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Custom Characters For VIC And 64

November 1983
63380 S3.25 in Canada

For Owners And Users Of Commodore VIC-20 And 64" Personal Computers

Getting Started With A Disk Drive

!liiML_ A disk drive is much
more than just a fast Little
tape drive. This new Adion GameForVlc.20And64
series begins where
the manual leaves
off. Part I: The basics
■■■■■■ it! Illlltt of floppy disks.

PROGRAMS Educational Game With
Animation And Sound
ON THE 64 For VIC-20 And 64 The sky is falling! Only
4 4 ,:■
you, as Chicken Little,
can save the world by
hurling stones at the
falling pieces of sky.
With this utility you can But if you get bonked
easily add favorite on the head....
routines to new pro
grams, saving time and Al$& In thss Issue
effort. A must for every With a video gome charac
programmer's toolbox. Software Review
ter in hot pursuit, the goal is
to solve all the math prob This Month's
1 1 lems correctly. If you miss
one too many, prepare to
give up your ghost. Multiple ictchine g
levels for young people of or Beginners
74470 63380 a!! ages.

Brwderbund's Bank Street functions with password pro

Writer turns your Apple or Atari computer into a powerful tection, • Document chaining allows you to print documents
word processor, with many of the advanced features you'd of unlimited length. • Page headers and automatic page
expect to find only in an expensive business system. Powerful, numbering—toporbottom, • Highlighting of text, • Upper
yet purposefully simple, Bank Street Writer has no complex and lowercase without additional hardware,
codes to memorize. The screen Broderbund's Bank Street

Bank Street
guides you every step of the Writer comes complete with
way. It's everything you're ever Tutorial and Utility programs, a
likely to need in a word proces comprehensive reference man

sor at a price you can afford. ual and a free back-up disk.
Here are just a few of its many Student approved, the en
features: • Add, move, in tire system has been exten
sert and erase blocks of text, sively tested by Bank Street
• Universal search and replace. • Automatic centering and College of Education and Intentional Educations.
indent, • Automatic word wrap, so you don't have to hy Bank Street Writer. The ground-breaking, sensible combi
phenate or "return" at the end of each line, • Potent print nation of word processing power, thoughtful design, and
format routines all in memory, • Disk storage and retrieve exceptional value.

The First Word Processor For The Entire Family.

Hardware requircmenis: Apple version requires Apple lie Of 48K Applt controller. Atari 400/800/1200X1. wislon requires 4SK (BASIC cartridge
II Plus or 48K Apple II with Applesoft In ROM ur RAM, and a 16 sector for use o( tutorial). Both versions require only one disk drive.

^Broderbund Software
17 Paul Drive, San Rafael, CA 94903, Telephone (415) 479-1170
Applf ii a n'fiitfercJ crjdrmarlt o( Apple Computer Inc. Atari u a refblnvd iradcniark of Atjri. Inc.
Commodore 64 is a registered trademark of Commodore Electronics Ltd.

M \-"'
■..,.-■■ -^
' ■■-■...._-

So your sweet tooth has gotten out of hand again? Well,

this time the sheriff is after you and he's no sweetheart.
There he is now! Quick! Grab all the candy in sight and
dive for the doorway! Don't look now, the doors are
rotating...better be good at getting out of sticky
Feel like a devil today? Better adjust your halo. Start the situations, 'cause if you hit the wall you're stuck with it!
ignition. It's up to you to decide... Okay, hit the There's plenty of candy here and many more levels to
accelerator. You can be the ultimate speed demon or put cross, so get on the move, sugar!
wings on your wheels! There's a pedestrian now...will
you go for speed, no matter what pedestrians are in the
way (for the devilish points}— or be an angel in a Available at finer Software
challenging obstacle course? The heavenly points may get Stores everywhere.
you to heaven, but the devilish points may get you
to...well, better make your decision— the time clock is OR CALL (213) 501-5895 FOR THE NAME OF YOUR

10902 Riverside Drive / North Hollywood, California 91602. (213) 501-5845

Can a computer make you cry?
SS Right now, no one knows.This is distinctions — the ones that arc made
partly because many would consider between art and entertainment and
the very idea frivolous. But its also education — don't always apply.
because whoever successfully ans
wers this question must first have Toward a language
answered several others. OF DREAMS. In short, we
Why do we cry ? Why do we are finding thai the computer can be
laugh, orlove, or smile? Whatare the more than just a processor of data.
touchstones of our emotions? ■ It is a communications medium:
Until now, the people who asked an interactive tool that can bring
such questions tended not to be people's thoughts and feelings closer
the same people who ran software together, perhaps closer than ever
companies. Instead, they were before. And while fifty years from
writers, filmmakers, painters, musi now, its creation may seem no more
cians. They were, in the traditional important than the advent of motion
sense, artists. pictures or television, there is a
I We're about to change that chance it will mean something more.
tradition.The name of our company Something along the lines of
is Electronic Arts. a universal language of ideas and
emotions. Something like a smile.
Software worthy SThe first publications of Electronic
of the minds that Arts are now available. We suspect
you'll be hearing a lot about them.
USE IT. We are a new association
Some of them are games like you've
of electronic artists united by a com
never seen before, that get more
mon goal — to fulfill the enormous
out of your computer than other
potential of the personal computer.
games ever have. Others are harder
In the short term, this means
to categorize —and we like that.
transcending its present use as a facili
tator of unimaginative tasks and WATCH US. We're providing
a medium for blasting aliens. In the a special environment for talented,
long term, however, we can expect independent software artists. It's
a great deal more. a supportive environment, in which
These are wondrous machines big ideas are given room to grow.
we have created, and in them can be And some of America's most re
seen a bit of their makers. It is as if spected software artists are beginning
we had invested them with die image to take notice.
of our minds. And through them, we We think our current work reflects
are learning more and more about this very special commitment.
ourselves. And though we are few in number
I We learn, for instance, that we today and apart from the main
are more entertained by the involve stream of the mass software market
ment of our imaginations than place, we are confident that both
by passive viewing and listening.We time and vision
learn that we are better taught by are on our side.
experience than by memorization. Join us.
And we learn that the traditional We see farther. ELECTRONIC ARTS
TO I EARN MORE "M*r ch^t,-
nvmher ufada - ami m nvnit ,j /m

^?* £enc of ita hmup ptcruifli f w- ifop

Software artists: -I'm not so

sure [hero are any software artists yetT
says Bill Budge."Wfe'vc koi 10 earn thai
ijtIl'. Picivirtx] htre arc a few pctiplc
who llavc ciiinc as close ro Earning it at
jnyonc wo know.
'Thai'\Mr. Budge himwlf.crcutiir
<.f PNBALL CONSTRUCmON' die upjvi riEht.Tn his left are
Anne WestM and Jon Freeiran who,
along with their coUcagues at Free Bill
Assjciates.crealcd ARCHON and
Left of them isD.m Buntrnof
Oiaik Softsciipc. the firm that wnHc
MULE.Td Dani Itrftate Mike Abbot
(topi and Mat! Alrxuiulrr llxittonil,
auihbrscifHARD HAT MACK, in the
center isJohn ReJd,crratoiofAXIS
IATOR. David Maynard, bwer right,
is the man rcspon^iblo for WORMS*
When you we what they've JKVi'nv

pished, we ihtnk you'll auruo writh uk
that they can adlthniwelvw whatever
ihey warn.

1 ■".-■■■ ;-v-

Arlo is a hard-working plumber but a touch absent-minded. He's building a water supply system
for the whole neighborhood, and he realty has his hands full. Help Arlo decide what kind
ol pipe to buy and where to put it... his limited budget doesn't leave him much margin for error.
Figure out the shortest, most economical way to get everyone hooked up... and just hope
poor Arlo has remembered to open and close the right valves. A marvelously entertaining and
challenging exercise in planning, economics and spatial relationships for ail ages.
PIPES. For the VIC-20 and Commodore 64.

view «n CMutmeeift mtiiimi"«>$binuiwiHWtitt;jm*icsin
November 1983 Vol.1, No. 5

Computer Graphics-The Age Of Electronic Art Fred D'lgnazio 22

The Inner World Of Computers, Part 1: Binary Numbers Tom Prendergast 38
Getting Started With A Disk Drive, Port 1: The Basics Charles Brannon 46

Inside View: Programmers Dale Disharoon & Jim Bach Kathy Yakal 58
Chicken Little Jeff Wolverton 64 V/64
Martian Prisoner Alan Poole 68 V/64

Coiorcraft Graphics Animator For VIC And 64 Shelby Goldstein 96 V/64
VIC Preschool Software Donald Elman 100 V
Four Tronix Games For VIC And 64 Dan Gutman 108 V/64
Rat Hotel For VIC-20 Clark L & Kathryn H. Kidd 110 V

Computing For Kids: There's A Creature In My Computer! Fred D'lgnazio 72
Munchmalh Gerald R, Anderson 76 V/64
VIC Super Expander Graphics Kenneth Knox 80 V
64 Aordvark Attack 82 64
64 Timepiece Joe DiNicola 84 64
Connect The Dots Janel Arnold 88 V/64

Introduction To Custom Characters For VIC And 64 Tom R. Halfhill 113 V/64
How To Make Custom Characters On The 64 Gary Davis ' 120 64
How To Make Custom Characters On The VIC Gregg Keizer 126 V
VIC/64 Program Lifesaver Vern Buis 132 V/64
Understanding Sound On The 64: Part 2 Gregg Peele 136 64
Merging Programs On The 64 John A. Winnie 146 64
The Beginner's Corner: DATA, READ, And RESTORE Statemenis C Regena 150 V/64
One-Touch Commands For The 64 David Martin 159 64
Power BASIC: VIC/64 Disk Defaulter Eric Brandon 162 V/64
Machine Language For Beginners: The Assembler Richard Mansfield 164 V/64

The Editor's Notes Robert Lock 6
Gazette Feedback Editors & Readers 10
Simple Answers To Common Questions Tom R. Halfhill . 18
HOTWARE: This Month's Best Sellers Kathy Yakal ..'..".'.'.','.'.'.'.'.'. 54
VICreations; Animating With Custom Characters Dan Carmichael 142 V
Horizons: 64 Charles Brannon 168 64
News & Products j 73

The Automatic Proofreader 149
Bug-Swatter: Modifications & Corrections 179
How To Type In COMPUTEI's Gazette Programs . . 180
A Beginner's Guide To Typing In Programs 181
Program Listings 182

Product Mart . . . 204

Advertisers Index 208

= General, V = VIC-20, 64 = Commodore 64.

'UTEI Pubilaltoru, Inc., Post Office \kn S406, Greensboro, Nc 27403 USA. Phone P19127S-98W
offlCMjre tooted ... BOSEdiwudt*Dri™, Grniubora, NC 27IW. Dome«fc lubferipttans: 12 issues, CO, Guid lutscrfpUon .irrfm DC charge »(jddn,,,
(1.l>.lvfm35WMoUivul.U.™^-pl..(().W'[/r/rNC7u:riv,r.U.1tlrt!M06,Cr«.l.n!.l.otl.,NL-27Jl)3 SwohJ il.iss.wlict.o.. Ending.,I (>.-.■„-I™,,. NC27403.ind
.id nulling iilflfi.- fcnlin-qinlcnl!. i:u[iyfij;lil f I''K1 l.y COMPUTE! 1'uHn.itmns. lilt All lights CUnVOd. ISSN 07.17-37 ]ft.

Good News for Commodore We've been predicting in 1977. It was called the PET (Per
users... Jim Dkmne, former creasing availability of software sonal Electronic Transactor). It
Canadian salus manager for for the VIC and 64. Word from weighed 30 or 40 pounds, had a
Commodore, has been ap the field is that it's coming in bulky metal case, built-in
pointed vice president of sales droves as everyone from major keyboard, green phosphor mon
and marketing for Commodore. existing vendors to smaller start itor, and tape cassette. The
In this capacity he'll report di ups move to support the 1.5 keyboard had tiny, calculator-
rectly to vice-chairman and million machines currently in type keys. The unit was first
founder Jack Trameil. We stalled. Judging from a recent demonstrated at the Philadelphia
applaud this move, since for article in Electronic News (Vol. 29, Computer Show, and Commo
many years Mr. Dionne has been No. 1459), most of that software dore was immediately swamped.
cognizant of, and responsive will be sold on disk. Commodore Personal computing was off and
to, the needs of users and the indicated that their original pro running. Commodore creatively
marketplace. jection that 70 percent of fS4s financed much of the launch out
Will the IBM home com would be sold with a disk drive of customers' pockets, with de
puter knock Commodore out of was low. Actually, sales with mand running so far ahead of
the low-end personal computer disk drives are running at 91) production that the company
market? We think not, for two percent. was able to accept customer or
main reasons. The IBM entry is Five issues old and approxi ders on a direct basis with full
projected to arrive with a price mately the sixth-largest payment up front and expecta
tag around $700 for the basic magazine in the personal com tion of a delivery within at least
unit. While Hie price and name puting field. Again our thanks 90 days (frequently in the early
will certainly sell it well, Com to you, our readers and writers, days of shipping, that date went
modore has shown it's quite for your support and encourage to 120 days or more). If you be
ahead of the game in successive ment in the very successful came distressed over lengthy
generation introduction of launch of the Gazette. We're still delivery, your only option was
hardware and features. Even if looking for experienced writers to cancel your order, get a re
sales of the 64 were impacted by and programmers to join our in- fund, and waiteven longer. Your
an IBM entry, we suggest that house staff. If you're interested, VICs and 64s are far more pow
not many months would pass drop us a resume, Attn: Person erful and sophisticated than
before a mid-level, full-featured nel Office, COMPUTE! Publica the $800 PET, but that's where
computer would arrive from tions, Inc., P.O. Box 5406, they came from. A whole new
Commodore with a price tag no Greensboro, NC 27403. generation of computing was
one could touch. And we cer A bit of history on the ori launched.
tainly don't mean to imply that gins of your computers for those
the 64 is currently vulnerable; of you new to the industry.
nothing on the market can yet Commodore introduced the first
match its capabilities at its cur fully integrated personal com
rent price. puter system in the summer of Editor In Chief

6 COMPUTEi'i Gomlle November 1983

I start in reading, writing and ma
rard-winning collection of four preschool games for the Apple co

CES 1983
TM ttes.onaies a trademark of Sierra On-brw. ■ '
COMPUTE! •Publicationsjnc.
A ^ubsidicy Ol American Krucjdcash,ng Coninmnies Ific
Address all advertising materials to:
Patti Williams, COMPUTE'.'s Gazette,
505 Edwardia Drive, Greensboro, NC 27409
Sales Offices, The Thompson Company
Publisher Gary R. Ingersoll New England 617-720-1888
Edifor in Chief Robert C Lock Mid-Atlantic 212-772-0933
PvMslMr's Assistant Alice S. Wolfe Southeast 919-275-9809
Senior Editor Richard Mansfield Midwest 312-726-6047
Managing Editor Kathleen B. Martinek Texas 713-731-2605
Art/Design Director Georgia Bikas Davis Northwest 408-354-5553
Northern CA 415-348-8222 or 408-354-5553
Editorial ~ Southern C A 619-941-2313 or 213-378-8361
Tom R. Haifhill, Gazette Editor; Orson Scott Card, Editor, Nevada, Arizona 619-941-2313
COMPUTE! Books Division; Call Walker, Production Editor; New Mexico 213-378-8361
Ottis R. Cowper, Technical Editor; Charles Brannon, Program Colorado 303-595-9299
Editor; Tony Roberts, Assistant Managing Editor
COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., publishes
Assistant Editors
Dan Carmichael (Publications), Stephen Levy, Gregg Keizer
(Books), Lance Elko (Publications), Kathy Yakal, Editorial Corporate Office;
Assistant (Features) 505 Edwardia Drive, Greensboro, NC 27409
Editorial Programmers Mailing Address*
Patrick Pnrrish, Gri'j;g Peele Post Office Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
Technical Assistanl Telephone: 919-275-9809
Dale McBane Office Hours: 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM Monday-Friday

Copy Editing/Proofreading Chief Executive Officer Robert C. Lock

Juanita Lewis (Assistant), Bucky Hall, Sarah Johnston, President Gary R. Ingersoll
Linda Shaw Vice President of Finance W. Jerry Day
Administrative Staff Comptroller James M. Hurst
Vicki Jennings, Laur.i MacFadden, Julia Fleming Executive Assistant Debi Nash
Assistant Carol Dickerson
Associate Editors
Jim Butterfield (Toronto), Harvey Herman (Greensboro), Subscription Information
Fred D'lgna/io (Roanoke), David Thornburg (Los. Altos),
COMPUTE!'* Gazette Circulation Dept.
Bill Wilkinson (Cupertino)
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403
Irma Swain, Assistant Production Manager; De Potter,
Mechanical Art Supervisor; Terry Cash, Debi Thomas,
Subscription Order line
In HC 9I9-279-9BO9
Leslie Jessup, Cindy Mitchell (Publications), Janice Fary,
Debbie Bray (Books); Todd 1 leimarck, I'romolitins Assistant;
Harry Blair, Illustrator ^ COMPUTE!'* Gazette
Subscription Rates
Operations/Customer Service
Carol Lock, Manager; Patty Jones, Customer Coordinator; (12 Issue Year): US (one year) $20. Canada, Mexico
Assistants: Chris Patty, Chris Gordon; Fran Lyons, Dealer and Foreign Surface Mail $25. Foreign Air Mail $45.
Coordinator; Assistants: Gail Jones, Sharon Minor
Customer Service Staff The COMPUTi:!'s Gazette subscriber list is made available- to carefully
Dorothy llogan, Supervisor; Rhonda Savage, Lisa Flaharty, screened organizations with a product or servici; which may be of
Anita Roop, Sharon Sebastian, Debi Goforth; Operators: Interest to our readers. If you prefer not to receive such mailings,
please send .in exact copy of your subscription label to: COMPUTEI's
Cassandra Robinson, Mary Sprague
Gazelle, P.O. Box 961, Farmingdale, NY 11737. Include a note indi
Jim Coward (Warehouse Manager), Larry O'Connor, cating your preference to receive only your subscription.
Chris Cain, Dai Rces, Jack McConnell
Authors of manuscripts warrant that all materials submitted to
Data Processing COMPUTE'.'i Gazelle are original materials with full ownership
Leon Stokes, Manager; Joan Compton, Assistant rights resident in said authors. th'Mibmittin^.irticlesloCC'.VI/'l/rtTs
Gti:i-tii\ authors acknowledge such materials, upon acceptance
Accounting for publication, become the exclusive property pi COMPUTE! Publi
W. Jerry Day, Manager; James M. I lurst, Comptroller; cations, Inc. No portion of ihb magazine may bo reproduced in any
Assistants: Linda Miller, Doris Hall; Staff: Ruth Granger, form without written permission from the publisher. Entire contents
copyright C 1983, COMPUTE! Publications, Inc. Rights lo programs
Anna Harris, Emilie Covil, Anne Ferguson
developed ,11111 submitted by authors are explained in our author
Advertising Sales contract. Unsolicited materials mil accepted for publication will be
Andy Meehan, National Sales Manager; Patti Williams, relumed if author provides <i self-addressed, stamped envelope.
Production Coordinator; Bonnie Valentino, Accounting
Where pro;;r,ims .ire included tn .111 article i-uhmission, .> tape or disk
must .iccomp.iny the submission. Printed listings .ire optional, but
Coordinator; Rosemarie Davis, Sales Assistant
helpful. Articles should be furnished .is ivped copy (upper and
Sales Representatives lowercase, please) with double spacing, Each article page should
|erry Thompson 415-348-8222 bear the title ol the article, dale, and name ol the authoi COMPUTE!
Phoebe Thompson 408-354-5553 Publications, Int., .issuhws no liability for errors In articles or adver
tisements. Opinions e\pressed by authors are not necessarily those
JoAnn Sullivan 619-941-2313
oiCOMPUTEn'ublicatums, Inc.
EdWinchell 213-378-8361
Pin', CBM, VIC-20, and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commo
Harry Blair 919-275-9809
dore Husiness Machines, Inc., and/or Commodore Electronics
Jules E. Thompson, Inc. Limited. Other than .is an independent supplier of quality informa
National and Canadian Sales Representatives tion and services lo owners anil users of Commodore products,
1290 Howard Avenue, Suite 303 COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., is in no way associated with Commo
Ihirlingame, CA 94010 dore Business Machines, Inc., or .my of it's subsidiaries.

8 COMPUTERS Gazelle November 19B3


WordPro 3 Plus/64
The Best Word Processor for your Commodore 64'

When choosing a Word Processor for your Commodore 64 com Headers and Footers, Math Functions, Global Search and
puter, there's no reason to settle for anything but the best—in a Replace, the Ability to Create Multiple Personalized Letters and
word.... WordPro™. Documents, Underlining, Boldface, Super and Subscripts and
With over 30,000 happy WordPro clients churning out letters and much, much, more.
documents all over the world, the WordPro Plus™ Series is un Best of all, WordPro 3 Plus/64's powerful arsenal of features can
questionably the #1 selling software package on Commodore be put to use almost immediately—by even the novice user. So
computers! So when you choose WordPro, you know you're in whether you're a writer, in business, education, or just a hob
vesting in a trial-tested program that's a real winner. And Word byist, you'll quickly become a WordPro Pro!
Pro 3 Plus/64 is NOW available for your Commodore 64 com
puter at prices as low as $89.95. Invest in the best.. .WordPro Plus. In a class by itself.
Call us today tor Ihe namo of Ihs WordPro 3 Plus/64 dealer nearest you.
Designed for the novice user with no computer or word process
ing experience whatsoever, WordPro 3 Plus/64 brings a whole
new dimension to the term "user-friendly." More than just easy Professional Software Inc.
to use, WordPro 3 Plus/64 is a commercial level word processor 51 Fremont Street (617)444-5224
loaded with powerful features including: Auto Page Numbering, Needham, MA 02194 Telex: 951579

WordPro 3 Plus/64™ is a trademark of Professional Software Inc.

The WordPro Plus Series was designed and written by Steve Punter of Pro-Micro Soflware Lid.
Some printers may nol support certain WordPro 3 Plus/64 functions and/or require an interface. Please check with your dealer
Commodore 64™ is a trademark of Commodore Electronics Ltd.
Dealer and Distributor inquiries are invited.

Do you have a question or a p roblem? Have CLOSE 15:OPEN 15,8,15, "COPY0:newfile=0:

you discovered something that could help other oldfile" where newfile is a hew filename you give the
VIC-20 and Commodore 64 users? Do you have program, ami oldfile is the existing filename as listed
a comment about something you've read in on the directory. Be sure to give the program a dif
computed Gazette for Commodore? "Gazette ferent filename. This makes another copy of the pro
Feedback" wants to hear from you. Write to gram elsewhere on the same disk.
Gazette Feedback, computed Gazette, P.O. Box 5. Once you 've copied the program elsewhere on
5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. the disk, you can safely delete the original with the
SCRATCH command explained on page 17 of the
manual. For example:
CLOSE 15:OPEN 15,8,15/'SCRATCHO: oldfile"
Disk Menu 6. Noiv there are two possibilities. If Disk Menu is
In the August 1983 issue of COMPUTE! 's Gazette, already on this disk, repeat steps 4 and 5. The COPY
a "Disk Menu" program was published. In the command will move Disk Menu to the front of the disk,
"How It Works" section of the article, the author and you can then SCRATCH the original, if Disk
recommended saving the program as the first Menu isn 't already on the disk, insert a disk that con-
program on the disk. My problem is that 1 already tainsit. LOAD Disk. Menu. Insert the first disk into
have programs on each disk. Is it possible to save the drive again. Then SAVE Disk Menu.
the Disk Menu program as the first program on 7. If you've done everything right, Disk Menu
my disks anyway? should now be the first program on the disk. You can
Kevin Bergmann find out by entering LOAD"*",8.

To begin with, you don't have to save Disk Menu as Customizing Controls
the first program on your disks. The author simply The July 1983 article "Snake Escape" stated that
recommended this procedure because it makes it easier lines 200-230 could be changed to accept any key
to load the menu. Entering LOAD"*",8 automatically command. Despite careful study, I cannot figure
loads the first program on a disk, no matter what it is. out how to accomplish this. What I want is to
If the first program happens to be Disk Menu, vou can move right using the L instead of the K. Can you
quickly flip through the on-screen directory to load and explain?
run the program you want. Roger Bingham
You can insure that Disk Menu will be the first pro
gram on your disks by saving it immediately after for The first thing you must do is determine the keycode
matting a blank disk with the NEW command. number for L. Use the sample routine as explained in
On your partially full disks, you 'II have to do a lit the Snake Escape article on page 56. We'll repeat it
tle rearranging to make Disk Menu the first program. here:
Here's how:
1. Insert the disk you want to rearrange into the RUN this routine, and hold down the L key. The
number running down the screen is the keycode for L.
disk drive.
2. Enter LOAD"$", 8 and then LIST to get a disk You don't mention whether you have a VIC-20 or Com
modore 64, but the keycode for L is 21 on the VIC and
3. Note the program at the top of the directory list. 42 on the 64. Depending on your computer, this is the
(Press RUN/STOP if necessary to keep the list from number you must substitute in line 210 of either the
scrolling off the screen.) This is the first program on the VIC or 64 version. Line 210 detects the keypress for a
disk, the one you '11 have to move to make room for Disk move to the right (as denoted in the REM statement). If
you have a VIC, substitute 21 for the 44 in line 210. If
4. Now use the COPY command explained on you have a 64, substitute 42 for the 37 in line 210.
page 16 of the VIC-1541 User's Manual. For Movement to the right will now be controlled by the L
example, key.
10 COMrUTEI'sGaiene November 1963
The Commodore 64"' is one
of the most exciting home com
puters in memory.
But memory isn't the only
thing that's exciting about the 64.
Because Tronix is here.
Class act.
The people who have been
bringing out the best in the
VIC 20™ (and Atari® too) have
graduated to the Commodore 64.

x^\ Which means that now you

can enjoy fast action, complex By Arli
strategies, interesting characters, Haroutuman,

superior sound effects and chal Edison, the

lenging, play patterns. kinetic android, leads
Just like VIC 20 and Atari a frustrating life.
owners. Only faster, more com All he wants to do is build his
plex, and more challenging, too. circuit boards and go with the
More memorable, in other words. flow. But things keep getting in
In a class by ourselves. the way.
Of course, if you'd rather not Nohms-a negative influence
take our word for it, you don't -bug him constantly. Flash, the
have to. The experts at Electronic lightning dolt, disconnects every
Games have called Kid Grid for thing in his path.
Atari "one of the most compul And the cunning Killerwatt is
sive, utterly addictive contests in out to fry poor Edison's brains.
the world of computer gaming." You'll get a charge out of this
They haven't seen any one. And a few jolts, too!
\ thing yet, (Suggested retail S34.95)


X \



By Aril By
Haroutunian. Graham McKay.
Connecting the
dots on our colorful
Your agents
risked their lives
grid should be easy, right? to find the enemy's secret
Wrong. Because the bullies headquarters.
are in hot pursuit! Now you're risking yours to
Squashface.Thuggy, Muggy destroy it. S
and Moose are their names. And they know you're coming.
And you are their game. And As you fly over water and
what's more, they're faster than across hundreds of miles of
you are. unfriendly territory, the action is .^-
But you're smarter. And you thick, fast and three-dimensional.
control the stun button. Fighter aircraft. Surface-to-air
So keep your eyes peeled for missiles. Helicopter gunships. The
the mysterious question mark attacks come from every direction. \ ..-■
and don't slow down at corners! Even from behind.
(Suggested retail: S34 95) (Suggested retail: S34.95)

3295 South La Cienega Blvd., Inglewood. CA 90301

e. ?o ana Commodore 64 a<o trademarks ol Commadoio Fidel
Alan is o legisicfud Iraaemark ol Alan. Iric

\ ><- \
Incidentally, you might want to see the October between 3 and 4, try it on channel 4 (and remember in
1983 "Bug-Swatter: Modifications & Corrections. " A either case that the VICs TV must be tuned to the same
reader modified the 64 version of Snake Escape to work channel as the RF modulator). If there is no channel 4
with a joystick instead of the keyboard. in your area, this might reduce interference with chan
nel 2 and yield a better computer picture. However, it
also might cause new interference with channel 5 if
TV Interference
there is a station on this channel in your area. The
We have a VIC-20 and two color TVs. The VIC is solution might be to switch the VIC to channel 4 when
hooked up to the one in the family room. The somebody in the living room is watching channel 2,
other TV is in the living room. If both the com and switch the VIC to channel 3 when somebody is
puter and the other TV are on, the TV reception is watching channels 4 or 5.
bad. This problem is especially bad on channel 2.
For more information on correcting RF interfer
My sister (12 years old) and I (13) like to use the ence, you can write fora booklet prepared by the FCC
computer but sometimes can't because of the TV entitled How to Identify and Resolve Radio-TV
reception. I hope you can help. Interference Problems. The booklet is listed as Stock
Daina Jauntirans
Number 004-000-00345-4, available from the U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
The problem you are experiencing is called RF (radio 20402.
frequency) interference. All computer circuitry emits
RF signals which can interfere with nearby TV sets,
Stringy Floppy Chains
often even the TV to which the computer is attached.
I very much enjoyed reading your review [COM-
Some computers emit more interference than others.
PUTEI's Gazette, July 1983] of the Entrepo Corpora
The federal government, through the Federal Com
tion (formerly Exatron) Stringy Floppy. 1 also
munications Commission (FCC), regulates how much
liked the part on page 60 where you covered
interference is permitted for home computer devices and
daisy chaining to the disk drive. I was almost
videogame machines. The manufacturers, in turn, must
ready to go out and invest in one. Your review,
build enough shielding info their devices to meet the
however, left me with one important question:
does the Stringy Floppy have a serial port for us
Chances are you have an older-model VIC-20.
printer-owners to daisy chain to?
Newer-model VICs (and Commodore 64s) that we've
James C. Nipert
seen emit much less RF interference than earlier
models, thanks largely to improved shielding. Yes, the Stringy Floppy has two serial ports in the back
There are a few steps you can take to minimize this — it can be at the end of the daisy chain or somewhere
interference. One solution is to locate the computer as in the middle. No matter where it's located, it is ad
far away from your family's second TV as possible. This dressed by its separate device number (20).
might not be practical in your case, though. From the However, you might have trouble finding an Exa
floorplan map you drew in your letter, it appears the tron Stringy Floppy now. The VIC and 64 models from
computer and second TV already are pretty far apart. Exatron were recently discontinued. Exatron was
Also, the family room seems to be the most logical place dissolved and is nowknoion as Entrepo, Inc. Entrepo
for your computer. still manufactures Stringy Floppy drive assemblies, but
You might try reorienting the computer, its TV, no longer sells directly to the public. Instead, it sells the
and the second TV. Sometimes changing the direction assemblies to other companies which finish the drives
the computer faces and rearranging its wires can make a and then market the units under their own brand
difference. Experiment with this. Also try plugging the names. Sales of blank wafers are being handled the same
computer into another wall outlet that is on a different way. Blank wafers are still available from one of these
branch circuit than the living room TV. companies, A&} Microdrive (Sunnyvale, California).
Some people wrap several layers of aluminum foil Jim Howell of A&] Microdrive says he may reintroduce
around the cable connecting the computer to the TV. the Stringy Floppy for the VIC and 64 sometime in the
This can help if the interference is coming from the future, but there are no solid plans.
cable. Also try wrapping the RF modulator — the small In the meantime, Stringy Floppies should be
metal box between the computer and the TV (not the available this fall from another company, Unitronks
switchbox). (Oakland, California). Unitronks introduced its
There's one more thing you might check, too. You Waferdrive Module for the VIC and 64 at the Summer
mentioned that the interference is worst on channel 2. Consumer Electronics Show (see "News From The
Look at the RF modulator box and see what channel it is Summer CES," COMPUTE!'* Gazette, September 1983).
tuned to. The VICs we've seen have RF modulators UuiIronies plans to sell the Waferdrives for less than
that select between channels 3 and 4, but it's possible $100 (including 8K memory expansion on the VIC
that yours selects between 2 and 3. If so, make sure it is version) and make available some commercial software
switched tochanne!3. Ifyour RF modulator selects on wafers. US

14 COMPUTES GoieHe November 1983

Yes! Because the Nova VIC-ORGAN lets you play the you don't have to he a musician to enjoy it
sounds of an organ with vibrato, piano, piano with
The VIC-ORGAN is only one of the many fun educa
echo and clarinet on your unexpanded VIC-20 home
tional software products that Nova has to offer, each
computer keyboard.
one giving your unexpanded home computer expand
In fact, you can now play any melody and watch notes ed performance.
appear on the screen, thanks to the Nova VIC-ORGAN.
For more information write to:
The Nova VIC-ORGAN not only allows your
computer to play, store and play-back melo
Nova Software Incorporated
dies; it offers a special training mode which 120 W. Colorado Boulevard
makes playing and learning so easy that Pasadena. California 91105
(213) 793-2319

Watching your kids grow up is a lot of fun. But improve your child's writing and reading abilities.
making sure their minds grow as fast as their And all of them help your child understand how to
bodies is even more rewarding. That's where we use the computer.
can heip. With a growing line of Early Learning So if you're looking for computer programs that
Programs that are not only lots of fun to play, but do more than just "babysit" for your kids, read on.
also educational. You'll find that our Early Learning Programs are not
Some of the games you see on these two pages only compatible with Apple® Atari?1 IBM® and
help exercise your child's creativity. Others help Commodore 64™ computers, but also with kids
improve vocabulary and spelling skills. While others who like to have fun.

A trip through Alphabet Zoo™ Ages 3 to 8.

Its a race. It's a chase, its

Alphabet Zoo, the exciting
game that will have your kids
zipping through the maze,
after letters that fit the
picture on the screen.
And at the same time, your
kids will be learning the rela
tionship of letters and sounds, and sharpening their
spelling skills. So they'll be laughing and learning at
every turn.

Appte. IBM aril Atari OT registered craderrarts ol fljJDle Computer, Inc.. International Business Macfrna Crrp an) AMI Inc. respectively Commodore 6-1 is a trMematt or Commatore Electronic limited
<:' 1983. Spinner Software Corp All [«hts reserved
DELTA DRAWING™Have fun creating pictures and computer
programs. Ages 4 to Adult.
Kids love to draw. their drawings, they're
And DELTA DRAWING actually writing computer
Learning Program lets programs!
them enjoy creative With DELTA DRAWING,
drawing and coloring even kids who have never
while they leam used a computer before
computer program can learn to do simple
ming concepts. As programming and build
they use simple commands an understanding of procedural thinking.
to put lines and colors in It's easy, clear, and lots of fun!

KIDS ON KEYS helps kids catch on to letters.

numbers - and computers. Ages 3 to 9.

KIDS ON KEYS is a with exciting sound

great way to introduce effects and colorful
kids to the computer graphics. It's a great
keyboard. Because it way for kids to
offers children three enjoy learning to
terrific games that identify numbers,
teach them the letters, and words
location of the letters and associating
and numbers while they have them with images on the
fun with the computer. screen. And KIDS ON KEYS
The games are fast and fun. certainly do have fun!

FACEMAKER™ makes faces fun. Ages 4 to 12.

FACEMAKER lets chil Plus, FACEMAKER helps

dren create their own children become com
funny faces on the fortable with computer
screen. Once a face is fundamentals such as:
completed, your menus, cursors, the
children will giggle return key, the space bar.
with delight as they simple programs, and
make it do all kinds graphics. FACEMAKER
of neat things: wink, smile, won't make parents frown because
wiggle its ears, or whatever their children will have fun making
their imagination desires. friends with the computer.

Disks fur: Apple. Atari, IBM, Commodore 64.

Cartridges ton Atari, Commodore 64

We make learning fun.



