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POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND DEVELOPMENT


DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

Hand Test
Submitted by: Group 1
Ayala, Andree
Burgos, Camille
Calixterio, Leo II
Espela, Rachelle
Del Rosario, Valerie
Moral, Chatlette Karl
Pascua, Jasmine Joy
San Miguel, Djanelle Mei

Submitted To:

Prof. Rodrigo Lopiga


1

History of Hand Test


The development began in later 1950s.
Piotrowski (1957) was felt that a projective instrument was needed by its nature was
designed to mirror attitudes and action tendencies which are close to the surface and
apt to reveal the individuals behaviour.
Responses to hands in ambiguous poses indicate these hierarchical and diagnostically
useful scheme.

Administration
Time required is 10 min including recording of responses but not the scoring.
Before administering we have to establish rapport.
Examiner and examinee should be seated at a table facing each other.
Stimulus cards should be lined faced down on the table. ge 18
The examiner shows the cards to the examinee. Cards are always presented to the
examinee right side up; that is, the card number on the reverse side of the card is in the
upper right-hand corner.
An examinee may turn the card as he wishes.
When response to first card is finished next card is presented to the subject. 19
In the last he will be shown the blank card(i.e. 10th card) and asked to imagine
whatever come to mind.
Responses should be copied verbatim.
Initial time response for each response should be recorded.

If the examinee cannot provide a scorable response to a card (i.e., produces a failure)
no initial response time is recorded for that card.

Instances
Instances include the following:
If the examinee gives a short, response card, such as Its up, the examiner should
prompt the examinee by asking, What is it doing?
If the examinee gives only one response to the first card, the examiner should ask,
Anything else?
When an examinee fails a card the examiner says, Can u guess?

Use of Symbols
The recording of responses can be simplified by using the following scoring symbols, I .
E x a m i n e e t u r n s c a r d , II.<, >, v, :
Examinee turns card from initial position to a position with the top margin of the card
to the left (<),top margin of the card to the right (>),top margin of the card down (v), or if
the examinee leaves the card in its initial position.
(Q): Examiner has asked a question.
(E): Examinee illustrates the position of the hand on the card with his or her own hand.
(D): Examinee demonstrates with his or her own hand in order to illustrate his or her
response.

Record Form
Used to record responses of the client.
Initial response time response is also recorded.
Also rotations of cards are recorded in the record form as: <, >

THE HAND TEST MANUAL


By Edwin E. Wagner Ph. D

SCORING
Scoring occurs after the test has been administered. Scoring symbols are inserted in
the right hand margin of the recording sheet next to the responses they represent. After
the responses have been scored, they are tabulated, summarized and fitted the major
scoring ratios which are conveniently arranged on the reverse side of the recording
sheet. Specified scoring symbols, basic definitions, and examples follows:

1.

Affection, AFF: Interpersonal responses involving an interchange bestowment of

pleasure, affection or friendly feeling.

Waving to a friend a greeting.


Signaling. (Q) Saying hi in gesture of friendship.
A friendly salute to a fellow officer.
Patting someone on the back.
Shaking hands.

Petting my cooker spaniel.


The hand of a lover. (Q) An embrace.
Priest blessing someone.
Mothers hand helping her child across the street
Comforting hand of the nurse
2. Dependence, DEP: Interpersonal responses involving an expressed feeling of
dependence on or need for succor from another person.

A hand folded in prayer, asking for forgiveness.


Hitchhiker thumbing a ride.
Begging panhandling.
Someone pleading for mercy.
A drowning person calling for help.
Hands in the air. (Q) I surrender.
Little child reaching for mothers skirt.
Saluting your leader.
Child holding hand up in class. (Q) To leave the room.

3. Communication, COM: Interpersonal responses involving a presentation or exchange of


information.
Giving a speech wants to make a point.
Like saying Oh/, youre joshing! (D).
Stressing a point in a conversation.

A child holding fingers up, showing how old he is.


Sign language. (Q) A deaf mute speaking.
Describing something to somebody
Talking with your hands
Saying, Dont you understand?
Playing that Italian game, Rock, paper and scissors.

4. Exhibition, EXB: Interpersonal responses which involve displaying or exhibiting oneself


in order to obtain approval from others or to stress some special noteworthy
characteristics of the hand.

Showing off his muscles.


