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MUMPS

also known as epidemic parotitis


Causative agent: Mumps virus
It is a viral infection of the salivary glands, especially the parotid glands that run along
the angle of the jaw in front of and below each ear that causes the parotid glands to
swell.
Children between the ages of 5 and 10 are most likely to contract mumps.
Being infected once gives you lifelong immunity.
Mumps is most common around the month of March.
Less infectious than chickenpox or measles.
Unvaccinated adults who never had the disease are at much higher risk of complications
than are children, but mumps rarely causes serious problems.
Mumps is contagious for about a week before the glands swell, and about 9 days
afterwards.
Transmitted via droplet spread or by direct contact. Through tiny drops of saliva from
talking, sneezing, sharing drinks, kissing, or coughing.
Pathogenesis

Mumps is transmitted by droplet spread or by direct contact.

The primary site of viral replication of the epithelium of the upper respiratory or the GI
tract or eye.

The virus quickly spreads to the local lymphoid tissue and a primary viraemia ensues,
whereby the virus spreads to distant sites in the body.

The parotid gland is usually involved but so may the CNS, testis or epididymis, pancreas
and ovary.

A few days after the onset of illness, virus can again be isolated from the blood,
indicating that virus multiplication in target organs leads to a secondary viraemia Parotitis
is the most frequent presentation, occurring in 95% of those with clinical symptoms.

Pathognomonic sign
Gelatinous edema
Signs and symptoms:

Many people do not develop symptoms when they become infected with the mumps
virus, so they may never know they had the infection.

Others develop symptoms such as fever, swollen and tender parotid glands (the
salivary glands located beneath the ears), and headache.

Prevention

In general, the patient is considered immune to mumps if he/she previously had the
infection or if you've been immunized against mumps
The mumps vaccine is usually given as a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR)
inoculation
Two doses of the MMR vaccine are recommended before a child enters school
The first between ages 12 and 15 months
The second between ages 4 and 6 years, or between 11 and 12 if not previously
given
In response to a mumps outbreak in the college students and health care workers in
particular are encouraged to make sure they've had two doses of the MMR vaccine.
A single dose doesn't appear to offer sufficient protection during an outbreak.

Those who don't need the MMR vaccine

Had two doses of the MMR vaccine after 12 months of age or one dose of the MMR
vaccine plus a second dose of the measles vaccine

Have blood tests that demonstrate you're immune to measles, mumps and rubella

People with severely compromised immune systems, or people who take oral steroids,
unless the benefits of the vaccine exceed the risks

Those who should get the MMR vaccine

Nonpregnant woman of childbearing age

Work in a hospital, medical facility, child care center or school

Those who should wait to get the MMR vaccine

Patient who are moderately or severely ill. Wait until you recover.

Pregnant patient. Wait until after you give birth.

Those who should check with their doctors

Patient with cancer

Patient with blood disorder

Patient with disease that affects their immune system, such as HIV/AIDS

Patient who are being treated with drugs, such as steroids, that affect their immune
system
Nursing Intervention

Isolation until swelling subsides.


Bed rest until swelling subside.
Liquid or soft food, restrict food containing acid.
Local application of heat to salivary gland to reduce discomfort.