Each month, C0MPUTE!'s Gazette for Commodore will gotten mixed up on some of my disks. Sometimes
tackle some questions commonly asked by new V1C-20/ when I load a program, pieces of another program
Commodore 64 users and by people shopping for their are mixed up with it. Some files won't load right
first home computer. at all. My manual says to "initialize" each disk
and I haven't been doing that. Could that be the
cause of my problem? Also, I've been using a
friend's disks on my disk drive. Could this cause

Tfie "Global Scan" program from the

August 1983 issue of COMPUTE!'* Gazette seems You've zeroed in on your problem, all right.
to have an error on lines 500 ami 510: Initializing disks is vital to keep from garbling up
500 IF H1 = 0THEN Hl = lE-6 your files. It's also possible that your disk drive is
510 IFC=0THENC=lE-6 faulty, but true "hardware errors" are rare and
In Commodore BASIC, IE is not a proper variable should be suspected last.
name. 1 don't understand how this could work. Your problem, almost certainly, is the fault of
Please help a confused programmer with a little a messed-up Block Allocation Map (BAM). Each
correction for this bug. disk contains a BAM. The BAM is a map of the re
maining free space on the disk. The purpose of
the BAM is to keep newly SAVEd files from over
writing old ones. Before SAVEing a new file, the
*»■ This is not a bug. You are correct that IE disk drive checks the BAM to find free room on
would not be a proper variable name; in practi the disk. It then avoids writing data to blocks
cally all BASIC dialects, variables must start with which have already been used. But if the BAM
a letter, not a number. However, IE j's a proper somehow gets garbled, the disk drive may SAVE
constant using what's known as scientific notation. a new file atop an existing one without realizing
This is a shorthand method of expressing very it.
large or very small numbers without long strings
How can a BAM become scrambled? Failing
of zeroes. The ability to recognize and manipulate
to initialize a disk is the most common way.
numbers expressed in scientific notation is built
Whenever you initialize a disk, write to a disk, or
into the computer.
call a disk directory, the disk drive reads the BAM
For instance, 1E-6 means 1 x W'\ or 0.000001.
off the disk and stores it in its memory. Trouble
The number 10,000,000, expressed as 1 X TO7 in
can happen when two disks have the same ID
scientific notation, would be entered on the V1C-20
number (the two-character identifier you assign
or Commodore 64 as 1E7.
when first formatting a disk with the NEW com
For more information on scientific notation,
mand). Disk drives use the ID number to
see the VIC-20 Programmer's Reference Guide (pp.
distinguish between different disks. If you swap
55-56) or the Commodore 64 Programmer's Reference
disks that happen to have the same ID number
Guide (pp. 4-6).
and then attempt to SAVE a file, the disk drive
will first check the ID, conclude that the disk has
not been changed, and use the BAM already in
I've been having some strange problems memory. Chances are pretty slim that both disks
with my Commodore disk drive. Several files have have identical BAMs, so files get overwritten or
IB COMPUTE!'! Calerre November 1983
Introducing a computer game
that will bring out the railroad buff, the tycoon,
the adventurer, and the kid in your kid.
TRAIM5 is one computer game that will really bring out learning the economics of running a business.
the best in kids. Of all ages. They're learning to manage financial resources, and to
Because TRAIM5 Is a Spinnaker game, which means It's use different kinds of Information In setting priorities.
a learning game that's really fun to play. And best of all, they're having fun while they learn.
TRAIN5 puts kids in charge of an old-time railroad. And Look for TRAIN5 on disk at your
whether their railway empire gets bigger or goes out of local software
business is entirely up to them. retailer, and play
As they juggle the challenges of picking up supplies and It on your Apple®
delivering to various industries, paying their employees, Atari?or Com
keeping the locomotive filled with coal, and making enough modore 647"
money to venture into new territories, kids are actually computer.

V* make if.

11981. Spirmaw SoiWsrt Coro An riqnis ineiveO iic ona AM«.irncglK'«d i HOI Hoot Compuln. Int. inoAwMni "v.
ComnwimcW nauM.'mar* of Commodore ricctio r, .s j ijaOFtwrk ol SomnaWi Sofl««l» Cap

PROGRAMS scrambled. After this happens a couple of times,

the BAMs themselves get messed up, and
problems multiply.

WITH To be safe, it's a good idea to initialize every

time you swap disks in the drive. Without using a
line number, enter:

THE WORKS CLOSE 15:OPEN 15,8,15,"I0":CLOSE 15 Ipreas

The drive's busy light will come on for a few
seconds as the disk initializes. This insures that
the disk's BAM is read into memory.
Another precaution when SAVEing programs
on disk is to always precede the filename with a
"0:" (on single-drive systems). Example:
To be really safe, you should make sure all
your disks have unique ID numbers. If you
sometimes use other people's disks on your
system, give your own disks weird ID numbers
that no one else would possibly think of, such as
"Z= " or ":9" or "/*". Such symbols are legal in
Commodore disk ID numbers.
For a more detailed explanation on using
ATARI 400/800/1200 Commodore disk drives, see Part I of the new
Writing good programs is not an easy task. Int roduclng
series starting this month, "Getting Started With
INSIDE BASIC, o series of well documented programs A Disk Drive." m
which Include: program overviews, suggested
changes, line-by-line descriptions, listings, and vari
able charts, Learn the workings of a well-designed
program in order to create your own. There's some
thing (or everyone—games, business applications,
and educational programs,

KENTUCKY DERBY-$19.95: All Ihe fun of a day at ihe

races including hi-resolution graphics. You and your
friends can have hours of enjoyment betting on your
favorite horses and winning big bucks! You con even
change the names of the horses for more fun.
FORM GENERATOR—$19.95: The preparation of forms
can be a mess. With this easy-to-use program you can
generate anything from labels to invoices.
TASK ORGANIZER-$24.95: This useful program keeps
you on top of your work schedule. Enter new tasks and
projects with deadlines and frock them through
completion. Automatically lists jobs in priority order.

QUIZ ME—$14.95: This is the ideal program to demon

strate the computer's ability to present materials, ask
questions, and score you. After learning this one, you
can make a quiz for any subject.
II you Hiouijlit only ■ Britlih jeerel agenl could
turn Ft quiet 'Iver into a rcudhoms. think twice. Li't
ASK YOUB DUIEB OB ORDEB DIRECT: 5c*Cilv.picorcini. OcaoQ 0* Computer,
our champion. Higgmj, lake you on the mail
cnssolin c OiUi (otW Si 00 ia cHsK). Sana Oioclt w money
y oidcr—cOO S2OQ
ppgariohandling'cQ.t> aimcraai'ti^iOMJerscall(215}s;5-Jl?.5»<odti ■ •idling boat ride of your Die.
SI 'M seince chaitjo} W, Wi«sidoh!saad61&SQ(e$k». - In RIVER CHASE, your million Is toiave Higgins
tram .a lleet of deadly gunboats it's a tough task
Commodo:.; M und VIC fflatfwoo
Mucftinei Alan 40C!/8t)&rt2iXi
....■-...$&,.Alan 40C!/Wft^axi ate
are tiotfcrroqrt}
horfprooV« Atqi." inc. requiring lot* ol skill and good strategy.
RIVER CHASE Is a fun and last game wllh
i-icclli'iii graphics and music. Strap on your
lltejackel and get ready for Ihe action)

hooe. HECiossr.
WHllEMAHSH, PA 19428

■ 1983CVHEfflA
l.nrnln Wa, Ames 1*50010 (515)292-7634
flu Rlghu Rnswvoa
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Canadian Tl general ta* form. Oinadlan Tt genera] fomii 7i: ordti 111th Vim at Man1.Tt.1ncJ !f you are noi totally satisfied, drop
TbxpacK guides you easily through will be updated every year lo n-ikti call m toll-free: us a note to sny why, and return the
every aspect of the form with changes in the government's income product post p.nd to us within 10
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comprehensive instnxtkm manual. drsifin allows us lo update Taxpaek (from B.C., ail! 1 i-'-8 purchase price.
This new software i* available on wuhm Jays of the new Tl's
CASSeltC lope and will run On till1 availability. I Want laxpaek!
standard l.Sk memory In your Please send me Taxpacks & $Z«.«
VIC 20 home computer.* Special introductory offer Discount $10 per unit for orders before Dec 11, 1983 - $_
Tijxpiick lets you tncklc your income (Wet eailj iiiul gel yma Taxpack for
tax form at your own pace. A iirih S 19.93! That's ;i ten dollar Subtotal $.
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Tin/wili than you'd have the 1W1T1 Rencral form. Myi<>.' ChtfcIHc? £vt bAimc? ()rJj.T payable in:
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The Age Of
Electronic Art
Fred D'lgnazio, Associate Editor

Let's imagine we have a time machine. We

climb on board. We shut the door. We set
the controls for Cambridge, Massachusetts, in
early 1961.
The time machine whirs. Our stomachs feel
queasy, as if we were on a rapidly falling elevator.
The whirring stops. The door opens.
We are in a darkened laboratory. The hulking
forms of giant computers tower overhead and sur
round us. In the laboratory is a young man, un
shaven, gazing at the screen of a computer terminal.
The young man is Ivan Sutherland. Ivan is a
graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in Cambridge. He sits, frozen, in front
of the computer. It is 3:30 in the morning. His wife
and kids are home sleeping. But here he is, dead
tired, half-asleep, and eyes glazed. Yet he has to
be here. It is the only time he is allowed on the
Sutherland stares at the computer screen. A
shape appears. Sutherland grins. "Yaaaaaa-hoooo!"
he cheers. He dances around the deserted lab.
Why is Sutherland so happy? Because he has
just become the first human being to teach a com
puter to draw.
On the screen was a straight line. That's all:
just a straight line. It was special because it was the
first line ever drawn by a computer - and because it
opened a whole new age of electronic art.
27 COMPUTE!'! Gazelle November 1983

The vieir out the computer "window" of an A'tr Force flight

simulator. The ultra-high resolution computer images of the
jets ami the ground below are in color, in 3-D, ami in motion.
(Courtesy Evans & Sutherland,)

November 1983 COMPUTEIS Gazette 53

More simple graph it t world's best computer graphics company, Evans &
ics: a slant Idler A Sutherland.
made from several ti tt
-1 t t£1 Evans & Sutherland now builds million-dollar
characters printed
one on lap of the Sti « flight simulators for the U.S. Air Force. The
oilier with a printer. ?( ? simulators look like the inside of an airplane's
Note that the A is cockpit - except that the "windows" are all com
t *
printed on a graph' puter screens. When a pilot trainee operates the
paper grid afliltle t££ t »
1£t Ii* controls of the plane, he or she is really controlling
block*. (Reprinted
the computer. The computer images on the win
from Creative Kid's * I iI tt I tt s5
Guide tn Home iI I iIitt I I s lIi dows look like what pilots would see if they were
Computers In/ flying a real plane.
tt £ s Ii
permission of Double' Sutherland and his graphics computers are
day & Company.) tl% iIt
ttt I tt world-famous. Yet it all started one cold, dark
si 6 iit morning when he taught a computer how to draw
8t% iti a straight line.
ni t%» ■
i 1 0


Sutherland was excited about what he did. But ' I'd'! I
he didn't stop there; he went on to teach the com Suit

puter how to draw new things. He taught the

computer to change the straight line into an elastic
rubber band. He had the computer bend the line,
shrink it, and stretch it.
He taught the computer to draw other shapes,

too: circles, triangles, squares, and polygons. He
taught the computer to spin the circles, rotate the
triangles, and fold the squares like pieces of con
struction paper. Mint!
Sutherland published his findings in a book
called The Electronic Sketchpad. His enthusiasm
and knowledge about computer art inspired a You can build complicated shapes by Combining simple,
whole generation of young people to learn how rectangular building blocks or special graphics characters.
Shown are three letters of the alphabet and a rocket. When
to teach computers to draw pictures. the rocket is reduced, it becomes much more realistic.
Sutherland and his friend, David Evans, I Photo by Alice Collelle. Courtesy of liosetta Inc. Reprinted
moved to Salt Lake City, Utah, and founded the from Sm.iil Computers with permission of the publisher,
Franklin Watts.)

Xlmazingly, your average personal computer is

more powerful than Ivan Sutherland's warehouse-
sized computer of 1961. Also, many of today's
personal computers have graphics commands
built right into (heir BASIC language. Sutherland
had to program his computer to draw by feeding
it commands written in long, snake-like strings of
binary 1's and O's. Modern computers can draw
pictures with English-like commands such as PEN
Also, Sutherland's graphics were all in black
and white. Bui today's computer graphics can be
in color- from Id colors on a VIC-20 and Commo
dore 64 up to 25b different colors on some
Picture of Sims, Earth, mid the Slarship Enterprise. A But no matter how complicated computer
computer program lights the pixels on the TV screen. graphics get, they must be built in one or three
(Courtesy RCA.) ways.

24 COMPUTEIS Gazette November 1983



Meet the Alienators. A fiend and try to work your way down, or try to hurdle
ish bunch who've planted bombs him and defuse the bombs closest to you
throughout your Jupiter Command before they gooff?
Headquarters. If you move fast you'll earn extra lives.
Vourjob? I Ise your lightning Bui if you're not careful, it's a long wav down.
speed to scale ladders, scurry So jump to it. And find out why Jumpman
across girders, climb ropes and race and Jumpman Jr. are on a level all their own.
through .30 levels to defuse the bombs before they go off. One tofourplayers; 3 speeds;joystick
That's the kind of hot, non-stop action we've amitvLJumpman has 30 screens. Jumpman Jr.
packed into the a ward-winning? best-selling Jumprnan," has 12 screens.
and into Jumpman Jr."our new cartridge version with
12 all-new, different and exciting screens.
Both games force you to make tough choices.
Should you avoid that Alienator, climb to the top STRATEGYGAMESFOR THE ACTIOH-GOME PiXftK.
•1983C.E.S iwitdvriiuiet
Computer drawings ^ least a thousand blocks per screen. The
don t hnvf to be ab VIC-20 maximum is 32,384; on the Com
stract geometric shapes.
modore 64, up to 64,000 are possible.
Why not draw an air
borne falcon, it galloping Some microcomputers let you use up lo
horse, or ti fierce dragon? a quarter of a million blocks. With this
(Courtesy of the PLATO many blocks on the screen, they look less
Project, topyrighl 1979, like blocks and more like tiny dots.
University of Illinois Board
Yet another way to create com
of Trustees.)
puter art is to use turtle graphics. Most
personal computers, including the
VIC and 64, can run the PILOT or
Logo languages. In turtle graph
ics, a small, imaginary turtle
(often the shape of a triangle)
walks across the screen while
leaving behind a trail. By
issuing commands such as
TURN 90 and FORWARD 10,
shapes are drawn.
The turtle draws pictures by connecting two
points on the screen with a straight line. The turtle
can draw simple shapes such as squares or tri
angles. Or it can draw lots of little straight lines to
make a circle. The turtle makes the circle by going
forward one tiny space, then turning to the right
First, you can use letters or special graphics one degree. Since it takes 360 degrees to make a
characters and combine them into some kind of circle, the turtle has to go forward and turn right
shape. The shape might bea giant letter A, a mon 360 times.
ster's face, or a skyscraper. These kinds of graphics The turtle doesn't have to stick to circles. It
are holdovers from the days when mosl computer can make stars, snowflakes, even fierce dragons.
terminals used paper printers instead of video It can make any number of complicated, beautiful
display screens.
Another way to draw pictures on a com
puter's TV screen is to divide the screen up
into liny blocks called pixels (for picture
elements). The picture is built by filling
in the blocks. It's like drawing rough
pictures with graph paper and magic
markers. Using this technique, you
can make pictures of spaceships,
human stick figures, or running
Computers that can display
large numbers of very small
pixels are capable of creating
images with finer resolution.
The more pixels, the better. If
your TV screen is divided into
thousands of tiny building blocks,
then the pictures look smooth and
realistic. On the other hand, if the
building blocks are big, then the
pictures appear blocky and rough.
The image which opens this article
was created on a computer with
ultra-high resolution - millions
of pixels.
Mosl personal computers Simple shapes can be combined into beautiful, three-dimensional shapes with
let you draw pictures using at turtle graphics. (Courtesy of computer artist Joe facobsan.)
76 COMPUTEI'i Gazelle November 1983
■'"*-■ ■-■'"


■ -i ■- - ---

Boy, have you taken Is it treasure you're after? Or glory? You'll

a wrong turn. One moment live longer if you're greedy, but sla'ying mon
you're gathering treasure sters racks up a higher score.
and the next you're being The Apshai series is the standard by
eyed like a side of beef. which all other adventure games are judged.
You're in the Gateway And novices will not survive.
to Apshai." The new cart They'll be eaten.
ridge version of the Computer Game of the Year,* Onv player; Temple ofApshai, disk/cassette:
Temple of Apshai;" Gateway to Apshai. cartridge, joystick control.
Gateway has eight levels. And over 400 dark,
nasty chambers to explore. And because it's joy
stick controlled, you'll have to move faster than ever
But first you'll have to consider your strategy. STRATEGY GAMES FOR THE OaiON-GAMEPUinR.
tGamfl Manufacturers Association. l'JSl
You'll never sec Infocom s graphics
On any computer screen. Because
"far more graphic lhan any depiction
yet achieved by an adventure with
there's never been a computer built graphics." And the NEW YORK
by man that could handle the images TIMES saw fit to print that our
we produce. And. there never will be. DEADLINE™ is rfan amazing feat
We draw our graphics from the of programming." Even a journal as
limitless imagery of your imagi video-oriented as ELECTRONIC
nation—a technology so power GAMES found Infocom prose to be
ful, it makes any picture such an eye-opener, they named one
that's ever come out of a of our games their Best Adventure
screen look like graffiti of 1983.
by comparison. And Better still, bring an Infocom game
nobody knows how home with you. Discover firsthand
to unleash your why thousands upon thousands of
imagination like discriminating game players keep
Infocom. turning everything we write into
Through our instantaneous bestsellers.
prose, your Step up to Infocom. All words. No
imagination graffiti. The secret reaches of your
makes you part mind arc beckoning. A whole new
of our stories, dimension is in there waiting for you.
in control of
what you do
and where you
go—yet unable
to predict or con
trol the course of
events. You're
confronted with
situations and log
ical puzzles the like of
which you won't find elsewhere.
And you're immersed in rich envi
ronments alive with personalities as
real as any you'll meet in the flesh—
yet all the more vivid because
they're perceived directly by your
inpocom The next dimension.
mind's eye. not through your exter
nal senses. The method to this Infocom. Inr., 55 Wheeler Si.. Cambridge. MA 02138
magic? We've found the way to plug fviryoiir: AppV 13. Atari, LL<Hni™n1i»rri>l,lT\t S\ HKC Haiiibuw.
IIKC KTII. fiftl, SEC APC, SEC PC-SOW, thbocw. Tl Pnfnrionti.
our prose right into your psyche, and THSWiM.nUl. FIIS m M<xlri 111

catapult you into a whole new

Take some tough critics' words
about our words. SOFTALK, for
example, called ZORK® Ill's prose
shapes - all from tiny straight lines (see example Computer art will be more like drawing with a
printout). pen, pencil, or paintbrush.
The turtle usually draws with lines made up One relatively new device is the light pen.
of dozens of blocks strung together. But its lines The pen is wired to the computer. As you touch
could be made up of special figures or letters of the tip of the pen to the screen and move it across
the alphabet (see printout). the glass, it leaves an electronic "line." Some light

Figures can even be drawn with words. (Courtesy of computer artist Joe Jacobson, Reprinted from Creative Kid's Guide
to Home Computers with permission of DoubleiUiy & Company.}

\3 ntil recently, the only way to make computer pens draw in different colors. Others let you touch
graphics was to type commands on the computer the screen and fill in a whole picture with a par
keyboard. But that's not the way traditional artists ticular color. With a single touch, you could paint
draw. They use pencils, pens, and paintbrushes. the sky blue, clouds white, or a robot metallic
They draw the picture directly on a piece of paper. orange (see photo).
They don't have to type a PAINT command on Another device is the graphics tablet. The
their paintbrush, or a SKETCH command on their tablet is a flat plastic rectangle or square. You
pencil. mount a picture you want to trace on top of the
Now computers are being made to work with tablet. Above your picture is a plastic arm, often
equipment and programs that will make it as easy with a magnifying glass on the end.
to draw pictures on a video screen as on paper. You trace the picture by moving the tip of the
30 COMPUTEi/s Gazette November 1983
plastic arm above each line in the picture. The
arm and the graphics tablet are wired to the com
puter. As you move the arm, it sends signals to
the computer. These signals are an electronic copy
of your picture, stored in the computer's memory.
With just a couple of commands, you can get the
computer to display the picture on the TV screen.
It is fuzzier than the original, and the colors are
different, but it is still very much like the picture
you traced (see photo).
You can use a graphics tablet to make com
puter images of maps, photographs, shapes,
drawings - almost anything. You also draw origi
nal pictures of your own on graphics tablets. An
electronic copy is stored inside the computer and
appears on the TV. On some computers, you can
manipulate the picture once it is inside the com
puter: shrink it, expand it, change its colors, spin
it around, or stretch it apart like Silly Putty (see
picture made by duplicating birds).

JVlillion-dollar mainframe computers are being

used more and more to create graphics for things
like flight simulators and Hollywood movies (such
as last year's TRON). These computers are be
coming so powerful that, sometimes, their pic
tures look like photographs of real people, real
Drawing pictures directly on the TV screen with a light pen, places, and real things.
(Courtesy of Matsushita Electric.) Moviemakers and human artists are pro-

With a graphics tablet, you am copy maps, photographs, or diagrams into the computer by tracing them with the graphics
ami wired to the computer. (Courtesy of Versawritcr Inc.)

32 COMPUTE!1} Gazelle November 1983

Don't let price get in the way
ofowning a qualityprinter.
Adding a printer to your computer makes expect in higher priced models. It prints a full 80
sense. But deciding which printer to add can be columns of crisp, attractive characters with true
tricky. Do you settle for a printer with limited descenders, foreign language characters and
functions and an inexpensive price tag or buy a special symbols. It offers both finely detailed dot-
more versatile printer that costs more than your addressable graphics and block graphics.
computer? Neither choice makes sense. And, of course, the STX-80 comes with Star
Here's a refreshing option —the new, compact \ Micronics1180 day warranty (90 days on the
STX-80 printer from Star Micronics. It's the under 1 print element).
$200 printer that's whisper-quiet, prints 60 cps The STX-80 thermal printer from Star
and is ready to run with most popular personal Micronics. It combines high performance with
computers. a very low price. So now, there is nothing in
The STX-80 has deluxe features you would. the way of owning a quality printer.
'Manufacturer's suggested retail price.



Ctwnp<i"e« Peripherals Divrsian. 1120 Empire Ceniral Place,
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The newSTX-80 printer

for only $199
In this picture, n single pair of birth was copied into the computer. The computer duplicated the two birds dozens of times
to make this beautiful pattern. (Courtesy of the PLATO Project. Copyright 1979, University of Illinois Board of Trustees.)

gramming computers to create movie and TV far too expensive Jo become personal computers
scenes that would be too expensive or impossible today. But scientists are inventing a new genera
lo stage with live human actors. In days gone by, tion of special-purpose computer chips that will
a learn of human artisls would paint these scenes soon drastically reduce the cost of these com
(called wattes). Now humans program computers puters. Million-dollar computers can now fit on a
to paint the scenes. And the scenes aren't frozen, $5000 graphics chip. Hopefully, one day soon,
like a still photo. The computer brings the scenes these chips will be inside personal computers.
to life. They become realistic computer cartoons. The result will be the birth of a new era in computer
Computers thai draw scenes for movies are graphics and electronic art.

34 COMPUTEIS Gazelle November 1983

Software for the VIC 20'"
and Commodore 64""
MA: Addison-Wesley, 1982.
(This is an expensive book. But
it has beautiful color pictures
and is a good, clear introduction
to computer graphics. I recom
mend it for your computer class
at school or for your library.)
Leavitl, Ruth. The Artist and the
Computer. New York: Harmony
Books, 1976.

If you are ready to start

creating computer art of your
own, you should look at:

Myers, Roy. Microcomputer

Graphics. Reading, MA: Addison-
Wesley, 1982. (Lots of Apple II
This stunning picture was made on a supercomputer. But soon, pictures like
BASIC examples.)
this will be possible on everyday personal computers. (Courtesy of computer
artist Dr. Melv'm I.. Prueill, U)s Alamos National Laboratory.) Thornburg, David. Picture This'.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley,
1982. (Lots of examples in Logo
Further Reading and Atari PILOT.)
For an overview of computer graphics and com
puter art, I recommend the following books:
D'Ignazio, Fred. The Creative Kid's Guide to Home
Computers. New York: Doubleday and Company,
Inc., 1981.
D'Ignazio, Fred. Electronic Games. New York:
Franklin Watts, Inc., 1982.
D'Ignazio, Fred. Messner's Introduction to the
Computer. New York: Simon & Schuster/Julian
Messner, 1983. (This book contains my interviews
with many of the pioneers in computer graphics
and computer art.)

Greenberg, Donald (and others). The Computer

Image: Applications of Computer Graphics. Reading,

The hardest thing for computers to draw is people. Now

scientists at Ohio State University and elsewhere are working
Electronic artists arc programming computers to draw to program computers to draw realistic pictures of human
cartoon-like scenes and cartoon characters and creatures. beings in action. (Courtesy of Dr. Charles Csuri, Ohio State
(Courtesy of MAG! Inc.) University.) <Qf
36 COMPUTE!'sGozene November 1983
CALC RESULT..The one spreadsheet guaranteed to turn
your Commodore into a powerful financial tool.
Offering you every feature lound on other more
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Versa!i ^..customize your own print loimats
Distinctive...display beauiifuf color graphics
CALC RESULT Advanced is a three-dimensional
spreadsheet with built-in HELP function and 32 pages
of memory. For the Commodore 64 S149.95. For the
CBM'Ma032 $199.00.
For first time users CALC RESULT Easy gives you a fast way
to perform financial calculations—easily. For the
Commodore 64 S79.95.
For a down to earth demonstration of either version visit
your local dealer today.

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jUiocJ by

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300 W MarltonPikc Chf'rry Mill NJOBDOV
The Inner World
Of Computers
Part 1: Binary Numbers
Tom Prendergast

Do you ever wonder what happens after you

type RUN? What goes on inside the computer?
How a machine can "think" just by manip
ulating numbers? This new series shows how
computers work by explaining computer math
in a nontechnical way. Ifs especially recom
mended for those who are following our
monthly column "Machine Language For

I hated math in school. I skipped more math

classes than some people skip gym. Numbers
made me numb. Especially when the teacher spent
every period filling up the blackboard with funny
little chalkmarks - then erasing the whole board
before explaining what he'd done.
"Binary Castle" is a simple program that lets you practice
That's why 1 wouldn't buy a computer. They recognizing four-bit binary numbers (VIC version).
scared me. A computer is for numbers, right?
And who needs a computer when you can buy a
calculator that fits into your shirt pocket and costs Maybe you think it's adding 2 + 2, but all it's doing
a whole lot less! Then I bought a word processor is setting little switches ON and OFF according to
to replace my typewriter - and discovered I'd certain patterns.
bought a computer! We input a sequence of PATTERNS into the
I discovered something else after I'd been computer's memory - that's called programming -
running my compute r-disguised-as-a-word-pro and when the program is run, these patterns are
cessor for a couple of months: that I shouldn't taken one-by-one and the computer's thousands
have been scared of computers in the first place. of electronic switches are set according to these
Because computers don't use numbers! Sure, they patterns. I like to think of it as little ELFS (ELec-
do numbers. Computers do addition, subtraction, tronic FingerS) setting those switches, but hard-
multiplication, division - even square roots and headed number types insist it's binary.
sines and cosines and all that advanced "Here we go!" I can hear the groans. "Now
mathematical stuff- but computers don't "under he's gonna explain binary with rows of light bulbs
stand" numbers any better than I did, or do. turned on and off."
38 COMPUTEIS Gazette November 1983
%. <*

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Well, yes. I'm going to explain binary, and Binary = Decimal
an easy way to learn binary numbers up to 15- 11=3 (2 + 1)
almost all the binary you'll ever need to know. 101 = 5 (4 + 1)
111 = 7 (4 + 3)
But forget the light bulbs. All you get from turning
1001 = 9 (8 + 1)
a bunch of dumb light bulbs on and off is a lot of
1011=11 (8 + 3)
heat. Maybe light bulbs explain binary, but they 1101 = 13 (8 + 4 + 1)
don't explain computers. 1111 = 15 (8 + 4 + 3)
Because a computer doesn't understand bi
nary - or octal, or decimal, or hexadecimal - or The 15-Cent Computer
any kind of numbers. But let's not split hairs. I don't know about you, but my eyes glaze over
Whether a computer uses binary, or we use binary when I look at tables of numbers. Words I can
to tell the HLFS how to set a computer's switches, read, but numbers don't mean.a thing unless I
it amounts to the same thing. And while you don't can attach something solid and meaningful to
have to know what's going on inside a computer them. So what's more solid than money? Here's
to run one - any more than you need to know how piles of pennies show binary place values:
what's going on inside a clock to tell time - it's
the binary manipulation of those switch-patterns
that puts the magic into your computing. Let me
repeat thai.
Binary puts magic into your computing.
Binary also comes in handy if you decide to
learn machine language someday, or even to un
derstand how PEEK and POKE work in BASIC.

Position Is Everything In Life

Binary is easier if you take it a few bits at a time. 4 2 1
Ones are the only digits that have any value in
binary, so 1 equals one and 0 equals nothing. Not MAGIC NUMBERS
that zero just sits there and does nothing. The IF YOU THINK OF &1NARV AS PILES Of
invention of zero was probably the greatest in PENNIES PDUBLIM& EVERY PLACE TO
vention of all time, bigger than the wheel. A 1 THE LEFT, ITfe EASYTO REMEMBER THE
floating around all by itself could be just a 1, or a PUCE VALUES.
10, or 100, or 1000.
There's a difference, right? Zero acts as a
"place holder" to show where we've positioned
the 1. And that's important because a binary 1
doubles in value every move to the left - rather
than multiplying by 10, as in our familiar decimal
system. That's why, in binary, 10 equals 2, 100
You can do the same thing, with real pennies.
equals 4, and 1000 equals 8.
Collect 15 pennies right now. Put down one penny
We take the place system so much for granted
for first place, two pennies for second place, four
in decimal (where every digit increases 10 times
pennies next, and eight pennies for the pile at the
in value as it moves left) that we're liable to forget
end. Four piles, right?
that when we go to another number system. So
Now cut four paper circles the size of a penny
let's repeat:
to blank out any pile that may have a value of
Binary values double as we move to the left.
zero, and your 15-cent computer is ready to com
Study the list below for a moment to see the
pute. (I glued my stacks of pennies together with
white glue so that I wouldn't have to count out 8,
Binary = Decimal 4, 2, and 1 each time, and pasted the paper circles
on the bottoms so that I could set any pile to zero
10 = 2 (2*1)
just by turning it upside down - but you can skip
100 = 4 (2*2) this refinement until you see whether you like the
1000 = 8 (2*4) idea.)
1010 = 10 (8 + 2)
1100 = 12 (8 + 4) Programming The 15-Cent
Those are the even numbers (except for the 1) and Computer
here are the odd numbers: Two seems to be the binary number most difficult
AD COMPUTEIs Gazette November 1983

Telengard: How low can you go?

We've created a subterranean monster. Fifty NUKE WAR: Defend your country by massive espionage efforts, or
l>y building jet fiyhter bombers, missiles, submarines and ABM's,
stories low.
Your cold and calculating computer will choose Its own strategy!
That's the number of levels in the TELENGARD Cassette for Commodore 64. VIC-20 (16K). TK5-80 Mods. I/111 (16K)
dungeon. and Atari Home Computers just S 16.00.

Each labyrinthine level holds hundreds of dark chambers FOOTBALL STRATEGY: Animated action on a scrolling field. A
hcad-tohead challenge or solitaire as you select the best offensive
and tomb-like corridors for the mighty adventurer to ex
or defensive plays in response to your opponent. Commodore 64,
plore. It goes without saying that a shifting collection of
Atari Home Computers (32K| and TRS-80 Models 1/lll/IV (I6K1
hideous monsters with unpredictable behavior patterns can
cassette for $16.00. Atari (32K), IBM (64K) and TRS-80 Models
make life in the TELENGARD maze quite interesting—and I/III/IV (32K) diskettes available at $21.00.
frequently quite short!
T.G.I.F.: Thank Goodness It's f'riday! Avalon Hills new party game
Using wits, magic and true grit, your character delves for one to four players recreating an Often-not-SO-typical week In
deeper and deeper into the depths of TELENGAKD in this the lives of the working class. Half the fun is just ma King It from
realtime fantasy role-playing game. Available on cassette Monday to Sunday. Commodore 64, Atari Home Computers (40K)
for Commodore" 64, Atari" Nome Computers (40K), cassette fur a meager S20.0O. Atari diskette (4B1M for S25.0O.

TRS-80"1 Mods. I/Ill (32K) and PET1 2001 (32 K) lor a AVAILABLE WHEREVER GOOD COMPUTER GAMES ARE
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modore" 64 and TR5-80" available also, for £28.00. store near you. Ask for Operator C.


There's B'1 NUCLEAR BOMBER. B nail-bitinc) solitaire Elm Illation
of a manned B-l on a mission over the Soviet Union. Your plane is
equipped with sin T'hoenix Missiles, a one megaton warhead and a Division of the:
orders to retaliate! Cassette for Commodore 64, Atari Home Com-
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NUCLEflB • Nukewar

for people to grasp (because it looks like our deci because hex uses A, B, C, D, E, and F for the values
mal 10). So let's make that our first "program." 10, 11,12, 13,14, and 15. (In hex, $10 = 16.)
Zero the 8- and 4-penny piles and the single Hang on now, because we're coming down
penny with the blank paper circles (if you've got the home stretch.
the paper circles pasted on, just turn the piles Hex is shorthand for binary.
over so that the blank side is up). This leaves the I used to think the people who design com
second-place pile as is, the only pile that has a puters dream up all those cra/.y number systems
value. Your pennies should now look like this: just to make it hard for us nincompoops. Good
for your character, you might say. But hex saves
00 10=2
you from going completely nuts trying to re
member all those binary 1's and 0's when you're
doing machine language because hex is shorthand
for binary. Another beautiful thing about hex is
that every four bits of binary is a direct conversion
to hex. And that's the reason for keeping our bi
nary to the 15-and-under limit for now.
Take decimal 65535, for instance, the highest
memory address on your 64 or VIC. 65535 is
O O O 1111111111111111 in binary, but$FFFF in hex.
Now pick up the second-place pile and count Much easier to remember, right? Let's nibble on
the pennies. Two of them, right? If you think of that for a bit (a m/bbte is four bits, half a byte). First
the second binary place as always having a value we separate all those l's into easier-to-handle 4-
of two, it's easy to visualize 10 (0010 with "leading bit nybbles:
zeroes") as a two! 1111 1111 1111 111!
Practice some more binary numbers, making F F F F
sure you keep the 8-pile, the 4-pile, the 2-pile,
and the single penny in that order. If a pile hns a Then, presto! All we have to do is put the
value, that value is added to any other values. So, hex values for each nybble directly underneath,
for instance, 0000 - all zeroes - would be 0 + and that's our conversion: 65535 (decimal) = $FFFF
0 + 0 + 0, or zero; 0001 would be 0 + 0 + 0 + 1 = 1; (hex). Hard to believe it's that simple, isn't it?
0011 would be 0 + 0 + 2 +1=3, and so on. With Sure, the far left nybble's F has a value of
every pile showing a vnkic (1111), the number 61444, the F beside that has a value of 3840, the F
would be 8 + 4 + 2 +1 = 15. next to that has a value of 240, and (he firsl-place
Here are all the binary numbers to 15: nybble's F has a value of 15 - but the computer
doesn't know that. A computer doesn't under
0000 = 0 0101=5 1010 = 10
0001 = 1 0110 = 6 1011 = 11
stand numbers, remember? It just sets switches
0010 = 2 0111=7 1100 = 12 according to certain binary patterns. When a bi
0011 = 3 1000 = 8 1101 = 13 nary byte goes through the system, our little ELFS
0100 = 4 1001=9 1110 = 14 (ELectronic FingerS) turn on a switch wherever
1111 = 15
there's a 1, but when they see a hex F, they turn
The 15-cent computer is OK for binary up to on four adjacent switches.
15, but what about the really big numbers? You Although you can convert binary nybbles to
won't need them. The VIC and the 64 automati hex, most programmers do it the other way
cally process decimal into binary. For bit masking around: they use hex to visualize the binary pat
and other tricky maneuvers, it's nice to know the terns they want to input. $FF (1111 1111), for in
binary for 255, 128,64, 32, and 16, but we'll get stance, is a pattern that turns every switch in the
into that next month. I'll also show you an easy byte on; $F0 (1111 0000) would turn on the four
way of converting any decimal number to binary. left switches-and turn off the four right switches;
For now, though, practice your 4-bit binary $0F (0000 1111) turns off the four left switches and
so that you'll be able to write or instantly recognize turns on the four right switches.
any binary number from 0 to 15. As you can see, you can do a lot of tricks if
you input directly in hex, but you need a machine
Putting The Hex On Binary language monitor for that - such as the VICMON or
Hexadecimal, or hex as it's usually called, is that HES MON cartridges, or the monitor program in
funny combination of numbers and letters with a Machine Language For Beginners (by Richard
dollar sign, like $F2 for instance. The dollar Mansfield; COMPUTE! Books). Without a monitor,
sign is here to tell you that what follows is a hex you'll have to POKE in decimal. But more about
number and not the name of a plane or some that next month when I'll show you how to convert
creature from outer space, and the letters are there decimal to binary/hex.
42 COMPUTE'.; Goio/fn November 1983
■"The Home Accountant
"Popular Compuilxig aays even flags irunsaclions Tor tat time.
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And ■. a big llme-sattr
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"The Home Accountant
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• Popular Computing, November, 1 my finances."
| Apple Solulk. Hli

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cataloging your expenses, balancing The Home Accountant is available
your checkbooks or handling your for Apple ll/lle, IBM I'C/XT, Atari Continental
credit cards and money market funds. 400/800/1200X1.. Osborne? TRS-80 Software
For personal or business use. Models Hl/4, Commodore 64, Texas A DlYiilon of Atajt, Inc.