Aminstral-man dancing.
Showing off her diamond ring.
A ballet dancer with graceful hand movements.
Making shadow pictures on the wall.
Hands of the lady out to be kissed.
Child showing off his clean hands.
A comedian doing his stuff.
Like Hitler, (Q) On the balcony receiving hails from his people he is a big deal.
Flashing her new bracelet.

5. Direction, DIR: Interpersonal responses involving influencing the activities of,


dominating, or directing others.

A policemans stop.
Teacher sending a child to the board.
Traffic signals. Making a right turn.
Giving a command.
Showing a dog out of the door.
Leading an orchestra.
Inciting the workers to riot.
Quarterly calling a huddle.
Someone saying shush!
Crane operator, lower the boom. (Q)

6. Aggression, AGG: Interpersonal responses involving the giving of pain, hostility, or


aggression.

Trying to scare someone.


Grabbing someone with violence.
A judo punch to break the shoulder blade.
Making a fist. (Q) To hit somebody.
Slapping a fly.
A punch in the mouth.

Pushing someone off the cliff.


Pow! Right in the kisser.
Boxing in the ring
Wringing a chickens neck.
7. Acquisition, ACQ: Environmental responses involving an attempt to acquire or obtain
a goal or object. The movement is ongoing and the goal is as yet unobtained and to
some extent, still in doubt.

Reaching out for something on a high shelf.


Kids trying to get into the cookie jar.
Trying to catch a ball.
Jumping up to grab hold of a tree branch.
Stretched out. (Q) Grabbing for something going by.
Reaching for the rung of a ladder.
A climber. (Q) reaching for the strap.
Like on a bus. (Q) Reaching for the strap.
Groping for something caught in a crevice.

8.Active, ACT: Environmental responses involving an action or attitude designed to


contrively manipulate, attain, alter an object or goal. ACT responses are distinguished
from ACQ responses in that the object or goal has been, or will be, accomplished and
the issues are therefore not in doubt.

Might be typing.
Picking up a coin.
Writing with a pencil.
Sprinkling salt.
Carrying a suitcase.
Threading a needle.
Throwing a ball.
Dropping money in a till.
Pulling in a fish.

9. Passive, PAS: Environmental responses involving an attitude of rest and/or


relaxation in relation to the force of gravity, and a deliberate and appropriate withdrawal
of energy, from the hand.

Just resting.
Laying your hand flat on the table.
Laying your fingernails.
Lating out like this, (Q) Just limp.
Hand folded in your lap.
Just dangling over a chair arm.
A sleeping hand.
A natural, relaxed hand like in the statue of the thinker.
Folded over, (Q) like when your reading a book.

10. Tension, TEN: Energy is being exerted but nothing or little is accomplished. A
feeling anxiety, tensions or malaise is present. TEN responses also include cushes
where energy is exherted to oneself against the pull of gravity accompanied by a
definite feeling of strain and effort.

A fist clinched in anger.


Pushing upward. (Q) Trying to get up.
Stretching and tensing the fingers.
Tensing hand to see if nerves are steady.
Clenching your fingers to keep from saying the wrong things.
Hanging onto the edge of a cliff.
Holding something very tight.
A clenched fist of nervousness.
Hand is stretched twisted back.
Straining on a parallel bar.

11. Crippled. CRIP: Hand crippled, sure, dead, disfigured, sick injured and incapacitate.
A dead persons hand.
Someones sick and just about hanging on to life.
Looks sort of deformed.
That hand is bleeding.
10

Cerebral Palsy.
Been in an accident. Hanging out the car window.
All beat up.
Womans hand, shes been hurt. Raped maybe.
Fingers cut off.
Got black spots on it.
Frozen stiff. Been out in the cold.

12. Fear, FEAR: Responses in which the hand is threatened with pain, injury,
incapacitation, or death. A FEAR responses is also scored by hand if clearly perceived
is moting out pain, injury, incapacitation, or death to the subject or to a person with
whom the subject identifies.

Trembling. Its frightened by something.


Person going down for the third time.
Shielding his face. (Q) against an blast.
Pretty morbid (Q) Torrid flee
Walled in. trying to get out but cant.
My fathers hand like hes going to strangle me.
Falling back. Trying to pa himself.
Raised up to ward off a of flying glass or something.
Being sucked into quicksand.

