit the Param Tree, use MACH as the Machine coordinate system, and select the
From/Home point.

The first NC Sequence will now be created. You will use a 6.0” face mill to remove
the stock on the face of the first model on the tombstone. Once the path is complete,
a pattern will be create to have the sequence machine the other parts on the fixture.

17. When starting the first sequence, add Coord Sys, Start, and End to the list of checked items
in the SEQ SETUP menu, and select B0 as the sequence coordinate system. Set up a 6.0"
face mill. Set the manufacturing parameters that are applicable for this cut including:
STEP_DEPTH .1
STEP_OVER 20 (this will be ignored because 1 pass is used)
NUMBER_PASSES 1
NUMBER_CUTS 3

Complex Milling 4-5 Exercise 4


USING AN INDEX TABLE AND FIXTURES

machine this surface

Figure 4-5
18. Create an offset datum plane 1.0 inch from the workpiece as the retract plane.
19. For the surface type, choose Model then Done from the SURF PICK menu and pick the top
surface of the right-hand reference part (Figure 4-5).
20. Select the datum point B_0 for the start and end of the sequence.
21. Choose Play Path to view the results then complete the sequence.

Now that the sequence is complete, it will be patterned to the other model on the fix-
ture.

22. Choose Utilities from the MACHINING menu, Pattern, NC Sequence, pick the Face Mill
sequence, choose CSYS Pattern, Rotate, and enter a rotation angle of [90] degrees.
23. Make the following menu picks: Mach Csys, Index Table, Y Axis, Done Rot. Enter [4] for
the number of instances, then choose None.
24. Use CL Data to display the tool path, then go to Edit and step through the CL file to check
for the absolute rotation.

Exercise 4 4-6 Complex Milling


USING AN INDEX TABLE AND FIXTURES

Figure 4-6

The next sequence to be created will be a Volume NC Sequence. The figure eight
shaped feature will be roughed out using a 1/2” ball end mill. Create a Mill Window
by selecting the top edges of the pocket. When the sequence is complete, you will pat-
tern the path to the other models as before.

25. Create a Volume NC sequence to mill out the pocket shaped as a figure eight. Use a 1/2" ball
end mill and appropriate parameters.
26. Machine the right-hand model on the fixture first. Set the height of the Mill Window to be
coplanar with the top surface of the workpiece.

Complex Milling 4-7 Exercise 4


USING AN INDEX TABLE AND FIXTURES

27. Complete the sequence and pattern the tool path around the fixture.

Figure 4-7
28. Now define a Local Mill sequence that uses a 1/4" ball endmill and references the previous
Volume sequence. Use the previous parameters, reduce the PROFILE_STOCK_ALLOW
value slightly, and modify any other parameters you find necessary.
29. Pattern this sequence as you did the volume sequence.

The next NC sequence will mill the .05" radius feature around the bottom of the island
in the pocket. Since the floor of the pocket is not a planar surface, you will have to
create a Trajectory sequence using the tangent edge of the round and the bottom of the
pocket as the height reference.

30. Define a 3 Axis Trajectory sequence along with a special ground 0.1" diameter ball endmill.
Modify the parameters as needed, making sure that the PROF_STOCK_ALLOW is 0.

Exercise 4 4-8 Complex Milling


USING AN INDEX TABLE AND FIXTURES

31. Select the Insert Button, Edge, Done, check Height, then Done. Pick Tangent Chain and
select the edge on the top of the island as shown in Figure 4-8. Set the direction of the cut
and offset the cutter. Choose Select from the CTM DEPTH menu, then select the bottom
contoured surface of the groove.

select this edge


for Tangnt Chain

pick this surface for Height

Figure 4-8

Complex Milling 4-9 Exercise 4


USING AN INDEX TABLE AND FIXTURES

32. Choose Done Sel from the GET SELECT menu, Done Cut, Done/Return. Complete the
sequence and pattern it (Figure 4-9).

Figure 4-9
33. Continue to work on the various NC Sequence required to complete the model. Create the
Holemaking sequences to drill the holes in the face. Also, create the sequences necessary to
machine the pocket and holes on the sides of the adjacent models loaded on the B90 and
B270 side.
34. As an alternative to creating patterns, create a subroutine for each sequence a group of
sequences. The patterns will need to be deleted first. Look at the CL data and note of the
difference in output of subroutines verses patterns.
35. Save the manufacturing model and close the window.

Exercise 4 4 - 10 Complex Milling


4 EXERCISE 5
5
5
TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS
In this exercise you will manufacture this part using assembly machining techniques with no
workpiece. You will create several trajectory sequences. You will also be shown how to use Tool
Motion commands to obtain the proper tool path.
Another way to set up the manufacturing model using this part is to create a “casting” based on
the desired geometry of the design model. The technique of creating the manufacturing work-
piece by referencing the design model geometry has the following advantage: if the design mod-
el is later modified, the workpiece geometry will update accordingly. The drawback is that,
whenever you work with the manufacturing model or the workpiece, you have to also have the
reference assembly (used for merge) in active memory.
For this exercise, you will bring the reference model in as is with no workpiece created for man-
ufacturing. The workpiece would only be needed in this case if you wanted to see material re-
moval in NC Check. We will not use NC Check in this exercise since the only sequences being
created will be Trajectory sequences.

Figure 5-1

Complex Milling 5-1 Exercise 5


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

Creating the Model


1. Change to the directory trajectory.
2. Create an Assembly manufacturing model called case and assemble CASE.PRT as the ref-
erence model.
3. Spin the model to obtain a view similar to what is shown in Figure 5-1. Save the view as
[REV_ISO].

Setting Up for Manufacturing


4. In Mfg Setup, create an operation and retrieve the 3XMILL workcell if available.
5. Add the following tools for the workcell:
2.00” Diameter flat end mill
1.00” Diameter flat end mill
.125” Diameter flat end mill
6. Set up the PPRINT table as shown below:

TOOL_NAME YES
TOOL_TYPE YES
TOOL_POSITION_NUMBER YES
TOOL_COMMENT YES
TOOL_OFFSET_NUMBER YES

(You can add more options if desired.)


7. Retrieve and Activate the 3X-MILL site if available.

Exercise 5 5-2 Complex Milling


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

Milling the Flange and the Bore


You are now going to machine the bottom side of the part: the flange and the chamfer on the
bore. Use OP1 as the NC sequence coordinate system for these sequences.
8. Create a milling NC sequence on the flange using Trajectory. This sequence will generate
a rough and finish pass. Use the 2.0" endmill. Modify the following NC sequence
parameters:
CUT_FEED 1
STEP_DEPTH .06
NUMBER_CUTS 2
SPINDLE_SPEED 150
CLEAR_DIST .1
APPROACH_DISTANCE 1.5
EXIT_DISTANCE 1.5

9. Select Sketch from the INTERACT PATH menu and make sure Sketch is checked in the
CUT ALONG menu. Use the flange surface as the sketching plane.
10. Choose Geom Tools, Use Edge, and Sel Loop to get the outside edges of the groove for the
trajectory. Move the Start Point as shown in Figure 5-2.
11. Go to Build Cut and use Normal for the Approach and Exit. Applying the approach and
exit in Build Cut, will create the motion for both the rough and finish pass.

Select this surface for Sel Loop and


make sure to get the edge of the groove

use Normal for


Approach and Exit

Figure 5-2

Complex Milling 5-3 Exercise 5


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

12. Choose Done Cut and play the path. Complete the sequence.

The next NC sequence will mill the bore. Using a 1.0” endmill, a Trajectory sequence
will reference the bottom edge of the bore and machine around it twice. The first pass
will remove most of the material allowing the second pass to finish. The depth of the
cut will be controlled by a datum plane that will be offset below the edge reference to
allow for tool overlap.