I 1' . '.. ^-.h_' i-" ■ I ...- * ul^*.*,* . .~'

In the meantime, when you get tired of
playing with your 15-cent computer, why not try
building a binary castle? Umbrella
Binary Castle

This is a little game you can quickly type into your EDUCATIONAL
VIC or 64 and have some fun with while you con
tinue to sharpen up your binary. In this program, TWARE
square graphics have been substituted for the
pennies so that you can use the binary as blocks
to build a castle that reaches high into the sky (to
the border at the top of the screen).
Thai's if everything goes smoothly. Bui if
you give even one wrong answer to the Wicked
Witch of the Hex when she asks you what binary MATHMACIC\s
a line of tutorial-
number the block represents, your castle will col
style software
lapse and you'll lose all your blocks.
that teaches your
When you run the program, a 4-bit binary
children the basics
block will appear al (he bottom of the screen, and
of mathematics.
you'll be asked binary number it represents.
Working at their
If you answer - or guess - correctly, a new block
own pace, they
will be placed on top, and again you'll be asked
can learn addition, subtraction,
what binary number it is.
multiplication, and division of whole
If you keep answering correctly, your castle numbers and fractions.
will build higher and higher. If you do reach the
sky, the game restarts and you can begin building Each program starts with examples that
show how to perform the particular math
another castle.
function. The examples continue until
So, make one mistake at any time - answer
your child feels comfortable with the
with the wrong number-and the castle is reduced lesson and moves on to the quiz. Then
to "bits" with sound effects and lightning flashes. the quiz section tests and reinforces the
You then have your choice of giving up computing concepts learned in the examples.
forever or building the castle from the ground up
again. (You can always shut the game off until All examples and quiz questions are
you simmer down, too.)
different every time the program is run, so
you have a whole new program each time!
Incidentally, the blocks build on top of each
other the way a part of the computer called the is constructive enter
stack stores BASIC variables in the VIC and 64. So tainment. Its use of color, graphics,
you'll not only be practicing your binary, you'll music, and movement keep your children
also be learnings little about what goes on inside entertained — and learning.
your computer while the program is being run. For the VIC-20, 5K and 16K versions are
available on the same cassette. Both
See program listings on page 198. (gf
disk and cassette are available for the
Commodore 64.
Umbrella software is carried in software and department
stores. If you can't find it In a store naaryou, order direct
Irom USI by sending a cheque or money order foi S39.95
SEND FOR OUR IS45 CDN) to 53 Jill Crescent. Bramaloa, Ontario, Canada
COMPUTER LGS3J1.Add $2 for shipping and handling and allow 6 weeks
TUTOR FREE CATALOG for delivery. Ontario residents please add 7% sales tan.
When ordering, specify program number,VIC-20 cassette,
Animax presents its WE HAVE MANY LINES or cassette or disk for the Commodore 64.
effective and proven
method ol learning OF SOFTWARE whole num[>9is
computer program
ming in a simple and
ALSO PERIPHERALS !. Level dlSAddihon s subiraclion v»1k>IO numbers

easily understood pro SPECIAL 'SALE1 ITEMS 3. Level 3fl MullipUunlion X division - wlTOIanumbarD

J. Lo»rl Hi Wuinollc.vion s Division - «l»leiigmner»

cess. Starting with a
very small program. 5. (jsvciaw Addlinn & stitiltaciion ■ Iracitons
you'llleamtoeipand 6. Uvoi a(s MulllpllcBKon »itivuion factions
the program simply, a ANIMAX COMPUTER 7. tevi-l OB Addition 4 suBUaciinn ■ Oocimals UliLas Vegas Blvd.South 0. LewAU e Vnirir.lif ,-s»,ci! S dMISfOn
gradually introducing Las Vegas, NVB9104
information. Dealer inquiries invited.
VIC-20 SR95 Wb toUdl w>M**f c top me vic-?o ana CUM &*

VIC 20 and CommDflon* CJ d<n i-oflIsterurt irad- morku of

4A COMPUTEri Gotelfe November 1983

j. i
M4 *)\ty ; u.


Dimrnniiorc i

'Coniinodori! B4< CRUNCHING!

: ■ of still
::t\ color
:;de - like
Vp-j i« a lonely '-—■mi
piSsUt 11 n must
fly prl.i' increas-
iM fiti before
■:i fr '.■ Hasers

lor available
'Commodore SOON
• Commodore 64'


l/IC Z0/B4

id nee.

Getting Started
With A Disk Drive
Part I:The Basics
Charles Brannon, Program Editor

A disk drive can make loading and saving laet's delve beneath the white or tan plastic case
programs much easier and amplify the speed of your Commodore drive. Knowing how
and power of your applications. However, a something works lends you insight when you're
disk drive is more than just a fast cassette stumped.
recorder — its greater sophistication can First, let's look at a typical diskette (we'll use
sometimes be confusing. This series explores the terms disk and diskette interchangeably unless
the advantages of disk-based computing, and there's a need for distinction). Refer to the
will explain everything covered in the cutaway view in Figure 1. The disk itself is like a
VlC-1540 or VIC-1541 User's Manual, plus thin, limp (hence "floppy") 45 rpm record,
except it's enclosed in a plastic sheath. Floppy
disks come in diameters of 8 inch (the original
size) and 5'A inch (called minifloppies). Minifloppies
Maybe you're tired of searching are most popular for personal computers. Re
through a box of tapes, then waiting cently, several companies have introduced micro
five or ten minutes fora long pro floppies, but so far no one can agree whether to
gram to load. Perhaps you're using standardize on the 3, 3'/i, or 3'/» inch size.
your computer and tape drive to keep track of an Disks themselves are made of flexible mylar
extensive data base, such as a record collection, coated with the familiar magnetic oxide of record
and you're discovering that you can find an item ing tape. A great deal of work has gone into
taster yourself. You may even be plagued by tape improving the floppy disk, but the basic manu
errors and yearning for a reliable substitute. facturing process is the same.
On the other hand, the relatively low price of The large disk-manufacturing companies
a Commodore disk drive (maybe more than your (Scotch, Verbatim, BASF, Maxell, and others)
computer cost) may seem exorbitant just for stamp out disks from large sheets of coated
higher speed and ease of use. And if you don't mylar. All disks, single-and double-sided, single
mind waiting ten minutes for a game to load, you and double density (we'll explain these terms
probably don't need a disk drive. If, however, the later) are stamped from the same sheet. The
tape drive is the weakest link in your system, manufacturers then test the disks, grade them
you'll reap a substantial upgrade from the like eggs, and sort them into the various classes.
investment. It's somewhat disturbing to know that the
In any case, this series will make you aware of average single side/single density disk (the lowest
the unique advantages and the subtle problems of grade) had to fail several tests to fall into this
the Commodore 1540 and 1541 disk drives. We'll grade.
give you the information you need to get started, However, the much greater demand for
as well as tips to make the most of your drive, lower-priced single side/single density disks re-
46 COMPUTE!'! Gazelle November 1983
We don't care
which computer you own.
Well help you
get the most out of it.

V ■:

CompuServe puts a world of in formation, communic entertainment at your fingertips.

CompuServe is the easy In use videotex sophisticated financial data. Plus, a To learn more about CompuServe, call
service designed (or the personal communications network for electronic toll-free, 81)0-848-8199, for an illustrated
computer user and managed by the com mail, a bulletin board for selling, swap guide to the CompuServe Information
munications professionals who provide ping, and personal notices and a multi Service. The videotex service for you, no
business information services to over one channel CB simulalor matter which computer you own.
fourth of the FORTUNE 500 companies. You get games on CompuServe, loo.
Subscribers get a wealth of useful, Classic puzzlers, educational, sports and
profitable, or just plain interesting infor adventure games and fantastic space Consumer Inloimation Service. P O Boi!
games featuring MegaWars, the "ultimate 5000 Ar I ing ion Conlre Blvd., Columbus, OH 43220
mation like national news wires, electronic
banking and shop at home services, and computer conflict!' 800-848-8199 mohiocaii6i-t-4&7-0B02
An HSR Block Company
quires that some of the higher-grade disks be record tracks, however. A record really has only
relabeled to satisfy this demand. Therefore, there one very long track which starts at the rim and
is a good chance that your disk will be of higher spirals toward the center. On the other hand, disk
quality than it is graded on the label. tracks are concentric circles. Each track is further
When you insert the disk in a disk drive and subdivided into arcs called sectors. Each sector
close the door, the drive hub clamps down on the holds a block of information. The sector size varies
disk's center ring (see photo). Centering is not on different machines, but is 256 bytes on the
perfect. A common technique to improve the Commodore 1540/1541 disk drive.
centering is to insert the disk while the motor is Most disks have 40 tracks, and each track
spinning (enter LOAD "$",8). usually has the same number of sectors. An
The disk drive's read/write head, similar to a average single density disk can hold roughly 100K
tape recorder's record/play head, must make (100,000 bytes). This varies according to how
good contact with the disk's surface. When the many sectors are stored per track. Double density
door is closed, a pressure pad bears down on the disks squeeze in more sectors per track. This re
disk from above and presses the disk against the quires a better grade of disk and requires greater
head. That's why the disk needs to be floppy, so reliability.
it can flex with the pressure. Since the head is
underneath, the drive writes to the underside of a
disk. Be aware of this when handling a disk.
The moving head is mounted on a linear track
that allows it to slide forward and backward
across the surface. This is similar to linear-
tracking record turntables. In fact, the record
analogy is very useful in understanding how a
disk drive works.

1 f your record player ran as fast as a disk drive

(300 revolutions per minute), your favorite
albums would sound like a high-pitched squeal.
This should give you an appreciation of how fast
a disk drive is compared to a cassette tape, which
moves at only 1% inch per second. The high rpm's Inside look at a 154(yi541 disk drive. The small white square
of a disk drive account for much of its speed, but bisected by a horizontal line in the rend/write head', poised
are not the only factor. Equally important is the above it is the fell pressure pad. A disk is partially inserted.
way a disk drive finds what it's looking for on a
disk. Unlike a tape recorder, a disk drive can move Commodore has taken a clever approach to
its read/write head directly to the location where density. The 1540/1541 disk can hold 170K with
the data is recorded. single density storage. It does it by using a vary
With a tape recorder (for either a stereo or a ing number of sectors per track (while using only
computer), you must search sequentially through 35 tracks). The outside tracks of a disk are larger
the tape for a certain selection (program or song). and can proportionally hold more sectors than the
In other words, the tape winds past a stationary inner tracks (see Figure 2). This also solves the
record/play head, so the head has to wait until the problem some drives have when they try to read
right section of tape arrives. This method, called or write to the inner tracks, where the sectors are
sequential access, is inefficient. You can press Fast crammed together.
Forward to speed up the winding, but finding the Incidentally, this is a good time to distinguish
right spot is a haphazard process if you're not aid between soft and hard sectoring. Hard-sectored
ed by a tape counter. Even with a tape counter, disk drives require disks with a series of holes
you will find that the numbers vary widely from that are read through a timing hole (see Figure 1).
recorder to recorder. The holes tell these drives where each sector is.
On a record player, however, you just lift the Soft-sectored drives, however, find each sector by
tone arm and move it to the desired track. You timing how long it takes for the disk to revolve.
can move the tone arm directly to any track on the This also can vary from 300 rpm according to how
record, skipping over unwanted ones. A floppy loosely or tightly the disk fits in the jacket. With
disk also has tracks to which the disk drive's this system, the single timing hole suffices (some
read/write head can move directly. This is random drives — those for Atari computers, for instance
access. - disregard the timing hole altogether). Drives
Disk tracks are somewhat different than that use hard sectoring (multiple holes) cannot
<18 COMPUTE!; Gazette November 1983
3-D scrolling action Shamus is here
for the Commodore 64 for the Commodore 64
Sentinel™ brings a new dimension to Com The odor tells you the Shadow's there— in one
modore 64® games. From the cockpit of your of four levels of 32 rooms, each bristling with
starship your instruments signal the approach danger. You know it won't be a high school prom
of life forms. You shudder in horror as the data but there's no turning back! Arcade adventure
describes a legendary terror. The Gorganitor more intense than the original with three new,
approaches! Are you ready for this meeting? never before seen maps. Videogame Player
Magazine's game of the year!

Both games available at software dealers everywhere. Or order direct from Synapse Elite.
Only $34.95 plus $2 shipping and handling (California residents add 6Y2% sales tax). Send
check, money order or your Visa/Mastercard number.

5221 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 • (415) 527-7751

use soft-sector disks, but you can use both types transformer. Don't store disks near power sup
on your soft-sectored 1540/1541 drive. plies, refrigerators, printers, etc. Keep all
Fortunately, you don't have to remember all magnets miles away from your equipment. And
this when using the drive, since the disk drive's don't place disks near a telephone. Every time a
internal Disk Operating System (DOS, pro phone rings, it sends out waves of magnetism. A
nounced "doss") takes care of managing sectors. disk resting under a telephone (besides being
All you do is tell the computer whether you want uncomfortably compressed) is a sitting duck for a
to read or write information and the name of the friendly phone call.
file involved.
Many application programs do this for you,
too. In BASIC, you just give the SAVE or LOAD IVl anufacturers tell us to treat disks as if they
commands (more on this later). A word processor were eggs. In fact, disks are very resilient to
just asks you for the filename and takes it from abuse. Data processing people delight in relating
there. But you'll still be responsible for keeping favorite horror stories about how an apparently
track of your disks and following necessary care unrecoverable disk was salvaged. Here's my
and maintenance rules. favorite:
I was preparing to load a very useful BASIC
utility program when I noticed someone had
Figure 1: Cutaway View spilled a soft drink all over this prized, uncopy-
able disk. The gooey mess had jelled, like glue,
and the disk wouldn't even turn inside the jacket.
My heart sank, as I realized the disk was irretriev
Protect ably lost.
Nolch My boss came in response to my cries and
appraised the situation. He cradled the mangled
disk in his hands and declared: "This disk can be
Timing saved." I shook my head in knowing disbelief
Hole and surrendered the magnetic victim.
I watched my boss as he undertook what I
Access figured was a mission of folly. First, he took a
good, working, but blank diskette. He carefully
slit the edge of the jacket (see Figure 1) and
removed the blank disk from the envelope.
He then did the same with the damaged disk
and carefully placed the syrup-covered victim on
Xou should be careful to protect your disk drive some paper towels. Discarding the previously
investment. Keep the disks within a reasonable removed blank disk, he brought the hopeless disk
temperature range. To paraphrase one disk to the sink. To my surprise, he held it under a
manufacturer, "If it's comfortable for you, it's stream of water, and washed it with detergent!
more than comfortable for your disk." Keep your After carefully rinsing off the suds, he left it to dry
disks away from extreme cold (like your freezer, on the paper towels.
or a mishap in the winter) and extreme heat (your To make a long story short, he inserted the
glove box in the summer, or a heat source such as newly cleaned disk inside the envelope he had
a radiator or a ventilation slot).
earlier readied. A piece of tape sealed the slit.
Handle floppy disks carefully. Although You guessed it — the disk worked! I inserted
disks can sometimes bear being bent in half and it into the disk drive and it loaded perfectly. I was
still function {if you're lucky), don't take the term amazed!
"floppy" too literally. Any stress can flake off the To be fair, though, I would have to say we
magnetic coating and cause read errors. were very lucky.
One more warning is especially important —
since disks store information magnetically, keep
them away from magnetic fields and radiation. W hy was the recovery of the disk so important?
The most common — and hazardous — source of The reason is that you've banked a lot of informa
strong magnetic fields and radiation in a home tion on a disk. A disk can hold 170K, so you have
computer system is the TV or monitor. Never rest a lot to lose if that disk crashes (fails).
disks on top of a display device, and don't store This is a real threat to a small business. Insur
or use them within two feet of one. ance will pay for loss of equipment caused by fire
Magnetism is very sneaky. It's hiding under or theft, but the information stored on the de
the case of many appliances in the form of a stroyed disk is worth hundreds of times the cost
SO COMPUTEfiGalene November 19B3
Into the vi
Romox™ introduces

Two of the Friendliest,

■■"■"","■: - ■

■■:■■'■ ;.-v..


■ ■■■:1 ■ ■'■


TYPO.™ Chased
k. by an evil space
ship, your only
chance of es
cape is through
..'' ^S ■•»£
"knowledge." Know
ledge of typing and spelling.
The faster you type, the better your
ANT EATER.™ Ant or Anteater- who will be
chance of eluding the enemy. Spelling home-

answe~r will be found. Until then, gamesters of not only develops word power-but increases

with arcade excitement. Cartridges for the personal computers. Cartridges for the
Atari® 400/800/1200XL, Commodore Vic 20™, Atari0 400/800/1200XL, Commodore Vic 20™,
Commodore 64™, Texas Instruments 99/4A.™ Commodore 64™, Texas Instruments 99/4A.™

ANTEATER and TYPO are only two of the exciting
recreational and educational games from Romox™.
See our complete selection at your Romox dealer.
■■'' ■ ■■■"■■■'■

Romox Inc., 476 Vandell Way, Campbell, CA 95008.

Ronxw is a liademaik of Romcn Inc. Alaii is a trademark oi Alait. Inc. VIC 20 and Commodore B4 am
trademarks oi Commodore Business Machines. Inc.TI 99)4A is a trademark ol Texas Inslrumenls.
figure that disk-based games can cost at least $30
Figure 2: each. There are some insurance policies that pay
Track/Sector Layout - Ye Surface claims for lost data, but some disks are irreplace
able (manufacturer out of business, discontinued
software, etc.).
With so much potentially priceless informa
tion on a disk, we should, indeed, treat it like
fragile china.
Luckily, there's one thing you can do to save
yourself in case you lose your disk library: make
backup copies of all your important disks. Most
computer systems have some way of duplicating
a disk. If it is your own programming, you can
just SAVE the program to several disks. To be
really secure, you should store the backups in a
different location, perhaps even in a fireproof
(Sectors are subdivisions of concentric tracks.) safe. Many a programmer has breathed a heavy
sigh of relief upon discovering that there was in
deed a backup copy of that irretrievable program.
Next month: Copy Protection And Piracy <Qf
of the disk. Not only do you lose your investment
in expensive commercial software, but you lose
the countless person-hours it takes to restore the COMPUTE!'s Gazette
lost information. Some data processing facilities
Toll Free Subscription Order Line
have had to reenter tens of thousands of question
naires. 800-334-0868
Even if a home computer user loses only his
In NC 919-275-9809
or her games, that's still a catastrophe when you

Vic 20™ or Commodore 64™ Computer

This exciting, new weather package
allows you to learn, monitor, and predict
the weather using the same equipment as
the pros.
Your Own Weatherman
The new HAWS (Home Auto
Learn/Teach Meteorology
More than a toy or game,
matic Weather Station) com
HAWS provides the first oppor
bines a quality weather sensor
tunity to use your computer as a
with software to let you track
data sampler and data analysis
weather conditions inside or
system for meteorology, allow
outside your homo. HAWS moni
ing the user to interact with
tors weather data including dew
incoming data to monitor and
point, temperature, humidity,
forecast weather conditions.
and atmospheric pressure; plots
HAWS includes an instructive
historical data and graphically
software program and a com
displays weather trends, deter
plete user's manual that teaches
mines the comfort and chill fac
meteorological terms and equa
tors to help you dress; HAWS
tions to allow anyone to quickly
even forecasts the weather and
grasp weather concepts either at
compares your predictions lo
home or in the classroom Sim
the local weatherman's
ple plug-m components and
HAWS uses the same sensor
Ordering Information easy hookup also means you
employed by weather services in
Send $199.95 in check or money order payable to can Iree up your computer at
60 countries worldwide. The
Vaisala. tnc. Include name, address, telephone num any time for other duties. HAWS
HAWS package costs only
is a great educational tool for
$199.95 and includes the sensor, ber, your computer model (VIC 20 or Commodore 64).
anyone. Order today.
cassette or floppy disc program, and program preference (tape cassette or floppy disc)
15-foot cable with connector for Or call toll free to place your order

the computer, and a complete Major credit cards accepted.
user's manual. Dealer inquiries invited.
Send today or call toll free lo
order your HAWS package. 1-800-227-3800 ext haws VAISALA INC
VIC 20 and Cum mod or fl 6 trademarks of Commodore Ereetconics Ltd
WODUrtN. MA 0180!

52 COMPUTE!'iGaiBlle November 1983

Look at these
• Fully screen-oriented

• Horizontal and vertical scrolling

• Terminal mode — never seen before on a wordpfocessor

• Supports Commodore disk and cassette handling

Imbedded commands

trademaik of ELCOMP

Commodore-64 and

VIC .'II .It. 1r.nlim.nkb
of Commodore
Business Machines.

Commodore 64
Dealor and Distributor

inquiries are inviled.

Parallel primer interface KIT Oid«~4990£ 19.95
for the Commodore-64 by Fran; Ende
- ON SALE NOW!- 46 programs for the Commodore 64 Direct Connect Moilom KIT Ord« #4991 A.ii r.p.ict.
Introduction to graphics and sound. Hcrw to program Universal Experimenter Board Order #4970 S 9.95
• Fully screen-oriented, up/down, left anil right
your own games. Walking pictures, animation, high Expansion Board, space for four o*-
tool I ing - Upper and lower caw
resolution graphics, programming tips and tricks, hints porlmcmor boardslboardonlyl Order#4992 £ 29.95
• More than 70 command!
• Full I/O compatibility with Commodore peripherals and useful subroutines for the beginner and advanced
Upper and lower case programmer. This book is a MUST for every CC4 owner. For yaurVIC-20
• Works with practically every printer on the market, Trick! for VICs 6 9.95
Come and get il - It's yours for only E 9.95
user definable printer coniTol commands Universal Enperimenler board
Order* 182 128 pages B9.95
• INCLUDE command allows handling larga tiles Programs from the book an disk.
on up to 4 diskettes or on casselte.
Order £4988 813.95
• Build in terminal soltware for electronic mail and
networking. Telecommunications mode, upload ami MORE ON THE SIXTYFOUR. by H.C. Wagner
download, save on disk or caiivtta. How to got the most out of your powerful Commodore
• Dynamic lormallinrj, Imbedded commands 64, Very important subroutines, tricks and hinli In
• Single keystroke (or diik directory and error channel machine language for your C 64. How to modify DOS.
• Program comeson disk of cassette How to connect a parallel and serial printer. How 10
• Doublo line spacing, left onri right margin justification, design your own terminal program for communication
centering, page numbering, and practically everything
and networking. Dig into HO for cassette and disk.
one expects from a good wordproceswr.
Order #183 S9.95
Order *4965 S39.0O Programs from Iho book on disk

Manuilonly I62p»fles> B29.95 Order ,-!49B9 S19.95

Witch out (or our new booki, software and «dd-ons lo
Editor/Aisemblor for the Commodore 64
AVAILABLE IMMEDIATELY How lo program in 0502 Machine Language on
One oulslandmg lool. consisting of 3 powerful olemems your C-64 . by S. Roberts (Introduction!
comlimed into one efficient program! Order-^184 S12.95
I.) Folly screen-oriented Editor (more than 70
Commodore-64 Tune-up, Vol. I, by S. Roberts
3.1 Very last assembler with macro capability How to eipand and customize your C-Q4.
3.) Machine Language Monitor Orrier^lBS 81MB
Assombly can tra started Irom the editor. Translates in Small Business Programs for tlifi Commodore-64
3 passes. More than 1.000 lablet, screen oriontedMo lino by S. Rolwtu
numbers, scrolling includes disk files. How to make money using your CC4. Mailing list,
Practically everything Ifiu serious machine language
invoice writing, inventory, simple word processing and
programmer needs everyday!
much more.
Manuaionly £19.95
Order #4963 S89.00
Order 4 186 S12.95


CARD, Eurochnck. ACCESS. Interbank 53 Redrock Lane
Prepaid orders add B3.50 for shipping (USA]
E5.00 handling for COD. Pomonn, CA 91766
All orders outside U5«: add 15 % thippins, Califor Phone: 1714] 623 8314
nia roiidenti add 6,5 % sslei tax.
Telex: 29 81 91
A Look At This Month's Best Sellers
And The Software Industry

Kathy Yakal, Editorial Assistant

This Last This Last

Month Month Month Month

Commodore 64 Entertainment VIC-20 Entertainment

; Jumpman (Epyx) 1 1 Gridninner (HesWare) 3
2 Frogger (Sierra On-Line) 3 2 Amok (UM1)
I Gridninner {HesWare) 7 3 Escape MCP {Commdata)
; i Fcrt Apocalypse (Synapse) — 4 WC Men (Star Tech)
Temple ofApshai (Epyx) 4 5 Ape Craze (Commdata)
! i7 Sword of Fargoal (Epyx)
Tetengard (Avalon Hill)
— 6 Chaplifter (Creative Software) 1
"— 7 Apple Panic (Creative Software) —

; Supercuda (Commdata)
9 Pegasus Odyssey (Commdata)
10 Pakacuda (Commdata) VIC-20 Home/Business/Utility
l Quick Brown Fox (Quick Brown Fox ) 8
Commodore 64 2 HES Writer (HesWare) 2
3 HES Mm (HesWare) 3
Home/Buslness/Utility 4 TOTL. Label (TOTL) 6
1 WordPro 3 Plus/64 (Professional) 1 Household Finance (Creative Software) 1
2 Turtle Graphics (HesWare) —
6 TOTL Time Manager (TOTL)
3 Quick Brown Fox (Quick Brown Fox)

4 Inventory Management (Timeworks)

5 Money Manager (Timeworks}
VIC-20 Educational
6 7071. Tert (TOTL) 10 1 Primary Math Tutor (Commdata)
7 Household Finance (Creative Software) 8
| 2 Touch Typing Tutor (Taylormade) 2
8 HES Writer (HesWare) 7 3 Square Pairs (Scholastic) .

4 English Invaders (Commdata)


Commodore 64 Educational
i Pacemaker (Spinnaker) 2
2 Kids On Keys (Spinnaker)
3 Word Race (Don't Ask)
4 Dungeons of the Algebra Dragons —


Continued on fmge 56.

5t COMPUTE!1! Gazette November 1983
- ■ ^H^H^^H

■■■' .- ■-■


-= ne^ -. phs :oin 4.2.
:.:t -■.?*'■ i ■ pr inter
: -- L-- . nose c ompt

.-.- 5 quiet 5»erat icn,

.-■ -■1aintensri;s -- ?& day limited


: ■? z ac I e - ■: ■
•r : ■■

As Commodore hardware prices continue to and Apple Panic, by Creative Software, make
drop, the software market spreads out even return appearances.
more. New owners are discovering old favorites Quick Brown Fox regains its No. 1 spot in the
that had begun to lose their positions on our home/business/utility category after disappearing
HOTWARE list. This month, we see a resurgence from September's list. The remaining positions,
in popularity for some of these programs, and with the exception of Creative Software's House
some surprise debuts by others. hold Finance in fifth, belong to HesWare and TOTL
Software. TOTL's Time Manager appears for the
Commodore 64 HOTWARE first time.
Epyx continues to maintain its presence in the Commdata and Scholastic are fast becoming
entertainment category, jumpman claims the No. 1 contenders in the VIC-20 educational category.
position for the third month in a row; Temple of Commdata takes first and fourth positions with
Apshai and Sword of Fargoal take fifth and sixth. Primary Matli Tutor and English Invaders. Scho
Though it did not make the list, Upper Reaches of lastic debuts with Square Pairs in third, and Taylor-
Apshai sales reportedly picked up again. Hes- made's Touch Typing Tutor moves up a notch to
Ware's Gridrunner, after falling off the list two claim second.
months ago, is back up in the No. 3 spot. And
Commdata returns with three games in positions Honorable Mention: Terminal
eight, nine, and ten: Supercuda, Pegasus Odyssey,
and Pakacuda.
Appearing for the first time are Avalon Hill's We don't have a specific program to rank in this
Telengard, a multilevel adventure game, and Fort area, but telecommunications is fast becoming a
Apocalypse, by Synapse, an underground heli common use for home computers. Several
copter rescue adventure. sources mentioned to us this month that terminal
Four of the eight best sellers in the home/ software packages are very popular. None has
business/utility category are word processors. taken the lead so far.
Holding the No. 1 position for the third month in
a row is Professional Software's WordPro 3 The Changing Marketplace
Plus/64. Quick Brown Fox has appeared on the list Our HOTWARE sources are valuable to us in two
before in the VIC-20 business category, but ap ways. First, the figures. In order to produce a
pears this month for the first time in the No. 3 credible, balanced list, we get monthly unit sales
position for the Commodore 64. TOTL. Text and figures that range from ten units a month to
HES Writer continue to fare well. thousands. Of course, the greater the monthly
Turtle Graphics, which came in third on the volume, the more weight they carry in our cal
September list and dropped off last month, is culations.
back again — this time in the No. 2 spot. But this is not to say that our sources who do
Spinnaker again claims the top two positions not move a great deal of software every month are
in educational software with Pacemaker, last not as important. What we learn from them is
month's second-place finisher, and a new entry, how consumers feel about what is going on. Dis
Kids On Keys. Debuting in third and fourth place tributors generally do not spend a lot of time talk
are Word Race, by Don't Ask Software, and ing to individual users. But owners of small com
Dungeons of the Algebra Dragons, from Timeworks. puter retail stores do — they know what frustrates,
The educational software market is beginning aggravates, and delights their customers. And
to spread out as lots of new programs are being they must respond to their customers' needs
introduced and tested by consumers. It's difficult quickly in this market.
to dominate in a situation like this. It will be in Our sources who manage small computer
teresting to see if the leaders can continue to hold retail stores are responding to the changing
their positions. demands in several different ways. Some have
retreated from the software business entirely in
VIC-2O HOTWARE the face of discount competition from mass mer
Creative Software's Choplifter, which has held the chandisers. Some have dropped only their lower-
No. 1 position in the entertainment category for end hardware and software, and returned to con
the last three months, has finally been knocked centrating on business and higher-end personal
out of first place by HesWare's Gridrunner, which systems. One source moved her business to
has also been on the list since HOTWARE pre another part of the country to see if the market
miered in August. Commdata, which made a was any more receptive there. And one source in
comeback on the Commodore 64 list, takes third the Midwest, who got the jump on the low-end
and fifth place with Escape MCP and Ape Craze. market in her area, is moving into larger quarters
Star Tech debuts with VIC Men; Amok, by UMI, and offering both sales and service. Qf
56 COMPUTE!'; Gazette November 1983
Commodore® owners:
Will your printer interface pass the Commodoie' printer test? We don't think sot! Out wtil.

The CONNECTION'" is truly the ultimate parallel interface for the

VIC201"/ COM MO DO RE 64'". This fully intelligent interface plugs into the disk
(seriall socket just like the standard printer and you can easily assign it any
Dealer And
device number. It will provide virtually TOTAL EMULATION of the
Commodore" printer including all standard graphic characters (normal or
Inquiries inverse), column tabbing, dot tabbing, graphic repeat, dot addressable
Invited graphics, cursor up/down mode, and more. It responds to all of the
standard commands [PRINTS, OPEN, CLOSE, etc.) to insure software
designed for the Commodore" printer will operate with the
CONNECTION'". In the TOTAL TEXT MODE, it will work with
virtually EVERY PARALLEL PRINTER with standard Centronics
configuration. All this plus:

1) A 2K Printer buffer
2) Full LED Status indicators.
3) Complete Built in self lest
4) Printer reset switch
5) Adds Skip over perf, margin set, programmable line
length, program list format commands to your printer.
6) No nood for extra cost, special tape loader for graphics.
7) All features easily accessed from software

To take full advantage of your printer's special features, please specify the printer type. Available for STAR
others. ONLY $119.00 Complete (Additional ROMs are available if you should ever change printers)

NOTE. We solicit hardware and software items for [he VIC2Q h CBMBfl. Royalties, license lees, or outright purchases
can be ncgolialed. Comraodurc h VIC2D are trademarks of Commodore Business Machines.

micro 1342B RT 23
uinrE BUTLER, NJ 07405 201-838-9027

"Well Pay* For Your Mistake"
That's right, by providiny you with a $50 credit toward our Connection™
interface. After receiving thousands of calls that asked "BUT WHAT DO
WE DO WITH OUR OLD ONE?", we now have the answer. Send in
your old interface plus a good reason why you want outs, and we will
send you the Connection (LIST $119 less $50 Credit) for $69.00.
This is strictly a one time offer and TYMAC CONTROLS CORP
may WITHDRAW it at any time. It is only foi END USERS
thai are dissatisfied with their interface and is invalid to all
DEALERS and DISTRIBUTORS. Offer good only in the
USA until 1/84, Offer void where prohibited or taxed.
Connections sent prepaid MASTERCARD, VISA, or COD,
plus shipping and handling. Send old boards to TYMAC
'Piymtnt is m thi lorn at endtt towrd pure/me.
Dale Disharoon &
Jim Bach
The Programmers Behind
Hey Diddle Diddle
Kathy Yakal, Editorial Assistant

Microcomputers have publish entertaining edu

enormous potential as cational software for home
educational tools. Some use. Spinnaker currently
schools have been using has several programs that
them for years; home are being hailed by many
computer owners are retailers, distributors, and
beginning to explore the users as the best they've
educational possibilities seen yet. Two programmers
of their machines, too. are responsible for one of
Here's a look at a very Spinnaker's biggest suc
popular educational cesses, Hey Diddle Diddle:
program - Spinnaker Dale Disharoon, 27, and
Software's Hey Diddle Jim Bach, 17.
Diddle- and the pro
grammers behind it. Tired Of
Disharoon's involvement
Up to now, the toughest with educational software
Jim Bach (left) and Dale Disharoon jamming in the
competition for commer backyard. began about three years ago
cial software has been in when he was teaching a
the area of games and business programs. combined class of kindergarten, first, and second
Up to now, that is. In the last few months, grade at a small school in Manchester, California.
companies that had previously ignored the edu The school had bought an Atari 800 for the stu
cational market are vying for positions in the dents to use; Disharoon bought an Atari 400 to
educational categories of best-seller lists, and new leam programming on his own.
companies are starting up to fill the gaps in the Soon, he started writing computer programs
market. that replaced some of the more repetitive lessons
A good example of the latter is Spinnaker he had to teach every year. To Disharoon, the
Software Corporation, recently organized to process of creating a lesson was valuable, but he
58 COMPUTEfsCaieHe November 19B3
If our
word processing sc
is so great, why are we
j it away? ^—■■*.