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13. Description. DES: Subject can do no more than acknowledged the presence of the
hand with perhaps a few accompanying inconsequential descriptive details of feeling
tense.
Just a hand.
Palm out. (Q) thats all.
Just right out.. not doing anything.
Left hand (Q) Lady (Q) thats all.
Firm hand.. nothing special.
A fist (Q) no, nothing.
Hand with a stringtied around its finger.
A plain ordinary hand.
Five fingers, two fingers together. Thats all
Fingers closed (Q) Nothing else.
Bizarre, BIZ: A response on hallucinatory content, delusioned ideation or other peculiar,
pathological thinking. This response partially or completely ignores the drawn contours
of the hand and/or incorporates bizarre, idiosyncratic, or morbid content. One genuine
BIZ response is pathognomic of serious disturbances.

The worldjust looking at the distancetrying to get a feel.


Give into hands as black. Pick up hand.
A black bug.
A crocodile creeping along the well.
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Deaths head skull, skeleton, death.


Culture, antidote, Dr. Heart, sleeping gas. A hand cord (Q) going up to sod St. Thomas.
See muscles? Brain that comes from sunflowers.
Bones, finger bones, bonebones, heartbones.
14. Failure. FAIL: Subject cab have no scorable response whatsoever to a particular
card. A FAIL is tabulated in computing summary scoring, but is not included in the
response total, R, since it is not really a response but a failure to response.
Summarizing, there are 15 possible symbols used in scoring the hand protocol: AFF,
DEP, COM, EXH, DIR, AGG, ACQ, ACT, PAS, TEN, CRIP, DES? BIZ, FAIL.
When appropriate inquiries are given during the test administration, scoring problems
are bound to rise. The general rule in deciding between scoring alternatives is to choose
the which seems to most appropriately express the psychological intent to the response.
For example, a rate response, Warning your hands over a fire, would be scored DEP
rather than ACT because of the obvious implication of the need for warmth, protections,
and succour. A teacher lecturing a class would be scored DIR rather than COM since, in
this case, imparting information would seem to be less important psychologically, than
directing the lives of others for ones own purposes. Going to pick up a cookie, would
be scored ACT rather than ACQ since, although subject has not yet been attained,
there is a little implication of star in and doubtful outcome Hitting a nail with hammer
and similar responses, would be scored ACG rather than ACT since the ACT
responses, although directed of an inanimate object, seems to involve the feelings of
aggression and physical violence and is set aside is a special exception because of the
obvious psychological connotation. It is often useful to take the entire protocol into
account when single scoring problems arise. For example, in the warning your hands
over the fire, response mentioned DEP responses out of the ten total responses to test,
greatly enhancing the probability that the warning response was, psychologically
speaking, a DEP rather than an ACT. Experienced with the Hand Test has indicated
that, after the examiner given a reasonable number of examinations, scoring problems
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dwindle to a tolerable minimum. After the protocol has been scored, totals and the ratios
are computed. Summary scores, totals and ratios are listed on reverse side of the
special recording sheet, but totals can be computed on any available sheet of paper by
following the procedures listed.
1. List all scoring symbols and insert the total number of times the category has
appeared on the record proper beside that appropriated protocol.
2. Total

the

number

Environmental

of

International

(ACCACTPAS),

(AFFDEPCOMEXHDIRACG),

Maladjustive

(TENCRIPFEAR),

and

withdrawal. (DESFAIL) responses and arranged them in that order, in ratio. This
is known as the Experience Ratio, ER, and provides a useful overall estimate of
gross personality structure.
3. Total the number of AFF DEP COM responses and place them in a ratio
opposite the total number of DIRAGG responses. This constitutes the Acting
Out ratio, ACR, and this is an approximate measures of the probability of having
an overt, hostile and anti-socialmanner.
4. Compute the total number of responses; R. Failures are not included in the
response total.
5. Compute the average initial response time, AIRT by totalling the ten initial
response times in seconds (one for each card) dividing by ten. If a FAIL occur on
any card, the initial response times by nine, if FAIL occurs divide by eight, and so
on.
6. Compute the high minus low score, HL, by subtracting the lowest initial
response time, TRT, in seconds form the highest IRT.
7. Find the pathological, PATH score by adding the total number of maladjustment
scores to two times the total number of withdrawal scores (PATH= MAL2
WITH).
8. Any important qualitative aspects of the administration and/or scoring should also
be permanently recorded before they are forgotten. Special recording blank
contains a space for such remarks and notations.