13. Create a new Trajectory NC Sequence. Use the 1.0" endmill and modify the following
parameters:
CUT_FEED 1
STEP_DEPTH 1
NUM_PROF_PASSES 2
PROF_INCREMENT .04
SPINDLE_SPEED 200
CUTCOM ON
CUTCOM_REGISTER 32
CLEAR_DIST .1
LEAD_RADIUS .25
APPROACH_DISTANCE .75
EXIT_DISTANCE .75

Select this edge (Tangnt Chain)

Figure 5-3
14. Create the cut motion by selecting the bottom edge as shown. Use Build Cut to apply a Lead
In and Lead Out.

Exercise 5 5-4 Complex Milling


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

15. To adjust the height of the cut, choose Cut then check Height and make a datum that is offset
from the bottom surface of the bore by 0.12”.
16. Complete the cut motion by choosing Done Cut.
17. Play the path as shown below. Complete the sequence.

Figure 5-4

A new Trajectory sequence will now be created to mill the groove in the flange. The
groove width is 0.16”. A 0.125” flat end mill will be used to first rough out the groove
by machining down the center of the feature. Then, a finish pass will be taken on both
walls of the groove to cut the feature to finished width. Three cut motions will need
to be created in the same sequence to accomplish this task.

18. Start a new Trajectory sequence and use the 0.125” flat end mill for the tool.
19. For the parameters, enter any required values making sure to leave the stock allowance set
to 0.

The method for creating the path for the first cut motion will be Sketch. You will cre-
ate a sketch that goes down the center of the groove by offsetting the sketch from one
of the walls of the groove feature. A Known dimension will be created and used in a
Sketcher Relation to control the offset value to ensure the path will remain centered
as modifications are made to the design model.

20. To start the first cut motion, choose Sketch then Done from the INTERACT PATH menu.
From the CUT ALONG menu, leave Sketch checked then choose Done.

Complex Milling 5-5 Exercise 5


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

21. For the sketching plane, select the bottom of the groove feature then select an appropriate
reference plane.
22. To create the sketch, choose Geom Tools, Offset Edge, Sel Loop then select on the bottom
surface of the groove as shown in Figure 5-5. Accept the inside loop. Offset the loop toward
the inside of the groove by 0.05”.

Select this surface

Position Start Point here Offset from inside loop

Figure 5-5
23. To create the Known dimension, choose Dimension, Known then create the dimension for
the width of the groove.
24. To write the relation, choose Relation then make note of the symbolic names for the
parameters. Choose Add then write a relation that sets the offset value to be 1/2 the width of
the groove width. (e.g. sd0 = kd7 / 2).
25. After the relation is entered, switch the dimensions back to their numeric representation then
Regenerate. The sketch should now be centered.
26. Use Sec Tools, Start Point to position the start point as shown in Figure 5-5.
27. When the sketch is complete, choose Done from the SKETCHER menu.

The first cut motion is now complete. Since the second cut motion will be similar to
the first, you will use the Next Cut option to start the second cut. If you have already
chosen Done Cut, then pick on Cut Motion again to start the second cut motion using
Sketch as the technique.

This second cut motion will reference the inside edges of the groove with an offset to
the right.

28. To start the second cut motion, choose Next Cut from the INT CUT menu, then Confirm.
29. Check Sketch and Offset then Done. Choose Use Prev for the sketching plane.
30. Once inside the sketcher, use whatever technique desired to select all the inside edges of the
groove feature. Change the start point to be adjacent to the start point for the previous cut
with the direction being counter clockwise.
31. Complete the sketch then choose Done.

Exercise 5 5-6 Complex Milling


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

32. Set the offset for the cut to be to the Right or toward the inside of the groove. The path should
appear as shown in Figure 5-6.

Figure 5-6

The last cut motion will finish machine the outside edges of the groove. Use Next Cut
to start the third cut motion. The cut direction will be clockwise with the tool offset to
the right based on the direction of cut.

33. To start the last cut motion, choose Next Cut then Confirm.
34. Check Sketch and Offset then choose Done.
35. Use the previous sketching plane then select the outside edges of the groove feature.
36. Set the start point to be at the same location as before with the direction of cut clockwise.
Query Sel may have to be used to get the direction correct. See Figure 5-7.
37. Regenerate the section and choose Done.

Complex Milling 5-7 Exercise 5


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

38. Set the offset to the right. The cut should appear as shown below.

Figure 5-7
39. Choose Done Cut from the INT CUT menu. Play the path to see the entire sequence will all
three cut motions as shown in Figure 5-8.

Figure 5-8

Exercise 5 5-8 Complex Milling


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

You will now customize the sequence to add a ramp into the first cut motion and elim-
inate the retracts between the others.

40. Start the customization by deleting all the tool motions. Choose Customize, then Delete all
the items except the three automatic cut motions.
41. For the first tool motion, create a Goto Point that will be used as the starting point for the
first cut motion (before the first auto cut). Position the point at the default start position for
the middle cut motion as shown in Figure 5-9. Use the Specify Offset button to set the
actual goto point to be -1.0” down in the Y and 0.3” up in the Z from the control point as
shown. The offset location indicates the actual location where the cut will start.

Figure 5-9

You will now create the rest of the tool motion commands. Once the tool ramps down
into the cut, it will remain at the final depth and follow all the cut motions.

42. Starting from the current location, create the following tool motion commands.
• Goto Point - directly to the original starting position of the first cut motion. Since
this will be the ramp motion, set the feed rate to be half of the cut feed.
• Automatic Cut - follow Cut Motion #1, Default.
• Goto Point - create a new control point at the start of the second(inside) cut motion.
• Automatic Cut - follow Cut Motion #2, Default.
• Goto Point - create a new control point at the start of the third(outside) cut motion.
• Automatic Cut - follow Cut Motion #3, Default.
• Retract - set the retract feed as desired.

Complex Milling 5-9 Exercise 5


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

43. The tool motion should now be complete. Play the path. The path should appear similar to
what is shown in Figure 5-10.

Figure 5-10
44. Complete the sequence and save the manufacturing model.

The next Trajectory sequence will be created to machine around the chamfer on the
bore. A sketched tool will be created with the control point positioned such that the
tool will be driven along the edge reference correctly.

45. Start a new Trajectory sequence. Make sure to check that you want to define a new tool.

Exercise 5 5 - 10 Complex Milling


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

46. For the tool, use Edit, Sketch and create the following tool by selecting the SKETCHER
button.

tool name: 45_CHAM_TL

47. Select the top edge of the chamfer as the trajectory, choose a counter-clockwise direction of
cut, and make sure the offset is set to None.

Figure 5-11
48. Use Build Cut to control the entry and exit of the tool. Complete the sequence.
49. Make any other changes or additions to the this manufacturing model then save the model.
Quit the window.

Complex Milling 5 - 11 Exercise 5


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

4-Axis Trajectory Sequences


This portion of the exercise will introduce you to 4 Axis Trajectory NC Sequences. A new man-
ufacturing model will be created using a new design model and no workpiece. You will be shown
how to create trajectory sequences referencing edges and surfaces that are not parallel to the Z
axis of the machine coordinate system.
1. Create a new assembly manufacturing model using AXLE.PRT as the design model as
shown in Figure 5-12.

Figure 5-12
2. Define an Operation. Create a 4 Axis Mill Workcell. Use the CSO coordinate system as Ma-
chine Csys.

The first sequence will machine the groove along the top of the model. A 1/4” flat end
mill will be used to take two cuts down the center of the feature.