It's our way of introducing you most commands one-key simple, eliminating
to DATA 20. awkward prompts and menus.
As the leader in price/performance peripherals for What you see is what you print.
Commodore 64"" and VIC 20,"' we want you as a loyal cus With our professional 80-column
tomer So to encourage you to sample our format, your printed product
add-ons, we're giving away our duplicates screen output
WORD MANAGER soft precisely. You see center-
ware when you purchase ing. left justification and
any DATA 20 DISPLAY other features as they
MANAGER or VIDEO PAK will print. So you'll save 5/S
to expand your Commodore to 80 columns. time, save paper, and
get the exact results
What's so great about WORD MANAGER?
you want!
The table tells the tale. This DATA 20 exclusive gives you
WORD MANAGER is really something—for nothing!
powerful features found only on the most expensive word
Get it free with your DISPLAY MANAGER or VIDEO PAK
processing systems including mail merge, block move,
from DATA 20. See your dealer or write; DATA 20
search and replace. And we've written our word processing
CORPORATION, 23011 Moulton Parkway, Suite B10,
in machine language for fast execution and low memory
Laguna Hills, CA 92653.
Compare the Top

WordPro7 —
* •

■ *

c t> n n a i i u w .

Quick Brown Fox"" • •

Price/Performance Peripherals
- -

"Most standard serial oi parallel printers require interface, noi supplied.

Commodore 64 and VIC 20 are iraOomarks ol Commodore Eleclromcs, Ltd.
Best of all, WORD MANAGER is exceptionally easy to Quick Brown Po* is a Iradomaik ol Quick Brown Fox
use. A self-adhesive feature strip lor function keys makes WordPro is a regislared irndemark ol Proiessronal Software, Inc.
grew tired of teaching some of the same lessons
time after time.
Disharoon realized he had a knack for
creating good educational programs due to his
background in teaching and his newly acquired
programming skills. He began to sell his crea
tions, first to the Atari Program Exchange (an
Atari-managed collection of user-written pro
grams), then to The Learning Company, and,
finally, to Spinnaker Software.

Tired Of Teachers
Enter Jim Bach, a teenager from upstate New
York who was pretty discouraged with the tradi
tional educational system. So discouraged, in
fact, that he dropped out of high school, and then
was asked to move out of the house by a father
A screen from Hey Diddle Diddle on the Commodore 64.
who couldn't understand his son's passion for
computers and lack of interest in traditional
schooling. Ironically, it was Jim's father who had
sparked his interest in computers by buying him
an Apple three years before. "Everything I've place. When the verses are finally rearranged, a
done has been inspired by my father," says Bach. picture illustrating the poem (drawn by Santa
Bach's father, incidentally, is Richard Bach, Barbara artist Robin Bush) appears on the screen
author of the best-selling book Jonathan Livingston and a song plays.
Jim Bach and Disharoon met when Bach was Computers As Teachers
working for an office supply store in Iowa, Disharoon's most recent project for Spinnaker
writing and reviewing programs. Disharoon had was Alphabet Zoo, introduced at the Summer Con
been looking for someone to translate his pro sumer Electronics Show held in Chicago in June.
grams, and Bach was looking to get into the com "Basically, it helps accomplish what kindergarten
mercial software business. and first-grade teachers spend a whole year do
"I'm in training right now," explains Bach. ing: teaching the alphabet and how to read," says
Disharoon creates the concept and initially pro Disharoon.
grams a new educational game on his Atari, then Yet he does not believe that computers can or
Bach translates the program for Commodore should replace human teachers. "When I was
computers. teaching, I liked to sing and dance with the kids
"When I was learning about Commodore, I and help them get to know each other," he says.
got a Toronto phone book and called every Butter- "There are very important social aspects of edu
field in the book until 1 found [Commodore expert] cation that computers cannot handle."
Jim Butterfield," says Bach. "He was extremely Bach agrees that computers may be capable of
helpful in my learning process." taking over many of the repetitive tasks now per
formed by teachers. "Before that happens,
Recalling A Childhood Game though, computers have to be a lot less technical
Disharoon got the idea for Hey Diddle Diddle from and foreign," he says. "They will have to contain
a school game he had played as a child. Someone a tremendous amount of knowledge and actually
would write a familiar poem on a large piece of be able to teach. Most educational programs that
paper and cut it up so each line was separated. are available now, with the exception of CAI
Students would queue up in front of the class, [Computer-Aided Instruction], don't actually
each holding one line of the poem, and the class teach - they just let you practice something you
would rearrange them so the poem was restored already know."
to the right order. Bach says he might have stayed in school
"The game actually helped students in three longer if educational computer technology was
different areas of understanding: reading, logic, more sophisticated, and if he had been allowed
and poetry," says Disharoon. more freedom to learn by using computers.
In Disharoon's version, Hey Diddle Diddle con
tains 30 eight-line poems that the player has to What's Educational?
rearrange. A line lights up on the screen, and the Three elements are necessary to make an educa
player uses a joystick to move it to the correct tional program, according to Disharoon: it must
60 COMPUTEI'i Gazette Novamber 1983

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Send Chert, M/b plin M S/H. (2 «lra (or dl»L (Eirepl Ei/Dlsk"l N.V. Kcdtfenis. add BY.% U». Add $3 for COD.
teach, be fun, and be easy to use. "Some educa
tional software is too game-like and not educa
tional enough. And some is just like a book on a
computer — all text." Disharoon tries to achieve a
happy medium. Uputentr »»
« IFF ,,..1 Mm , *|

He also tries to write games for children itaul ■!■

that he himself likes to play. "After you've writ

ten a program, you end up playing it hundreds of
times while you're refining it," he says. tQfltJ0l."U*ely coltH guptiksandauthtnlif sound m
ihis * dplhjllng gjina j enlertdTrifi (Oi -ill dfl
Disharoon's next project is an adventure
game in which the player can program the actual
environment of the game. It will use a combina
tion of text and graphics; all the rooms, creatures
and other variables can be created and edited by
liars . . Cjierpillars . . . tVLKVUMI RF!!' la
the player. The game will be suitable for ages 12 jloii turd IsimcsiFdwTlhllicTraf munching eLli
lir. shi-s jitil rhcv'<-" i.ipiijl* ileiourinf] in*onFThmi]
and up.
'rhSSiblh >ip[- Ifipm oljI IhtUhc Ihr* ij'tFihJc up ill I
Does Disharoon consider this an entertain Tree? M.l>l-' ID. . . BUT Bf-WAPIl ... IN"
Epllldll l.iy Mgi M,ll<Fl pull) tfet s kill
ment or educational game? imilis ... Ann <.ui ss WHO nil VII ill rtl ti mil

"The act of anything where a child creates is [7 SKII.l It VI IS. I ASI MACIIINI roill ACTION]

VIC 20 CHI 005-- .. 15.99

educational," he says. Q COMM64 CH2Q05 - 9 09

Programmers JUST RELEASED!


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wants to hear from you.




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You Deserve the Best!


Chicken Little
Jeff Wolverton

"Chicken Little" is an action game for the Chicken Little's vertical movement is
unexpanded VIC-20 and Commodore 64. The restricted to the bottom four lines of the screen,
author, who is 15, wrote the original program and horizontal movement to the screen's width.
for the VIC. VIC users should be sure to read The top line is reserved for the score and number
the section headed, "Special Instructions." of chickens left (you start the game with three
chickens). The rest of the screen is filled with 30
randomly placed pieces of sky.
Detailed instructions are included in the
Probably everyone is familiar with the childhood
program, but I'll summarize them here.
tale of Chicken Little. It is, of course, about the lit
Basically, pieces of sky — blown around by
tle chicken who was hit on the head by an acorn
wind — fall down at you randomly. To protect
and then jumped to the conclusion that the sky
yourself (and to save the world), you must hit
was falling. (Though that reaction may seem a bit
them with stones. On the VIC, press the space
neurotic, the story caught on.)
bar to throw a rock; on the 64, press the joystick
The game "Chicken Little" is a simulation of
fire button. You can also heave rocks at stationary
the tale. But in this re-creation, the sky really is
pieces of sky before they start falling. If more than
falling. Your goal is to keep too many fragments
eight pieces of sky get by you and hit the ground,
from tumbling to the ground. You'll have to be
the sky has fallen and the game is over.
nimble on your feet and adept at hurling stones to
Each time you clear the screen of sky
survive unscathed.
fragments, you advance to the next level and the
sky falls faster. Also, with each new level, the
How To Play number of pieces that can fall before the game
In the VIC-20 version, you control Chicken ends is decreased by one. On the unexpanded
Little with four keys: I = Up, M = Down, J = Left, VIC, it's possible — if you're very good — to run
and K = Right. Because the program scans the up a score so large that you'll overflow the
keyboard with the PEEK statement instead of memory. But even if you're that good, it would
GET A$, you can hold down a key for continuous take a long time.
The Commodore 64 version uses a joystick Special Instructions
plugged into port one instead of the keyboard. The VIC version of Chicken Little is broken into
6i COMPUTEI's Gazette November 1983

First Star Has 4

Fernando Herrera, designer of ASWOOUSF™ and
ew Games.
screens, intermissions, arcade-quality sound,
our design team again define "State of the Art." innovative gaming, challenge and excitement—
Superior graphics, real-time animations,™ multiple we deliver it all!

THE BAD NEWS? You cant play them all at once.


• * i .%


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PRQGFIflNNJND THE The sky is failing in targe chunks toward Chicken Little (VIC

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This comprehensive manual offers readers all

the guidance needed to program Commodore
Computers in BASIC.
• Step-by-step instruction on game
programming, color graphics, files, the disk
operating system. "Chicken Link" on the Commodore 64.
• Structuring correct, easy to read programs.
• Fundamentals of programming, decisions
and loops, nested loops, subscripted two parts to save memory. The first part (Program
variables, string functions, data types. 1) prints instructions and loads a custom
• Review exercises, problems and solutions. character set of 12 characters. If you're using tape,
A Lawrenceville Press Book it then automatically loads and runs the next part
Van Nostrand Reinhold $15.50 (Program 2), which contains the actual game.
Tape users: Type Program 1 and SAVE it on
People who know computer books cassette. Then type NEW, enter Program 2, and
know B. Dalton. SAVE it on the same tape immediately after
Program 1.
700 B. Dalton Booksellers nationwide.
Disk users: SAVE both programs on the same
Check your Yellow Pages.
disk. RUN Program 1. When the screen says,
Name "Press Play On Tape," press RUN/STOP instead
Address ^_- {but not RUN/STOP-RESTORE), and LOAD
City Slate.— . Zip- Program 2. Type RUN and the game will start.
Phone Because of the Commodore 64's larger
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you get more than just a game, We have poster offers. Memberships to Captain
Fargo's Fan Club. And updates on all new releases • Cyclon"-' and Crater Raider"-' are at
your dealers nowl Demand the best. Demand Boone.

2900-A Bristol Street, Suite 102. Costa Mesa, California 92626 U S.A.
Martian Prisoner
Adventure Game For VIC And 64
Alan Poole

"Martian Prisoner" is a mini-adventure game Like Radio Dramas

for the unexpanded VIC-20 and Commodore
"Martian Prisoner" is a mini-adventure game,

before, this is a good introduction. Unlike

solve puzzles and explore a simulated world in

what you see and what happens, and you tell the
computer what you want to do. Instead of using
screen graphics, adventure games rely on text
descriptions and your imagination. It's like the
difference between old-time radio dramas and
Without warning, the Martians have suddenly television; despite the visual impact of video, the
started a devastating war against Earth. They mind can still imagine a scene more exciting than
have captured you and are holding you prisoner a camera can picture.
in a cell on a Martian space cruiser headed toward In Martian Prisoner, you start off in the prison
Earth. The cruiser also carries a secret weapon cell of the Martian space cruiser. Besides the cell,
that can neutralize all of Earth's defenses. Your the cruiser contains several other rooms. It's up to
task is to destroy the Martian ship and escape in a you to explore the rooms and find a way to
lifecraft before the Martians can complete their destroy the ship. In each room, the computer will
sinister mission. describe your surroundings and list the objects in
68 COMPUTE!'! Gazette November 1983
Now you could add your program to the rapidly /■
expanding list of MMG Software with MMG's Write
Your Own Program Contest! Each month a
program will be chosen and developed from
the entries and suggestions sent in by you
and best of all, the winners will receive
royalties from the sale of their entry.
You don't have to be a computer whiz
to enter, so see your local retailer
who carries ATARI products for
details. FINAL FLIGHT is only one of
the many exciting and useful
programs for the ATARI system
now available from MMG Micro f
Software that are designed
with you in mind. At MMG,
we believe that people
are as important as the .
programs they use.

micro software
P.O. Box 131 Marlboro, NJ 07746
(201) 431-3472

ATARI is a reguterw trademark of ATARI, (fie

VIC Emulator For 64?
Well, sort of. Program 2 allows one version of
Martian Prisoner to work on both the VIC-20 and
Commodore 64. To adjust the 64's 40<olumn

MuMM screen to simulate a 22-column VIC, 64 users

should type in Program 2 in addition to the game
OBJECTS : FORCE F"IELD listing. WC users should not use Program 2. Program
2 creates a machine language program which
COMMAND? GO NORTH forces the 64 to PRINT within a 22-column format.
It will not support any other VIC functions,
however. Martian Prisoner will work on the 64
without Program 2, but words will break in
strange places and the text will be harder to read.
Be sure to save Program 2 on tape or disk
before running it. When you type RUN, the
routine activates itself. Should you need to reac
"Martian Prisoner" is a clever text adventure game that fits tivate it at any time, enter SYS 828. (By the way,
in an unexpanded VIC-20.
this program might work on other all-text VIC
the room. The computer then waits for you to programs, too.)

type a command, consisting of one or two words.

For example, you could type GO NORTH to Tape Copies
move north. If there is a book in the room, you If you would like to save the time of typing in
would type GET BOOK to pick it up. Type Martian Prisoner, send a blank cassette, self-
INVENTORY at any time to see a list of the addressed mailer with postage, and $3 to:
objects you are carrying. All commands and Alan Poole
nouns can be abbreviated to the first three letters. 4728 King Road
You can list your INVENTORY by typing INV, for Loomis, CA 95650
See program listings on page 185. ®
Although Martian Prisoner is a short adven
ture game, you must solve several puzzles to win.
It's a good way to prepare for the more elaborate
adventure games available commercially for Com
modore 64s and VIC-20s with expanded memory.
(Editor's Note: If, after hours of play, you're
still stumped and desperate for the solution, write
to COMPUTED Gazette. Depending on the de
mand, we may publish a blueprint of the Martian
cruiser and the Solution to the game in a future




BOX 3435 • LONGWOOD, PL 32750

Starting a game of "Martian Prisoner" on the Commo

dore 64. SEE YOUR DEALER OR CALL US AT 1-80O-327-7172

70 COMPUTES Gazette November 1983

Get the players'games
from CDS!
Can WaUy fight his way to the top and save his true love???
The way looks simple enough, but.. .uhoh.. .LOOKOUT

Ifs a mult!—level, multi-screen bogglerl Super game power

requires an 8K expander)

Strap on your lasers, squad, because this one Is going to

stretch you to your limits!

Changing screens and fast-paced, non-stop action keep you

long on fun and short on fingernails!

Can our hero make it across the freeway without getting

that run-down feeling?

And If he does . .. does he know he can't swim?!?!

It's the thrill of victory and watch out for the alligators)

Keep your eyes open — there's a tasty treasure in cheeses

Just ahead! But. . .there'shungrycatsaroundeverycornerl

One wrong move, and you're hickory dickory dead!

The COS winners for the Commodore VIC 20.

(Also some for Commodore 64| Suggested retail
S29.9S US (cassette). Ask for them at your
*'r' l-f'jJ'''a'm
Commodore store. Or write to us. Dealer In
quiries also welcomed.

Commercial Data Systems Ltd.,

VIC 20 r, ■,■ COMMODORE M 730 Eastvlew Avenue, Reglna, Canada, S4N
fteg. trade marie of
Commodore Busfn«j machines. |306) 525-3386

There's A Creature
In My Computer!
The Lobsters Under My Bed
When I was a kid I used to go to sleep at night
with my hands pulled up inside the sleeves of my
pajamas, and my feet tucked inside two layers of
socks and a pair of slippers. I did this to hide my
fingers and toes from the lobsters that lived under
my bed.
These lobsters weren't just average creatures.
First, they didn't need to live in water. Instead,
they could somehow survive under my bed —
along with lint, dust, dirty clothes, copies of Mad
magazine, science fiction books, and potato chip
Second, if they got hungry, they didn't look
for regular lobster food. Instead, they liked to
munch on crumpled, smelly socks. (There were
lots of those under my bed.) But their favorite
food was fingers and toes — dirty fingers and dirty
I went to bed at night convinced that lobsters
really did live under my bed. I was afraid that if I
fell asleep and accidentally let my hand or foot
slip over the side of the bed, one of the lobsters
would leap out, pinch it off, gobble it up, and
disappear back under the bed.
The lobsters had never been known to attack
clean fingers and clean toes. But I never con
sidered taking a bath. Instead, I bundled up my
toes and fingers, and slept in bed all scrunched
up like a sunburnt spider. If a lobster wanted to
make a meal out of me, it was going to have to
work for it.
I shared my bedroom with several lobsters.
But we weren't alone. There was also a night
marish creature who lived underneath my
11 COMPUTE!'* Gazette Navember 1983
dresser. He would come out from under the I screamed. I screamed again. And again.
dresser when my mother turned out the hall I woke up the whole house with my scream
light. He always hid in the shadows. In fact, he ing. Moments later, the basement light came on.
was a shadow. Real slithery, dark, and tricky. He My parents came flying down the stairs and
was all body. No head. found me huddled under my blanket, wailing like
And then there was the creature that lived in a ninny.
my closet behind my dress shirts and Sunday When they dug my head out of the covers, I
school pants. I called him the Closet Beast. He pointed toward the stairs. My parents investi
was one of those shy creatures. He only came out gated. They didn't catch the Ghoul. But, they did
at night when I wanted nothing to do with him. find, hiding under the stairs, a very scared kitty
During the day he probably killed time pretend cat.
ing to took like a bow tie or the pair of brown
dress shoes I hated. There's A Creature In My
Between me and all the creatures, the bed
room was crowded. I wished that some of the
I used to see creatures in every shadow or dark
bedroom creatures would move out. But if they
corner of my life. I saw so many creatures because
had they would have bumped into the creatures
I had a crazy imagination.
in the other parts of the house. The worst of these
How about you? Do you have a crazy imagi
was the Ghoul who lived in the cellar, under
nation like mine? Do you see ghosts in wisps of
neath the stairs.
smoke? Do you see sleeping giants inside craggy
I hoped and prayed I would never meet the
mountains? Do you see fang-toothed monsters
cellar Ghoul. But one night I came very close. It
staring up at you out of gutters and hollow
all happened because I was a sleepwalker. I was
stumps of trees? Have you seen the skinny
so bad that my mother had to bolt all the win
creature who lives inside your medicine cabinet —
dows each night before she went
the one that feasts on stale toothpaste?
to bed. She was afraid I might
With a little imagination you can see creatures
climb out one of them and try to
everywhere. And, with a little imagination, you
sleepwalk on the two-foot ledge
can create a creature inside your computer. The
that rimmed the roof.
creature (he, she, or;'() might even be living there
Thanks to my mother I never now. You just have to bring it to life.
did any sleepwalking on the
roof. But 1 did sleepwalk a lot in The Ghosts In The Machine
side the house. And I sometimes
Your computer is a perfect place for a creature to
ended up in some pretty strange
live. After all, it's already full of ghosts. The
ghosts are other people's programs.
One night I woke up and im Some people think that programs are just
mediately knew something abstract lists full of information and commands.
wasn't right. I had my pillow These people are wrong. A program is — or can
and was wrapped up in my be — much, much more.
blanket like a mummy, but I Every program that is written has a person
wasn't in my bedroom any ality. Most computer programs written in the past
longer. I was someplace else, had dull personalities. But they don't have to be
someplace very, very dark. And dull.
damp. And moldy smelling. Where does a program's personality come
I rubbed my fingers on from? It comes from its creator, the person who
something hard underneath me. thought it up and typed the commands into the
I realized I wasn't in bed. I was computer.
on a dusty concrete floor — the The program is a reflection of its creator's
basement floor. And I was right imagination.
next to the stairs where the If the person has a dumpy, dull sort of imagi
Ghoul lived. nation, then the program will be dull. It might
As dark as the basement have the personality of a stuffed shirt or toad.
was, the space under the stairs Most business programs have toady person
was even darker. I couldn't see alities.
-anything, but I could sense that On the other hand, if the person's imagi
I was not alone. Something was nation is creative, weird, and funny, then the pro
there with me. And it was com gram will be creative, weird, and funny, too.
ing closer. (Does this remind you of a few game programs
Novomberl983 COMPUTEIS Gazette 73
you have played?) Type RUN.
Programs are the ghosts inside your com The program begins running, and the
puter. So why not turn them into real ghosts, creature wakes up. He is looking at you. He is
goblins, ogres, zombies, dragons, and other waiting for you to say something. (The computer
creatures? You can take the creatures that live in has printed a "?" on the display screen. Imagine
side your imagination and load them into your that the creature is sprawled in a dungeon inside
computer. To create the creatures you just write a the computer. He is just waking up. He looks
program. To bring them to life you just type RUN. dazed, and has a big "?" over his head.)
This is your first chance to say something to
Turn On Your Imagination the creature. In fact, he won't make a move until
Warning: If your imagination is having a bad day, you say something.
you'd better stop here and wait. The creature But what do you say to a creature?
we're going to create this month is 99 percent You can try insulting him by saying some
imagination and only 1 percent program. The thing like:
creature is simple, but it can still seem real — if YOUR FEET SMELL!
you use your imagination. Or you might try giving him a command like:
A Simple Creature Or, you can try to bo friendly and ask the
Turn on your computer and type: creature a question, such as:
20 PRINT "GRRRR!!" [Press the RETURN key.]
Think up a message, type the message, then
You have just created a creature inside your
type RETURN. What is the creature's answer? He
computer. You don't know what it looks like. You
don't know if it wears a ski cap and orange polka-
dotted socks, or how many warts are on its nose. He says "GRRRR!!" because it's the only
But you do know two things: it's there and it's thing he knows how to say. He's a very dumb
not very friendly.
creature. No matter what you tell him, he always
To see if I'm right, type RUN (and press
growls. He's a real grump.
RETURN). What does the creature do? It says:
To make him say something else, you have to
GRRRR!! teach him. What sort of new things can you teach
Not too friendly, is it? your creature to say? What sort of things can you
What happens if you add a new line to the teach your creature to do?
creature's program? For example, type:
30 GOTO 20 Next Time: New Creatures
Now type RUN. What happens? This time This time we created a very simple creature. Next
you see: time we'll see how we can create a creature that
surprises you. He'll make scary creature sounds.
And he'll have a creature face.
I'll help you build creatures and turn them
GRRRR!! loose on other members of your family. But I'd
GRRRR!! really like to see what creature you can come up
GRRRR!! with on your own.
GRRRR!! Write a short program and make a creature.
GRRRR!! Then, no matter how crazy the creature is, send it
Now you've created a creature that is really tome. Send it to:
unfriendly! (To stop the creature from growling, Fred D'Igtiazio
press the RUN/STOP key.) 2117 Carter Road, SW
So far, the only way to get your creature's Roanoke, VA 24015
attention is to type RUN. But you might want to
Dream up strange, funny, and unusual crea
say something to the creature. To do this you
tures, then turn them into programs and send
have to teach the creature to listen. To make it
them to me. I'll print the best programs in this
listen, type:
10 INPUT A$ Be like a magician pulling rabbits out of a hat.
Change line 30 to say GOTO 10. Your whole Pull the creatures out of your imagination. Then
program now looks like this: pop them in the computer and bring them to life.
10 INPUT AS You can send me any kind of creature at all.
20 PRINT "GRRRR!!" Except for just one kind.
30 GOTO 10 Don't send any lobsters. (Bf
74 COMPUTE!'* Colette NOvemberl9B3
i •

i no


due w

That's an easy one: HesWare'" educational software.

The children with the most answers in school are usually the children who enjoy learning.
HesWare helps develop your child's interest in learning by making it fun. And along the way, develop
familiarity and proficiency with computers—a skill that is becoming more and more essential to success.
HesWare educational software combines enjoyment with a creative learning experience. Unlike
video games, HesWare educational programs involveyour child—and that keeps their interest. Whether
it's creating colorful and artistic pictures with Turtle Graphics,
making up funny faces with pacemaker,™ or helping America's
favorite canine, Benji, save kidnapped scientists (and learn
about the solar system in the process,) or any of the programs
in our education library, HesWare gives your children a positive Pleases the
attitude toward learning and technology. tough
It's not expensive to give your child a headstart on the
future. HesWare programs are available for most popular home customer
computers, including the Commodore VIC 20™ Commodore 64J"
Atari," and IBM:
HesWare educational software. Just one of the
ways HesWare is expanding the computer experience. And
expandingyour child's horizons. Look for them at your
favorite software retailer.
Human Engineered Software, 150 North Hill Drive. Brisbane, CA 94005
800-227-6703 (in California 800-632-7979) Dept. C20

[i Hi Aim m rf(U!«fl l
Munch math
Gerald R. Anderson

"Munchmath" is an above-average math drill The ghost, however, stays in hot pursuit only
program that entertains as it teaches. Because three steps behind. After 15 correct responses,
of its multiple difficulty levels, it is suitable Munchie eats the power prize and the tables are
for a wide range of ages. There are versions turned. Munchie chases the ghost across the
for the unexpanded VIC and Commodore 64. screen, eventually catching him and scoring a
bonus of 100 points. The difficulty level then ad
vances one notch higher and new problems are
To keep a young person's interest, an educational presented.
program has to be fun to play. "Munchmath" The ghost moves into action when the player
presents an arcade-style- character that relies on gives a wrong answer. First, the correct answer is
the player's correct answers to math problems to displayed for the player to study. Then the ghost
stay ahead of a ghost that is trying to gobble him advances one step closer to Munchie. Three in
up. correct answers and (he ghost catches poor Mun
The program begins by asking for the player's chie and gobbles him up. This results in a loss of
name, the type of problems wanted (addition, 50 points and a return to the next lower level of
subtraction, multiplication, or division), and the difficulty.
starting level of difficulty. Problems are then pre If a Q is typed in response to a problem instead
sented on the screen for the player to answer. of a number, the game stops. A Scoreboard is
Each correct answer scores ten points and moves printed which shows the number of problems the
"Munchie" one step closer to the power prize. player has been given, the number answered

Practicing simple addition with "Munchmath," 64 version. Practicing easy multiplication with the VIC version of

76 COMPUTE!'! Gazette November 1983



* * ,,,



<d -. ,
. . hS1 itr'6
■:„■■''/■ ■

% 'rV^x

m it

■ .

Out of thin air they begin their rampage.

Wave after wave they;turTibletoward you l»
when you least expect'them?

Buy BLITZ and other fine products of Grapevin

V Software at your local dealer, or order direct. Suggested retail price $24.95
Grapevine Software ,mc. Plus S2.00 postage and handling
(Kansas residents add 4% tax)
Available on diskette or cassette.
JRO. BOX 14843. LENEXA, KS. 66215
Order hotline (913) 888-0501
s COMMODORE W is a legisiered traaemanc of Commodofe Business Machines. Dealer and Distributor inquiries invited.
tired of softwore that doesn't work? correctly, the number answered incorrectly, and
the percentage of correct answers. The player

reach up
may then resume the game or to end
The program has been extensively tested by

& turn over my six- and eight-year-old daughters, as well as

the neighborhood children, and its appeal holds

up very nicely.
Munchmath fits neatly into an unexpanded
VIC. (There's also a version for the 64.) It uses
custom characters, so you should remove any
memory expanders you may have on your VIC,
unless you know how to rearrange the memory.
If you want to avoid the drudgery of typing
All New Leat Irce products are
doomed wnh our special in the program (VIC version only), send a blank
commiumenl [O quality
cassette, a stamped, self-addressed envelope,
because we really care Unlihe
moil soflware even novice and $3 to:
compute* users will be able to Bob Wallace
enjoy oil of the benefits withoui
any ol the hassles1
6649 Thunderhead Lane
Placerville, CA 95667
DJORHYTHM+ (Since I'm in the Navy and frequently gone,
Croyc Drc4pyihmv.i[h audio feedback 6
uimpg lability COfTip&dOTii F&jS. OUil my friend Bob Wallace has volunteered to make
wiEl ^ve you Hie option of 0 p
CoMeiTeanty 14.50 (wnfc O copies.)

Program Description
) t>0ph & Here's a breakdown of the program (VIC version):
coit of

poyrnenn [Q-ei tr license fee* en w

Lines 10-35: Initialization and delay
a -*pojrs. It fli^iKKjui^riei 'jptweeo
oeroting fj owne'^ip cciFi Agom.
wifl gi*.e yTju tie opuon ul pfmieij re
Lines 40-50: Answer-checking.
Covetie vpfuon ^4.50
DiV, v<ms,(W 17 50 Lines 55-60: Print titles computer-style.
Lines 65-145: Generate problem and print it
in proper format.
Lines 150-180: Ghost catches Munchie. Gen
Now vcu can tdculaie ony ^
pcupr' fljjwi ail] totVilPfl^ Qfp hiTl.HXI only by erate sound effects, subtract 50 points, and reduce
yaw (Tv«!MFie i memoiv- An exeelWii
^(X)^ rot pktying and ispei.uv? difficulty level.
Cl^tulorioni Voy son evp\ (TX^e
pnnred cco*s of your !(yeac*h«ts • Lines 185-235: Munchie reaches the power
prize and chases the ghost. Bonus of 100 points,
advance to next level.
Eoch of our programs has Lines 240-255: Move Munchie and Ghost.
been tested and re-tested Lines 260-275: Print level and score. Clear old
over and over again. Our
answer from screen.
national testing network
eliminates any problems Lines 280-300: Print Scoreboard at end of
BEFORE they reach you. game. Restart or end program.
Simply type Load & New Lines 305-345: Special characters.
Leaf's'" unique Self-storting
Lines 350-385: Titles.
format will do the rest.
Lines 390-445: Get player's name, choice,
and level.

(618) 397-3660
Seeprogram listings on page 186. V

Product ordered
a VIC-20™ D Commodore 64"* Young People
P Disk D Ccweite
Amount enclosed
COMPUTEI's Gazette wants to know
what today's young people are doing
City State Zip, with computers. We want our readers
Phone Number ( ] to know, too. If you've written an in
MC or VI5A *
Expiration dale
teresting program for the VIC-20 or
Interbank # (MO . Commodore 64, share it with us.
Missouri residents add soles ion
120Lynnhoven« Belleville IL 62223
Fast, Fast
Relief From Expensive
For VIC 20 Software Blahs.
List But For
Price You!

Shamus (CT) $40 126

GiidrunnBt (CT) . .. $40 $26 For Your Commodore 64!
Piolectoi iCTI $40 $26
':<: ■!■ :l i List But For
Turtle Graphics (CT) .. $40 $2(>
Price You!
Fort Apocyalpse 1CT) $40 $24
Necromancer (CT) $40 $24 Chopllller [CT| $45 $27
SoaloXCT] $40 $24
Final Orbit & Bumpai Bash (CT) . $40 $25 Creative
Repton(CT) 440 $25 Astroblitz [CT) $35 $22
Bandits (CT) 540 $25 Moondust (CT) $35 $22
Type Attack (CT) $41) $25 Trashman(CT) $35 $22
Turmoil [CD $40 $25 SweNY [CT] $35 $22
HouMhcU Rnance (T) $30 $19
And Last Bui Not Lens!
Household Rnance (D) $35 $22
Quick Brown Fox $65 S45 Homo Inventory IT] $15 $10
Practicafc (T) $41) $26
Home Inventory ID) $20 $13
PracDcalcID) $45 $29
$30 $19
Vicalc IT) $15 $11 PtolBdor 1DST) $35 $21
Ultima Escape (T) $20 $13 Sharius (D&T) $35 $21
Sentinel (D&T) 535 $21
MoryoMP&l) $35 $21
Temple olApshdi (T) $40 $24
DrelbslD&T). $35 $21
Sword ol Fargoal (Tl $30 $19
Crush. Crumble, Chomp (Tl $30 «g Spinnaker
Rescue at Rigol IT) $30 119 lutll.'Tiilor(CT) $40 $21

FWnlbrajh (CT1 $30 $1H
Pacemaker [CT) $30 $1H
Choplifter (CT) , $30 $19
Delia Drawing (CT). $35 $21
Astroblilz (CT) $30 $19
Fraction Ft vet (CT) $35 $21
Serpentine (CT) $30 $19
Up Tor Grabs (CT).... $40 $24
Black Hole All Three Just $30 EPYX
Videomania (CTI (3 pack onlyl Jiirnprnan (T) $40 $25
Rat I btel $30 $19 JumpiMJi (D| $40 $25
Household finai^i.* [T) $20 $13 Temple of Apshal (Tl $40 $25
Household Rnanca {D) ..,....,. $25 $17 Upper Reaches of Apshfll (T) $20 $13
Household I-lnanci! (CT) $30 $19 Curse o(RA(T) $20 $13
Home Inventory (Tl $ir, $10 Sword ol Fargoal (T)... $30 $19
Home Inventory {0) $20 $13 Sword ol Fsrgoal (Dl $30 $19
Home Office (T) $30 $19
Home Office (D) $35 $22
Hangman Hangmath .......... $12 $10 Hesmon 64 (CT) $40 $26
Giidrunner (CTI $40 $26
Broderbund 64 Forth (CT) $60 $39
A.E.(CT) $40 $24 Turtle Graphics II (CT)... $60 $40
SeaFox(CT) BMC 12'Green $100 $77
$40 $24
Skyblaitfi (CT) $40 $24 BMC 13" Composite Color $399 $280 OEM
US! 12" Amber, $249 $14<J Bug Crusher (CT) $33 $22
Wiiware Sidestep Alien (CT) $33 $22
Electronic Party (T) $30 $19 Close Encounters (CT) $33 $22
Alphacom 40 Column
Square Pairs (T) $30 $19 Dot Gobbler (CT) $33 $22
with VIC or COM 64 Cable .. .. $160 $119
Turtle Tracks [Tl $30 $19
Your Vic 20 IT) $30 $19 Book* Sierra On Line
COMo4RelGutde $30 $14 Frogger fTI $35 $22
YES AND HARDWARE AT VIC 20 Hel Guide $17 $12 FtoggerID] $35 $22
UNBEATAHLE PRICES! Elementary Com 64 $15 $10 Jawbreaker (CT) ... $35 $22

WICO Joystick!
Elementary VIC $15 $10
Time works
MosifromyoLirVIC.., $10 $7
Boss $20 $12 InvBWOTJJMjjnl (D) $79 $49
Using COM 64 $11 SB
BatSuck $30 $17 AccK Receivable ID) $79 $49
Red Ball $35
ZapPowBoom $13 I 9
$18 Accts. Payable (D) $79 $49
General Ledger {D) .. $79 $49
Cardco Peripheral* H
3 Slot VIC Mother B $40 $26 Such-A-Deal! Cash Flow Mgmt. (D)
Programmers Kit (D)
6SlolVICMolbrrB $100
16KV1C . .
Cass Interface VIC
Software!' Drtla Manager (D)
Money Manager ID)
. $25
<J03 S. Rural Rrl #102 Robbvrs Lust Tomb ID) $25 $17
Printer interface
Tempe.AZ 85281 LlectronlcCliecltbook(D). $25 $16
VIC and COM (A $H0 $52
5SlotCOM64 $70 $43 TO ORDER FAST. FAST And Last But Not Least
CALLTOLLFREE: Quick Brown Fox $65 $45
Graphics Tablets (This month only!)
1-800-431-8697 Practicalc 64 (T) S50 $33
Koalapad VIC 20 $125 $60
Practicalc64(D) $55 $36
KoalapadCOM64. $125 $60 For Inluimabon Only [602) 968.9128
Conti nen lal's Home Ace I $79 $45
Ordering & Terms Send cashier check, money order or bank wire transfer Personal Co checks allou/3 wks bank clearance All prices are with cash discount,
add 3"Ei VISA MasterCard Accepted Prices subject to chanye Prowde phone » with order Shipping Software Add $3.00. Hardware Add $10.00.
Arizona residents add 6% sales lax Relurns must have auihorl/oiian # (call 602-968-9128 lor authorlwtion #). All returned merchandise subject
to restocking fee & musr come with all original packaging No returns allowed after 30 days frum shippinii date
VIC Super Expander
Kenneth Knox

Want to see some stunning graphics on your Lines 100 - 170 — Put points (x,y) into
VIC? If you have a Super Expander car memory in an array and
tridge, type in this short program and you plot the points.
might be surprised to see what effects are
Lines 200 - 220 — Draw the patterns as a
series of lines with selected
points of the point figure.

