Sei sulla pagina 1di 75
RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE Presented by: Arch. Juanito Y. Sy, uap, aacep, same MA Architecture

RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE

Presented by:

Arch. Juanito Y. Sy, uap, aacep, same MA Architecture

Scope of Instruction

Scope of Instruction

Topics

Hours

Strategies

Activities

Introduction

and

3.0

•Presentations

Passion

for

overview

•Video/Motion

excellence

Research

3.0

Picture

Self

definitions,

types,

Viewing

 

assessment/

importance, etc.

i

qu zzes,

•On-Site

assignments

Research Design

3.0

Observation

and

research

 

and Analysis •Group

works

Sampling Design

3.0

discussion

Discuss locally available research materials architecture

Patriotic

on

•Project

Case

Data

Collection

3.0

Studies

Methods

   

Data

and Tabulation

Processing

3.0

Topics

Hours

Strategies

Activities

Basic Statistics

 

6.0

•Presentations

Passion

for

 

•Video/Motion

excellence

Data analysis and Interpretation

 

6.0

Picture

Self

Viewing

 

assessment/

i

   

•On-Site

qu zzes,

Preparation

of

a

assignments

thesis proposal:

Observation

and

research

The research problems and objectives

 

6.0

and Analysis

•Group discussion

works

Discuss locally available research materials architecture

Patriotic

on

•Project

Case

 

Studies

Topics

Hours

Strategies

Activities

Preparation of a thesis proposal:

9.0

•Presentations

Passion

for

•Video/Motion

excellence

 

Picture

Self

The research report (Writing the research proposal)

Viewing

 

assessment/

i

qu zzes,

•On-Site

assignments

Observation

and

research

Consolidation and Final evaluation

9.0

and Analysis •Group discussion

works

Patriotic

Discuss locally available research

 

•Project

Case

Studies

materials

on

architecture

References

References

C.R.

Techniques’,

Kothari,

‘Research

Methodology;

second

edition,

New

Age

Publisher, 2004

Methods

and

International

Power Tools for Technical Communication McMurray, Harcourt College Publications 2002

Introduction to Technical Writing: Process & Practice by Lois Johnson Reid, Bedford/St.Martin's 1993:

Calderon, Jose F., and Gonzales, Expectacion C. Methods of Research and Thesis Writings. Manila: National Book Store, Inc., 1993.

Good, Carter V. and Scates, Douglas E. Methods of Research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1954.

Wire Research:

http://wire.rutgers.edu/research_assignments_empirical_lin

k.html

http://www.chssc.salford.ac.uk/healthSci/rem99/resmeth/pla

nning.htm

http://www.io.com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/otherep.html#

primresch

Module 1: Introduction to Research

Module 1: Introduction to Research

WHAT IS RESEARCH?

WHAT IS SCIENCE?

a body of established knowledge

 

the

observation,

identification,

investigation,

and

theoretical explanation of natural phenomenon

WHAT IS THEORY?

a set of inter-related constructs and propositions that specify relations among variables to explain and predict phenomena

should

relationships, tentative and verifiable

be

simple,

consistent

with

observed

WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC METHOD?

involves the principles and processes regarded as characteristic of or necessary for scientific investigation

process

or

approach

to

generating

valid

and

trustworthy knowledge

WHAT IS RESEARCH?

Any honest attempt to study a problem systematically or to add to mans knowledge of a problem may be regarded as research. (Theodorson and Theodorson 1969 cited in Reber 1995, p.663)

The aim, as far as I can see, is the same in all sciences. Put simply and cursorily, the aim is to make known something previously unknown to human beings. It is to advance human knowledge, to make it more certain or better fitting the aim is, as I have said, discovery. (Elias 1986, p.20)

WHAT IS RESEARCH?

The systematic investigation into and study of materials, sources, etc, in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.

• An endeavour to discover new or collate old facts etc by

the scientific study of a subject or by a course of critical investigation.

[Oxford Concise Dictionary]

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN?

Research

the application of the scientific method

a systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing information (data)

Research Methods (Methodology)…

the ways one collects and analyzes data

methods developed for acquiring trustworthy knowledge via reliable and valid procedures

WHY UNDERTAKE RESEARCH?