3. Start a new Trajectory sequence. Make sure to choose 4 Axis in the MACH AUX menu.
4. From the SEQ SETUP menu, make sure Tool, Parameters, Retract, and 4 Axis Plane are
checked then choose Done.
5. For the tool, create a 1/4” flat end mill.
6. For the parameters, set what is required along with the following:
STEP_DEPTH 0.1
NUMBER_CUTS 2
7. For the retract plane, enter a value 2.00” along the Z axis.
8. You are now asked to specify a plane to which the tool axis will be parallel. Select on the
datum in the XZ plane, DTM1.

Exercise 5 5 - 12 Complex Milling


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

The Cut Motion will now be defined. The Surface technique will be used in this case.
The surface to be referenced will be the side wall of the groove. The bottom surface
of the groove will determine the height of the cut. Two passes will be taken to machine
the groove to full depth.

9. To start the cut motion, choose Surface.


10. From the CUTMOTION SETUP menu, choose Drive Surf then check Direction, Height,
then choose Done.
11. For the surface reference, choose Model then Done. Pick on all the inside walls of the groove
as shown in Figure 5-13.
Select all inside walls
for drive surface

Select all bottom surfaces around


groove for cut height
Figure 5-13
12. When prompted for the surfaces for the tool tip to follow, choose Select then pick on all the
surfaces along the bottom of the groove as shown above.
13. Play the path to view the results.

At this point, you should notice that the tool is gouging the part upon entry to and exit
from the cut. The start and end points of the cut will now be positioned away from the
end of the part.

14. To extend the start point, choose Ends from the CUTMOTION SETUP menu. Choose Start,
Specify, and Done. Position the mouse toward the right of the current start point and pick.
15. To locate the position, choose Offset Plane and pick the right side surface of the part. Enter
a value of 0.31”.
16. To extend the end point, choose End then follow the steps as above, extending the end out
0.31”.

Complex Milling 5 - 13 Exercise 5


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

17. Play the path to view the results as shown in Figure 5-14.

Figure 5-14
18. Complete the sequence.

The next trajectory sequence will machine the flange on the outside of the model. You
will create a sequence to machine both sides of the flange using one cut motion for
one side and a second cut motion for the other.

19. To start the new sequence, choose NC Sequence, New Sequence, Trajectory, 4 Axis, and
Done.
20. Use the same tool as the previous sequence, set the required parameters making sure the
NUMBER_CUTS is set to 1, and pick DTM1 as the 4 Axis Plane reference.
21. For the first cut motion type, choose Surface.
22. From the CUTMOTION SETUP menu, check Drive Surfaces, Height, Direction, and
Ends then choose Done.

Exercise 5 5 - 14 Complex Milling


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

23. To select the surface reference, choose Model, Done, then select the surfaces of the flange
as shown in Figure 5-15 then Done and Done/Return.

Surface References

Figure 5-15
24. For the height, use Select and pick on the main cylindrical surface adjacent to the flange.
Choose Done/Return.
25. When the TRAJ PREVIEW menu appears, choose Done.
26. For the direction of cut, choose Okay to accept the default direction.

Before completing this cut motion, you will extend the start and the end. Make sure
and use the Ext Length technique for extending the ends. Once the ends have been ex-
tended, the next cut motion for the other side will be created.

27. To extend the ends, choose Ends and pull the start and the end out using Ext Length of 0.31”
for both. See Figure 5-16. DO NOT choose Done Cut.

Figure 5-16

Complex Milling 5 - 15 Exercise 5


TRAJECTORY SEQUENCES AND TOOL MOTIONS

Now the second cut motion will be created. You will use Next Cut to start the second
cut motion so the changes to the first cut motion will be copied over.

28. To start the second cut, choose Next Cut from the INT CUT menu, then Confirm.
29. You will need to specify a different drive surface reference so check Drive Surfaces. A new
Height will also need to be defined so choose Done.
30. For the surface reference, choose Model then Done.
31. The previous surface are still selected so choose Remove, Remove All, then Add and select
the appropriate surfaces on the other side of the flange.
32. For the height, select the main cylindrical surface. The path should be displayed with the
ends extended as in the previous cut motion.
33. Choose Done Cut. If the system asks for an Exit_distance, enter 0.5”. Play the path as view
the results as shown in Figure 5-17.

Figure 5-17
34. Make any changes to this sequence or the previous sequence if desired then save the manu-
facturing model.
35. Quit the window.

Exercise 5 5 - 16 Complex Milling


5 EXERCISE 6
6
6
Manufacturing User Defined Features
The intention of this exercise is to concentrate on Manufacturing User Defined Features(UDFs).
UDFs can be utilized when machining repetitive types of features. When a group of sequences
are required to machine a given area of a model, the information in these sequences can be cap-
tured in a UDF and reused in other manufacturing models. UDF’s can save time and allow more
consistent machining of similar models.
The first part of this exercise will highlight an advantage of using a Trajectory sequence verses
a Profile sequence. You will first create a Profile sequence and notice how the sequence ma-
chines a particular way based upon the configuration of the reference model. You will then cre-
ate a Trajectory sequence and notice how the tool path can be better controlled.
When the Trajectory sequence is complete, a UDF will be defined referencing the sequence.
When the UDF is complete, a new manufacturing model will be created and the Trajectory UDF
will be retrieved.
The second section of this exercise will use a Contour sequence to show how another UDF can
be created. This UDF will include a Mill Surface definition and the sequence will be customized
to show how time can be saved by including common customization techniques the UDF.

Complex Milling 6-1 Exercise 6


Manufacturing User Defined Features

Creating the Sequences


1. Change to the directory named udf.
2. Create an Assembly Manufacturing model called pad and assemble PAD.PRT as the refer-
ence model. The model should appear as shown in Figure 6-1.

Figure 6-1

The first part of this exercise will have you create a profile sequence to machine
around the outside of this model. Because the surface is odd shaped along the bottom
of the model, the profile sequence will produce an odd tool path.

3. To start the tool path, define a new Operation, creating a 3 Axis Mill workcell and using the
existing CS0 coordinate system as the Machine Csys.
4. To start the Profile sequence, choose Machining, NC Sequence, Profile, and Done.
5. In the SEQ SETUP menu, check Tool, Parameters, Retract, and Surfaces, then choose
Done.
6. For the tool, use a 1.00” flat end mill.
7. For the parameters, set at least the following:
CUT_FEED 1
STEP_DEPTH 1.00
SPINDLE_SPEED 500
CLEAR_DIST 0.1
8. Set the location for the retract plane to be 1.00” along the Z axis.
9. When asked for the surface type, choose Model then choose Done.
10. To select the surfaces, choose Loop then select on the very bottom contoured surface of the
model. This should automatically select all the vertical outside surfaces around the model.

Exercise 6 6-2 Complex Milling


Manufacturing User Defined Features

11. Play the path to view the results from the first path as shown in Figure 6-2.

First Path Second Path

Figure 6-2
12. Change the STEP_DEPTH parameter to 1.25” and play the path. You should see a path sim-
ilar to what is shown for the second path in Figure 6-2. Complete the sequence.

You should have notice that the first path did not machine the entire surface. The tool
only took one pass at a 1.00” depth then did not take another pass. The second path
had the tool start deeper, but was not able to machine around the entire surface be-
cause it did not form a continuous loop at that particular depth.

You are going to delete the profile sequence and machine the outside of the model us-
ing a Trajectory sequence. Once the sequence has been created, a UDF will be defined
that includes the sequence. Watch how the references are specified during the creation
of the original sequence. This will determine what references will be required during
the placement of the UDF for other models.