Here's how you can show off the amazing Lines 230 - 250 — Utility parts of the
graphics which can be created with the VIC-20 program.

using the Super Expander cartridge.

Polar figures, in which the points are part of a Several modifications are interesting. Replace
circular function, may be formed in many ways. line 40 with :
In lines 120,140, and 150 of this program, we see 40B = 500:L = 0
one way to generate unusual point curves. The new point figures now look much the
Chords (lines connecting points of a point figure) same but are drawn differently. The line figures
are drawn using selected points. This program vary also.
combines these functions in an unusual way. Another option is to change line 100 to:
When you type RUN, fascinating patterns are
100 FOR Z = 12 TO 20
drawn continuously until you press RUN/STOP-
RESTORE. Pressing RUN/STOP alone will freeze This will create more complex point figures
a pattern on the screen. with symmetrical features.
There are no unusual techniques here, so it
How It Works should be easy to recreate these figures on any
Lines 40-70 — Initialization and graphics computer with high-resolution graphics.
setup. See program listing on page 195. ©

80 COMPUTEI's Gazette November 1983

WOI* [-!!
—'\ \ I i —



n i*i ■ ■ ■ m
*i § ■ nil



They said it couldn't be done. Boy, You'll find the best graphics ever your city from reincarnating invaders
were they wrong! available for the Vic 20 in games that in CROSSFIRE.™ Evade a CANNON-
are already hits on the Apple and Atari. BALL BLITZ™ to climb through three
Think of itl Brilliant graphics and the stages of action to defeat the
fastest action this side of reality. Redcoats.
Survive wave after wave - 24 Sierra On-Line's assortment of the
different levels - of intruding best, the brightest and the fastest
aliens in THRESHOLD. Believe itl
Rescue your space pals from THRESHOLD,™ LUNAR LEEPER,™
and head for the eye. Save BLITZ™: A whole new look for the Vic
20! Available at your local dealer.

i ■-. m
Aardvark Attack

Last month, computed Gazette published

"Aardvark Attack," an educational game for
the unexpanded VIC-20 originally written by
Todd Heimarck, This month, we have an up
dated version for the Commodore 64, translated
by Mark Sugiyama, Programming Assistant. An "A-bomb" drops toward city number 3 in "Aardvark
Here's a summary of how the game works for Attack" for the Commodore 64.
those who missed our last issue.
Attack, too. It uses the entire keyboard and in
cludes variable speeds that will challenge anyone.
Mutant aardvarks from Andromeda are attacking
Earth with unique weapons — alphanumeric Rules Of Ploy
bombs. There are 26 types of bombs, and each re Your job is to type the correct letter, and then the
quires a different defense on your part. Typing correct number. The letter of the bomb about to
the letter M, for example, sets up the defense drop appears in a "radar window" in the upper-
against M bombs. The same tactic applies to the right corner of the screen. When it appears, type
other 25 letters of the alphabet. it. If you miss, try again. When you get the right
The aardvarks are attacking Earth's ten letter, the falling bomb reverses colors. Then you
largest cities, numbered 0 through 9. Once you must look at the row of numbers representing
set up the defense, you have to decide which city cities at the bottom of the screen and type the
is being attacked. matching number to destroy the bomb.
The selectable speeds range from easy to
Keyboard Practice nearly impossible. The faster games award more
"Aardvark Attack" isn't designed to teach touch- points.
typing, but it will give you practice on the Parents or teachers can do the typing for very
keyboard if you're just learning to type. For young children who are just learning their letters
youngsters, it can teach letter and number and numbers. The child can call out the letter or
recognition. number for them to type.
Experienced typists should enjoy Aardvark See program listing on page 191. (ffl
81 COMPUTE!'i Gazelle November 1983
In Every Dragon Haw\ Package: Free Strategy Cards.

Great new game — great new way to face to face with the dragon himself. But
play. You are the Dragon Hawk, soaring you won't be alone.
to attack — and escape from — a host of To get you there faster and make play
flying monsters. Each time ing Dragon Hawk more fun
you press the trigger on your than any Commodore 64 game
joystick, the hawk's wings ever, you'll have help at your
flap, lifting you into position fingertips. Strategy cards with key
to dive, talons extended. tips on crucial parts of the game
One pounce and another are included free in your package.
phoenix bird or flying iquana is reduced Get your claws on Dragon Hawk right
to a mere floating feather. But if you away. It's a thrill so new and different
fail to get above your enemies... zap! you may never come down.
You've had it! And you've got to avoid YouTl find Dragon Hawk for the Com -
the massive lightning bolts, too. modore 64 with disk drive at your local
Finally, on the seventh level, you come dealer now, or write to UMI direct.

United Microware Industries, Inc,

3503-C Temple Avenue
CommodorB 64 Is a Itodemark of
Commodore Business Machines, inc. Pomona CA 91768 [714] 594-1351
64 Timepiece
Joe DiNicola

In the premier issue of COMFUTEI's Gazette (July rack, where it represents one minute. When the
1983) we published "VIC Timepiece," a clock rack accumulates five balls, four of them return to
program originally written for the unexpanded the bottom of the screen and one rolls onto the
VIC-20 by Joseph D. Wright. A reader, Joe middle rack.
DiNicola, has translated the program to work Each ball on the middle rack represents five
on the Commodore 64. Following is an adap minutes. When this rack fills up with 11 balls —
tation of the original article. and when the top rack overflows again - all balls
but one return again U> the bottom of the screen.
The remaining ball rolls to the lower rack, where
Here's something for your computer to do so it each ball represents one hour.
won't get bored when you're not using it. The When the hour rack fills up with 12 balls -
program is patterned after the plastic rolling-ball and when the two upper racks overflow - a chain
clocks often sold in department stores and gift reaction is triggered as all the racks empty into
shops. the bottom of the screen, leaving only one ball in
Unlike usual clocks, "64 Timepiece" keeps the hour rack. This is the changeover from 12:59
rime by stacking balls on racks representing hours to 1:00 (see photos).
and minutes. Every minute, a ball from the bottom To read the clock, you start with the lower
of the screen is carried to the top of the screen rack and work your way up. Six balls on the lower
and rolled off the ramp. The ball falls onto the top rack mean it is at least 6:00. Then add up the balls

II 's 12:59 - all the rack? are fillet] -with balls. Balk from the top rack starl tumbling dawn, triggering
chain reaction* on the lower racks...'
84 COMPUTEIU Gazelle November 1983

■W" ■i !■■.■;.■' I


STATIONS! As chief commander of

SPRITEMASTER" is not just another NEUTRALZONE" Likes you totheouter
land and sea forces in the Pacific, your
sprite editor. It's the finest utility available edgesoflhe galaxy, to ALPHA IV, a long
mission is to obtain a quick naval
for multicolor sprite animation and game range early warning station whose mission
victory, and invade enemy territory
programming. It will have you making is to delect alien intruders from other
with land forces. BEACH-HEAD" is
full color animated objects inj ust minutes. galaxies.
a 100% machine language game and
People running, birds flying or Unks offers multi-screen action with high NEUTRALZONE~ is i he ultimate in high
resolution, threedimensionalgraphics. resolution, last action, arcade quality
automatically append your sprites to (Suggested retail price... S34.9S> games. It is written in 100% machine lan
other programs. Its easy to use and under guage and features smooth scrolling of the
stand and comes with a full 21 page instruc 360 degree panorama The realism is
tion manual and samples of animated
unbelievable. (Suggested retail price.
sprites to get you started. (Suggested retail $34.95)
price... S35.95)


When it saves you
Time, it saves you all
adds up to a great
Simply hook up ADDON
to your Commodore 64.
Then forget it.
ADDON mokes it easy for
...until nil the rucks arc nu}'t ictl, except for one ball on the you to work with numbers
hour ruck - indicating 1:00. To odd, subtract, multiply and s
divide them.
It even has omnidirectional
on (he two minute racks. If the middle rack is full, cursor keys for easy maneuverability.
and if there are three balls on the upper rack, it is ADDON. Decouse Time is Money.
6:58(55 + 3 = 58). And that's what counts.
When you first run 64 Timepiece, it asks you From:
to Bet the time. Just follow the instructions and
s. Victoria Ave., Suite 105
enter the correct time as a three- or four-digit Ventura, CA 93003 (805) 656-1330
number without tl colon, such as 658 for 6:58.
Sec program listing on page 189, <Qf




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lectronic<6preadshe ectronic Sbread Shee
for the CeSmmodore 6, jr the Commodore 64

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231E South Whisman Road For the name of your nearest dealer,
Mountain View, CA 94041 detailed information or a catalog of products.
(415) 965-1735 "California, Canada and Alaska, please call (415) 965-1735.

In Europe: SUPERSOFT, Winchester House, Canning Road, Harrow Wealdstone, England HA3 7SJ, Tel. 01 861 1166
Connect The Dots
Janet Arnold

"Connect The Dots" is an entertaining short tune and the remark, "Good job! Draw
graphics program for young children who can again?" Hitting a Y calls up the menu again. An
locate numbers and letters on the keyboard. N ends the program.
Originally written for the unexpanded VIC,
we've added a version for the Commodore
Working With The Child
When introducing this activity to a child, a few
additional explanations may be necessary. Be
sure to explain the difference between the
number 0 — point out the slash — and the letters
As teachers at a small private school, my husband
and I saw the children anxious to get their hands
A tot whose visual discrimination is immature
on our V1C-20 computer whenever we brought it
might reverse letters. Connect The Dots can give
to class. Unlike many adults, who are hesitant to
that child enjoyable practice in overcoming this.
use it or even refuse to touch it altogether, the
If you notice a child confusing 7 and L, for in
children jockeyed for their turn at even the dullest
stance, ask, "Is that line walking on the ceiling or
programs we loaded.
on the floor?"
I wrote "Connect The Dots" to provide my
Of course, preschoolers and some kinder-
own children and my preschool/kindergarten
gartners who are still learning their numbers and
students with a "game" that could entertain
letters will enjoy naming them aloud to you.
while reinforcing their skills at the same time.
Children with short attention spans should
Making Dots Into Pictures try the pictures with fewer dots. Even then, be
prepared to help them along or to complete it for
Here's how it works. The child is given a four-
them. This isn't all bad, because the time spent
item menu from which to choose the picture he or
with children at the computer can enrich your
she wishes to draw. The greater the number of
relationship and will tell them that their activities
dots, the longer it takes to complete the picture.
are important to you.
A grid appears on the screen. Some of the
There's no time limit in Connect The Dots, so
squares contain markings. Tell the child to look
don't rush the child. This will be a welcome relief
for the solid dot, because that's what must be
to the child who equates computers with tense,
matched with the coordinates. When the prompt
timed, shoot-or-be-shot action,
"Number?" appears at the top, show the child
If some children's eyes have trouble following
how to press the correct number coordinate and
the grid from the dot to the coordinates, show
hit RETURN. Answering the next prompt, "Let
the children how to trace with their fingers directly
ter?", will probably take longer unless the child is
on the screen.
familiar with the keyboard.
A wrong number-letter combination is Details Of The Program —
answered with a low "uh-oh" sound and the
words, "Tryagain." VIC Version
After a correct answer, the computer draws a It is important to type this program exactly as
line connecting the dots and plays an amusing shown. Too many extra spaces might cause VIC
sound effect. A short timing loop delays this just users to run out of memory.
long enough for the child to look from the The fourth selection on the menu is a heart in
keyboard back to the screen to enjoy this reward. scribed with my children's names. Substitute
The finished drawing is accompanied by a your own message by changing line 650.
88 COMPUTE!'* Gazette Novomber 1983
CDfTlfTl * DflTfl


• Supercuda*
• Pegasus Odyssey*
• Ape Craze*
• Escape MCP*
• Maelstrom*
• Firing Line*
• Pakacuda*
• Centropods*

• Home Accountingt
• Stock Accounting!
• Basic Tools|
• Multi-Level
Marketing Manager
(Direct Selling)!
EXCITING NEW • Cash Manager! A
• Toddler Tutor*
• Primary Math
• Math Tutor*
• English Invaders
• Sketch & Paint*

Serving the Needs of Commodore

Computers for Four Years. Call for
the Dealer or Distributor Nearest
to You. CDfTlfTl * DflTPi

320 Summit Avenue

Milford, Michigan 48042
(313) 685-0113
t Commodore 64"
vVIC 20" Arcade Slyle Games are High Res Full Machine Code.
•Both Commodore 61 and VIC 20 are Registered Trademarks ol Commodoie Business Machines, Inc.
Connecting the dots to draw a heart on the VIC-20. (You can A completed mushroom, one of four picture* included with
modify the program to substitute any names in the heart.) '■Canned The Dots" (VIC-20 version).

Following is a line-by-line program descrip 1500 — DATA for mushroom.

tion for the VIC version, giving the starting line 2000 — DATA for dog.
number of each section: 2500 — DATA for heart.

1 — Title and instructions.

10 — Menu.
Designing Your Own Pictures
20 —Draw grid. Part of the fun of this program is designing your
90 — Search DATA for starting point of chosen own pictures. My five-year-old, Jonathan, con
picture. tributed the mushroom found in Connect The
100 — Read 4 pieces of DATA per dot and POKE Dots by coloring in squares of graph paper.
dot. To substitute a picture of your own, design
110 — Ask for dot's coordinates. one using the accompanying grids. They cor
140 — Response for wrong answer. respond to the square grids in the VIC and 64 ver
200 — Response for right answer. sions of the program. Remember that most of
500 —Setup butterfly.
your design should consist of a continuous line as
550 — Set up mushroom.
in dot-to-dot pictures. Anything else must be
600 —Set up dog.
650 — Set up heart.
POKEd in when the picture is first set up.
900 — Response for completed picture. For the purposes of this article, let us assume
1000 — DATA for butterfly. that you have a VIC and have drawn a clown to

Figure 1: Grid For Designing Pictures Figure 2: Grid For Designing Pictures
On The VIC On The 64.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617 01234567891011121314151617

7748 1 1155 1
7770 2 1195 2
7792 3 1235 3

7814 4 1275 4
7836 5 1315 S
7858 6 1355 6
7880 7 1395 7
7902 8 1435 8
7924 9 1475 9
7946 10 1515 10
11 1555 11
7990 12 1595 12
8012 13 1635 13
8034 14 1675 14
8056 15 1715 15
8078 16 1755 Ih

filftO 17 1795 17
8122 18 1835 IS

90 COMPUWi Gazette November 1983

Growing computer industry
expands authors' choices
For ^O9«*#3 this is a smart buy if you're looking for a place
lo store your computer, peripherals, and accessories without
The rapidly expanding personal computer industry spending a fortune,
offers greater opportunities for the software pro
grammer and author in search of a publisher.
Yet the growth poses its own problem - the choice of
a publisher.
Here is a list of questions to consider when looking
for [he publisher best-suited for your product:
-How large is the publisher's distribution network?
A publisher with international connections can offer
more exposure than companies limited to regional or
national sales.
-How will your product be marketed and advertised?
No matter how good the program is, if people don't
know about it, it won't sell. Look for a publisher with
a marketing budget large enough to give individual
attention to the program.
-Does the publisher market programs for more than
one computer? The days of limited selection in
hardware are long gone. Limiting programs to one or
two computers can limit sales and profits. Authors can
increase their share of the marketplace by looking for
a publisher devoled to converting programs to a
variety of popular computers.
-Does the publishing house lend technical support to
authors? Some publishers only accept programs ready
for the marketplace. A lot of good ideas are lost in the The CS 1632 computer storage
long run. The publisher that offers assistance invests a cabinets compact yet functional
design fits almost anywhere while
greater stake in the product, the author and the success
housing your computer monitor,
of the product. joysticks, software, books and
peripherals all for only $89.95,
-Does the publisher offer complete product support
The slide out shelf puts the
to consumers? In these times of consumer awareness, computer at the right height and
the company that has established a network lo answer position for easy comfortable
customer questions about its products fares better
The fold up locking door keeps
than those who do not offer this support. unwanted fingers oifthe key
Each of these services leads to greater sales which in board when not in use.
To store joysticks just turn them
turn lead to greater profits for (he individual upside down and slide them into
programmer. the inverted storage rack.
Twist tabs on the back of center
Sierra On-Linc, Inc. is committed to paving the way
panel allow for neat concealed
for an author's success. grouping of wires, while power
Sierra On-Linc's product line is distributed packs rest hidden behind center
panel on shelf.
worldwide with production facilities in the United
The slide out software tray has room for 14 cartridges or cassettes
States, Japan, Australia, the United Kingdom and and up to 30 diskettes. Most brands of software will fit between the
South Africa. adjustable partitions with a convenient hook for the spare key at rear
Sierra On-Line employs a well-financed, in-house Stand fits Atari 400 & 800. Commodore 64 & VIC 20, Ti 9&4A
and TFS-80.
marketing and advertising staff with a knack for Cabinet dimensions overall 36" high x 33-7/8" wide x 16" deep.
creating tailor-made campaigns for products. Cabinet comes unassembled. Assembly requires only a screwdriver,
Each program is evaluated by experts, who may hammer, and a few minutes of your time.
Choice in simulated woodgrain, of warm golden oak or rich natural
suggest enhancements to improve the product and to walnut finish.
increase its appeal to customers.
P.O. Box 446 West Linn. OR °7O68
Further, Sierra On-Line isn't limited to a single
computer. Tiic company closely monitors computer
HVTEC Foi Fasi Phone Orders Call
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trends and makes existing products available for the Name _
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A packet for authors with more information about City . State .Zip
the software submission process and our company is □ Golden oak finish □ Natural walnut finish
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Immediate shipment if inslocM Uptrend] checfc is w:i[. a3o%v ^rrks
Prices subjeel To change 5hjpm*nl ititij^ct 10 availability Cabttttl shipfcd uruswmbicd bi
2 canons Ships UPS in coBetf FOB Portland. O
replace the dog in the listed program. Substitute STEP value is 1. From right to left, the line
the title "CLOWN" for "DOG" in line 11. This moves backwards one space at a time, making its
changes the menu to read "C = CLOWN". STEP value -1. A line traveling diagonally up to
Lines 600-610 POKE in the dog's tail and a the left has a STEP value of -23 on the VIC (or -41
starting square (SQ). Use these lines to POKE in on the Commodore 64), since the computer skips
your clown's nose, for example. (Hint: Since back 23 (or 41) spaces before POKEing the next
children are always asked the coordinates of a square.

solid dot, use an open O or you will confuse Use this diagram to figure STEP values for the
them.) VIC:
To compute the screen memory location of -22
the nose, add the four-digit row number to the
-23 -21
left of the grid to the column number above the
grid. This same number + CD is your color mem
ory location.
POKE in your starting square — use code

#160, a reversed space — and assign SQ the value
of the screen memory location of that starting
square. 21
Now just figure your DATA. The computer

1 4
1 1
5 IIII 1 rr

"' S
9 iTttt 3
19 jTTT L0
11 LI
Ez L2
r 3
14 4

! j
1 18

A finished butterfly - Commotion- 64 version. A horse-64 version.

reads four pieces of data per dot: screen memory Use this diagram to figure STEP values for the
location (A), color of the line to be drawn (B), 64: .40
number-ierter coordinates of the dot (£$), and the
direction that the line will travel to reach the dot
(S). Figure each as follows:
First, compute the screen memory location of
the dot as explained earlier.
The second number is the color code of the
line to be drawn. The color code is always the
number of the color's computer key minus 1 (e.g.,
black = 0, red = l, etc.). 39 41
Third, look at your grid to find the number-
letter coordinates of the dot. The number comes
first and is found on the right side of the grid. Figure each dot's DATA in the same manner.
Follow this with the letter. Do not separate the Separate each piece of DATA with a comma. You
number and letter with a space. must insert your new DATA into the proper line
The last number is a STEP value. This number numbers, so check the program explanation listed
tells the computer in which direction the line earlier. Since you are replacing the dog with your
should be drawn. For instance, a line moving clown, your DATA will go in lines 2000-2030. Be
from left to right travels one space at a time, so its sure to leave the first piece of DATA — C — in line
92 COMPUTEr$ Gazette November 1983
Join the largest, active Commodore users group.
In Education...
Games designed by teachers and
Benefit from:
classroom tested
Five games now available on cassette lor VIC 2U":
— Access to hundreds of public domain MULTIPLY - rangas within 2 x 2 lo 9 x 9. Correct
programs on tape and disk for your answer destroys Hying saucer —
changeable time limits
Commodore 64, VIC 20 and PET/CBM. ADDITION - Uses same range and format as
TIC-TAC-FRAC - plays lic-lac-toe wilh ccrrecl answers
— Informative monthly club magazine reducing Iraclions
THE TORPET. STATES - dulls youngsters Ihrough graphic display Of

RULER - teaches uso ot ruler in fractions of inches

Send $1.00 (or Program & Information Catalogue.
(Free with membership).
$14.95 each on cassette
$39.95 all five on single disk
Membership Programs available soon loi Commodore 64""
Canada — $20 Can.
Fees for U.S.A. — $20 U.S.
Personal checks, MasterCard and V<sa
12 Months Overseas — $30 U.S. accepted, give card number and eapiraiior
dale Schools may send purchase ordeis


Department "G"
1912A Avenue Road, Suite 1
Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5M 4A1 SCHOOLHOUSE
* LET US KNOW WHICH MACHINE YOU USE " P.O Box 397, Grand Junction, CO B15O2

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COLOR Solve Them With
Quantity Kara Amount

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Bytes & Pieces have a simple, static filled covers. Get the MasterCard* _
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send it back and we'll retund Commodore 64 and Vic 2O die registered Address
your purchase price in full. trademarks ol Commodore Compiler Company City _

Dealer Inquiries Invited
55O W. 68th Street, Wauwatosa, WI 53213, 414/257-3562 1
November 1983 COMPUTEi'i Cmene 93
2000. This is the DATA that the computer
searches for to set the DATA pointer.
If you would rather spend your time playing
with your child than typing in this program (VIC
version only), send $3, a blank cassette tape, and Why Buy
a self-addressed, stamped mailer to:
Janet Arnold
Computer Games
When You Can
Owosso, Ml 48867

See program listings on page 192. <Qj

Design Your Own?

VIC-20 Until now you've only played great computer
games. Now it's time to create your own, with PDI's
SOFTWARE BASIC programming tutorial for beginners, Step By

Our Step By Step is the easiest way for you to
learn how to program your Commodore 64 com

V/e offer one-scop shopping for all of your VIC-20 How Does Step By Step Work?
—the newest, the latest, andean the "hard to find.'
The great thing about Step By Step is that it's com
SEND TO: prehensive. Every time you learn a new program
\ Jay Sun Enterprises, Incorporated
Depl No 62 ming lesson, your TV monitor displays a sample
2 Linda Coun. Albar^ NY 12208
program. Alter each lesson, you're asked to answer
questions or solve a problem that deals with what
you've learned. And after each answer, the com
puter checks your work.
Step by Step will teach you everything you need
to know including the following:
• Printing characters

VIC 20
• RUN and LIST commands
• STOP and END statements
• INPUT statements
• GOTO, IF and THEN statements
• and much, much more.
Step By Step comes complete with workbooks,
practice problems and is packaged in an attractive
Now you con have the memory power of But that's not all. Later this year, PDI will be intro
the 64, flexible memory control, expansion ducing a complete SAT package and learning games
port and more.
for younger children.
Since 1978 PDI has been helping children and
adults alike explore the potential of personal com
puting. Isn't it time you started?

r< mosaic
Call for vour nearest Mosaic Dealer
1800-547-2B07, In Oregon 6S3-7BB5
VfC20tt o registered trademark of Commodore Butlnex Moc/W>ei Inc.
Program Design Inc 95 Eaa Pulnam Avenue. Greenwich CTO&KW

94 COMPUTE! S Gazette November 1983

Advance Series by WESoft
Advance Series by WESoft STOP PLAYING GAME
Advance Series by WESoft
Magic Wand 64 - Advanca Communieolloni Pk(|. ■ Com Calculate 0(05 on HORSE RACFS wlri ANV COMPU
TER using BASIC.
municate with iiL.r.i computers including mainircmios!
11 Em . I • - ■ & dump I on I & graphic v Ehhuiicu your 1600-1650 u, Station Wl KV ol Louisville. Kentucky used this syiern
tommumcot*? ai 120Q+ buud - ioll-ad|Uiting Ioiiiidi ond lo predict the odds ot the 1980 Kenhicfcy Derby See
{110-19,300). I rue simultaneous occeii 1o pei ipherals the Wall Street Journal (June 6. 1980) article on
& aulo upload/download. CBM 64 S 109.95 This system was wnnen and
used by computer experts and « now ttting made available lo home compiiler owners Inn
Advance 1500 Printer Program - Speed& operoiion ol method is Based on storing data Iram a targe number ot races on a higti speed laige scale
15I5/I52S printer lo 50 cps1 Adds lull descenders computer 23 factors !3fcen Irom The 'Oaily Racing Form " were inen analyzed Sy me
CBM 64 S49.9S coinputeMfi see ho* tneymliuencefl race results From these 23 laclois ten weietoundio
Be ine rnost wni in deieimming winners NUMERICAL PROBABILITIES ot each o! these 10
Advance Serial DOS - Reprogrom I '■ -10/41 disk drive lo lood (actor? were then computed and in« lorm; the 03515 01 mis RETOLLtiQNJHV VtW
& iavo programs twice as lost Automatic Me closure PROGRAM
CBM 64 (49.93 ■ SIMPLE TO USE DDtain Oaily Rating Form tie day oelore Me races ind answer me 10
questions arjout each norse Run the program and vour computer will punt out the orJds for
Advance Screen and Character Sal - Expands screen ac all horses in each race COMPUTER POWER gives you trie advantage1
cess. Scroll 50 rams vertically. 40-120 horuonlally. Frees 4K ■ VOUGET 1) Cassette
ol memory wilh improved characier set CBM 64 $49.93 3) Listing ol BASIC program 101 use win any computer
3) Instructions on how to gel Ihe needed data Irwn the Daily Racmg Form"
Sprite Generator - No bolls, no whistles, more powerlul. 4) lips on using me odds gtnerjied Dy ine p'oo/am
easier to use. and at a breaktliru price! CBM 64 124.93 5) Sample lorn 10 simo'ilv en;ermy data lor v&b race.
Foitfind for Ihe Dataieito -'Find, load and save programs
3G COMPANY. INC. DEPT. G (503) 3S7S607
of'loirlorword." CBM 64 »14.93
RT. 3. BOX 28A, GASTON, OR 97119
Program Editor - Rewrite, Iroubleshoot & debug, walklhru ¥cs, I wail 10 use my computer lor FUN and PROFIT Please send me programs
H iiuichlrrice User dclined function keys. ,iiSM9Sncb Ci'ttineuiSMieyounted PET/CBM. VIC^O
VIC 20 or CBM 64 129.9.-, SihcUl'Titoi 1000 *UN IRS BO CohJiCCfflBuier.
Character Generator/Editor • Easiest ond most powerful Aooie (loo* Dis* auaian*—aorj ii OOi
h&<rai yiuphics & lexl ihru rodehned charoclers Enctosefl is IZ! check or money order Q MisterCard Q Visa
VIC 10 or CBM 64 134.93

Add S3.00 lor shipping and handling ted No E>p date

For inlormniion or io orfier [613| 922-5808 NUME

WESott 4512 Exceliior Blvd. Sulle 303
Minneapolis MN 5J416 A0CHE5S
MC/VliA acceptud Minn, rotltJBnll add b% sales lo*
ciiv . SIATE . -IIP.

by WESoft■^ Software on Disk for the 20/64


Progioms for the VIC-20 and the COMMODORE 64
All games available on IAPE or DISK and are packed

adventure In the Old West. Journey bock

TH WARRIOR SERIES with us Into the days oT Jessie James and. Billy
the Kid where the only lorm ol justice was a loodod
revolver ond a hangman's noose. In this lull-length
lent adventure, you ploy the rote ol Bounty Hunter,
bottling against ruthless oullows. hostile Indians, wild
animols ond the elements ol the wilderness with only
METAMORPHOSIS $19.951 your wits and your six gun. AvaragB solving lime 20-
30 hours. It you love adventures, ttils one Is a real
You stumbled Into the nest ol ffie Cvg'orx
and find yoursell lignilng off robot tanks
Available (or COMMODORE 64 or Ihe VIC-20 (with 8K or IhSK
guarding Ihe Cyglorx eggs You think you
expander). Played with KEYBOARD.
have everything under control and then
ttie eggs slort hotchlng. Commodore 64
version features ■'. different screens.
Available (or COMMODORE 64 and VIC-20.
ING0K0NG $19.95
Played with JOYSTICK. Climb ladders, avoid the barrels Ihe crazy
^r ope Is rolling ot you, ond rescue Ihe domsel.
A CREATOR'S RKVEMGE $19.95 B Commodore 64 version features 4 different screens!
Available for COMMODORE 64. Played with JOYSTICK or
The creator assembled a massive army ol robots ond KEYBOARD.
insects to take revenge on the earth. Destroy insects, get
tteasures, and get the neutron Bomb diactivatot. Battle
your city.
and destroy the neuiron bomb
Miss and you must lace
the mutants
It annihilates
Features 4
different screens
Earthh$ surface Is threatened by collapse from
Avollable (or COMMODORE 64 Ployed with JOYSTICK. strange g*oup of creatures who bore oul tno
earths crust io make tnelr dens. Your objecllve Is re-

^ LARYRMTH OF THE CREATOR S19.95 enter Itie crealure s habitat ond spin the invaders to
Journey into the most complex and dangerous fortress Available tos COMMODORE 64. Played with JOYSTICK.
ever build by the creator. You will encounter deadly robots, Ch*cn >our local1 dwi»r ct oiaer airecnvOPDttiHG W*
skulls, lakes, avalanches, false creators, and a creature accept pe riona i ch«Jts. money oiaon, VISA and MA5TFR-
' K*flGi Criaifleorder*piegwincludenumos*ond*nxni-
who roams 256 tooms relentlessly pursuing you. Fiondcn* Ovvrwaio ■"■JDieajeuwcrwftjflorfiQvaensci
Available lot COMMODOBE 64 Played with JOYSTICK. paynfilii Ihroygl-t o IJ$ Mnk AdQ ii M poUqgn and
i i - . i pei . ■»' PA ■■ ■-••' -i nleuio ada 6X uji«i 1qi


7 Valln Bloc* BooU. Pooll f* 19i01

Coloreraft Graphics
Animator For VIC And 64
Shelby Goldstein mand line displayed along the
top of the screen.
ColorCraft for the VIC-20 and The first option, Form, al
Commodore 64 computers is an lows you lo change the page size
entertaining, educational to various dimensions. As the
graphics program that is ideal page size decreases, the number
for the computer novice oryoung of available pages increases.
student. (We reviewed the VIC- Memory expansion, of course,
20 version.) The emphasis is on allows VIC users to have more
graphics and animation, but pages of any size. For example,
ColorCraft provides an excellent an unexpanded VIC will hold up
introduction to the computer in to five pages of the smallest page
general. It covers topics from size, 5 x 10 (5 lines by 10 charac
setting up the computer and ters), while 16K will increase
loading tapes to using a screen that number to 50 pages of the
editor. 5x10 size, or 12 pages of the
The first-time user will largest size, 21 x 22. Animation
quickly become familiar with the requires several pages, so Two examples ofgraphics screen* created
computer's graphics keys, func smaller-sized pages would be with the Commodore 64 version of
tion keys, and the CONTROL the most common choice, espe ColorCraft.
key. ColorCraft also teaches about cially on an unexpanded VIC.
the computer's special editing In addition to controlling cursor will move. For example,
features, including the CLR/ page dimensions, the Form com Direction 7 is down; it commands
HOME, INST/DEL, and cursor mand lets you select the border the cursor to move downward
movement keys. In addition, the color. This is done simply by with each subsequent character
concepts of screen wrapping, pressing the B special function typed instead of moving in the
repeat keys, screen centering, key. There are eight colors from normal direction (to the right).
memory, and mass storage are which to choose: black, white, Eight directions, including
introduced. red, cyan, purple, green, blue, diagonals, are possible. This
and yellow. feature is particularly useful for
Graphics Commands Most work with ColorCraft is drawing shapes requiring
Animation is created with Color- done in the Edit mode. The editor straight lines.
Crnft by designing different pic is entered by pressing E while
tures or fext displays on several the command line is on the Editing Graphics
different screens (pages) and screen. In the Edit mode, you Revisions are easy with the ed
then flipping through them can choose the cursor color, iting keys. Characters or spaces
quickly. Text and pictures are change the character set, and are added or erased with the
created and animated with Color- turn reverse printing on and off. INST/DEL key. The CLR/HOMF.
Craft using five commands: You can write text or create key can be used to erase an entire
Form, Edit, Run, Save, and Load. graphics with the graphics keys. line or the entire screen. On VIC-
A sixth command, Copy, is avail One particularly nice char 20s with memory expansion,
able on VIC-20s with memory acteristic of the editor is the ad you can also delete or insert lines
expansion and on the 64. Com vanced drawing command called by pressing CTRL-D or CTRL-I,
mands are executed by pressing Direction. This option allows and you can center lines with
the appropriate letter on a com- you to set the direction that the CTRL-C.
96 COMPUTE!'! Gazette November 1983
Skyles Electric Works Presents

The VicIVee™
...Leaves your new Commodore 64 (or Vic 20) with 42 additional commands,
...Branches out to most BASIC4.0programs.
... Roots into most printers.
Neiv from Skyles: the VicTree, a coordinated hardware and software cartridge that allows your
Commodore 64 to branch out in unbelievable directions and makes it easier than ever to do BASIC
programming, debugging and to access your disk. And the new VicTree provides routines to interface
the Commodore 64 to all Centronics Parallel printers with an inexpensive cable. 8kb of ROM—4kb
for the BASIC commands, 4kb for disk commands. Perfect not only for the new Commodore 64 but
also for the Vic 20. Unbelievably simple to use with a 100 + page manual with many many program
examples. Easy to install, plugs into cartridge port, the VicTree gives you all the additional BASIC 4.0
commands to allow most BASIC 4.0 programs to work on your new Commodore 64 and Vic 20.

And now with the BASIC command Commodore forgot!