• To investigate some existing situation or problem

• To provide solutions to a problem

• To explore and analyse more general issues

To construct or create a new p rocedure or s y stem

• To explain a new phenomenon

• To g enerate new knowled g e

• A combination of two or more of any of the above

(Hussey and Hussey 1997)

CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH

• objective

• precise

verifiable

• empirical

• logical

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

• time in research

• variables

• types of relationships

hypotheses

• types of data

• fallacies

• structure or research

• deduction and induction

• ethics

• validity

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

• time in research

crosssect iona l vs. long itu di na l

CONCEPTS AND ISSUES • time in research cross ‐ sect i ona l vs. l ong

repeated measures

CONCEPTS AND ISSUES • time in research cross ‐ sect i ona l vs. l ong

time series

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

variables

variable… any observation that can take on different values

attribute… a specific value on a variable

EXAMPLES

Variable

age

Attribute

Variable

age

Attribute

18, 19, 20, etc

Variable

Gender or sex

Attribute

Variable

Gender or sex

Attribute

Male, female

Variable

satisfaction

Attribute

Variable

satisfaction

Attribute

1 = very satisfied

2 = satisfied

3= somewhat satisfied

4 = not satisfied

5 = not satisfied at all

Types of variables

independent variable (IV)… what you (or nature) manipulates in some way

dependent variable (DV)what you presume to be influenced by the IV

EXAMPLES

IV

DV

health status attitude exercise participation social support intervention
health status
attitude
exercise
participation
social support
intervention

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

• types of relationships

correlational vs. causal relationships

variables perform in a synchronized manner
variables perform in a
synchronized manner
one variable causes the other variable
one variable causes the
other variable

correlation does not imply causation! (it’s necessary but not sufficient)

patterns of relationships…

•no relationship positive relationship •negative relationship •curvilinear relationship

++ -- vocabulary -- ++ essfitn
++
--
vocabulary
--
++
essfitn

patterns of relationships…

•no relationship positive relationship •negative relationship •curvilinear relationship

++ -- -- resting HR ++ ssfitne
++
--
--
resting HR
++
ssfitne

patterns of relationships…

•no relationship positive relationship •negative relationship •curvilinear relationship

++ -- -- HR ++ ex i ntensityercise
++
--
--
HR
++
ex
i ntensityercise

patterns of relationships…

•no relationship positive relationship •negative relationship •curvilinear relationship

++ -- -- arousal ++ manceperfor
++
--
--
arousal
++
manceperfor

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

hypotheses

…a specific statement of prediction of the expected outcome in a given situation and is tested in an experiment

types of hypotheses

alternative vs. null

alternative

hypothesis

(HA)…an

predict or trying to demonstrate)

effect

(that

you

null

hypothesis

(HO)…null

effect (any observed

changes in behaviour are due to chance)

• one-tailed vs. two-tailed

EXAMPLES

hypothesis

H A

H O

there is a relationship between age and exercise participation

there is a relationship

there is not a relationship

this is a two‐ tailed hypothesis as no direction is predicted
this is a two‐ tailed hypothesis as no
direction is predicted

show that the different results are statistically significant

hypothesis

H A

H O

an incentive program will increase exercise participation

participation will increase

participation will not increase or will decrease

thi s i s a one‐ ta il ed hypothes i s as a specific
thi s i s a one‐ ta il ed hypothes i s as a
specific direction is predicted

statistical significance means expected result was found

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

• types of data

Quantitative researchsystematically observe changes in the phenomena of interest while manipulating what are believed to be causal influences

Qualitative researchmay be more concerned with the individual’s personal experiences of the problem under study

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

fallacies

an error in reasoning (logic or premise)

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

• structure or research

TheThe "hourglass""hourglass" notionnotion ofof researchresearch
TheThe "hourglass""hourglass" notionnotion ofof researchresearch
begin with broad questions narrow down, focus in operationalize OBSERVE analyze data reach conclusions generalize
begin with broad questions
narrow down, focus in
operationalize
OBSERVE
analyze data
reach conclusions
generalize back to questions
questions narrow down, focus in operationalize OBSERVE analyze data reach conclusions generalize back to questions
questions narrow down, focus in operationalize OBSERVE analyze data reach conclusions generalize back to questions

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

• deduction and induction

Deduction

Induction

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES • deduction and induction Deduction Induction
KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES • deduction and induction Deduction Induction
KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES • deduction and induction Deduction Induction
KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES • deduction and induction Deduction Induction
KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES • deduction and induction Deduction Induction
KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES • deduction and induction Deduction Induction

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

ethics

balance between protecting participants vs. quest for knowledge (confidentiality and anonymity)

KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

validity

the best available approximation to the truth of a given proposition, inference, or conclusion

types of validity…

• conclusion

• internal

• construct

• external

types of validity are cumulative

TTHEHE VVALIDITYALIDITY QQUESTIONSUESTIONS AARERE CCUMULATIVEUMULATIVE

TT HEHE VV ALIDITYALIDITY QQ UESTIONSUESTIONS AA RERE CC UMULATIVEUMULATIVE

TTHEHE VVALIDITYALIDITY QQUESTIONSUESTIONS AARERE CCUMULATIVEUMULATIVE

InIn thisthis studystudy

Is there a relationship between the cause and effect?