13. Start this next section by deleting the Profile sequence.


14. Start a new Trajectory NC Sequence.
15. From the SEQ SETUP menu, check Tool and Parameters then choose Done.
16. For the tool, select the 1.00” flat end mill.
17. For the parameters, set what is required.
18. For the type of reference, choose Edge then Done.
19. From the EDGE FIT menu, make sure Edge, Direction, and Offset are checked then choose
Done.

Complex Milling 6-3 Exercise 6


Manufacturing User Defined Features

20. To select the edge, choose Tangnt Chain then select on the right side arc as shown in Figure
6-3.

Select this edge for


tangent reference

Select here for Lead


In location

Figure 6-3
21. For the direction, set the arrow in the counter clockwise direction then choose Okay.
22. For the offset, choose Right then Done.
23. Before completing the cut, set up a lead in and lead out. Choose Build Cut, then Approach
and Lead In.
24. For the destination point, pick on the tool path in the middle of the right arc as shown in Fig-
ure 6-3. Make sure the arrow points outward then choose Okay.
25. If necessary, enter 0.5” for the APPROACH_DISTANCE, 0.12” for the LEAD_STEP, and
0.25” for the LEAD_RADIUS.
26. To create the exit, choose Exit, then Lead Out. Make sure the arrow points outward then
choose Okay.
27. If necessary, enter 0.5” for the EXIT_DISTANCE.

Exercise 6 6-4 Complex Milling


Manufacturing User Defined Features

28. While still in the INT CUT menu, choose Play Cut. The path should appear similar to what
in shown in Figure 6-4.

Figure 6-4

You should notice a significant difference between this tool path and the path pro-
duced by the profile sequence. Rather than taking planar cut down the surface, the tra-
jectory sequence produces a path that follows the contour of the edge reference.

You will now change the sequence and “pull” the cut down the surface to force the
tool to overlap the part surface. There is more than one way to make this happen. The
method shown here will have you change the height of the cut to be a distance down
from the coordinate system.

29. To change the height, choose Cut then check Height and choose Done.

Complex Milling 6-5 Exercise 6


Manufacturing User Defined Features

30. Choose Z Depth then enter [-1.50] at the prompt. Choose Done/Return. Play the cut as
shown below.

Figure 6-5
31. Finalize the feature. Choose Done Cut then Done Seq. Save the manufacturing model.

Defining The UDF

Now that the Trajectory sequence is complete, a UDF will be defined using that se-
quence. This UDF can be used any time you need a sequence to machine around the
entire outside profile of a model. When defining the UDF, you will need to enter
prompts for each of the references that are required by the sequence. Pay close atten-
tion to what the system is asking and what is currently being highlighted.

32. To start the UDF, choose Utilities from the MACHINING menu. Choose UDF Library then
Create. Enter a name for the UDF such as [traj_tangent_closed].
33. From the UDF OPTIONS menu, choose Stand Alone then Done.
34. For the features to add to this UDF, choose NC Sequence then select on the trajectory se-
quence. Choose Done then Done/Return.
35. Now for the prompts. When the system asks for the prompt for the operation, enter [Oper-
ation]. Choose Single then Done/Return.
36. When asked for the prompt for the coordinate system, enter [Machine Csys].
37. For the next prompt, enter [Retract Plane].
38. When the system prompts for the edge, enter [Starting edge for cut].
39. When all the prompts have been entered, choose Done/Return.
40. As an additional step, define a prompt for the depth of the cut. From the dialog box select
Var Dims then select Define .
41. Select on the 1.50 dimension that appears then choose Done/Return and Done/Return. En-
ter the prompt [Depth of cut measured from the machine csys].
42. Complete the UDF by selecting OK .

Exercise 6 6-6 Complex Milling


Manufacturing User Defined Features

Placing the UDF

A new manufacturing model will now be created. Once the Operation has been de-
fined, the UDF will be placed.

43. Create a new Assembly Manufacturing model using the model knob.prt as the reference
model. See Figure 6-6.

Figure 6-6
44. Define an Operation that uses a 3 Axis Mill workcell and CS0 as the machine coordinate sys-
tem.
45. Use the Datum Feats menu pick in Mfg Geometry to create a Datum Plane offset up 1/2”
from the top surface to be used as a retract plane.
46. To place the UDF, choose Machining, Utilities, Group, Search/Retr then select on the
name of the UDF.
47. From the PLACE OPTS menu, choose Independent then Done.

You will now enter all the information for each prompt. For some prompts, a value
will be entered. For others, you will either select on an item on the model or use the
Sel By Menu to select the item from a list.

48. The first prompt should be asking about the depth. Enter [0.75] at the prompt.
49. For the operation, choose Sel By Menu, Name, and pick on then name of the operation.
50. For the Machine Csys, pick on CS0 from the model.
51. For the Retract Plane, pick on ADTM1.
52. For the starting edge, select on one of the outside bottom edges of the knob.

Complex Milling 6-7 Exercise 6


Manufacturing User Defined Features

The MOD NC SEQ menu should now appear. This menu appears to give you the op-
tion of making changes to the new sequence before actually placing it. In this case, a
smaller tool will need to be selected. The original sequence uses a 1.00” tool where a
1/4” tool will be needed for this model. You may also want to change the feeds and
speeds at this point.

53. To change the tool for the new sequence to be created, choose Tool and select or create a
1/4” flat end mill.
54. Make any desired changes to the parameters at this point then choose Done/Return from the
MOD NC SEQ menu.
55. The group should be created. Choose Done then Done/Return.
56. Play the path for the new sequence. It should appear similar to what is shown in Figure 6-7.

Figure 6-7
57. Make any other changes to the sequence then save the manufacturing model.

Exercise 6 6-8 Complex Milling


Manufacturing User Defined Features

Additional UDF Example

This example will show how a UDF can be defined using a Contour Cut Line NC Se-
quence. By defining a UDF for this type of sequence, the number of references and
menu selections can be reduced considerably. When creating the sequence to define
the UDF, be sure to include any customization you desire.

1. Create a new Assembly Manufacturing model using the model wedge.prt as shown in Figure
6-8.

Figure 6-8
2. Define a new Operation, create a 3 Axis Mill workcell using CS0 as the machine coordinate
system.

Before the first NC Sequence is created, a Mill Surface feature will be created. This
Mill Surface will be referenced by the Contour sequence and included in the definition
of the UDF. This is done so each of the surfaces that are machined do not have to be
individually selected when placing the UDF.

3. To create the Mill Surface, choose Mfg Setup, Mfg Geometry, then Mill Surface.
4. Choose Create then enter the name [msurf_contour_out] at the prompt. Choose Add
then Copy and Done.

Complex Milling 6-9 Exercise 6


Manufacturing User Defined Features

5. From the SURF OPTIONS menu, choose Loop Surfs then select on the top face of the part
as shown in Figure 6-9. When asked for an edge, select the edge as shown.
Select this top face

Select this edge

Figure 6-9

6. All the surfaces should now be highlighted. Choose Done then select OK .
7. Return to the MANUFACTURE menu.

The first sequence that will be created will contour machine the top outside variable
round feature. A Contour NC Sequence will be created using Along Cut Line for the
method. The sequence will be defined so that the tool will machine along the contour
in a continuous manner. The Cut Motion will also be customized to create a helical
approach and exit.

8. To start the sequence, choose Machining, NC Sequence, Contour Srf, then Done.
9. For the type, choose AlongCutLine, Closed, and Done.
10. In the SEQ SETUP menu, check Tool, Parameters, Retract, Surfaces, Cutline Srfs, and
Cutline Def then choose Done.
11. For the tool, set or retrieve a 1/2” ball end mill.
12. For the parameters, set the required values using 0.12 for the STEP_OVER.
13. For the retract plane, set a distance 2.0” along the Z axis.
14. For the reference surface, choose Mill Surface then Done. Choose Select Srf and pick on
the name of the mill surface feature. Choose Okay to machine the outside of the surfaces.
15. When selecting which surfaces of the Mill Surface to machine, choose Select All, then
Done/Return.
16. For the cutline definitions, choose Machine Srfs then Done. Leave Start Cutline, End Cut-
line, and Direction checked then choose Done.