Mow only S89.95 or S 109.95 complete with Centronics standard printer cable. (Cable alone $29.95.)
Available now from your local dealer or order through your Visa or MasterCard toll free:
(800) 227-9998 (California, Canada, Alaska, Hawaii: (415) 965-1735) or send check
or money order directly to:
231E South Whisman Road
— . . _. . _ r . Mountain View, CA 94041
Skyles Electric Works <4i5) 965-1735

While in the editor, you accomplishments with the Run when restricted to the VIC and
choose the screen color by command. 64 graphics characters. Also, the
pressing the f3 function key. Several features can be ex program is very limited on an
There are 16 colors available. ecuted while the sequence is unexpanded VIC.
These include the eight colors running: {7 turns on the win But as with many graphics
mentioned above plus orange, dows that display your page programs, the weakest link is
light orange, pink, light cyan, numbers, line numbers, position the user, not the program. If you
light purple, light green, light numbers, direction, timing and can't draw on paper, you prob
blue, and light yellow. color; f3 slows down the screen ably can't create great works of
One of the moat important displays, and SHlFT-f3 speeds art on a computer. You can, how
features of the editor in creating them up; ("5 runs your program ever, learn a great deal from this
animation is the liming selection. in reverse. The space bar freezes program and have a lot of fun,
The Timer determines how long the display and starts it moving too.
each page is displayed. Your again. ColorCraft
pictures or text can move very Your work can be saved on Sim Computer Products, Inc.
slowly or very quickly, and each tape or disk. A print program is P.O. Box #7
page can stay on the screen a included in theColorCrafi manual Mhjmrn, PM9452
different length of time. The that allows you to access your $24.95 VIC-20 cassette
time is set for each page with the ColorCraft files from BASIC. This $29.95 Commodore 64 cassette
f5 function key. The larger the program is written for the Com $34.95 Commodore 64 disk ®
timing number, the slower the modore printer only, but if you
page-flipping. The Timer works know a fair amount of pro
with the Timing Interval, which gramming, you can get it to work
is the constant that determines on other printers.
the overall speed ofyoui Color- The flip side of the program
Crnft program. The two can be tape contains samples created
combined to set as much as 45 with ColorCraft. These are helpful
seconds display time per screen. in illustrating some of the pos
The final feature of the editor sibilities of the program. In addi
uses the fl function key to move tion, the accompanying manual
to the next or previous page. is one of (he most lucid manuals COMPUTERS Gazette is
This is especially helpful for I have ever seen. It is written in
looking for well-written,
editing the various pages of your an easy-to-read style with many
sequence, and for previewing detailed explanations and ex
clearly explained articles
your animation by flipping amples. Chapter VII takes you for beginning and inter
through the pages. This also is step by step through a sample mediate users of VIC-20
enormously helpful if you have program that uses all of Cofor- and Commodore 64 per
memory expansion, because the Cm//'s editing features and illus
fl and C keys can duplicate an trates simple animation. The
sonal computers. If you
entire page as many times as manual even includes a ten-page have an idea for a feature
you wish. This makes animation glossary of terms used in the article or tutorial, submit a
much easier - you can duplicate program, as well as many com manuscript or send us a
one screen several times and mon computer terms.
(hen make just slight changes to ColorCrajt is an excellent
query letter.
each screen. program for a first-time com
puter user or as an introduction
Easy Animation to computer graphics. It is not
After you've created your pages intended for creating advanced
and finished editing them, you graphics. There is a limit to the
can sit back and view your sophistication you can achieve
9B COMPUTE!'* Gazette November 1983
Fantastic Sale! HES Special Programs
For VIC-20 Computer
Call Today!! Call Today!! Call Today!!
• Fantastic Sound & Music • Piano Keyboard
Now your VIC-20 can be used as a state-of-the-art music synthesizer and special effects generator! A Synthesound
very user friendly manual guides you through sessions of learning and development of your syn
thesizer "style"! You can program Synthesound to sound like many different instruments like
bagpipes, organ, bass and many others. Synthesound brings technical musical abilities to any VIC-20
user. Prepare to step into the exciting world of the futuristic computer musician.
• VIC keyboard used as a 2 octave, fast attack keyboard • No additional hardware required.
• 3 voices with 4Vi octave range. • Spectacular special eltects.
• A low frequency ocillalors. ■ < voice(20 note sequencer lor repeating melodies or rhythms
• « envelope shaping controls (Attack. Decay, • High resolution piano keyboard display.
Sustain, Release).
List $44.95 /Sale $19.95
Faster than BASIC — easier than Assembly language — Language of Robots.
VIC FORTH is an exciting new cartridge for your VIC-20 computer. You now have a language that is
more powerful than BASIC and easier to program than assembler! VIC FORTH is a nearly complete
implementation of the "FORTH INTEREST GROUP" (fig.) version of FORTH. The VIC FOHTH editor
follows closely the standard FORTH editor described in the book, "Starting FORTH", plus it has many,
many additional features.
• Full screen editor which has 16 lines of 64 characters each (standard FORTH Screen) through use of a hori;ontal scrolling
• User definable words; this means a (unction not already supported can be created by you and added to VIC FORTH lor
future use.
• Full VtC sound and color capabilities.
• Runs in standard 5k VIC.
• Output to printers and disks and tape machines.
• Up to 24k additional memory can be added.
• 31 characters for variable names.

List $59.95 / Sale $39.95

• Create colorful pictures and graphics • Learn how computers compute.
Turtle Graphics is an exciting and fun way to discover computer programming concepts. Turtle
Graphics Is an easy-to-learn computer language. It enables the beginning programmer to master the
computer in just a few minutes. By telling an imaginary turtle how to roam about on the VIC'S screen,
the Turtle Graphics programmer can create colorful and artistic pictures. As one becomes more and
more adept at teaching the turtle to paint using the VlC's rich graphics and color palette he or she is
painlessly learning all of the basics of computer programming. This not only develops computer
awareness, but enriches one's math, logic, communication and artistic skills as well.
• Turtle Graphics has over 30 different commands.
• Programs may be listed on a printer and sawed on or loaded from tape or disk.
• Turtle Graphics Is menu driven for ease of use.
• Trace mode to help the beginning programmer follow the logic ol his program ono step at a time.
• Well written, easy-to-follow manual with many examples Included.
List $39.95 / Sale $29.95

We Have All HES Products At Super Sale Prices!! ENTERPRIZES (WElOVEOURCUSTOUEflS)

Phone 312/382-5244 to ordir

November 19B3 COMPUTE!'! Gazette 99


Preschool Educational
Software For VIC-20
' I
Donald Elman

Most commercial programs avail This partly depends on the ab


able for VIC-20 owners are vari sence or presence of the three
ous games designed for children characteristics mentioned above.
7 to 70. Very little educational You need to look for programs Rob the robot looks OK now, but lie
software of any kind has been could suddenly redraw himself and be
that can continue to teach and to
without ears. 'Players must type in the
introduced for the VIC. Even hold the child's interest. name of the missing part in My Body.
more scarce arc programs de
signed to entertain and educate Here is a summary of
the Sesame Street generation of some available software for
children under the age of six. preschoolers:
every two or three seconds. By
Finally, a handful of com Early Games For Young Chil pressing any key, the user in
mercial programs designed for dren, Counterpoint Software stantly stops the menu and starts
preschoolers is beginning to hit (cassette), $29.95. Documenta the subprogram whose symbol
the market. As more of these tion: A brochure with loading is showing. The menu itself can
become available, parents and instructions and brief descrip become a sort of game, as the
teachers should look for certain tions of each "game." child learns to anticipate the
features that make the programs There's more packed into sequence of symbols and to
worthwhile learning tools. I have this single cassette than nearly pounce on a key as soon as a
found four areas of particular any other commercial VIC tape favorite picture is shown. You
significance: that f have seen. This group of can return to the menu from any
Ease of use. Loading con programs was recently adapted subprogram by pressing one of
venience, clarity of documenta from earlier versions for the the function keys.
tion, and uncomplicated input/ Apple, Atari, and IBM. They Numbers. A large block
response methods for the child. work well on the VIC. On one number from one to nine appears
These are very important for side of the tape are nine separate on the screen. Below are the
young children, who are easily programs that can be individu instructions "MATCH THIS
frustrated and whose ability to ally loaded and run on an unex- NUMBER." If the correct key is
solve problems is not likely to be panded VIC. On the other side pressed, a short, random-note
well developed. of the tape is a huge, single pro tune is played, and a new
Sophistication of graphics, gram that incorporates all nine number appears. If wrong, there
color, and sound. A child's re of the shorter programs under is a very brief "uh-uh" sound.
sponsiveness is enhanced by an one master menu. However, No corrections are given, and
animated screen. A program this comprehensive program the child can keep trying differ
that uses many of the VIC's requires 16K of memory expan ent keys until the right one is
special features in this way will sion and takes a full five minutes pressed.
promote the child's interest. to load from the tape. Once Count. Either one, two, or
Educational features. Matching loaded, the long version allows three blocks appear on the
the program to the child's learning the user to jump around at will screen. Pressing a number key
level is essential. How does the among the nine subprograms. results in either the correct or
program handle positive rein Instead of presenting all incorrect feedback described
forcement, prompts or correc the choices on the screen at above. After several correct
tions following errors, and once, the 16K version's rotating answers, the level of difficulty
increasing difficulty as the child menu displays a symbolic repre automatically increases, with
masters one level of a problem? sentation of one program at a the maximum number of blocks
Sustained interest potential. time, changing to the next one shown going up to six, and
100 COMPUTE!'! Gazette November 1983
These ATARI Programs are also available JUMPMAN CheckEase!
by RariOf G>ov&' 'fom from T & f Software
for IBM, Tl and APPLE New science liction game1 Jufipman musi save aU 30 Have ihe power of a protessionai quality check register
levels oUupiTer Headquarters Scale ladders, girders and system1 Maintain mullipte accounls reconciliation arid 16
perilous ropes while fig hi ing oH demonic dosuoyeis Joy- budget categories Aglomaiically updates and Balances
slick conirolled. S gBTic varrattons wiih diflereni speeds for;deleTions ol checto. dgposils O' deductions
and music, sound and g'uphics to ThMll you The gli Review, sorl and prini by Chech numWr. category or Tan

DIG f tul of ruFiDnc^ lor 1-4 players dflducuona Co^palible wilh RS232, Commodore printer

DUG §:•
21621 C64 Tape S0fcS3 ,ino Personal Finance program

24950 C64 Disk Vic20BkTapeS24.95

from Atari ^m J S31.96SALE C64TapeS29.95
The search Geneaih ifie earth yields nol only a fOurtty oi
20% OFF TIL C64 Disk 534,95
fruits and vegetables lor our hungry gaiflnflr. Cut also l"e
pe::lal Fygflr^ and PocKas. wnose avoidance Jeqmres skrll NOVEMBER 10 Also available for Atari, IBM and Apple
Vic20 or C64 Rom Cartridge i19.95
On// 30 Available—Order now* WAYOUT
by Paul imt'ttBtn tram Sums
Ifffl3 Golden Joystick Award Winner> Buflrrfl 3-0 scnUimg,
dtiion males' SoiecE Ircn 26 incredible |Ourneys Vim r
hiivcaCQnkP'~ii!; iind ■■ "^nnof vow Irjivci^ <iiti*c [lOitu'Tiof
mo screen Save 9 locahons or me enhre gaiie YoumusT
from (?oma)
ovokJ the mischievous hiding Clepl.inglo Krep your eye tncrea^o your wcrd pov»ef and typing skills too' You can

DONK 0" trie fife die sr they li show you which way Ihe wind s blow
ing anrjmayDe even give a due lo Ihe WAYOUT'
scleci any speed- from Ho 120 WPM— and can even input
you* own lisl of words ir|o Ihe program Nol onfy will you
116917 C64 Disk S2frM S31.96 SALE
deverop the sti'l of (ouch lyprng but ynur speed will m-
crciV-c with every lun-Mled hour you play Ihegarrie.
tram Atari
The vicarraui ploawes at rescwnq Ifta fair motion NOVEMBER 10 31880 Vic Rom S39.95
from Donkey Kong, begin byfiotp-ng Mario, me foarltfts 31891 C64Rom
carpenter negotiata g'tdati e'evQion ondtroacnviy
Vic 20 or C64 Rom Cartridge S49.95

Only 30 Availabie- GRID-

Dan't Miss Out!
from HCS
GfiOrunner pits you agrjinsl Ihe enemy droids arnassing on Hn^Man 15 Iho 6502 machine language m on nor rtiih a
Ihe Earth's orbilmg solor powor 5t.ilion,' The Grid ' Cnn- mim-aaaemblBr 11 allows serious program development
Iroll ng ynur hijhioninn F.isl ojiilloship, you must nvoid ihn
wilh 30 easy 10 use commands, each completely ex
ciroifln wojporl^ jno1 ainihilnitfl ffiom Uoloio Ihoy nll.itk plained witn Bumpfn \n Ihe user guide HesMon is a
fromAlan This last pacod nclinn qdino ftao 20 lowuls desioned To powerful tool wilh many fealures nol found in olher
DeientSer. [ho mo^l deadly ch.-illonfjo your refluxes and coolnng^ undur liru
irjciion :o"i to the nurnnnoirla 33B26 Vic Rom Cartridge or 42107 Vic20 Rom Cartridge or 19325 C64
tnvaderg^in Ihisgamo Ql graduate
19358 C64 Rom Cartridge S3&93 Rom Cartridge S39.95
Vic20 or C64 Rom Cartridge S49.95 S31.96SALE
Also, Stargate _ -
from Atari ATARI UP FOR
Morn ol Aidn 5 nosi iiiat lor you. Tub nowor.i .iroadeoBma
is an ddvancome"! ''Or^ DflinniJei — moio vttwns, moro
from Spmnoktir
cioalurasl E«ira Isaiuras allow you 10 neeomo mwaioio or This fnial p.ncod word<j cKiNcncjes player lo calch
lumplMiougnihepulsaling 'SlarQale" 10 advance rapidly.
lolltrrs and build wofds Encourage planning iinri quick
Vic20 or C64 Rom Cartridge J49.95 decisions wilh Ihis family loaming game for ages 8 lo aduH.
Holp o"orci50 spelling and vocabulary skills whiffi- having

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eventually to nine. appear on the screen, each num right portion of the screen,
Add. A simple addition bered 1-4. Three of the shapes accompanied by a brief musical
problem is displayed using are identical to each other. The tone. At the same time, a smaller
colored blocks instead of digits. child must press the number of version of the letter block ap
As in Count, the level of diffi the different one. pears elsewhere on the screen.
culty gradually increases as the Home Babysitter, Commodore Pressing a different letter re
child gives a string of correct (cartridge), $29.95. Documenta- ' places the large block and adds a
answers, with the highest sum small block to the picture. After
tion: A two-page, no-nonsense
being nine. The feedback is the all the letters have been pressed,
set of "instructions for parents."
same as described above. the 26 small blocks appear in
Commodore's own contribution
Subtract. This uses the same alphabetical order starting at the
to this market is a plug-in car
presentation format as Add. The upper-left corner of the screen.
tridge with three separate, at
largest operand is five. If a nonletter key is pressed at
tractive programs, each instantly
Letters. A large letter ap any point, the screen clears, and
accessible by pressing one of the
pears on the screen. Below is the each letter block is automatically
function keys. Except for the
instruction "MATCH THIS displayed in order to the tune of
overly ambitious title (don't ex
LETTER." Correct and incorrect the "alphabet song." Once the
pect this program to feed your
responses receive the same feed child has learned the alphabet,
child dinner or call the fire de
back as in Numbers. he or she could manually play
partment in an emergency), it's
Alphabet. This is similar to the alphabet song and display
a well-designed piece of software
Letters, except the child must the blocks by pressing all the
that could keep a youngster oc
press the key of the letter that letter keys in order.
cupied for quite some time, with
alphabetically follows the one on The F3 key activates Learn
minimal supervision.
the screen. After a wrong an ing To Count. First, another
swer, the child is prompted by a The first screen is a menu menu appears, which allows the
brief display of the entire that displays a picture of the Fl, user to choose a maximum
alphabet. F3, and F5 keys, each next to a number (5, 10, 15, or 20) for the
Names. First a parent or nonverbal sample of one of the counting exercises by pressing
older child must type in a name three programs. If no key is one of the four function keys.
(or any word). Then the word pressed immediately, the pro Next, a rectangular outline is
disappears from the screen, and gram repeatedly cycles through displayed on the screen, with
the young child must retype it a short graphic/sound routine two "score" columns to the right
correctly. that illustrates each program. of il. For each counting problem,
Draw. In this program, the Pressing one of the top three a random number of objects
child can create a low-resolution function keys begins the cor appear within the rectangle at
picture on the screen by pressing responding program. You return the rate of about three per sec
various keys. Instead of using a to the menu by pressing the RE ond, each accompanied by a
single key for each direction, the STORE key. short beep. Then the question
keyboard is divided into eight A minor problem with the "HOW MANY?" is displayed be
regions. The first character- menu is that the user must wait low, along with a large, blinking
sized, square dot appears in the a few seconds for the computer cursor.

center of the screen. Pressing a to cycle through the entire illus The child must press a
key in the upper left of the tration routine before the func number (which shows up on the
keyboard, such as 1 or 2, will tion keys work. A child might screen as a large-sized digit), and
add an adjacent dot above the find it difficult to tell when these hit RETURN. If the child's input
left of the first one. Pressing a keys will work and when they is correct, a large, smiling face
key near the bottom-center of won't. appears, and a small smiling face
the keyboard, such as B or N, Pressing Fl from the menu is permanently added to one of
will add a dot directly below the leads to Alphabet Blocks. The the score columns. If wrong, a
last one, and so on. Pressing the screen clears to white. Pressing large frowning face appears, and
space bar changes the color of any letter from A to Z results in the child is given another chance.
the succeeding dots. a large picture of a child's block After two wrong responses, the
Shapes. Four large shapes showing that letter in the lower- program counts the objects for
102 COMPUTE'S Gazette November 1963
[...And Easy! Congratulations on your Commodore — now learn everything you can do with it! It's all in
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the child and puts a frowning which remains on the screen lor tape there is the problem of cuing
face in the score column. For va four seconds until the problem up the programs in the middle
riety, different types of objects returns. After about eight correct or the tape. Once any of these
are displayed with each counting answers, a brightly colored programs is loaded, the child
problem, including several rocket ship blasts off and slowly would probably need guidance
standard and custom graphics rises until it disappears from the in using the menu (if any) and
characters. screen. understanding the response pro
The third program, accessed My Body- American Peripherals cedure the first time or two. Of
by pressing F5 from the menu, is (cassette), $11.95. Documenta course, an older child may not
Face Maker. More creative than tion: None. have any problems with this.
educational, this one provides a This single program can run on Because of its impressive use
nice change of pace from the an unexpanded VIC. After of graphics, sound, and color,
intellectual rigors of the other asking for the user's name, if I'd judge that Home Bain/sitter
two programs. Essentially, it is a displays the following instruc is the most delightful of these
sort of cartoon version of a police tions: "I'm a robot. My name is for children. Its well-balanced
detective's kit for producing Rob. When I show myself, look offering of letters, numbers, and
composite drawings of a suspect. very carefully and 1 will play a visual creativity are nicely de
The outline of a face appears on game with you. We will play ten signed for the preschooler. A
the screen. By repeatedly pres times, and each time a part of very close second in enjoyment
sing various function keys, you me will be missing. Type in the is Early Games, especially the
can display about six different name of the missing part." 16K version which allows the
versions of each of the following: The screen display shows child to shift instantly from one
hair, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, the robot and a list of words for game to another. In fact, the
and chin. Literally tens of each body part. If the correct variety of Early Games might
thousands of different shape word is typed in, the robot is sustain more long-term interest
combinations are possible, and redrawn, but with another port than Home Babysitter. Both of
the color of each part can be in missing. If wrong, the message these products, however, seem
dependently set by pressing one "LOOK AGAIN" appears. This to be effective exercises for a
of the color control keys. program uses no color, no youngster's early letter and
This program also has two sound, and no random varia number skills - a useful comple
cute touches. One of the "eyes" tions. If the user replays after all ment to the passive learning
is an animated wink, and one of ten words have been entered mode of Sesame Street.
the "mouths" sticks out its correctly, the missing parts are By contrast, the American
tongue; appropriately accom presented again in the same Peripherals tapes seem to offer
panied by the sound of a "Bronx order. less, although their lower price
cheer." might tempt you to give them a
Alphabet. American Peripherals Recommendations try. Of the two, Alphabet is clearly
(cassette) $9.95. Documentation: Very young children will more animated, with color/
None. undoubtedly need some help graphic/sound feedback,
This is a single-function program getting started with any of these prompts, and randomly varying
thai runs on an unexpanded programs. However, I've seen reinforcement messages. Any
VIC. For each problem, a se three-year-olds who can readily child would surely enjoy the
quence of six letters appears on insert a tape, type "LOAD", and rising rocket ship. However,
the screen in alphabetical order, (with two hands) press the PLAY once the novelty wears off, there
except that in place of one is a button. The 16K version of Early is no variety to sustain interest.
"?". Pressing the correct letter Games, which takes five minutes My Body, in the version that
results in an upward-sliding to load, requires both the RAM 1 tested, has few redeeming fea
tone, a smiling face, and a mes expansion cartridge and the tape. tures. Its basic concept is unique,
sage such as "DOING FINE!" or Then there is the possibility that but it could use a lot of "extras."
"RIGHT ON!" An incorrect an the child might tire of waiting. Since it's written in BASIC,
swer results in a downward- The shorter tape programs are perhaps you could use your own
sliding tone, a frowning face, simple to load and run, but with programming skills fo add color,
and a list of the entire alphabet, the 5K side of the Early Games Hound, and other enhancements. '■!■>
104 COMPUTE!'! Gazelle November 1983
(more power than Apple II at hall the price)
CHRISTMAS SALE (a real computer at the price of a toy)

$99 50*
$77. 00*

170K DISK DRIVE 5159.00 • 40-BO COLUMN BOARD S89.00

( * with software savings applied) i * wilh Casselte ana Gone* rj


You pay only 1199 50 when you order the powerful You get Ihe Commodore VIC 20 Compute/ lor
84K COMMODORE 65 COMPUTER1 LESS Itie only $77 00 when you buy at sale prices The
value ol the SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON we ! wilh every COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER- Commodore Data Cassetle lor only S69.00 and
pack with your compulei Ilia! allows you to SAVE DISK DRIVE-PRINTER-MONITOR we sell! I trio Gortck Introduction to Basic program for on
OVER SIOO oil soflware sale prices!1 With only This coupon allows you to SAVE OVEr| ly $19 95 TOTAL LIST PRICE S302 95. SPECIAL
S100 of savings applied, you* nel computer cost is PACKAGE SALE PRICE 1165 25
S100 OFF SALE PRICES! S200S300 sav-
When you buy trie Commodore 6d Computer Irom A laniasiic price breakthrough 'o' ViC-20 owners
Proteclo Enlerprizes you qualify To purchase ONE on Ihis most warned accessory11 'Now you can
SOFTWARE BONUS PACK for a special price of
COMMODORE 64 gel «0 oi 80 Columns on you( TV. or Monilor
S29 95!' Normal price la S49 95 (40 programs on Hvnm Ltii Coupon Screen " Plus we add a woro processor with
Eneculiyfl Word Processor 199 00 152 00
dish or 24 programs on 5 lapes) mail merge, electronic spread sneei. time
Complele DataBase M9 00 (46 00
manager ana terminal emulator" These PLUS
Electronic Spreadsheet IB3 00 116 00
170 DISK DRIVE SI59.0O Accounting Pack 169 00 H!00
programs require SK or 16K RAM memory (Disk
You pay only S259.O0 when you order the 17QK Total 5 2 Word processor-Plus add $10 00).
Disk Drive! LESS Ihe value of the SPECIAL SOFT- Tape MS 00 H?00
WARE COUPON we pack with your aisk anve Ihat Disk 1/9 95 «?00 VOICE SYNTHESIZER S59.00
allows you to SAVE OVER $100 otl sollware sale Tnlal Te>t2 6lrVordProcesioi- Volrai Based Make your VIC 20 COMPUTER
TlM 12600
prices'! Witts only 1100 of savings applied, your TALK1 Has lealures equivalent to other models
OlJk 12600
net disk drive cost is $159 00. cosling over S37OO0 You can program an
Tolal Label 2 6 J2196 11!00
Disk 129 9S 11500
unlimited number o( words and" sentences anrj
Quick Brown For Word evon ad|ust volume and pitch You can make
Processor (69 00 110 00 aOveniure games thai talk1 A must lor enhanc
You pay only $219 00 when you order Ihe Com-
PrOQrarumors Reiorerico ing your programming creativity and pleasure
slar TIP deluxe line printer lhat prints S V2 ' 11
Cuiaa [20 05 (1!W
lull size, single sheet, roll or (an fold oaoer. PrCQrammors Helper (69 00 (10 00 6QK MEMORY EXPANDER S59.O0
labels etc 40. 66. 80, 132 columns Impact doi Basic Tutor 129 95 [15 00
Si-slot — Suited selectable — Resel Button —
matrix, bidirectional. 80 CPS LESS Ihe value o! Typing Teachar 1J9 9S (1500
Sprue Delia nor
Ribbon cable A must to gel Ihe most oui ol
trie SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON we pack 116 95 [10 00
Modicinaman (19 95 (1J00 your VIC20 Computer. Includes FREE 129 95
with your crmler lhat allows you to SAVE OVER
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S100 olf sollware sale prices!' With only J100 of Music Ullor (19 95 (12 00
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I119 00. (2195 11300 8K RAM CARTRIDGE S39.95
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80 COLUMN BOARD $149.00 UghlPaa (39 95 (20 00 pands total memory to 33K (33,000 bytes)
Dflluie Du 31 Covnr ( S95 [ 160
You pay only 1149.00 lor this SO Column Board. Memory block switches are on outside ol cover1
rand manyofe' tremsi
Includes FREE 116 95 game
Included with this board Is word processor pack,
electronic spread sheet and mail merge data
Writs or call for
base on two tapes. Llsl S249.00 (Disk add Ssmpla SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON! 16K RAM CARTRIDGE $69.00
S10.00). Increases programming power 4 times Expands
total memory to 41K {41.000 byles). Memory
block swilchos aro an outside cover' Includes
Ihe finest available for the COMMODORE 64 12* GREEN SCREEN MONITOR S99.00
The Cadillac ol business programs VIDEO MONITOR wilh antiglare. 1920 characters
wordprocessing application. DISPLAYS 80 COL
UMNS IN COLOR Featuring simple operation, lor Commadorn G4 Computers (80 characters ■ 21 rows). Save your TV1 a must
powerful leit salting wilh a customized 250 Hem List 'SALE lor 80 column word processors. PLUS S9 35 lor
word dictionary, complete cursor and In- Inventory Management 189 00 469 00 VIC 20 or Commodore 64 Cable.
se'UdeLele key controls, line and paragraph in. Accounts Receivable S89 00 Sfi9 00
Accounts Payable 189 00 169 00
senion. automatic deletion, centering, margin
Payroll Management S39 0O S69 00 12'AMBERSCREEN MONITOR S119.QQ
settings and output 10 all printers. Included is a Cash Flow Management $89 00 J69 00 Premium quality AM8ER VIDEO MONITOR Wilh
powerlul MAIL MERGE When used with THE Sales Analysis $89.00 169 00 antiglare. (BO characters X 24 rows), exceptional
COMPLETE DATA BASE PACKAGE. Lisl S99.00. General Ledger J89 00 S69.00 ly dear screen, faster scanning, 1000 lines.
SaleS79.0O. Coupon Price $52.00 (Disk only). (•COUPON PRICEIS9.00)
PLUS S9 95 lorVIC20orCommDOore64Cable.



Add 110.00 for shipping, handling and insurance. Illinois residents

please add 6% lax Add S20.00 lor CANADA, PUERTO RICO HAWAII
Enclose Cashiers Checfc, Money Order or Personal Check. Allow N days
lor delivery. 2 lo 7 Days lor ptione orders, i flay express mail1 Canada ENTERPRIZES [WE LOVE OUB CUSTOME RSI

orders must be in U.S. dollars. VISA - MASTERCARD - COD BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010
Phone 312/362-5244 lo order

*STX-80 COLUMN Double

PRINTER-S149.00 PITCHES: • 10, 12 or 16.5 characters per Inch.
Immediate Replacement
Prints full BO columns. Super silent operation, 132 columns maximum. Double-width font also Warranty
60 CPS. prints Hl-resolution graphics ■m;l It standard tor each character pitch.
Wo have doubled Iha normal 90 day warranty
block graphics, expanded character set, ex
to 180 days. Therefore if your printer lails
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mable length from 1/144 to 255/1*4 InchBS.
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106 COMPUTE!'! Gazette 1983

80 Columns x 24 lines
Green text display
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Up front brightness control
High resolution graphics
Quick start - no preheating
Regulated power supply
Attractive metal cabinet
UL and FCC approved
9" Data Monitor
15 Day Free Trial - 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty

9" Screen - Green Text Display $ 79.00

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12" Screen-Amber Text Display (anti-reflective screen) $119.00
13" Screen-Color Monitor (national brand) $249.00

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Equally important, all are built with Sanyo's commitment
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Canada orders must be In U.S. dollars. Visa - MasterCard - COL) Phono 3127382-5244 to order

Four Tronix Games

For VIC And 64 Dan Gutman

Have you wiped out any Killer- The other three new games
watts lately? If not, you may from Tronix are very different
want to pick up a copy of Juice from one another, seemingly
for your Commodore 64, one of intended for specialized audi
four new games from Tronix, ences. Still they do have one
which last year blessed us with thing in common - simple direc
Kid Grid, the fill-in-the-blanks In Juice for the Commodore 64, the player
tions. Just pop that cartridge in
controls a figure whojumps around a
game for the Atari 400/800. juice and play.
power grid, pursued (nj "Kfllerwatis"
{designed by Kid Grid's designer (artist^ rendition of actual screen).
Arti Haroutunian) is the most Deadly Skies
exciting game in the new batch. Here's your shoot-em-up. Un
It's a good takeoff, but not a rip- derneath a protective cloud cover worms, pod babies, etc.), each
off, of the hit arcade game Q*Bcrt. are a missile base, tanks, and with a different point value.
The other new Tronix games are missile emplacements set up to More importantly, you've got to
Deadly Skies, Scorpion, and Gold destroy your copter. UFOs, feed your clan by stunning frogs
Fever, all for the VIC-20 only. smart bombs, and asteroids har- and bringing them home.
rass you in the air. You've got to This is the fastest-moving of
Juice bomb through the cloud cover, all the Tronix games, and you
In juice, as in Q*Bcrt, you are a then bomb the ground targets should have fun fighting your
which scroll by from left to right. way through the maze, wreaking
helpless but resourceful charac
Unfortunately, your copter can havoc, shooting everything in
ter who relentlessly hops around
not scroll off the screen with the sight. The program makes pretty
a grid trying to change the ap
targets, nor can you wraparound good use of the VIC's graphics
pearance of all the blocks by
and come out the other side. capabilities, and the screen
landing on them. "Juice" refers
The sound effects are quite scrolls in four directions.
to electricity; if you hit all the
There is a scanner on the
blocks without getting killed by good, reminiscent of the shooting
in Centipede. Although you can side of the screen that reports
various nasties, you have com
your location, but if you glance
pleted a circuit board and you barely make out the shapes of
your enemies, the overall at it you're probably a goner, ll
move on to the next level.
might be an improvement to
While Q*Bcrt hops on a graphics are adequate.
You will be challenged. eliminate the gauges and make
pyramid, Edison, Juice's charac
the playheld larger.
ter, leaps about a slanted rec Around level four there is so
much debris in the sky, you feel There arc 32 levels and three
tangle. The configuration is
like you're attacking Mount St. difficulty settings, so you will be
slightly different for each of the
Helens. It is a good test of occupied for the next few
six levels. If you get into trouble -
peripheral vision, though it is months. Designer Jimmy Huey
and you will-you can jump off
bothersome that the enemy has also given us left- and
the grid onto a line which
missiles suddenly appear a quar right-handed play, and a freeze
will cause you to materialize
ter of the way up the screen, option.
which happens to be your ideal The instructions neglect to
This game is a knockout.
bombing altitude. say where the scorpion "house"
The characters are human-
is, but I'll tell you - it's that black
looking, not some videogame
slick figures. The graphics are Scorpion square in the center of the screen.

top-notch, and the play action is Scorpion is another fast-action

Gold Fever
fun for five minutes as well as shooting game, but it requires
five months. It is available on some thinking, not just twitching. In Gold Fever, you are in
disk for the Commodore 64 You've got eight different things side an abandoned mine filled
and for Atari computers with 32K. to shoot at (Venus's-flytraps, with glittering piles of gold. Bui

108 COMPUlEI's Gazette NovembeH983


77k helicopter (right-center) Immbs In Scorpion for the VIC-20, enemy Your miner (upper-right) must avoid
ground targets in Deadly Skies for the creatures abound in a four-way scrolling hazards while gathering riches in Cold
VIC-20. maze. Fever far the VIC-20.

some of the screen objects are all the gold in one mine, you Tronix Publishing, Inc.
difficult to recognize. The gold move to another. There are nine 701 W. Manchester Blvd.
could just as easily pass for small difficulty levels, distinguished Inglewood, CA 90301
sleeping rodents. Boxcars are mainly by the amount of gold Juice
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Claim jumper, who looks more two alternating scenes.
Deadly Skies
like a fire hydrant with a Of the four new games from Scorpion
table to p. Tronix, the standouts are juice, Gold Fever
Anyway, after you pick up Deadly Skies, and Scorpion. VIC-20 cartridges $39.95 ©


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Rat Hotel For VIC-20

Clark L and Kathryn H. Kidd Playing Rat Hotel
For those who might not learn
Like mold on cheese, Rat Hotel how to play Rat Half! without
lends lo grow on you after a printed rules, here they are. Rat
while. Our copy of the new hide- Hotelisa cartridge game re
and-seek ViC-20 cartridge from quiring a VIC and a joystick.
Creative Software didn't come Plug in the cartridge, turn on the Waldo the Maintenance Man chases
with instructions, and without VIC, and jiggle (he joystick to Ermine the Rat in Rat Hotel.
the benefit of a press release we center the title screen on your
might have had trouble learning TV. Choose your skill level by
how to play. Hut once you know pushing the joystick up. Press think you're well ahead of him,
the rules, Rat Hole! is easy the fire button to start play. but he'll catch up to you. More
enough to entertain even Once play begins, the top of rats "bite the cheese" while
younger players. the screen records your current waiting for the elevator than in
The object is to maneuver score as well as the high score of any other Rat Hotel situation.
Ermine the Rat down six floors g.imes in the series. Little rats on
of the Hotel Paradisio to con the upper left side indicate the Good Features
sume Le Grand Cheeseball in number of rats left in a game. The idea of having an elevator
the basement. Ermine's enemy On the upper right is a black bar that makes you wait is ingenious.
is Waldo the Maintenance Man. showing the amount of time a It adds a little variety to the game.
Waldo, armed with a gun, chases player has left. Rather than Another good feature of lint Hotel
Ermine around the hotel. giving the time in minutes and is the sound effects, which are
Rat Hole! is b game of several seconds, the black bar shrinks to excellent. When the game be
challenges. One, of course, is show the remaining time. This is gins, a Bach tune is played. After
Waldo the Maintenance Man. a clever feature; it's easier to a while, though, the song does
There are also rattraps scattered gauge the length of the bar out get a little tedious, especially if
throughout the hotel, which of the corner of your eye than it you're not a good player and
Ermine must avoid. The third is to take your eyes off the game have to keep starting over. There
obstacle is time: players have to read a numeric display. are also little tunes played when
three minutes lo guide Ermine There are five skill levels, you win or lose.
from the hotel attic to the and the only significant differ When Waldo shoots the rat
cheeseball. If and when the rat ence is the speed of the game. there's a popping sound, and
consumes Le Crand Cheeseball, Level 5 isn't unreasonably fast when the rat gets caught in a
the game starts again at a more unless you've just finished trap there's a definite crunch.
difficult skill level. playing a game on Level I. There's a beeping noise that
Along the way to the base Ermine must avoid Waldo calls the elevator. Different
ment, cheese is hidden in various by staying ahead of him or by sounds are made when the rat
corners. When Ermine consumes finding places to hide. When the eats good or bad cheese. A lot of
this cheese, points are added to rat has eaten all the cheese on a effort was put into the sound
your score. The rat must eat all floor, move him to the extreme effects, and it makes the game
the cheese on each level to move right or left of the screen and more enjoyable.
from one floor to another. Occa then push him as far down as The graphics of Rut Hold are
sionally the cheese changes color possible to await the elevator. above average, perhaps even
from yellow to black. When the As you press the joystick toward excellent. Graphics are not the
cheese is black, it paralyzes the the edge of the screen, a beeping, strong feature of the VIC-20, but
rat for a few crucial seconds. sound will call an elevator to the graphics in Rat Hotel are good
During those seconds, Waldo take Ermine to the next floor. enough to add to the enjoyment
may sneak up and shoot the rat. While you can move the rat of the game.
Never fear, however: a player is only one floor at a time, Waldo For all its innovation, how
allowed three rats per game. can skip floors. Sometimes you ever, Rat Hotel is a game of few
110 COMPUTE!; Gazette November 1983
Adventure International Presents. . .