TTHEHE VVALIDITYALIDITY QQUESTIONSUESTIONS AARERE CCUMULATIVEUMULATIVE

InIn thisthis studystudy

Is the relationship causal?

CConconcllususiionon

Is there a relationship between the cause and effect?

TTHEHE VVALIDITYALIDITY QQUESTIONSUESTIONS AARERE CCUMULATIVEUMULATIVE

II

nn

thth

eoryeory

Can we generalize to the constructs?

InternalInternal

Is the relationship causal?

ConclusionConclusion

Is there a relationship between the cause and effect?

TTHEHE VVALIDITYALIDITY QQUESTIONSUESTIONS AARERE CCUMULATIVEUMULATIVE

InIn theortheoryy

Can we generalize to other persons, places, times?

CConsonsttrucruc

an we genera ze o the constructs?

C

li

t

InternalInternal tt

genera ze o the constructs? C li t InternalInternal tt Is the relationship causal? ConclusionConclusion Is

Is the relationship causal?

ConclusionConclusion

Is there a relationship between the cause and effect?

TTHEHE VVALIDITYALIDITY QQUESTIONSUESTIONS AARERE CCUMULATIVEUMULATIVE

VVaaliditlidityy

EE

tt

ll

xx ernaerna

Can we generalize to other persons, places, times?

CConsonsttrucructt

an we genera ze o the constructs?

C

li

t

InternalInternal

Is the relationship causal?

CConconcllususiionon

Is there a relationship between the cause and effect?

TYPES OF RESEARCH

Exploratory research

Takes place where there is little or no prior knowledge of a phenomenon.

This type of research attempts to gain some familiarity with the appropriate concepts and looks for patterns or ideas without any preconceived ideas or explanation.

Descriptive research

Describes a particular phenomenon, focusing upon the issue of what is happening, or how much of it has happened, rather than why it is happening.

Explanatory research

This type of research is involved in explaining why something happens, and assessing causal relationships between variables.

Predictive research

Forecasts future phenomena, based on the interpretations suggested by explanatory research.

RESEARCH CLASSIFICATION

Pure research takes place to explore a particular concept, or issue, without regard for a specific problem, and may be carried out to simply gain a better understanding of the overall concepts.

Applied

research

is

undertaken

to

solve

a

specific

problem or provide a solution to a practical question.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY RESEARCH

Primary research

Refers to research that has involved the collection of original data specific to that particular research project, for example through using research methods such as questionnaires or interviews.

Secondary research

Refers to research where no such original data is collected, but the research project uses existing (or secondary) sources of data, for example census or archive data.

THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

Theoretical research generally uses the findings from existing works to develop new ideas through analysing existing theory and explanations. These new ideas are not tested through collecting evidence in the form of primary data.

Empirical research supports the development of new

ideas

observation

reasoning).

through

or

the

collection

of

data

(empirical

=

measurement

rather

than

theoretical

WHAT IS AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH REPORT?

1. An empirical research report is structured to answer

specific

technical fields:

questions

posed

by

What is the problem? What was done to study the problem? What was found? What do the findings mean?

readers

in

scientific

and

– What do the findings mean? readers in scientific and (Introduction to Technical Writing: Process &

(Introduction to Technical Writing: Process & Practice, by Lois Johnson Reid)

2.

An empirical research report is a report in which you

gather your most important information from primary sources, such as the field or laboratory, rather than published documents. The research focuses on why certain things happen.

(Power Tools for Technical Communication, McMurray, Harcourt College Publications 2002)

EMPIRICAL RESEARCH REPORT COMPONENT

1. Title

2. Authors: Affiliations

3. Abstract: Synopsis of study

4. Introduction: Literature review, statement of goals, research questions, and hypotheses

5. Methods and Materials: Participants, measures, equipment, statistical techniques, etc.

6. Results: Summaries and analyses of the measures obtained

7. Discussion & Recommendations : Interpretations and implications of the study

8. References

TITLE

The title is a concise summary of the empirical research report. The title should convey appropriate information about the study or studies presented in the report.

AUTHORS

People who make a major contribution to the study are listed as authors. You might want to do a background search on the authors in order to determine the expertise the researchers have.