Exercise 6 6 - 10 Complex Milling


Manufacturing User Defined Features

17. For the start cutline, check From Edges and Start Pnt then choose Done. Choose Bndry
Chain then Next and Accept to select the top boundary chain along the surface as shown in
Figure 6-10. Choose Select All then Done.

Start Cut Line

Start Point

Figure 6-10
18. For the start point, pick in the middle of the right edge as shown above. From the ENTER
VAL menu, choose Enter and enter [0.5] at the prompt. Choose Done/Return to start the
second cut motion.
19. For the second cut motion, check From Edges and Start Pnt then choose Done.
20. Choose Bndry Chain then Accept to get the lower chain of edges. Choose Select All to get
all the entities. Choose Done.
21. For the start point pick on the right edge below the first start point. From the ENTER VAL
menu, choose Enter and enter [0.5] at the prompt. Choose Done/Return.
22. When prompted for the direction, set the cut to be counter clockwise then choose Okay.
Choose Done/Return to complete the cut line definitions.

Complex Milling 6 - 11 Exercise 6


Manufacturing User Defined Features

23. Play the path. The path should appear as shown below.

Figure 6-11

Now that the initial path is complete, you will customize the cut motion. First, the cut
motion feature will need to be created. Then, the automatic tool motions the system
applies to the cut motion will be deleted. The tool motions you will add are a helical
approach, follow cut, helical exit, then a retract.

24. Delete everything except AUTOMATIC CUT.

You will now add the first tool motion. It will be a helical approach into the current
starting location.

25. Insert a Helical Approach before the Auto Cut.

Create Control Point


here for start

Figure 6-12

Exercise 6 6 - 12 Complex Milling


Manufacturing User Defined Features

26. Set the items in the Helical Lead In dialog box as follows:
• Entry Angle: 90 (remove the check by Use Default)
• Clear Distance: 0.1
• Normal Lead Step: 0.05
• Lead Radius: 0.2
• Arrow Direction: Right
27. Once each item in the dialog box is entered, select OK .
28. To add the helical exit, choose Helical Exit, then Insert after the Automatic Cut.
29. Set the items in the Helical Lead Out dialog box as follows:
• Exit Angle: 90 (remove the check by Use Default)
• Pullout Distance: 0.1 (remove the check by Use Default)
• Normal Lead Step: 0.05
• Lead Radius: 0.2
• Arrow Direction: Right
30. Once each item in the dialog box is entered, select OK .
31. To add the retract motion, choose Retract. Adjust the feed if desired then select OK .
32. The path should now be complete. Play the path to obtain a view similar to what is shown in
Figure 6-13.

Figure 6-13
33. Complete the sequence by choosing Done Seq. Save the manufacturing model.

The UDF can now be defined. You will define a UDF that includes both the Contour
sequence and the Mill Surface that it references. Watch the prompts as they appear
and enter the appropriate information.

34. To start the UDF, choose Utilities then UDF Library. Choose Create then enter a name at
the prompt.

Complex Milling 6 - 13 Exercise 6


Manufacturing User Defined Features

35. For the options, choose Stand Alone then Done.


36. To add the features to the UDF, choose NC Sequence then select on the sequence then Done
Sel. When asked to include the Mill Surface, enter a <CR> to answer YES. Choose Done
then Done/Return.

The system is now asking for the first prompt. This one has to do with how the Mill
Surface was defined. Since the Mill Surface was defined using Loop Surfs, a surface
will need to be selected then an edge boundary for the selected surface.

37. For the surface reference, enter [Surface for Loop Surfs reference].
38. For the edge reference, enter [Edge for Loop Surfs reference].
39. For the operation, enter [Operation].
40. For the coordinate system, enter [Machine Csys].
41. For the datum plane, enter [Retract Plane].
42. For the edge reference, enter [Starting edge for start cutline].
43. For the edge reference, enter [Starting edge for end cutline].
44. When the last prompt has been entered, make any changes to the prompts then choose
Done/Return.
45. To complete the creation of the UDF, select OK from the dialog box. Return to the
MACHINING menu.

You will now use the UDF to create a Contour Sequence along the inside features of
the model.

46. To start the placement of the UDF, choose Utilities then Group. Select on the name of the
UDF just created.
47. From the PLACE OPTS menu, leave Independent chosen and Use CurOper checked then
choose Done.
48. Follow the prompts one at a time to complete the placement of the UDF. Once all the
prompts have been entered, select OK to finalize.

Exercise 6 6 - 14 Complex Milling


Manufacturing User Defined Features

49. Play the path for the new sequence. You should see a path similar to what is shown in Figure
6-14 depending on what edges you selected for the start of the cut.

Figure 6-14
50. Save the manufacturing model.
51. Quit the window.

Complex Milling 6 - 15 Exercise 6


Manufacturing User Defined Features

Exercise 6 6 - 16 Complex Milling


6 EXERCISE 7
7
7
PARAMETER ISSUES AND MANIPULATION
In this exercise you will learn how to take advantage of some of the commonly used and some-
times misunderstood parameters. There are several models in this exercise that currently have
valid NC Sequences created for them. You will be playing the part of a manufacturing consultant
for your company, assisting them with machining issues related to Pro/ENGINEER. Your job is
to assist the programmers with manipulating the existing sequence to provide for a desired
change in the tool path.

Problem 1
This model will be used to show how to redefine a sequence that fails due to a significant design
change. The TRIM MODEL menu will appear because a surface used in the Profile sequence is
removed due to the change. Although it is step by step, you are encouraged to investigate the
various menus that you will see during the exercise.
1. Change to the parameters directory and retrieve the manufacturing model slot.mfg.
Modify this dimension

Figure 7-1
2. Display the tool path for the Profiling sequence.
3. Modify the reference model to simulate a design change. Choose Modify, Mod Ref and se-
lect on the cut feature. Modify the .50 inch dimension controlling the horizontal placement
and change it to [2.38](See Figure 7-1). Choose Done and Done/Return.
4. Choose Regenerate from the MANUFACTURING menu, Automatic, and Done.

Complex Milling 7-1 Exercise 7


PARAMETER ISSUES AND MANIPULATION

5. Notice the RESOLVE FEAT menu. The change made to the reference model has caused the
NC Sequence to fail. The side surfaces of the cut feature have been pushed off the part. When
the profile sequence was originally created, the surfaces on the left side of the feature were
selected for machining.
6. You will now investigate the sequence to determine the problem. Choose Investigate from
the RESOLVE FEAT menu. Choose Show Ref from the INVESTIGATE menu. Choose
Next until the surface on the left of the feature shows. Choose Info. Notice that the Status of
the surface says it is no longer in the model. Close the INFORMATION WINDOW. Choose
Next again to see more missing surfaces. Choose Done/Return from the SHOW REF menu.
7. Now redefine the sequence to use the remaining two surfaces of the feature for machining.
Choose Quick Fix from the RESOLVE FEAT menu then Redefine and Confirm. Check
References then Done. To select new surfaces to machine check Surfaces then Done. Ac-
cept Model then Done.
8. Now choose Add, Surface, and with Query Sel, select the two surfaces of the feature for
machining (See Figure 7-2). Once the surfaces have been selected, choose Done from the
SURF/LOOP menu. Choose Done/Return from the SELECT SRFS menu.
Select these hidden surfaces

Figure 7-2
9. Choose Play Path to view the changes. Notice that the cutter starts at the front and cuts to-
ward the back. It is maintaining the CUT_TYPE setting based on the surfaces chosen for pro-
filing. Change the CUT_TYPE parameter to [UPCUT] if you want to reverse the direction.
10. Optional: Add an Approach and Exit move to the cut motion

Exercise 7 7-2 Complex Milling


PARAMETER ISSUES AND MANIPULATION

11. Finalize the sequence by choosing Done Seq and the redefine will be successful. Choose Yes
from the YES/NO menu.
12. Play the path again to verify results.
13. Save the manufacturing model and Window, Close.