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Five scoring blanks, completely filled in and notated, are presented at the end of this
chapter as illustrative adds to scoring, and summarizing test responses. These are
actual protocols, only the names have been changed to protect the anonymity of the
subjects. If the administrator desires, additional content scores can be listed in
parenthesis beside the formal scoring symbols and may either explicitly recorded or
implicitly recorded and considered in qualitative analyses. A discussion of special
content scoring is reserved for Chapter V. Content scores are not included in the
summary scoring.

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THE HAND TEST


IRT

HAND TEST RESPONSES

SCORE

Peace (Q-Stop...lets have peace

FEAR

I dont want to fight.


1

Possibility to show fear (Q)

FEAR

Something is about to happen; also a

TEN

sign of tension.
1

Pointing (Q=Pointing to tell

DIR

somebody to do something.
1

Hmmm.. Help me! Appealing for

DEP

help.
1

Somebody died.

CRIP

Clenched fist Clenched fist in anger.

TEN

Im scared (Subject visibly shaken,

DIR

but recovers quickly.) Make a turn.


Left hand turn.
1

Looks like somebody counting

ACT

money.
3

Somebody got crooked thumb.

CRIP

Arthritis.
2

Zgirl putting on lipstick (Q) to be

EXH

admired by her boyfriend.

Scoring
Summary Sheet
Date _______________
16

Name: Alice Smith

Sex: F

Age: 35

Race W

Address: 123 Walnut Street, Middletown, Ohio


Occupation:________________________Diagnosis: Conversion Hysteria

AFF= 0

ACQ= 0

TEN= 2

DES= 0

R= 11

DEP= 1

ACT= 1

ORIF= 2

FAIL= 0

AIRT= 2.3

COM= 0

PAS= 0

FEAR= 2

BIZ= 0

H-L= 6

EXH= 1

ENV= 1

MAL= 6

WITH= 0

PATH= 6

DIR= 2

ER- INT:

ENV:

MAL:

ACG= 0

AOR= (AFF + DEP + COM: (DIR- AGE) = 1:2

WITH -4: 1; 6; 0

INT= 4

QUALITATIVE ADMINISTRATIVE OBSERVATION: ver impulsion in responding about


seemed shook by card VII. Perhaps a delayed shock to VI? Other (____), very
nonchalant attitude towards the test despite to numerous (____) responses
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
THE HISTORY AND DIAGNOSTIC DATA: Referred by G.M for psychological appraisal
Preview diagnosis of conversion hysteria.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
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IRT

HAND TEST RESPONSES

SCORE

______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

EXAMINER: _____________________

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(Q) What you mean whats it


doing? Nothing. (Q) Cant see

FAIL

anything.
It is a hand (Q) Reaching over
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your head trying to get

ACQ

something.

Dont know cant say.

FAIL

Spread out (long pause) Like


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talking to somebody holding

COM

hand out to explain.

30

12

30

Hand isnt in good shape (Q)


well, its sick.

Fist is closed (Q) Fingers


together like closed fists.

Fingers are closed. Hand is flat.


Dont know what its doing.

CRIP

DES

DES

Finger (smiles) Finger in the


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pie (close-eyes), smiles. Theres

BIZ

pie in the sky a sky pie.


Spread out. (Q) Well, I dont
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know. Seems like the two fingers

DES

together hold down.


Nothing, just a card. Cant see
anything.

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FAIL

HAND TEST

SCORING
SUMMARY SHEET

Date:
Name:

Sex:

Age:

Race:

Address:
Occupation:

Diagnosis:

AFF=

AQQ=

TEN=

DES=

R=

DEP=

ACT=

CRIP=

FAIL=

AIRT=

COM=

PAS=

FEAR=

RIZ=

H-L=

ENV=

MAL=

WITH=

EXH=
DIR=
AGG=
ER=
INT=

INT:

ENV: MAL: WITH=

ACR = (AFF + DEP + COM) :

QUALITATIVE ADMINISTRATIVE OBSERVATIONS:

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(DIR + ACG) =

CASE HISTORY AND DIAGNOSTIC:

___________________
Examiner

INTERPRETATION

Maladjustive (MAL)

Interpersonal (INT)

Tension (TEN)
Crippled (CRI)
Fear (FEAR)

Affection (AFF)
Dependence (DEP)
Communication (COM)
Exhibition (EXH)
Direction (DIR)
Aggression (AGG)

Withdrawal (WITH)
Description (DFS)
Bizarre (BIZ)
Failure (FAIL)

Environmental (ENV)
Acquisition (ACQ)
Active (ACT)
Passive (PAS)

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Interpersonal Responses

Interpersonal responses involve relation with other people.