TRS-80 & Commodore 64 Versions
by Bob Cassady
IBM Version by Fran Green

.BHWA ' ' /

NlghtwaEker! Beautiful women.
Dangerous men. A weird gravedigger.
They're all here in this interactive tale
that challenges you to gather enough
evidence to crack a dangerous
underground heroin ring. The story
unfolds in the famous port city of New
Orleans. Par from the glamour and romance
of Bourbon Street, you find yourself prowling
the seedy bars and alleyways of the water
front for clues. The word is out on the
grapevine. A nosy reporter (you) is snooping
around for information from everyone and
anyone who'll talk. If you're the kind of ace reporter
that judges your sources carefully, you could end up
with the story of a lifetime. If not, you could find
yourself on a pleasure cruise down the Gulf — minus

For The the boat! Nlghtwalker is an interactive story, so your

decisions during the game have a direct bearing on
its outcome. You collect evidence, buy information,

log observations, and Interview townspeople. You
must successfully gather enough evidence to present
to the police for a bust. Nightwalker Is a text-oriented
program that is becfed-up with some sharp graphics

and COM-64 routines, and has an extensive data base that assures you
of many, many hours of varied excitement — if you survive!

Visit your local dealer today,

or call us toll free at
REVIEWS VIController
• Control up to 256 lights & appliances
• 9 levelsof brightness
• Manual & lime control software
surprises. The rat always starts
the game in the same location,
• Uses BSR remote switches
• Plugs into user port
cheese and traps arc hidden in EXTENDEDTIME CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CBM 64 ... S995
the same spots every time, and
Waldo plods the same basic route
each time the game is played.
Even the poisonous black cheese
shows up only once in most NEW SPEECH SYNTHESIZER FOR VIC 20 & CBM 64
games, and that's at a specific • Unlimited Vocabulary
spot in the basement. Thus, all • Automatic English to Speech Conversion
games are basically the same, • New BASIC Command "SPEAK"
and after a few dozen rounds • Will Speak String Variables
the player begins to feel like a rat • Speaks with Four Levels of Inflection
in a maze. Some randomness Plugs into Expansion Port ONLY I 49 95
introduced into the program Built in Audio Jack
would have made Rat Hotel an AS EASYTO USE AS A PRINT STATEMENT!
even better game.
Call (215)861-0850 to order
Rat Hotel MasterCard or Visa Accepted
Creative Software 1444 Linden Street, Bethlehem, PA 18018
2M) Caribbean Drive
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Rafed THE BEST educational program for the VIC 20™ Put yourself in the pilot's seal! A very challenging
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Programmers: Wrtle to our New Program Manager concerning any exceptional VIC 20TM or Commodore 84TM gameorolriBr program you have developed.

11! COMPUJEViCazelte November 1983

A close-up screen photo showing how ordinary characters (left) are transformed into custom characters (right) for the VIC-20
version of "Chicken Little," a game program elsewhere in this issue. Note the technique of combining one or more characters
(A, F, C, I) to form a single, large custom character.

Introduction To
Custom Characters
For VIC And 64
Tom R. Halfhill, Editor

What are "custom characters"? Why might effect, you are customizing or redefining the
you want them? Are they hard to program? characters already built into the computer.
How do they work? This introduction to the For instance, if you redefine the letter A to
concept of custom characters answers all look like an alien creature, every time you PRINT
these questions and more. Two other articles A on the screen you'll get the alien instead of the
in this issue then show exactly how to pro letter. Animation is as easy as erasing the
gram custom characters on either a VIC-20 or character — by PRINTing over it with a blank
Commodore 64. space — and then PRINTing it in the next posi
tion. When this process is repeated rapidly, the
alien seems to move across the screen.
Perhaps you've admired the screen graphics of a Custom characters are especially useful to
favorite arcade-style game, or the Old English let game programmers, but also are fun to experi
ters of a Gothic text adventure. These kinds of ment with for anyone interested in programming.
shapes and special characters are not built into
the computer itself. Maybe you've wondered Character Sets
how these effects are achieved and if they are dif First, let's clarify exactly what is a character set.
ficult to program. Briefly, it is the complete set or collection of char
The secret is a technique called custom charac acters that a particular computer can display on
ters, also known as redefined characters or program its video screen. Characters include letters of the
mable characters. The terms are almost self- alphabet (both upper- and lowercase), numbers,
explanatory — with programming, you can punctuation marks, symbols, and — on the Com
design your own shapes and special characters to modore 64 and VIC-20 — the 64 special graphics
display on the TV screen. They can be almost any characters that are pictured on the front of the
shapes you want: spaceships, aliens, animals, keys. In all, a VIC or 64 has a standard character
human figures, Old English letters, anything. In set of 256 characters. This is the total set of charac-
November1983 COMPUTEfs Gazelle 113
ters which the computer is capable of displaying. this would limit you to the built-in character set.
The character set is built into the computer, Indeed, on some computers there is no
permanently stored in Read Only Memory alternative.
(ROM). ROMs are memory chips that retain
important information even when power is
Fooling The Computer
turned off between sessions. The character set is
However, on the VIC and 64 — and on many
stored in ROM as a list of numbers. The numbers
other home computers — there is a way to modify
describe to the computer how each character is
the character set to suit your own needs. The
formed from a pattern of tiny dots.
technique requires fooling the computer.
You may be able to see these dots if you look
Here's how it's done. The first obstacle to
very closely at your computer screen. (The dots
might be too small to discern on some ordinary overcome is the preprogrammed ROM chips. It
is not possible to erase or change information in
TV sets, but they are much more visible on a
ROM. But remember, there are two types of
monitor.) All the characters in the character set
memory chips in computers: ROM and RAM.
are made up of these dots. The dots for each char
RAM (Random Access Memory) is temporary
acter are part of an 8-by-8 grid, for a total of 64
memory that can be erased and changed. Pro
dots per grid. This method of forming characters
grams loaded from disk or tape, or which you
is familiar to anyone who has seen the large time/
write yourself, are stored in RAM while they run.
temperature clocks on banks, or the scoreboards
They can be changed at any time from the key
in sports stadiums. A computer displays charac
board, or even erased altogether by typing NEW
ters the same way, except instead of light bulbs,
or switching off the computer. RAM is the com
the dots are very small pinpoints of glowing
puter's workspace.
phosphor on the TV picture tube. (Figure 1 shows
So, the first step toward custom characters is
the dot pattern for the letter A on a Commodore
to copy the list of numbers representing the char
64; the dot pattern is slightly different for the
acter set from ROM into RAM.
VIC-20, but the principle is the same.)
This is a relatively simple programming task.
You find out exactly where in ROM the character
Figure 1: Dot Pattern For Character A set is stored by looking at a memory map, a list of
On Commodore 64 memory addresses inside the computer. {Memory
maps are often found in reference or owner's
manuals or magazine articles.) Once you know
the beginning memory address of the ROM char
acter set, you can write a short routine which
reads the list of numbers in ROM and then copies
it into RAM. In BASIC, this is done with PEEKs
and POKEs within a FOR/NEXT loop. One or two
program lines are all it takes.
Now there's a copied image of the ROM char
acter set in RAM. Again using POKEs, you can
The character set is always kept in ROM, freely change the list of numbers to customize the
ready for the computer to use. Let's say you dis characters any way you want (we'll cover this in
play a character on the screen — for instance, the detail in a moment).
uppercase letter A. The computer refers to the OK so far, but there's one catch. The com
character set in ROM to see how it should display puter doesn't know you've relocated the charac
the A on the screen, much as you would refer to a ter set. It still expects to find the character set
dictionary to see how to spell a word. Once it where it always has, in ROM. It will continue to
looks up the dot pattern for an A, the computer refer to ROM and will ignore your customized set
displays the character. The whole process takes in RAM.
only a few microseconds, and happens every time That's why you have to "fool" the computer.
a character is displayed, either by typing on the The VIC and 64 contain a memory location, called
keyboard or using a PRINT statement in BASIC. a pointer, which points to the character set in
When the computer's ROM chips are pre ROM. Luckily, the pointer itself is in RAM. With
programmed for you at the factory, these dot pat a single POKE statement, you can change the
terns for each character are permanently burned number in this location to point to your custom
into the chips so the computer will always display character set in RAM, thereby fooling the com
the same character set. Short of replacing the puter into referring there for its information in
ROM chips themselves, there is nothing you can stead of ROM. The computer goes through its
do to change this preprogramming. Normally, usual process of looking up the dot pattern for
114 COMPUTEIU Gazette Novemher 1983
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each character and displaying it on the screen, tal row which correspond to colored dots in the
except it looks up your modified pattern instead of 8-by-8 grid. For example, the top row of the grid
the pattern preprogrammed at the factory. has two colored dots which form the peak of the
Clever, eh? A. (These are the same dots which will be lit up
when the letter is displayed on the TV screen.)
Character Patterns These two dots fall beneath the 8 and 16 of the top
Basically, if you've made it this far, you've got the row of numbers. Because 8+ 16 = 24, the number
picture. But there are still a few details to clean in the right-hand column for that row is 24.
up. Likewise, the next number in the right-hand
For example, exactly how are characters column is 60, because the colored dots in the
customized? second row of the grid fall beneath the 4, 8,16,
Recall that the character set is defined by a list and 32, which add up to 60. And so on down to
of numbers which describes the dot patterns for the very last row, which has no colored dots. This
each character, and that each character is formed is represented by a 0 in the right-hand column.
by dots within an 8-by-8 grid. By changing these When the A is displayed on the screen, no dots
numbers, you change the shape of the dot pat will be lit up on this row of the grid. (All patterns
tern, and therefore the shape of the character. for letters and numbers allow a blank line for the
It helps at this point to know something about last row, and for the extreme right and left-hand
the binary number system, so you might want to columns, in order to keep the characters from
read "The Inner World Of Computers, Parti: running into each other on the screen.)
Binary Numbers" elsewhere in this issue. But Figure 3 shows the dot pattern for an A on the
even if you don't understand binary, look at VIC-20. Notice how the eight numbers in the ver
Figure 2. tical column are different from the eight numbers
The eight numbers running vertically along for an A on the Commodore 64. A comparison
the right side of Figure 2 are the numbers which between the patterns of Figures 2 and 3 shows
define the dot pattern for an A on a Commodore why: each computer forms its A in a slightly dif
64 (again, the pattern for A on the VIC is slightly ferent way. Study these figures until you're sure
different). These are the same eight numbers you know how to add up the dot patterns to
which the computer refers to when it looks up A arrive at the eight numbers along the right. This is
in the character set. They are also the numbers the key to customizing characters.
you must change to customize the character.
These numbers are decimal versions of the binary
dot patterns. Figure 3: Dot Pattern For A On VIC-20

Figure 2: Dot Pattern For A On 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

24(16 + 8)
Commodore 64

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 66(64 + 2)
24(16+8) 126(64+32 + 16 + 8+4+2)
60(32+16+8+4) 66(64+2)
102(64+32+4+2) 66 (64+2)

126(64+32+16 + 8+4 + 2) 66(64+2)

102(64 + 32+4+2) 0

102(64 + 32+4+2)
102(64 + 32+4 + 2)
Customizing Characters
Once you understand how character patterns
Along the top of Figure 2, running horizon work, it's easy to customize them at will.
tally from right to left, are eight more numbers: 1, First, take some graph paper and mark off an
2, 4, 8,16, 32, 64, and 128. Notice that each of the 8-by-8 grid, or draw your own grid on a blank
numbers in this series is twice as much as its pred sheet. Along the top, write down the horizontal
ecessor. That's how binary works. (If you want row of numbers as seen in Figures 2 and 3: 1, 2, 4,
to get technical, each number represents a bit in a 8,16, 32, 64, and 128. Be sure to list them from right
byte.) to left.
Now, this is important: to understand how Second, design your custom character by
the numbers in the vertical column were deter coloring in dots on the grid. Figure 4 shows a
mined, simply add up the numbers in the horizon- sample design for a Space Invaders-type creature.
116 COM PUTSIs Gazette Novomber 1983


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Third, add up the colored dots in each row, dard character set. Remember, that's why you
starting from the top. Write down each sum in a relocated the character set from ROM to RAM.
vertical column along the right, as seen in the Now that the list of numbers spelling out the pat
figures. terns for the standard character set is in RAM, it
can be changed to use your own numbers with
POKE statements.
Figure 4: Dot Pattern For A
Customized Character (Space Invaders-
Type Alien)
Specific Details
Up to now, this article has had to be fairly general
128 64 32 16 8
in its explanations. The basic technique for cus
0 tomizing characters is the same for the VIC-20,
24(16+8) Commodore 64, Atari, or any computer on which
126(64 + 32 + 16+8+4+2) the character set can be relocated and redefined.
219(128 + 64+16+8+2 + 1) But the specific details vary for each computer:
126(64+32 + 16 + 8+4+2) the character set's memory address in ROM, how
219(128 + 64 + 16 + 8+2+1) to safely copy it to RAM, the memory address of
153(128 + 16 + 8 + 1) the character set pointer, the order of characters
0 within the character set, and so on.
For these details, as well as example pro
grams and utilities, turn to the article elsewhere
You have now designed your own custom in this issue which is appropriate for your com
character. You can design as many of these as puter: "How To Make Custom Characters On
you'll need — up to the limit of 256 characters in The 64" or "How To Make Custom Characters
the character set (although on the unexpanded On The VIC."
VIC, memory limits make it practical to customize Besides these articles, from time tu time COM-
only 64 characters). PUTEI's Gazette will offer additional articles and
The only remaining step is to take the new columns on custom characters - one of the most
series of eight numbers for each custom character powerful features available on your VIC-2D or
and substitute them for the numbers in the stan Commodore 64. QB

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It's time for your
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Meet PractiCalc." The world's most versatile spreadsheet at only $40."

Games are fun when it's time to play. But at numbers and even
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gallop at the Want to make
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But the problem resolution graphics of
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alphabetically, and
(likewise), make
budgets and menus, instantly, of course.
Budgets, jnvenlories,
project profits, keep projections, you name it... And you'll find
track of expenses, PractiCalc unusually
inventories, investments, what have you. For High-speed and friendly flexible, and
wild card search.
your home, your school, your business. forgiving.
PractiCalc gives you All of which is a far cry from just playing with
everything you'd a joystick. Still,
expect from a PractiCalc has one
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subtracting, computer km
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Spreadsheet analysis.. calculating Only $40.
Alpha or numeric sort...
square roots, logarithms, exponential

Exclusively distributed by Micro Software International, Inc.
The Silk Mill, 44 Oak Street, Newton Upper Falls, MA 02164 • (617) 527-7510
■$40 is suggested ralail price (or lape version ol PracliCalc-20 ($45 lor disk version; PracliCalc Plus or PracliCalc Si = S50 foi lapa version. S55 lor disk],

01983 Computer Software Associates. Inc. Commodore 64~ anfl VIC-20™ ate tiarJemaiks ol Commodore Business Machines, Inc.
How To Make Custom
Characters On The 64
Gary Davis

Before reading this article, be sure to see ready to display characters on the screen as soon
"Introduction to Custom Characters For VIC as it is turned on.
And 64" in this issue, especially if you're Unfortunately, when the character generator
unfamiliar with the concepts of redefined is in ROM, you can't change the characters to suit
characters. The following article includes your needs. When you can't change the existing
"Chred 64," a character-editing utility that character set, the simplest way to customize a
makes the task of customizing characters easy new character set is to move it to Random Access
and fun. Memory (RAM), and then tell the computer to
use your character set rather than the one it has in
Telling the Commodore 64 where the new
The Commodore 64 allows you to change any
character set is located is relatively simple to do.
character in the character set to suit your own
Within the video controller chip (sometimes
needs. In order to understand how this is done, it
known as the VIC-II chip) is a special memory
is first necessary to understand how the 64 (and
most other computers) store the character set.
If you look closely at the letters the computer
puts on the screen, you will notice that each
Pixel Pattern For Letter A
character is made up of little dots in an 8 x 8 grid
(see the figure).
Since there are 64 possible dots, or pixels, that 128 64 3216 8 4 2 1
can be either on or off, we need 64 "switches" for
16+8 = 24
each character. This is done by using eight
memory locations for each character. Since one
64+32+4+2 = 102
memory location,or byte, is divided into eight bits,
64+32 + 16+8+4+2=126
using eight bytes gives us the 64 switches we
64+32 + 4+2=102
need for each character.
The bytes for each character are stored con
secutively, with the first byte for each character
representing the top row of dots in the character,
the second byte the second row of dots, and so The character codes for A are
stored in memory as:
on. For a pixel to be on, the bit at its location must
be si'f; for a pixel to be off, the bit must be dear.
This is not as complicated as it sounds. The figure
shows how the bit patterns of sets and clears are For each row add the number at the top of each column
converted into the numbers that represent the in which a pixel is turned on. The resulting numbers
character. When you make a series of bytes for are then stored consecutively from top to boltom.
every character and store them in a computer,
you have what is known as a character generator.

location that allows you to set a new character

Relocating The Character Set pointer (the location of the first byte of your
The character generator in most computers, character set).
including the Commodore 64, is stored in Read Now let's try an experiment. Type: POKE
Only Memory (ROM). This way the computer is 53272,19 and press RETURN. Your screen will be
120 COMPUTE'sGotetle Novamberl983
NEW Davka Corporation is pleased to offer its popular

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BIBLE BASEBALL An exciting way to see how much you

know about the Old Testament—while you have fun learning
even more! When your computer asks a question, your answer
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players racing around the bases! S24.9S (supplemental disks
available with additional questions, as well as teachers disks to
create your own questions)

GAME OF THE MACCABEES This program provides useful

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All soil ware is [radGm.-lrkuil by D.ivha CorpOfalKjn CnmmodoreiSiilrfldernnik of Commodore Business Machines. Inc
filled with strange characters, but don't worry.
You have told the 64 to use a RAM character
generator, but you haven't supplied one yet. To
return your screen to normal type: POKE
53272,21 and press RETURN. You won't be able
to read what you are typing until you press
RETURN, but the computer understands. If this
doesn't work, you can always restore the screen
by pressing the RESTORE and RUN/STOP keys
at the same time.
When you are designing a new character set,
it is nice to have the normal one loaded into RAM
to start with. Then you can make changes to it.
Program 1 copies the 64's character set from ROM
to RAM.
Before you type in this program, you must
"Chred 64," a utility program for creating custom characters
POKE 8192,0 on the Commodore 64.
POKE 44,32
NEW Now the memory from 2048 to 8191 is free to
This saves a place in RAM memory for your hold your new character set. You may type in or
new character set and protects it from being over LOAD Chred 64. After typing Chred64'for the
written by a BASIC program. first time, be sure to SAVE it on tape or disk
Now, type in the program and RUN it. After before you RUN it. If you have made a typing er
about 45 seconds the computer will come back ror, it in possible thai the computer will "crash"

and say READY. Now type POKE 53272,19 and and you'll have to type it all over again if you
press RETURN. Nothing appears to happen, but haven't SAVEd a copy.
the characters you are now seeing on your screen When you run Chred 64, the program first
are coming from your RAM character generator, copies the resident character set from ROM to
not from ROM as usual. RAM and resets the character base to point to the
To test this, type POKE 2056,255. The top of RAM character set. The program then expands
all the letter A's on the screen should now be a the current character being edited to eight times
solid line. Try POKEing different numbers into its normal size.
memory locations between 2048 and 6143 and To edit the current character being displayed,
watch the results on the characters. you may use the cursor control keys, the asterisk,
and the space bar.
Using A Character Editor To turn on a pixel, position the cursor and
By skctchingan8x8gridasseen in the figure, it press the asterisk. To turn off a pixel, press the
is possible to map out the entire character set on space bar. To clear the entire character, press CLR.
graph paper and convert your new characters to To edit a different character, press Fl. You
numbers to POKE into memory. will be asked to supply a row and column. This
This method, however, can be both time- refers to the block of characters displayed on the
consuming and frustrating. A far better way is to lower-right corner of the screen. Just type a row
create your new characters on the screen and let number followed by the column number or letter.
the computer do all the calculations. With this The character you selected will now be displayed,
thought in mind, I wrote a character editor called ready for you to edit.
"Chred64." With this utility (Program 2), you
can redefine any of the text or graphics symbols More Editing Features
and save them on tape or disk. This can then be An interesting feature of the 64 is that, unlike the
loaded and used with any program. Commodore PET, the reverse-field (inverse video)
In order to reserve memory for the alternate characters are stored as part of the character set.
character set, it is necessary to set the start of This allows 256 redefined characters. To edit a
BASIC pointer to 8192. This will leave you with character not being displayed, press F3. This will
32K of RAM free for your BASIC program. To do select and display the next block of 64 characters.
this, you must type in the following: Rest assured that you may mix characters from
POKE 8192, 0 any of the blocks; only 64 characters are shown at
POKE 44, 32 a time for the purpose of editing.
NEW Sometimes you may wish to edit more than
12! COMPUTE!', Gaie'le Navembor 1933
I CodePfo-64l NEW! For the Commodore 64
[Overview I
0 — Using CodePro-64
t — CBM-64 Keyboard Review
BASIC Tutorial,
2 — Introduction to BASIC
3 — BASIC Commands

4 — BASIC Statements
5 — BASIC Functions
Graphics & Music!
6 — Keyboard GRAPHICS
7 — Introduction to SPRITES
8 — SPRITE Generator
9 — SPRITE Demonstrator
A — Introduction to MUSIC

MUSIC Generator
MUSIC Demonstrator
A new concept in
interactive visi
Other Options
K — Keyword Inquiry
R — Run Sample Programs


Now you can luarn lu code in BASIC and develop CodoPro-64 lets you follow your interests and prac
advanced programming skills with graphics, sprites and tice with interactive examples Bui you can never grit
music visually. You learn ny interacting with CodePro- "lost" F1 will always return you to Ihe main menu Once
R4. a new concept in InlBraclh/e visual learning you have practiced and mastered the BASIC language
elements you move on to more, advanced concepts You
SEE PROGRAM EXECUTION Iciarn ahoul spnlo nod music programming.
Imagine actually seeing BASIC statements execute
CodePro-64 guides you Ihrough structured o«amptos ol SPRITE GENERATOR & DEMONSTRATOR
BASIC program segments You enter trie requested da:a CodoPro 64a sprite generator [Bis you dellne your
oriel Code-Pro-64 do Ihe typing for you (Itwillriol lei you own sprite* on the screen You team how locelihuspnles
make a mislake 1 and what dala values correspond to your sprite delini.
tions (You can Ihen use Ihese values lo v;r te your own
After entering an example you invoke out exclusive
programs ) You can easily experiment with different defi
BaiicVlew" .vrvc. shows you how Ihe BASIC program
nitions and make changes to immedialely see Ihe ellects
example executes.

You slep through and aclualty see ihe execution of

* ; -^
sample program statements by simply pressing the space SST&PHlT[ OI.NLHA1OF DAT*
Oar Code Pro 64 does the resl
:::::::::: j 111.0.1

Yuu sue statements with corresponding How chart I2B.0.I Our music demonstrator lets you ei peri men! wrlti var
i ISSil.l
graphics ;iM variable value displays You loam by visual ...E3 1 !«.!<. 1 ious combinations of music programming parameters
examples. -, litjitj ,.,. 1BAI
nnd hoar Ihe results You can quickly modily any of the
. ,Fl!o!i,... i m.M.i , , i SIO register values to hea: [ha effects ot the change. For
n'l't'iVj.. (I 128.121,1 .*.
H'AWJ - 7IMM.1 ('"'I example, you could easily change waveform ami allackV
tiiii XXXXKXVH lBUBIfi decay values while holding all olher SID values constnni
HETTimnHa.... 1 U GQ.Ir.1
n x.x hxxxk muxm i ij",to,9r By seeing yuur mpul arid hearing Ihe result you guickly
.. [23 (23 ..OS... S 112,21,111
learn now lt> create now musical sounds and special
B ■" (HI' ■ SB' • > m 112,11,11]
■ ■<>□ Q-... 13I.0.1J sound oftacts
■ ■■H fl.... 13J.0.3J
12B.D.1 AND MORE , . ,
S \1 11 20 2 .
We don't have enough space to tell you everything
HOW-Q] COi.£C D*T»=|3 CodePro 64 oilers. You need to see for yourself BASIC
Fl -Mill! F]=CUflBENI f = NEXI FT=PF FB.PB
tutorials graphics, sprites, music, keyboard review, sam
ple programs—Ihe main menu shown above gives you
jusl a summary oF the contents ol I his powerful educa
We also help you tea rn to prog ram wilh sprites by giving
tional product
you a sprite demonstrator -u you can see ■■<•■<• etfeel ol
changing register i/alucs You can osperiment by moving Whether you're a beginning programmer or an experi
your sprite around in a screen segment, change its color enced professional. CodePro-64 will help you improve
or priority and see Ihe effects of your changes You Igbtt your Cornmodote 64 programming skills We're suro
by visual examples. Because CodePro-64 was developed Dy a team of two
professionals with over 25 years ot software development

EXTENSIVE TUTORIAL Trj teach you music programming CodcF'ro-64 gives

CodePro-64 is a professional Quality educaliariBl pro-
CodePru-64'!> uxtnnsive tutorial guides you through you an interactive music generator and demonslralor
tjram liir the serious student of persnnul eompullng, And
OHCh BASIC command, program statement. anO function First we help you set all yuur SID parameters (attack/
it1:; fully guaianleed. Order yours today
You get dear explanations Then you enier program decay, sustain/ release, wavelorm, etc.), Then you oniar
stalHments as mtcraclivo examples Where appropriate, nutcd to play and we show your tune graphically as It HOW TO ORDER
you invoke BasicVisw lo soo ux a motes execule and playt, nule by note, on Ihe scale. You learn by suemgantl Order yoin copy OtCodePro-64 today by mail or phone
watch their How ctians and variables change hearing trio results oi your input Sand Only $50 95 plus S3 00 shipping and handling to
By seeing graphic displays of program segment execu
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lion you learn Dy visual example You learn faster and
Raleigh. NC. 27609
grssp programming concepts easier with Code Pro- 64 OUR GUARANTEE
Please specify tape or diskette -fjrgion MasterCard/
because you immediately see Ihe resufls oi your input We guarantee your satisfaction. You must be VISA accepted For laster service on credit Card orders
You conirol your learning You can go through Ihe lulor- salulled with CodGPro-6-l for the Commodore- call (919)-7B7 7703.
lal sequentially, or relurn To the mam menu and select 64 Try it for 10 days and if for any reason you aro
not ..ih' 'in! return it lo us [undamaged) fora full Commodore 64 is a trademark ol Commodore Bustoss
different topics, or use keywordt lo select language do- Machines, Inc
ret u nil No ritk.
menis lo sludy You can page back and forth between
Ad no 733 Copynyht 1983. SMA
screens within a topic al the loucn ol a lunation key.
Dealt' inquiries invited.
one character at a time to make a larger shape.
Commodore-64 Users This can be easily accomplished by pressing F5.
You're Not Alone Anymore Instead of a single character, you will be able to
edit a block of four characters. To go back to single
Now you can gel a full range of support services from
character mode, just press F5 again.
our International Commodore-64 Users Group,
After you have redefined several characters,
including a free newsletter, special sale prices on
the text on the screen may become unreadable as
software and hardware, and inexpensive rentals of
oil Commodore-64 cartridge-based programs. Look
your new characters replace the existing ones. To
at these sample prices.
restore the character set to normal, without
destroying your new character set, press F7. To
List Sale Rents
return to your new character set, press F7 again.
(1 Mon
When you are done working with a character
set, you can restore the font to the normal
Music Composer 15.95 12 76 3.00
character set by pressing R. You will be asked
Music Machine 15.95 3.00
15.95 12.76 3.00
"Are you sure?" Now is your last chance to save
Jupiter Lander 12,95 10.36 3.00 your character set. If you are really done, press Y;
Kickman 15.95 12.76 3,00 otherwise, press N.
Omega Race 1595 12.76 3.00 After you have gone to the effort of creating a
Sea Wolf 15.95 12.76 3.00 new character set, you will probably want to save
Speed/Bingo Math 15,95 1276 3,00 it on disk or tape for use in other programs. To
Visible Solar System 18.95 15.16 3.00
save your character set, press S. Follow the direc
Radar Rat Race 12.95 10.36 3.00
tions given on the screen. After the character set
HES is saved, you will be returned to the editor. (When
HES Mon-64 39.95 31.96 4.00 typing Chrcd 64, omit line 225 for use with tape.)
HES Wnter-64 44,95 35.96 4.50 Sometimes you may wish to alter a character
Gridrunner 39.95 31.96 4.00 set that you have already created and saved. To
Relroball 39,95 31.96 4.00
load another character set, press L and follow the
Turtle Graphics II 49,95 39.96 5.00
directions given on the screen. Be careful — the
QUICK BROWN BOX new character set is loaded on top of the current
Word Processor 65.00 52.00 6.50 character set, so be sure to save it if you want to
use it later.
OK, you've developed your new character
Amazing Maze 32.95 26.34 3.50
Close Encounters 32.95 26.34 3.50 set. To use it with another program, you will have
Do! Gobbler 32,95 26,34 3.50 to type POKE 8192, 0:POKE 44, 32: NEW, just as
Space Ric-O-Sha 32,95 26,34 3.50 you do when you load Chred 64. To load in the
Tank Wars 32.95 26.3d 3.50 character set, place the cassette containing your
new character set in the recorder, or the disk in the
drive. For tape, type LOAD "filename",1,1
Moondusi 34.95 3.50
Save New York 34 95 27 96 3.50 where "filename" is the name you gave when
Astroblilz 34.95 27.96 3.50 you saved the character set. For disk, type
Trash man 34.95 27.96 3.50 LOAD"filename",8,l. To use the new character
set, POKE 53272,19. To return to the normal
Membership fee only SI 5 to join, plus S10 per year
character set, POKE 53272, 21.
dues Itotal of S25 first year). Call or write for more
I hope you have as much fun using this pro
detailed information
gram as I had writing it. I wouldlike to express
And don't forget our own OMNIWARE programs on
my thanks to Don Moses for the use of his 64 in
tiipe or disk (also available for VIC-20),
developing this program, and to the Central Ohio
OMNIFILE Data Manager $19.95 PET Users Group for providing detailed maps of
DRILLMASTER Quiz and Drill Program $15.95 the video chip registers.
OMNITEST (Both of the above] S27.95
If you do not want to type in this program
OMNICOMM Smart Terminal Program $39.95
yourself, please send a blank disk or cassette tape
along with a stamped, self-addressed mailer and
$3 to the address below. I will send you a copy of
Chred 64 and a character set developed with it.
Gary Davis
7147 Carbone Drive
1948 OAK RIDGE TURNPIKE OAK RIDGE.TN 37830 Columbus, OH 43224
VISA AND MASTERCARD ACCEPTED See program listings on page 196.
That's what we said when our new
"invention" solved all our VIC-20™ and
Commodore-64™programming problems

We had a problem. So we invented For Ihe Commodore 64 we came up with SOLVE YOUR PROGRAMMING
PC-DocuMale'" to solve It The problem was a really clever summary lable for showing PROBLEMS WITH PC-DocuMate™
how to quickly master ihe VIC-20 and almost everything you ever need to know lor Order your PC-DocuMate today (by
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gramming in BASIC on our new personal CBM-64 programming problems Send only
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logical way BASIC, music, color graphics, for faster service.
The user's guide was a nuisance and the
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initial problem was solved by PC-Docu-
plain inconvenient to use. We found Ihe
conirol key combinations confusing and Ihe
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But we have a confession to make.. I YES! Please RUSH me VIC-20
our needs. We needed a simple soiuiion to WE CHEATED I lemplates and/or CBM-64 tem
our documentation problems. We had solved this kind of problem plates at $1295 each.'l have enclosed
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S by:
of each PC with Ihe inforrnalion we wanted. we at SMA developed the original PC-Docu-
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We decided to print whatever we needed on Mate for the IBM PC. We've made templates
sturdy plastic templates which would fit Ihe lor IBM BASIC and DOS. lor WORDSTAR1".
Keyboard of eilher the VIC-20 or Commo VISICALC1" and other best-selling software
dore 64. packages for ihe IBM PC.
So we knew we could invent another
PC-DocuMale1" to solve our problems with Addiess
This was the simple solution to our prob
the VIC-20 and Commodore 64. Now our
lem. Now we could have the essential
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thousands of satisfied users ol our template Qiy BlalB Zip
On the left side and lop of the templates
we put BASIC functions, commands, and
Take advantage ol our experience and
statements. On the lower loft we used key Card tr Exp
success with PC-DocuMate templates. Get
symbols to remind us of how to use SHIFT,
one for your personal computer
RUN/STOP. CTRL and the '■Commodore"
key. Over on the bottom right side we put SOME SPECIFICS Signalure

some additional keys lo help remember Our lemplates for the VIC and 64 are
about CLB/HOME and RESTORE. Bui we made from Ihe same high quality non-glare Foreign o'Oeis (except Canada) aflfl SS 00 US
were still a little confused plastic as the more expensive IBM PC
versions. Mail to: Systems Management Associates
Tha templates are an attractive gray 3700 Computer Drive. Depi. J-1
We tound we were confused about music
color and are imprinted with a special black P.O. Bo* 20025
programming, color graphics, and sprites.
ink which bonds permanently to the plastic.
On both the VIC-20 and the CBM-64 tem Raleigh. North Carolina 27619
They are precision die-cul to fit your
plates we carefully organized and summar
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Then to clarily color graphics we laid out
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Wo guarantee your satisfaction. Vou must
got this idea from the manuals.) be satisfied with your PC-DocuMaie lor your
' For the VIC-20 we added a complete VIC-20 or CBM-64. Try il lor tO days and if
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where everything is in an expanded or 10 us {undamaged) tor a full refund. No rt>k.