Complex Milling 7-3 Exercise 7


PARAMETER ISSUES AND MANIPULATION

Problem 2
1. Retrieve the manufacturing model half.mfg

Figure 7-3
2. Display the toolpath for the milling sequence that cuts the center of the C shape. To do this
choose CL Data, Output, NC Sequence, 1: Volume Milling, Display, and Done CL. No-
tice how the cutter starts in the center and spirals out. The programmer wants to see the same
toolpath but he wants it to go from the outside in toward the center instead.
3. Modify the existing sequence to provide for the change.
4. Optional: Add an approach to the toolpath so that each slice starts outside the front of the
Mill Volume a distance of 0.75” from the center of the tool.
5. Save the manufacturing model and Window, Close.

Exercise 7 7-4 Complex Milling


PARAMETER ISSUES AND MANIPULATION

Problem 3
6. Retrieve the manufacturing model piston.mfg.

Figure 7-4
7. Display the conventional surface milling toolpath using the steps from problem 1. See how
the tool retracts on every pass. The programmer tells you that this is only a semi finish pass
so he wants to eliminate the retracts. (On a finish pass it may be critical for the cutter to al-
ways remove material in the same direction to achieve the surface finish required.)
8. Change the parameter that will eliminate the retracts. Of the other options for that parameter,
which one, is better for this geometry? Display the new tool path.
9. Optional: Construct a mill surface that extends tangentially by .25 inches for the top surface.
Use this surface to generate a final finish path.
10. Save the manufacturing model and Window, Close.

Complex Milling 7-5 Exercise 7


PARAMETER ISSUES AND MANIPULATION

Problem 4
11. Retrieve the manufacturing model profile.mfg.

Figure 7-5
12. Display the toolpath for the first sequence. Retrieve the saved view Side and view the tool-
path again. The programmer set up this 3D trajectory milling sequence and likes the contour-
ing but wants it dropped in Z by 1 inch.
13. Modify the current sequence that will provide the programmer with the desired results.
14. Optional: Add a approach that starts 1 inch away from the corner of the workpiece. Add an
exit that extends beyond the corner 0.25.
15. Save the manufacturing model and Window, Close.

Exercise 7 7-6 Complex Milling


PARAMETER ISSUES AND MANIPULATION

Problem 5
16. Retrieve the manufacturing model onepass.mfg.

Figure 7-6
17. Display the toolpath. Experiment with the different ways to control the speed of the display:
Time Increment and Cutter Step.
18. The programmer needs to change the sequence so all the material is removed in one profile
pass around the model. Change the existing sequence and display the path. Also, add a Lead
In and Lead Out for the cut.
19. Save the manufacturing model and Window, Close.

Complex Milling 7-7 Exercise 7


PARAMETER ISSUES AND MANIPULATION

Problem 6
20. Retrieve the manufacturing model face.mfg.

Figure 7-7
21. Display the toolpath. Use Prev and Next to see that the tool doesn’t completely clear the edg-
es of the part. The programmer insists that there is something wrong with the system because
he has confirmed that END_OVERTRAVEL is .1 inches.
22. Change the appropriate NC Sequence parameter to have the tool over travel the model sur-
face by .1 inches. Display the toolpath.
23. The programmer would also like to do a time test to see if rotating the cut motion 90 degrees
would produce a more efficient path. Change the sequence to accomplish the task and use
whichever takes less time.
24. Save the manufacturing model and Window, Close.

Exercise 7 7-8 Complex Milling


PARAMETER ISSUES AND MANIPULATION

Problem 7
25. Retrieve the manufacturing model around.mfg.

Figure 7-8
26. Display the tool path by editing the CL file for the sequence. To do this choose CL Data,
Edit, NC Sequence, and 1: Volume Milling. Choose Confirm when prompted to create a
new CL file and accept the default name. Use Next to see the tool go around the pocket. Con-
tinue around the pocket until line 40.
27. The programmer wants to know why the system is outputting straight line moves around the
arcs. The machine that this will be run on has full circular interpolation capabilities. The de-
sired output is to have circular move for all arcs. Change the NC Sequence parameter that
will produce the change.
28. Display the CL file for the tool path and confirm the output of the CIRCLE statement.
29. Optional: Add an approach that is away from the workpiece material.
30. Save the manufacturing model and Window, Close.

Complex Milling 7-9 Exercise 7


PARAMETER ISSUES AND MANIPULATION

Exercise 7 7 - 10 Complex Milling


7 EXERCISE 8
8
8
SAMPLE MILLING PARTS
In this exercise you will be given several design models. You can choose one or more of these
models based on your manufacturing needs. Pick the model(s) in the area you would like more
practice and try to manipulate the sequences in as many ways as possible. Do not try to complete
every part in this exercise. This exercise is intended to give you additional practice on a personal
needs basis. All of the models are in the sample_models subdirectory.

Model 1
This model is called BRACE.PRT. It is intended to give more practice to those people who
would like to spend more time with 3 Axis Volume, Surface, and Holemaking sequences. Along
with the different sequences, you will create a variety of mill volumes, mill surfaces, and drill
groups.

Figure 8-1
BRACE.PRT

Complex Milling 8-1 Exercise 8


SAMPLE MILLING PARTS

Model 2
This model is called COMPLEX_CUT.PRT. It is intended to give more practice to those peo-
ple who would like to spend more time with 3 Axis Volume, Local, and Surface sequences. Add
to, or manipulate the design model if desired. Try to experiment with the different ways to finish
machine this part. For a 5 Axis problem, try to machine the sloped surface using multiple axes
on the surface to control the tool’s orientation next to the vertical wall.

Figure 8-2
COMPLEX_CUT.PRT

Exercise 8 8-2 Complex Milling


SAMPLE MILLING PARTS

Model 3
This model is called MILL_ANG.PRT. It is intended to give more practice to those people who
would like to spend more time with 3 Axis Volume, Local, Trajectory, and Holemaking se-
quences.

Figure 8-3
MILL_ANG.PRT

Complex Milling 8-3 Exercise 8


SAMPLE MILLING PARTS

Model 4
This model is called SEAT.PRT. It is intended to give more practice to those people who would
like to spend more time with 3 - 5 Axis Volume and Surface sequences. Start with either a casting
or machine the seat out of a larger block of material. Consider setting up a simplified represen-
tation that does not include the slots in the arms and base.

Figure 8-4
SEAT.PRT

Exercise 8 8-4 Complex Milling


SAMPLE MILLING PARTS

Model 5
This model is called ROTOR.PRT. It is intended to give more practice to those people who
would like to spend more time with 4 - 5 Axis Surface sequences. Machine this out of a block of
material or just concentrate on the blade itself with assembly machining and no workpiece.

Figure 8-5
ROTOR.PRT

Complex Milling 8-5 Exercise 8


SAMPLE MILLING PARTS

Model 6
This model is called VARIABLE_POCKET.PRT. It is intended to give more practice to those
people who would like to spend more time with 3 Axis Contour Surface sequences. This part is
designed to give you a good application for machining multiple surfaces using Cut Line machin-
ing. Cut Line machining is available for Contour sequences. Concentrate on the rounds on the
top of this part, both inside and out. Use the UDF that was created in the exercises.