Lack of interpersonal responses indicate an individual whose life lack


interpersonal roles.

Variety of possible interpersonal responses


1. Affection
2. Dependence
3. Communication
4. Exhibition
5. Direction
6. Aggression

I.

Affection

Affectionate person participates in pleasurable relationships which involve mutual


interchange of positive feelings and attitudes.

They give and receive affection and generally impress others as being
reasonable and friendly.

II.

Dependence

Dependent people are those who need others.

These persons are willing to subordinate themselves in order to receive care and
protection.

Dependence responses are considered to be socially positive and essential to


peoples well being.

III.

Communication

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Communication responses are given by examinees who engage in reciprocal


information exchanges as a way of displaying interpersonal roles.

These type of responses can be found among all types of individuals.

IV.

Exhibition

In exhibition responses the individual desires pleasure from receiving the


attention of others.

The need for praise and being the center of attention is a major part of an
exhibition responses.

People showing exhibition responses are egocentric and individualistic.

V.

Direction

These people manipulate others into fulfilling their needs but neither dislike those
people being manipulated.

Individuals who are not directive are not suitable for social success.

VI.

Aggression

Aggressive people are often social, seek to hurt others, and are ineffective in real
goals.

Limited no of aggressive responses especially mixed with positive interpersonal


responses, may be expected in normal individuals.

Environmental Responses

Environmental responses are assumed to represent generalized attitudes to


impersonal world.

Environmental responses are broken down into three more specific quantitative
scoring categories.

1. Acquisition responses
2. Active responses
3. Passive responses

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I.

Acquisition Responses

Individuals who produce many acquisition responses tend to set their sights high
and pursue even greater accomplishment than they have already achieved.

Athletes, sales personnel, and scientists may all produce acquisition responses
although their goals differ.

II.

Active Responses

Active responses are generally given by examinees who are involved in


constructive accomplishment.

Home-worker, laborer and expert burglar may all give Active responses even
though the purpose toward which they direct their efforts differs greatly.

III.

Passive Responses

A passive response means that at least some of the time an individual will desire
allowing psychological or physical passivity.

The greater the number of passive responses, the more the examinee gravitates
toward situations which assure few struggles.

Maladjustive Responses

Maladjustive responses arise from a failure to meet goals.

Normal individuals who are suffering from tension and feelings of inadequacy can
produce a small number of Maladjustive responses.

Maladjustive responses are divided into three subcategories:

i.

Tension

ii.

Crippled

iii.

Fear
24

I.

Tension Responses

Tension responses may be given by normal individuals who suppress or waste


action tendencies.

Examples include:

A hand that is full of nervous tension.


II.

Crippled Responses

In crippled responses the examinee projects his or her psychological


insufficiencies and inadequacies by physical deforming the hand.

Crippled responses may indicate many types of inferiority (e.g. intellectual,


emotional, physical).

III.

Fear Responses

Phobic experience and individuals own internalized hostility can produce fear
response.

Responses of this type reflect genuine apprehension about threat to ego


integrity.

Fear responses generally have greater pathological significance than tension or


crippled responses.

Withdrawal Responses

Withdrawal responses reflect an rejection of meaningful, effective life rules.

Withdrawal responses are not given by the normative groups so withdrawal


responses should be considered pathological.

Withdrawal category is subdivided into three more categories.

i.

Description

ii.

Bizarre

iii.

Failure

25

I.

Description

This type of response is most typical of deteriorated schizophrenics, although


neurotic, mentally retarded and a rare normal examinee also produce description
responses.

Elaborated description responses reflect unique emotional states, where as


simple description responses represent an attempt to deal with reality.

II.

Bizarre Responses

Bizarre responses are the most serious of all withdrawal responses.

The examinee partially or completely ignores the hand stimuli and projects his or
her illogical perceptions onto the hand.

Bizarre responses mostly appear in schizophrenics who are displaying psychotic


symptomatology (e.g., delusions and hallucinations).

III.

Failure Responses

Failure responses represent the inability of the examinee to attend or respond to


hand stimuli.

Failure have serious implications and should not be taken lightly.

Deterioration, especially organic deterioration is indicated when several failures


are produced by the examinee.

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