Questions that have to be answered here:

Who did the research? Is there an established protocol for the order of the authors’ names?

ABSTRACT

A report of an empirical study also includes an abstract. The abstract is a brief but comprehensive summary of the empirical research report. It includes a concise statement of the goal of the research, outlines the methods, and presents the essential results and conclusions.

Questions to be answered here:

Why did you do the study? How was the study done? What did you find? Why are these findings important?

INTRODUCTION

The introduction sets the research in a context (it provides the "big picture"), provides a review of related research, and develops the hypotheses for the research.

The purpose of the introduction is to describe the problem, develop the theoretical and empirical background for the research questions, and elaborate a rationale for all parts of the study.

In order to understand why the research was conducted, you need to ask yourself the following questions:

What are the research questions?

Where did these research questions come from?

Is the research important? Why or why not?

These questions set up the context and rationale for the study.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Analyze published studies relevant to the issue under study.

published studies relevant to the i ssue un d er s tudy. Synthesize to avoid simply
published studies relevant to the i ssue un d er s tudy. Synthesize to avoid simply
published studies relevant to the i ssue un d er s tudy. Synthesize to avoid simply

Synthesize to avoid simply listing studies and findings. Cite studies with author(s) and date. Avoid plagiarism by constructing a comprehensive outline. State Your Objective: Purpose of the Study State Your Research Questions State Your Hypothesis: What you thought you'd find?

METHODS & MATERIALS

The methods section is a description of how the research was conducted, including who the participants were, the design of the study, what the participants did, and what measures were used.

The questions that will help you evaluate the method are:

Have you explained the samples used in the study? Are the samples appropriate for the study? What is the research design? Is the design appropriate for the research question(s)? What are the measures? Are the measures appropriate for addressing the research question(s)? What ethical considerations are important to address?

RESULTS

The results section contains the summaries and analyses of the measures obtained in the study. This is where the "answers" to the research questions are found.

The following questions will help you evaluate the results:

What are the main results of the study?

Can the results be used to answer the research question(s)?

Can the results be generalized beyond the context of the study?

You need to understand what the results are before you can think critically about them. A good way to start to understand the results is to study the figures and tables. Then read the text for the researchers' interpretations.

DISCUSSION

The discussion section contains the interpretations and implications of the study. There may be more than one study in the report; in this case, there are usually separate Method and Results sections for each study followed by a general discussion that ties all the research together.

The discussion section should start with a summary of the most important results and then follow with a discussion of how the results address the research questions.

Consider these questions as you write the discussion section:

What conclusions do the researchers draw from their results?

Are the conclusions important?

Why or why not?

Ex p lain y our results:  Did your results support your hypothesis?  Did

Explain your results:

Did your results support your hypothesis?

Did your results relate to your objective?

Did your results interpret in light of other published

results on

the subject?

Did your results suggest directions for further research?

Did your results discuss the limitations of your study?

This section, or area of the report, is also the place to make recommendations or state ideas for further research.

REFERENCES

The references section cites all the literature reported in the article. The reference citations are used to support statements made in the article.

When preparing the report remember to:

1. Determine that the objective is a project involving discussion of causes, effects, or both.

2. Define the audience and purpose (&/or describe problem and background).

3. Perform the research.

4. Plan and develop graphics and tables.

5. Identify causes.

6. Identify effects.

7. Identify the relationships between causes and effects.

8. Discuss causes and effects.

TIPS ON RESEARCH

1. Locate and read a few articles from within a field you are

comfortable with.

2. Read studies that are of interest to you.

3. Read the abstract first.

4. Identify the research question and objectives.

5. Why did the researcher(s) choose a particular setting or

sample?

6. What were the methods chosen to collect data?

7. What were the most important findings?

8. Do not be over-concerned with statistical analysis.

9. Be critical but objective.

WHAT IS RESEARCH - SUMMARY

1. There are a number of definitions of research. Defining research is less important than understanding its nature.

2. Research is important for the advancement of any academic field or discipline.

3. Research can be classified as exploratory, descriptive, explanatory or predictive depending upon its purpose. It can also be classified as either theoretical or applied depending upon the level of application of the findings to ‘real life’ situations.

4. Research may involve the collection of new data (primary

research) or the use of existing data (secondary research).

5. The best way to begin to develop your understanding of

research, its role, and the types of research is to undertake some reading. Choose some appropriate articles, and begin to read!

Quality research is the lifeblood of any scientific discipline. Without it, disciplines would stagnate, failing to advance past their current limits and understanding.

(Wann 1997 p.17)

Questions or Comments

Questions or Comments
Questions or Comments
Questions or Comments