Figure 8-6
VARIABLE_POCKET.PRT

Exercise 8 8-6 Complex Milling


SAMPLE MILLING PARTS

Model 7
This model is called COVER.PRT. It is intended to give more practice to those people who
would like to spend more time with a variety of 3 Axis sequences. You will probably need to use
many sequences including Volume, Profile, Trajectory, and many Holemaking sequences.

Figure 8-7
COVER.PRT

Complex Milling 8-7 Exercise 8


SAMPLE MILLING PARTS

Exercise 8 8-8 Complex Milling


8 EXERCISE 9
9
9
SYSTEM SETUP AND CONVENTIONS
This exercise will give some suggestions for system setup. The topics to be covered include Con-
fig.pro options, Tool Library setup, file naming conventions, site set up, and Machinability Da-
tabase creation.
1. Change to the system_setup directory and notice some of the names of the sub-directories.
You will be using them later in the exercise.
2. Retrieve the Manufacturing model named JAW.MFG. You should get the message that the
system cannot retrieve the design model jaw.prt. The design model is not in the current work-
ing directory. It is in a sub-directory named design_models. Quit the retrieval of the Manu-
facturing model.
3. Now you will edit the Config.pro file to include a search path to the design model. Choose
Utilities, Preferences, Edit Config, use the default name config.pro and add the following
lines:
SEARCH_PATH ./design_models
SEARCH_PATH ./solid_tools

4. After the config.pro file is saved, exit Pro/ENGINEER.


5. Restart Pro/ENGINEER and retrieve the Manufacturing model JAW.MFG. It was able to
be retrieved this time because you set up a search path to the design_models directory.

Figure 9-1

Complex Milling 9-1 Exercise 9


SYSTEM SETUP AND CONVENTIONS

6. In Mfg_Setup, create a Mill, 3 Axis workcell. Enter any parameters you desire. Retrieve the
following tools from the Tool Library. You will find the solid tools in a the solid_tools di-
rectory. As you retrieve each tool, set the TOOL_MATERIAL parameter to HSS, and
NUM_OF_TEETH to [4], if applicable. When you save the workcell it will be saved to the
directory location specified in the config.pro file.

Tool ID Tool Description Tool Setup

LEM7 .75" Diameter End Mill Retrieve the tool model LLMFEMWS, select the
diameter

LEM9 1.0" Diameter End Mill Retrieve the tool model LLMFEMWS, select the
diameter

LEM16 2.0" Diameter End Mill Retrieve the tool model LLMFEMWS, select the
diameter

SSTLT111 1/2 Drill Retrieve the tool model SSTLT, select the diam-
eter

7. Create a Generic Site and name it [GEN_MILL_01]. Enter any values you want to be preset
when creating your sequences. Do not enter values for feed and speed. The feed and speed
values will be calculated by reading from the MDB.
8. Look at the contents of the MDB. Choose Param Setup from the MFG SETUP menu then
Mach DB. Choose Show, Milling, check off Units and select Done. Choose sample_mill.
Make a note of the WP Material and WP Condition, then quit both info windows. You will
need to assign the appropriate Material file to the workpiece and specify the Condition and
Hardness.
9. Save the Manufacturing model and Quit Window.
10. In Part Mode, retrieve the workpiece model jaw_wp.prt. You will now assign the material
file to the part. Choose Set Up, Material, Assign, and accept CARBON_1008. Also, in set
up, choose Parameters, Part, Designate, Parameters. Check the HARDNESS as 115 and
CONDITION as HR. Show the parameters then Done/Return.
11. Save the part and go back to the Manufacturing model.
12. You are now ready to set up the first operation and start the first sequence. Create the first
sequence anyway you like. You may choose to do a Volume sequence to machine the mate-
rial on the right side. Another way you could try would be to create a Trajectory sequence
with multiple cut motions using the 2.00" end mill. The first cut motion would cut along the
arc on the far right using an appropriate value for step_depth and pulling the ends out as re-
quired. Repeat the process for the arc in the center of the part. Which ever method you
choose, be sure to retrieve the proper solid tool from the Tool Library and retrieve the feed
and speed values from the MDB file.

Exercise 9 9-2 Complex Milling


SYSTEM SETUP AND CONVENTIONS

13. Verify the sequence and complete. At this point, the material should be removed from the
right side except for the .39" wide groove from front to back. The Material Removal feature
is optional.

.39

Figure 9-2
14. Create a Trajectory NC Sequence to machine the .39 groove. Use the instance TS1 from the
solid tool part file TSMCBS. Retrieve the feed and speed value from the MDB file.

Figure 9-3

Complex Milling 9-3 Exercise 9


SYSTEM SETUP AND CONVENTIONS

15. Create a Holemaking NC Sequence to spot drill the two holes. Create a N02_CTRDRL tool
and enter the following tool parameters:
POCKET: OFFSET:
TOOL_ID: NO2_CTRDRL TOOL_TYPE: CENTER_DRILLING

GEOMETRY
CUTTER_DIAM: .3125 LENGTH: 1.125-
DRILL_DIAMETER: .08 DRILL_LENGTH: .08
CSINK_ANGLE: 60 POINT_ANGLE: 118

ADVANCED
LENGTH_UNITS: INCH GAUGE_X_LENGTH: -
TOOL_MATERIAL: HSS GAUGE_Z_LENGTH: --
TOOL_COMMENT: SPOT HOLES

16. Save the tool. The tool will be placed automatically in the params_tool directory. The next
time the tool is needed, it can be retrieve from the same directory. Use the MDB to set the
feed and speed. Save the manufacturing parameters. Verify the sequence and complete.

Figure 9-4
17. Create the Holemaking sequences necessary to complete the part. Each time retrieving the
appropriate solid tool from the Tool Library. Use the MDB to set the feed and speed values.
18. After the part is complete, output the CL Data to File. Save the Manufacturing model and
Exit Pro/ENGINEER.

Exercise 9 9-4 Complex Milling


SYSTEM SETUP AND CONVENTIONS

19. Type [purge] at the system prompt to remove any old versions of your files. List the con-
tents of the directory by typing [ls -l]. Your directory may look like the following:
carbon_1008.mat
clfiles/
config.pro
design_models/
jaw.asm.1
jaw.mfg.1
jaw_wp.prt.1
mdbase/
params_mfg/
params_tool/
solid_tools/
20. Notice that there are not many files stored in the exercise8 directory. Most of the files created
were stored in the appropriate sub-directories.
21. Look at the contents of each of the directories. Type [cd clfiles] and list the contents.
Type [cd ..] to move up one in the directory structure. Change to the other directories and
notice the contents.

Complex Milling 9-5 Exercise 9


SYSTEM SETUP AND CONVENTIONS

Exercise 9 9-6 Complex Milling


9 EXERCISE 10
10
10
MANUFACTURING RELATIONS
This exercise will take you through an example of using relations in manufacturing and
Pro/PROGRAM to automatically suppress sequences according to a family table. After going
through this exercise, apply the technique in another model of your choice.
1. Change to the relations directory.
2. Retrieve the Manufacturing model slot2.mfg.

Figure 10-1

Gathering Information
3. A trajectory sequence has been created on the groove. Display the tool path and notice the
.250” tool. Modify the parameters for the sequence and note the CUT_FEED,
SPINDLE_SPEED, APPROACH_DISTANCE, and EXIT_DISTANCE.
4. Look in Info, Model of the workpiece part. Write down the internal ID of the milling feature
and the cut motion (DRIVE TOOL EDGE) feature (i.e.: 142 milling, 148 cut motion).
5. In Mfg Setup, choose Workcell, Modify, MACH01, then Tooling. View, Where Used and
make a note of the TOOL ID (i.e. 250_FEM). Add a .500” flat bottom end mill to the man-
ufacturing model. Use “500_FEM” for the Tool ID.
6. Modify the groove feature to determine the symbolic name for the thickness of the feature.
Choose Modify, Mod Ref, and select on the groove. Go To Relations to switch the dimen-
sions to their symbolic form and write down the symbol name for the thickness of the groove
(i.e. d21:0). Choose Switch Dim to return the parameters to their numeric form.

Complex Milling 10 - 1 Exercise 10


MANUFACTURING RELATIONS

Setting Up Relations
When writing relations that manipulate the parameters for an existing sequence, make sure to
control the parameter at the proper level. The two levels at which the parameters can be con-
trolled are the NC Sequence and Cut Motion level. Not all of the NC Sequence parameters are
available at the Cut Motion level. Be sure to use the appropriate internal feature ID based on
what the relation needs to control.
In the following example, you will set the TOOL_ID, CUT_FEED, SPINDLE_SPEED,
APPROACH_DISTANCE, and EXIT_DISTANCE. Everything but the SPINDLE_SPEED and
TOOL_ID will be set at the Cut Motion level. Pay close attention to the FIDs used.
7. In Relations, choose Add then type in the following relations substituting any items that
may differ in your model such as the symbolic name or feature id:
IF d21:0 >= .250 & d21:0 < 0.500
TOOL_ID:FID_142 = “250_FEM”
CUT_FEED:FID_148 = 5
SPINDLE_SPEED:FID_142 = 400
APPROACH_DISTANCE:FID_152 = .18
EXIT_DISTANCE:FID_152 = .18
ENDIF
IF d21:0 >= 0.500 & d21:0 < 1.000
TOOL_ID:FID_142 = “500_FEM”
CUT_FEED:FID_148 = 7
SPINDLE_SPEED:FID_142 = 600
APPROACH_DISTANCE:FID_152 = .34
EXIT_DISTANCE:FID_152 = .34
ENDIF

‡Note: If any errors are made choose Edit Rel and make the changes in the system ed-
itor.
8. This reference model has several family table instances created from the Generic. Whenever
you program a model from the family table, it’s important to program the Generic. Run the
operation and notice the cutter moves through the slot twice. First, we will create a program
which will automatically suppress the second cut motion of Seq #1 if the cutter diameter
equals the slot width. Second, we will alter the Pro/PROGRAM to automatically suppress all
three holemaking NC Sequences. The SLOT2.PRT has a parameter HOLE_PARAM. It is
also in the Family Table. If the Hole is not in an instance, then the parameter for that instance
is set to NO. This will allow us to reference the parameter in the manufacturing model, giving
us a variable to use in Pro/PROGRAM which links back to the reference model.
9. Record the feature ID numbers from the INFO menu. Choose Info, Feature List, Part, and
Query Sel for the workpiece. There should be a Milling Sequence #9, Drive Tool Edge #10,
and another Drive Tool Edge #11.
10. Modify the program by choosing Program from the MANUFACTURING menu, then Edit
Design when the program listing appears. Scroll down until you see feature ID 152 which is
the second Drive Tool Edge feature. Add a line above the ADD FEATURE line and enter
the following:

Exercise 10 10 - 2 Complex Milling


MANUFACTURING RELATIONS

if d21:0 <> 0.25 & d21:0 <> 0.5

11. Then, scroll down to the end of that feature until you see END ADD, add a line below the
end add that reads ENDIF. Exit the editor, incorporate the changes, and regenerate. Play the
path to see only one pass through the slot.
12. Next, choose Program, Edit Design. When the program listing shows, scroll down to the
spot drilling sequence #11. Add a line above the line ADD FEATURE as follows:
If HOLE_PARAM:0 == YES

13. Then, scroll down past all three holemaking sequences until you see the MASS PROPS. Add
a line between END ADD and MASS PROPS that reads ENDIF. Exit the editor, incorporate
the changes and regenerate.
14. Try substituting the different reference model family instances by selecting Replace from
the MFG MODEL menu. Query select for the SLOT2.PRT. Then select any instance from
the menu. Choose Done/Return and regenerate. Run the program to check all the changes.

Figure 10-2
15. Use Info, Model, Part, and select on the workpiece. Notice the note beside each of the pa-
rameters being used in the relation stating “Driven by Assembly Relation”.
16. Modify the relation as you see necessary or try to manipulate a previous manufacturing mod-
el to incorporate relations.

Complex Milling 10 - 3 Exercise 10


MANUFACTURING RELATIONS

Exercise 10 10 - 4 Complex Milling


10 APPENDIX A
11
0
CONFIGURATION FILE OPTIONS

OPTION VALUE DESCRIPTION

mfg_ijk_num_digits value Sets the number of digits for i, j, k data


(default=10) points in a CL data file.
mfg_xyz_num_digits value Sets the number of digits for x, y, z data
(default=10) points in a CL data file.
ncl_file_extension file extension Sets the default file extension for
Pro/MANUFACTURING CL data files.
Enter the file extension without the ‘.’.
For example, “pronc” will produce
“filename.pronc”.
pro_mdb_dir /pro_mdb_dir/mill_db Specifies the path to where the
/pro_mdb_dir/turn_db Machinability Database (MDB) files
/pro_mdb_dir/drill_db are stored.
pro_mf_cl_dir directory name Sets the default directory for your
manufacturing CL data files.Use the full
pathname to avoid problems. For
example, “/home/users/library/mfg_cl”.
pro_mf_param_dir directory name Sets the default directory for your
manufacturing parameter files. Use the
full pathname to avoid problems. For
example,
“/home/users/library/mfg_params”.
pro_mf_tprm_dir directory name Sets the default directory for your
manufacturing tool files. Use the full
pathname to avoid problems. For
example, “/home/users/library/toolcrib”.
pro_mf_workcell_dir directory name Sets the default directory for your
manufacturing workcell files. Use the full
pathname to avoid problems. For
example,
“/home/users/library/workcells”.
shade_mfg_ref_models yes If set to “no”, the reference parts will
no not be processed when generating the
shaded image (to save time). If set to
“yes”, reference parts will be shaded.

Table A-1

Complex Milling A-1


APPENDIX A

FILENAMES FOR OUTPUT OF MODEL INFORMATION


This is an abbreviated list of the type of information that can be generated from a
Pro/MANUFACTURING model. It lists the menu item required for the selection and the default
file name automatically created in the working directory.
The manufacturing model file will be included in the name in most cases. In the following listing
the manufacturing model is called bracket.mfg.

Menu Option Output File


Info
Feat Info feature.inf
ModelInfo bracket.inf.1 , 2, 3, ...
Comp Info bracket.memb
BOM bracket.bom.1, 2, 3, ...
Manufacturing
Route Sheet bracket.ppl.1
Complete bracket.mfg.inf
Compl Items
Operation bracket.mfg.inf
Oper Items
NC Sequence bracket.mfg.inf
NC Seq Items
Relations
Show Rel rels.inf
Mfg Setup
Tooling
Info tool.inf
Where Used wustools.inf
Site
Info mfgtable.inf.1, 2, 3, ...

A-2 Complex Milling


APPENDIX A

Complex Milling A-3


Parametric Technology Corporation
128 Technology Drive, Waltham, MA 02154
Copyright 1997 Parametric Technology Corporation.
PARAMETRIC
All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. TECHNOLOGY
C O R P O R AT I O N