Ad no 73t Copyrighl 19B3. SMA
unexpended VIC. Dealer jnqulri« Invited.
How To Make Custom
Characters On The VIC
Gregg Keizer, Assistant Book Editor

Before reading this article, be sure to see there. The VIC's character memory begins at loca
"Introduction To Custom Characters For VIC tion 32768, which stores the number value of the
And 64" in this issue, especially if you're un top row of the @ character. The number value of
familiar with the concepts of redefined the second row of that character is at location
characters. 32769, the third row at location 32770, and so on.
In order to change the character set and insert
your own custom characters, you first need to
The standard characters provided with the VIC change the place where the VIC looks to find its
are certainly useful, afford plenty of variety, and character set. You can do this by changing the
can be combined to create new shapes and pointer, which fortunately is in a Random Access
figures. Many games on the VIC, for instance, Memory (RAM) location. By changing this
often use only the standard character set to memory location, you are in effect instructing the
display the screen and show objects or user- computer to look elsewhere for its character set.
controlled figures. The VIC looks to location 36869 for its pointer.
But there will be times when you need to Although the pointer's value is usually 240 or 242,
draw a new shape or figure that the standard it can be changed by POKEing a new value into
character set just can't produce. You'll often find that location. Entering POKE 36869,255, for exam
this true as you design your own games. Or ple, fools the computer into looking to a new loca
perhaps you simply want to experiment, to see tion in RAM, 7168, for character data, instead of
what you can do with the VIC. the ROM location 32768. You can begin your
Creating custom characters takes up more custom character set in a RAM location ranging
memory, which can be crucial when you're using from 4096 to 7168, but the best place to start is at
the VIC, and it can take time to design and add 7168.
them to a program. But when you're looking for Right now, however, there is nothing there
just the right figure, and it shows on the screen for the VIC to look at. You need to copy the
during a game, you'll agree that it was worth the character set data to your new RAM location. As
effort. explained in "Introduction to Custom Char
acters," this isn't that hard.
Fooling The VIC What you need to do is free enough space
You've already looked through the article "Intro from BASIC to fit in your recopied character set,
duction to Custom Characters," and perhaps as well as protect it from the BASIC'S operations.
read "The Inner World of Computers, Part 1: Then you have to tell the VIC to read the numbers
Binary Numbers" elsewhere in this issue, so you in the character set stored in ROM and copy those
know what custom characters are and how to numbers starting at your new RAM location, 7168.
design them using graph paper. Now that you A short routine such as the one below does all
have the figures in mind, you can actually begin the work for you in only three program lines.
to place those custom characters in the VIC.
10 PRINT"[CLR]":POKE 36869,255
Remember that the character set of most com 20 POKE 52,28:POKE 56,28:CLR
puters, including the VIC, is located in Read Only 30 FOR 1=7168 TO 7679:POKE I,PEEK{25600+I
Memory, or ROM, and is permanently stored ):NEXT
136 COMPUTEfs Gazelle November 1983
First Book Of VIC
Authors: COMPUTE! Magazine v Iniroductron
contributors Robert I
Price: Si 2.95 Chapter One: Getting Started
a The Story Of The VIC
On Sale: Now
11 Computer Genesis: Michael S. Tomczyk

Finally, it's VIC's turn! I* Large Alphabet Jim Butterfield

Z6 Using A Joystick Doug Ferguson
Users of other popular personal
39 Extended Input Devices: David Maimberg
computers have been enjoying their
COMPUTE! Books COMPUTEI's 46 Game Paddles ^ eyb°*Kl Mite Bassman / Salomo n Lederman
First Book Of PET/CBM, Program
ming The PET/CBM, and others.
Now, there's a book devoted
72STARRGHT3 ." DubSaog™
exclusively to the Commodore VIC- Z° ^Pfiaoefeer David fi, M
20™ Computer: COMPUTEI's First 80 Cooni The Hearts Jim Wilco
Book Of VIC.
The editors of COMPUTE!
Magazine - the leading resource for '■ McGillrsier
■ Lyle Joidein
the VIC-20 - gathered together the 103 Amortize Wayne Kozun
best VIC-20 articles published since 106 Append '" ; Gteer
the summer of 1981 and added 109 Printing The Screen Kozun
113 Ths Confusing Quote ■ C D Lane
some new material. The result is
115 Alternate Screens Charles Br.innon
more than 200 pages of valuable "19 Timekeeping , ■ Jim Buttemdd
information - information that goes J127
It Automatic
!flUmf' Line
Lmes The Easy'Way' ■; Keith Schteiffer
beyond [fie instruction manuals. In Charles H. Gould
the COMPUTE! tradition, it is care 129 *Jtt'ri9 T^ ^eze On You, VIC-20- J/rn i

fully edited to be easily understood I« T a Tlq Jhe M° O

and useful for beginners and experts
alike. Greg and Ross Sherwood
COMPUTEI's First Book Of VIC
is spiral-bound to lie flat, and J g Jesolut/on Plotting ■ Kenneth Knox
154 VfC Color Tips " ■ . Paul F, Schatz
includes ready-to-type program 157 Thi-VVindow . " ■ Charles Erannon
listings and articles such as 'The 160 Custom Characters For The VIC ■ ■ ■ Chdrles Brannon
Joystick Connection: Meteor Maze," David Malrnberrj
"STARFIGHT3," "Train Your PET To
179 Browsing
Run VIC Programs." "Renumber Chip ■■■■ Dale Gilbert
BASIC Lines The Easy Way," "High '■■*:■■■■■ ■ J'rrrBujterfield
Uavid Baron / Michavi Kleiner t
Resolution Plotting," "Custom Char
Jim BuiierfTeJd
acters For The VIC." "VIC Memory -
The Uncharted Adventure," and "A
D,rec{|y -20
Jim Butterfietd
Simple Monitor For The VIC." Russell Kavanagh
J index
Ai only S12.95, less than most
computer manuals. COMPUTEI's First Book Of VIC
is among the best resources a VIC user can own.

Available 3t computer dealers and bookstores nationwide. To order directly call TOLL FREE 800-334-0868.
In North Carolina call 919-275-9809. Or send check or money order to COMPUTE! Books, P.O. Box 5406
Greensboro, NC 27403.

Arid i?. shipping and handling. Outside iht? U S. add S5 for air mail, S2 for surface mail, All orders prepaid, U.S. fund;, only.
VIC-20 is a traderwkof Commodore Electronics Limned. November 19B3 COMPUTE!',; Gazette 127
Line Function The most convenient way to replace old
10 Tells the VIC to go to location 7168 to get characters is with DATA and READ statements.
the data for its character set, rather than By placing all the new numbers into DATA state
looking to ROM location 32768. ments, and then having the VIC READ them,
20 Frees 512 bytes of memory from BASIC by your programming task will be simplified. The
changing the pointers to the top of computer always READs the DATA in the order
available RAM memory. A value of 28 it's listed, so be sure the numbers are in the right
takes 512 bytes, just enough for the 64 order, and that there are eight numbers for each
characters you would normally copy to character. The DATA statements can be anywhere
RAM, and also protects this area from in the program, as long as they are in the same
BASIC. order as the READ commands.
30 Copies the first 64 characters from their Glance through the Screen Code table in Per
ROM locations to your new RAM location. sonal Computing on the VIC, the guide that came
This is done by PEEKing at the values with your computer. You've copied the first 64
from 32768 to 33280 (PEEK 25600 +1), and characters, from the @ to the ?, into RAM, but
then POKEing those values into the new you'll lose some of these when you replace them
locations running from 7168 to 7679. with your custom characters. Decide which stan
(We're moving only 64 characters out of a dard characters you won't need, and look up the
total character set of 256 in order to con screen codes for those. If you are designing a
serve memory.) game that uses some of the letters in a display, for
Now that you have part of the character set - example, make sure those won't be lost when you
moved to RAM, the VIC told to look there from develop your custom characters.
now on for its character data, and the area pro Because you changed the pointer, your char
tected from BASIC, you can begin to place your acter set now begins at memory location 7168.
own characters in this set. Each character takes up eight bytes of memory, so
by multiplying the screen code number by 8 and
Placing Your Custom adding it to 7168, you can find the location of the
top row of any character. For example, the letter
A, with a screen code value of 1, begins at loca
Your custom characters have already been de
tion 7176.
signed, either using graph paper or perhaps with
A format you can use to replace a standard
the "VIC-20 Character Developer" utility program
character with your own custom character is:
(see sidebar). You've added up the dot values
FOR C(your new character) = X TO X + 7:READ
and should have eight numbers for each new
character. These represent the eight bytes of
memory each character requires to be displayed where X is the memory location of a character you
on the screen. want to replace. To replace the A character with
What you now need to do is POKE these new the custom character from the figure, for instance,
numbers where the old values are, replacing one you would write:
of the standard characters with one of your FOR C = 7176 TO 7183:READ D:POKE
custom characters. For example, a custom C,D:NEXT
character such as that in the figure would have the and include somewhere in the program the DATA
following values: statement:

DATA 56,56,16,124,16,40,68,0
Custom Characters
Add these two lines to the program used to
BIT VALUE copy characters into RAM, and you'll see the
128 64 3216 8 4 2 1 TOTAL custom figure every time you press the A key.
Notice, however, that you have lost the A
0 1 ■ 56
character. There is now no way to print that on
1 ZPHEZ 56
the screen. In other words, make sure that the

2 16
Row characters you replace are ones you won't want to
3 124

4 r 16 use.

If you have several new characters and they

5 40
6 63
are replacing standard characters right after each
other on the Screen Code table, you can place
7 ~ 11 n 0
more than one in a READ statement, simplifying
The eight numbers to POKE into a memory your programming. Replacing the first five stan
location are 56,56,16,124,16,40,68, and 0 to create dard characters, for example, would look like
this character. this:
128 COMPUTERS Gazette November 19B3





512-441-3202 PO BOX 43006 Austin, Tx. 78745-0001

MasterCard VISA"
VIC-20 Character Developer
E.A. Cottrell

The utility program described here takes

some of the tedium out of customizing
characters for the VIC. It automatically con
verts the binary dot pattern numbers into
decimal numbers for you.

Creating custom characters on the VIC-20 is not

difficult. Eight bytes of information are in ROM
for each character. To create custom characters,
you must change the location to which the VIC Designing a hollow box with the "VIC-20 Character
looks for the characters to a location in RAM, Developer."
and then POKE the desired information into
the memory addresses normally used by the
Pressing the N key in response to the print
VIC. I won't go into detail here; see the related
out prompt leads to another prompt, "ARE
articles in this issue. You can also find more
YOU DONE (Y/N)?". Pressing N here produces
information in the VIC-20 Programmer's
the prompt, "NEW CHARACTER (Y/N)?". A
Reference Guide.
Y response clears the screen and gives you a
clean grid with which to create your next
Relieving The Tedium
character. Pressing N leaves the character you
The most tedious part of this process for me is
are working with in the grid and allows you to
converting the binary representation of the
change only the parts desired. Remember that
characters into decimal numbers which can be RETURN must be pressed for all eight rows
POKEd into memory. The short utility program
whether all are changed or not.
with this article eliminates that problem and
The print-out can be very useful when
speeds up the whole character development
designing characters which will face different
process. It also provides the hexadecimal
directions. Simply turn the copy to the angle
equivalent for machine language
desired and enter the new character.
This program is more than a useful tool.
This program uses the full screen.
Kids have great fun creating all sorts of things.
Therefore, care must be taken when typing,
If you answer Y to the DONE prompt, the @
especially with the PRINT statements. It is very
key will display the new character. To restart
important that all semicolons and commas be
the program, enter RUN 30 to keep from wait
entered as listed.
ing for the transfer of the character set from
When the program is first run, the screen
will display eight rows of eight dashes in the
See program listing on page 195,
top left corner, with a question mark in front of
the first row. To design a custom character,
Sample Screen Dump To Printer
enter asterisks (*) in place of the dashes {—),
then press RETURN. The question mark then DEC HEX
moves to the front of the second row. Repeat
the process for all eight rows, creating your ? **** 60 3C
? -• *- 6S 42
character with the asterisks as you go.
? »—* *-■* 165 O5
When RETURN is pressed after the eighth
? * * 123 81
row is entered, the decimal and hexadecimal ? *-* *-* 165 O5
equivalents of each row are displayed. Below ? * ** • 153 99
this, the custom character is shown, then the ? -* #- 66 42
? *»** 60 3C
prompt "PRINT-OUT {Y/N)?". Pressing the Y
key at this time will dump the screen to the
printer. If you do not have a printer, lines
360-380 and lines 500-560 may be omitted. PRINT-OUT <Y/N)?

130 COMPUTE!1! Gazette November 19B3

FOR C = 7168 TO 7207:READ D:POKE Each character needs eight numbers in the
C,D:NEXT DATA statement to define it, even if some of the
You would then need five DATA statements, values are 0. If you don't have all eight numbers,
one for each new character created. the VIC will READ from the next DATA statement
and your figure will not appear as you expected.
List the DATA statements in the same se
8K Expanded VIC
quence as the READ commands used to replace
If you have an expanded VIC, with 8K or more of
the characters. The first READ statement looks to
RAM, you'll need to enter additional commands
the first DATA statement, the second READ com
before you run any program which copies a
mand looks to the second group of data numbers,
character set and creates custom characters.
and so on.
"Creating Graphics on the Expanded VIC,"
When you're finished, RUN the program to
by Ed Harris, in Hie February 1983 issue of COM-
make sure the custom characters replace the right
PUTBI Magazine, includes a short machine lan
standard characters and appear as you wanted.
guage program that allows you to create custom
Check the DATA statements, the byte values of
characters on your expanded VIC.
the new characters, and the FOR C = X TO Y state
If you don't want to use this utility, you can
ments if you have problems. More than likely,
enter a few additional POKEs before you load and
any errors can be found in these places, (g)
run any program creating custom characters.
Enter each individual POKE, then press
-Tta "Sines
POKE 43,1:POKE 44,32
POKE 8192,0:NEW
POKE 36869,240:POKE 36866,150 IS-Day
POKE 648,30 TAfl

The s
The first line of POKEs sets the pointer to the GAME MACHINE"
Plug i' l -. id «* him irj rhw nets
1*1*1 *C JHl'DbU |C*n fat fl T ihitatd |
start of the BASIC program, much like the POKE S85 • Minorr PifiEfci Included
• Fulif Brtiwl |prcm mprior
52,28 did in the unexpanded VIC. The second • Fae PrffKlivi ■ Lrpi iwiltfi
• Rigid iuppnrt • JMu Oihff cod
POKE, the first memory location of BASIC, must II STOCK hlf.iY.r3.ri «liv|rT
Sr! »fii tflv irvf *■ pip M ii.ppii"

be set to 0, or you won't be able to run your pro - JUDiH TQ2IT-

grams. The third line of POKEs relocates the |MC A VISA iccemtdj
Call (415)651-3160
screen, while the last POKE makes it possible for PARSEC RESEARCH
the operating system to see the screen. Drawer 1766-Ci
As you enter the last two lines of POKE state Fremont, CA 94538 i
-Otiltr Inquiries ifivlltd ■ I
ments, the screen will change drastically. Don't
worry — you haven't done anything wrong. You
do, however, need to be careful as you enter
these lines, for you can't really see what you've
typed on the screen, due to the jumbled display.
Once these are entered, you can LOAD and Users Groups
RUN your program to copy characters and create
custom figures. Line 20 in the program, used to COMPUTE'S Gazette is compiling a
copy characters to RAM, must be eliminated, nationwide guide of VIC-20 and Com
however, if you use the expanded VIC. If you modore 64 users groups which will be
leave it in, the pointers in BASIC will change published periodically. Please send us
again, and you won't see the correct screen your group's name, address, the name
display. of a contact person, and a phone
number (optional). Also include any
Custom Hints other relevant information: the group's
You now have the ability to design and enter your membership, when it was founded,
own custom characters on the VIC. Refer to the whether it operates a phone-in bulletin
accompanying sidebar, "VIC-20 Character board system for modem users, etc,
Developer," for a simple utility which will make Address to:
it easier to design custom characters. This utility Kathy Yakal, Editorial Assistant
will also calculate the byte values of each row of a COMPUTED Gazette
character for the DATA statements you'll be plac P.O. Box 5406
ing in your programs. Greensboro, NC 27403
As you type in the lines for your custom
characters, remember several things.
November 1933 COM PL) TEVi GozcUe 131
Program Lifesaver
UNNEW" Rescues Lost Programs

Vern Buis

If you have ever lost a BASIC program by lowing special instructions before typing the pro
accidentally typing NEW, then read on. This gram. The procedure is somewhat different from
short machine language routine for both the most and requires that certain steps be followed
Commodore 64 and VIC-20 (any memory exactly.
size) provides an easy means of recovering First, if you are using tape instead of disk,
BASIC programs that have been "erased" — enter line 60 as follows:
and it loads and executes in only ten seconds. 60 CLR:SAVE"UNNEW",1,1
After typing the listing, do not RUN it.
Instead, save it on disk or tape with a filename
Sooner or later — practically every programmer such as "LIFESAVER/BASIC" or "UNNEW/
does it — thinking a program has been saved, you BASIC". Do not use the filename "UNNEW"
type NEW to clear out the memory, and a split- This filename must be reserved.
second after pressing RETURN, you wind up Now enter RUN. The BASIC loader creates
screaming. the machine language program and automatically
But on the VIC-20 and Commodore 64, typing saves it on disk or tape under the filename
NEW does not really erase the program from "UNNEW". This is what you'll actually use to
memory. NEW just makes the computer (and the rescue lost programs; the BASIC loader can be set
programmer) think the program is gone. As long aside as a backup in case you need to create
as you don't start typing another program or another copy.
switch off the machine, the program is still there.
To get it back, all you have to do is fool the com Using The Lifesaver
puter into remembering where in its memory the OK, let's say you've just typed NEW and wiped
program begins and ends. out hours of valuable labor. (To test the Lifesaver,
That's what "VIC/64 Program Lifesaver" you can load a BASIC program and erase it with
does. By loading and running this short machine NEW.) Recovering it is easy.
language utility immediately after committing the To load the Lifesaver from tape, enter:
grievous error, you can save your lost program, LOAD "UNNEW", 1,1
save your hours of work, and even save your
To load the Lifesaver from disk, enter:
Entering The Lifesaver Either way, it loads pretty fast, because the
The Lifesaver is listed as a BASIC loader, a BASIC program is short. Now, to activate the Lifesaver,
program that creates a machine language pro enter:

gram. The same listing works for either the SYS 525 [RETURN]
VIC-20 or Commodore 64. Be sure to read the fol- CLR [RETURN!
132 COMPUTEI's Gazette Novembar 1983
^^S"*fc \UM

I -

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Canada: Please contact us for Canada: Please contact us for
further information further information
(Incidentally, CLR means to type the keyword program is in memory.
CLR, not to press the CLR/HOME key.) The Lifesaver works by skipping the first two
That's all there is to it. When you enter LIST, bytes of BASIC memory (the address pointer) and
the BASIC program you thought was forever lost the next two bytes (BASIC line number). It scans
at sea is back, safe and sound. upward for a zero byte — the end-of-line indi
The Lifesaver itself also remains in memory, cator. Upon finding the zero byte, the routine
but probably not for long. It's tucked away in POKEs its address, plus one, into the second-line-
memory which is unprotected {locations used by of-BASIC address pointer. One of the erased
the input buffer and BASIC interpreter), so you'll pointers is thereby restored.
have to load it again each time you want to use it. Next, the Lifesaver scans byte-by-byte
But unless you're either very unlucky or {shall we through the BASIC memory area until it finds
say) prone to inadvertent actions, the Lifesaver three consecutive zero bytes. This is the end-of-
isn't something you should be needing often. program indicator. Once it locates these zeros,
the routine POKEs the address of the third zero,
Why n Works plus one, into the top-of-BASIC/start-of-variables
Instead of erasing the program in memory when pointer at locations 45-46. This completely
you type NEW, the VIC and 64 simply reset two restores the erased program.
key pointers in such a way that the operating For those who might want to relocate the
system doesn't "see" that the program is still Lifesaver to a safer memory area — to preserve it
there. These pointers keep track of where in for frequent use or to combine it with other utility
memory a BASIC program begins and ends. routines — the machine language program is writ
NEW moves the top-of-program pointer down to ten to be fully relocatable. It uses no absolute JMP
the bottom of BASIC memory, and the first two or JSR instructions. The area used here was
bytes of BASIC memory arc set to zero. These chosen to make it load easily into a 64 or VIC with
first two bytes serve as a pointer to the address for any memory configuration and to minimize the
the second line of BASIC code. When they are set danger of it loading atop a BASIC program.
to zero, the operating system believes that no See program listing on page 203. Off

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134 COMPUTEVsGozotle November 1983



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Understanding Sound
On The 64
Part 2
Gregg Peele, Editorial Programmer

Ever wished you could create just that right and band pass. The high-pass filter is designed to
sound for a game effect? Or that right tone for remove the lower frequencies, letting the higher
a song? The conclusion of this two-part article frequencies pass. The low-pass filter has the
and the accompanying utility program may opposite effect — it removes the high frequencies
be just what you need to create interesting while allowing low frequencies to pass. The band
new sounds on your 64. pass filter allows a band or group of frequencies
to pass through while frequencies above and
below the band are suppressed.
Last month we explored some of the basics of pro The filter you choose is activated by turning
ducing sound on the Commodore 64. We dis on bits 4 (low pass), 5 (band pass), or 6 (high pass)
cussed ADSR (attack, decay, sustain, and release) in SID register 24 (read the accompanying short
and used these parameters along with volume, article, "Switching Bits," for details on turning
pitch, and waveform to produce various sounds. bits on or off). These filters can be used in com
This month, we will look even further into the binations for additional effects. For instance, add
capabilities of the 64's built-in "synthesizer on a ing the low and high pass filters together creates
chip," the Sound Interface Device (SID). We'll the inverse effect of the band pass filter; only the
discuss filters, ring modulation and synchroniza higher and lower frequencies pass, suppressing
tion, and present a utility, "Soundmaker64," the middle frequencies.
which will make it easier to use these techniques The amount of sound that is removed by a
within your own programs. filter is determined by the cutofffrequency. The
filter cuts off the sound beginning at this fre
Changed Your Filters Lately? quency. The cutoff frequency for filtering is con
The Commodore 64 SID chip has three filters — trolled by the lower three bits in SID register 21
but unlike the filters in your car, they should and all eight bits in register 22. Some of the most
never need replacing. However, they do share interesting effects possible on the 64 are created
some similarities with car filters. Just as an oil by incrementing or decrementing these series of
filter allows oil to pass while blocking out other bits while a sound is being played. Want the
unwanted particles, the SID chip filters let parts sound of an alien ship as it lands? Use your nor
of sounds pass — selectively filtering out the mal alien ship sound, add a filter, and gradually
remainder of the sound. Synthesizer filters pro increment or decrement these eight bits as your
vide an important means of manipulating sounds ship descends. A certain combination of wave
to produce various effects. forms and a changing filter can create just the
The three filters are called high pass, low pass, right sound effect for a descending alien ship.
136 COMPUTE!1! Gazette November 1983

Filter (Noise Waveform)
Cutoff Frequency is Incremented through
Low Pass Filter

~~| 128
CE 3 (FOR RIK6)+-
Cutoff frequency 64
112 HUM!

Time I
"Soundmaker 6&" lets you experiment with all the parameters
Band Pass Filter of the sound chip and and the results to oilier programs.

Ring Modulation
Ring modulation is a form of additive sound syn
Cutoff frequency thesis that dramatically changes the timbre or
tone quality of two tones. Tones that have been
fed through a ring modulator do not retain their
original pitches or timbres. Instead, the sums and
remainders of the two frequencies are retained.
For instance, if the first sound is a tone that
vibrates at 100 vibrations per second (vps), and
the second tone vibrates at 200 vps, then the ring-
modulated tone will be a combination of the sum
High Pass FUtcr (300 vps) and the difference (100 vps).
Usually the ring-modulated tone sounds very
different than the two original tones. Since most
tones are complex phenomena consisting of many
less obvious inner frequencies (harmonics), the
ring-modulated tone may be very complex in
tonal character.
To achieve ring modulation on the 64, you
a Cutoff frequency have to set bit 2 of the waveform byte when using
the triangle waveform (POKE register 4 with 21).

Voice 3 must be set to some frequency. No other
i parameters of Voice 3 have any effect on ring
Time Synchronization on the 64 also adds two
tones together to produce a new and different
sound. If bit 1 of the waveform byte is set (POKE
register 4 with 19), then setting Voice 3 to a
definite pitch (POKE registers 14 and 15 for the
Additive And Subtractive pitch of Voice 3) and manipulating the pitch of
Synthesis Voice 1 (registers 0 and 1) cause the tone quality of
Filtering is an example of subtractive synthesis. the resulting pitch to change.
Subtractive synthesis is a method of manipulating Synchronization happens when the two
sounds by subtracting parts of a single sound — waveforms are linked to make the waveform of
pushing other parts which nurmally may not be Voice 1 dependent on whether it is in sync with
heard into the forefront. Additive synthesis, how the frequency produced by Voice 3. Since the two
ever, brings two sounds together to form a totally waveforms are not usually in sync, the waveform
new sound. Both ring modulation and synchroniza is distorted, producing different and sometimes
tion are examples of additive sound synthesis. interesting waveforms. In sync mode, the pitch of
138 COMPUTEI'i Gazette November 1983

Belore play fcegmstfie saucer will ffy [QTheropol

the screon Each time the saucor is destroyed a new
saucer appears at a lowor height an tha scrpon
When [fie fifth saucer n\ Irio loweil height la
destroyed a bonus of 2D0 poinis ia nwjndad nnd a
bonus jnfln fl given Only one bonus mjin ig givpn
per flamo
The man may be controMnri hy ihpfnysiickorihe
koyboard Tne CRSR control keys kicaiad m Ihfl
lower right corner tit the keyboar 3 movelhe manl#f[
ana right ana rhe shjft key fira-s Ihe gun
The saucer is seefcjng biological specimens and
uses gas bombs to slum jts prey before TflVmg [tiem
aboard the ship The saucer also nas a capture net
made up of electroslaiiC cna'ged Darricre^ ThencL
cannot be destroyed and il Ine man u caught his
movements are restricted uj| he can sMi fire his
weapon Once Ihe net tuts the ground i| is hiirmless
A skill lovoi tan bo selected whpnihp nils page is
on iho scroon and the lovef w<l I atdy the same from
one (jflme To another until ■[ ie manujihy changed
LJsq [ho Pi (unction kny to change (ho skill level,
locatod a! ihe botlflrti of INe scroen Levels range
Irom the easiest dt 0 to the hardest nl 9 When play
g you nave )hrne men. Ihe number of men
remaining appears m ints lower let) corner oi she
ploy field A bonus man can t>* awarded givrng &
mainmum of four men per game Thp high game
score is reflected on ] he lower rig hi of Ihe playiipitl
Thchighest game scoreat Mngic Ctfcol Sollwaieis
9.372 Good Luck"

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Novemhcr 1983 COMPUTEViGatette 139

Switching Bits Now we can attack our original prob
Registers are simply memory locations that lem - changing bits within registers on the
have special functions. In the SID chip, there 64. Bits are labeled 0 to 7 from right to left. To
are 28 registers, most of which are dedicated set bit three of a register to 1 (in other words,
to sound production. In Soundmaker 64, the turn it on), you can POKE the register with
registers we POKE do not begin at the sound an 8 (2 to the third power). This POKE erases
chip (54272), but at 49152. The machine lan what was in that register and replaces it with
guage routine then "mirrors" these registers an 8 (00001000).
by copying them to the sound chip registers. You can change certain bits within a
To understand how registers can be register without affecting the other bits with
manipulated, a brief discussion of byles is the keywords OR and AND. The OR operator
necessary. Bytes are memory locations that is used to compare two bytes, bit for bit, to
can store values. On the Commodore 64 and alter certain bits without altering the others.
most other small personal computers, bytes Here's an example:
consist of eight smaller units called bits (bi Original byte — 00010001 =17
nary digits). A bit can be either on or oft', OR with 8 —00001000= 8
usually represented by 1 orO. Thus, any Resulting byte — 00011001 = 25
byte's value can be represented by eight num The OR statement looks at each bit of
bers, where the numbers are limited to 1 and the original byte and compares it to the cor
0. Example: lOllOHi responding bit of the OR byte. If one OR the
Since only two possibilities exist for each other of the bits is a 1, then the resulting
bit (I or 0), this numbering system is referred byte will contain a 1 in that particular bit. If
to as binary or base two. neither of the bits is a 1, the resulting byte
Our usual number system is known as will contain <i 0 in that bit. Thus, here's how
decimal or base ten. This system uses ten you would set bit 3 to a 1 without changing
different symbols to designate numbers (0-9). the other bits, in BASIC:
The position of the number from the right POKE byte, (PEEK(byte)OR 8)
most side determines the power of 10 by which The AND keyword also looks at each bit
the number is to be multiplied. For instance, of one byte and compares it to the corre
here's how the decimal number 2156 breaks sponding bit of the second byte, but in a
down: different way. Here's an example of AND:
Decimal: 2 15 6 Original byte — 00001111 = 15
Position: 3 2 10 AND with 254 —11111110 = 254
Power of 10: 2*103 + l*10» + 5M01 + 6*10° =2156 Resulting byte —00001110= 14
Value: (2000) + (100> + (50) + (6) =2156 The AND operation looks at the two
bytes and sets a 1 in the corresponding bit of
The value of binary numbers is deter
mined the same way, except the position of the resulting byte only if both the first bit
the digit (the bit) determines the power of 2 AND the second bit are l's. Thus, ANDing
15 with 254 clears the 0 bit. In BASIC this is
by which the number is multiplied. Here's
written: POKE(byte),(PEEK<byte)AND254)
how the binary numkr 10110111 breaks
down when translated to decimal:
Binary: 1 0 1 0
Position: 7 6 4 3

Power of 2: 1*2- + 0*2* + 1*2S + 1*2*+ 0*23 + 1*2* + 1*2' + 1*2° =183
Value: (128)-*- (0) + (32) + (16)+ (0) + (4) + (2) + (1) =183

the tone you hear depends on the pitch of Voice 3, resistance). Since game paddles are really poten
not Voice 1 as would normally be the case. tiometers (variable resistors), these ports can be
used to register paddle movement and can easily
be used to change values in other registers within
Paddling With The SID the chip while sounds are being produced.
The SID chip also contains two registers (25-26) This simple routine can be added to a sound
connected to the two joystick ports. These program to control the pitch of Voice 1 with a pad
registers will contain a number from 0 to 255, dle plugged into port one while a tone is being
depending on the resistance of a potentiometer
attached to the ports (255 at maximum 10 POKE 54272 + 1,PEEK(54272 + 25):GOTO10

140 COMPUTE!'* Gazette Novumbo. 1983

This line connects the paddle value to the zation for Voice 1, you may not be able to use
high-byte frequency value of Voice 1. It's much Voice 3 as a separate sound.
easier to study the effects of changing sound
values if you can hear the sound playing as you Changing Sounds
experiment. That is the basis of "Soundmaker 64." To alter any parameter at any time after entering it
originally, merely press the key which is in reverse
Soundmaker 64 field on the parameter name and press the + or -
Soundmaker 64 allows you to create your own key to raise or lower the value. When done, hit
sounds and manipulate them by changing RETURN.
various parameters. Attack, decay, sustain, and You can even change parameters as the sound
release are included as well as pitch, filters, ring is playing. To do this, hit one of the function keys
modulation, and synchronization. The pulse or one of the arrow keys to start the note and,
waveform may be manipulated to change the without releasing it, hit the reverse field character
pulse width of the sound — altering the timbre of of the parameter you wish to change. Then
the resulting sound considerably. change the sound with the + and - keys.
To use Soundmaker 64, type in the program To use the filters as the sound is being played,
and save it on disk or tape. When you are sure you must first start the sound that you want, then,
you have a saved copy, run the program. After a without releasing the key, hit either H (for high
brief delay while the program loads a small pass), B (for band pass), or L (for low pass). Next,
machine language routine into memory, the word hit F for filter, and use the + and - keys to incre
"Attack" appears at the upper-right corner of ment or decrement the cutoff frequency. As
your screen. Using the + and - keys, you can before, hit RETURN to end the note.
increase or decrease the attack value for your To save the sound or sounds that you have
sound. The current value POKEd is represented created, press Q while the note is playing. The
by both a bar graph and a number. The number screen clears and a program appears on the
varies in units of sixteen or one depending on screen. Type NEW and press RETURN over the
which parameter you are working with. These lines as they are listed on the screen. Then you
values are meant to serve as a reference point can play this sound, or save it on tape or disk and
only, since they may differ from the actual value use it later as a routine in your own programs. To
by one unit. The increments were selected to use it as a routine, you'll need a delay loop such
make the changes in parameters very easy to hear as this to set the duration:
and the program easy to use. 70 FOR T = 1TO 2000:NEXT T
Once you have decided on the attack value, Then, to turn off the sound, use this line:
simply hit RETURN and the next parameter 80FORT = 49152 + 4TO49152 + 18STEP7:POKET,
appears. Keep in mind that "Sustain" and (PEEK(T)AND254):NEXT:SYS53017
"Volume" must be a reasonably high number for To turn on the sound in your own program,
the sound to be audible. When you have picked you can either GOSUB the whole routine, or use
all the parameters {"Pulse wave low" is the last this line (with your own line number):
one on the screen), then you can play the sound FORT = 49152 + 4TO49152+18STEP7:POKET,
with the function keys. Fl plays the sound with
the sawtooth waveform, F3 with the triangle
A Bit About The Program
waveform, F5 with the noise waveform, and ¥7
Soundmaker 64 uses a tiny machine language
with the pulse waveform.
(ML) routine which copies the contents of 24
Ring Modulation And Sync bytes starting at 49152 to the sound registers
beginning at 54272. The ML routine copies the
The up-arrow key (beside the asterisk) plays your
registers in the order they should be POKEd to
sound as it is ring modulated with Voice 3, and
properly create a sound.
the left-arrow key (beside the 1) plays the synchro
nized sound resulting from the pitches of Voice 1 This is done because sound registers are write
and Voice 3. (Ring modulation and synchroniza only registers. That is, when values are POKEd
tion are limited to Voice 1.) into the SID registers, they cannot be PEEKed
Once you have heard Voice 1, simply hit the 2 later. Instead, you must store the values in vari
key and you will again be prompted for the ables or other memory locations. The ML routine
parameters. As with Voice 1, you play Voice 2 stores these values in a safe area of memory and
with the function keys. To hear Voices 1 and 2 allows us to copy them at any time to the SID
simultaneously, hit the space bar. To select the registers. The ability to "remember" the values
parameters for Voice 3, press the 3 key. The space which have been POKEd into the SID chip makes
bar then plays all voices previously defined. If Soundmaker 64 possible.

you have selected ring modulation or synchroni See program listing on page 198. CD
November 1983 COMPUTE!'* Gazette 141

With Custom Characters

In this month's column we'll show you how 50 POKB36869,255:PRIHT"{CLR}t5 DOWSi § A

to spice up your programs with animation. fSPACE)B C D E F G H l[DOWN}[3 SPACES}
J K L M N 0 P" :rem 56
The basic information also applies to the
60 GETA?iIFA?»""THEN60 :rem 239
Commodore 64. 7168 DATA 56,84,146,146,146,146,84,56
trem 62
7176 DATA 56,68,138,146,146,162,68,56
:rem 64
Elsewhere in this issue we've shown how to 7184 DATA 56,68,130,130,254,130,68,56
create custom characters for your programs. Now :rem 43
we'll learn how to animate those custom 7192 DATA 56,68,162,146,146,138,68,56

characters and add a little action to the screen. ;rem 62

7200 DATA 12,44,90,28,24,164,66,1 :rem 83
Almost everyone remembers their first
7208 DATA 12,12,24,60,24,88,40,8 :rem 35
experience with animation. You might have 7216 DATA 12,12,8,28,12,14,16,32 :rem 26
drawn a stickman on successive pages of a scratch 7224 DATA 12,12,8,30,44,10,20,32 :rem 14
pad, and when the pages were rapidly flipped, 7232 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 :rem 156
the stickman appeared to run across the pages. 7240 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 :rem 155
7248 DATA 24,24,60,60,255,255,126,66
This is the same principle used in computer
irem 248
animation. By creating various custom characters 7256 DATA 8,88,26,188,111,253,126,74
(like a stickman) in different positions, and then jrem 4
POKEing them to the screen, you can simulate 7264 DATA 138,17,144,56,109,229,62,72

animation. irem 49
7272 DATA 130,17,128,40,76,165,26,64
Before proceeding, turn off your ViC, remove
irem 246
any memory expansion, then turn it on again. 7280 DATA 0,16,128,40,4,164,24,0 irem 26
Enter, SAVE to tape or disk, and then RUN Pro 7288 DATA 0,0,0,40,0,36,0,0 irem 20
gram 1. This program creates a few custom char 7296 DATA 0,0,0,8,0,0,0,0 ;rem 174
acters (stored in the DATA statements). Line 10 7304 DATA 159,255,77,111,192,254,16,59
:rem 100
reserves a special place in memory for them (512
7312 DATA 0 : rem 23
bytes at the top of BASIC memory), then POKEs
the characters into memory. The POKE (36869) in This program displays the custom characters
line 50 directs the operating system to look at our with a PRINT statement. To create the animation
special character set in RAM memory instead of effects, we could use the PRINT statement, but it
the standard character ROM. would be easier and more efficient to use POKE.
The next few programs use the custom
Program 1 characters created in Program 1, so don't turn off
the computer. Press RUN/STOP—RESTORE,
10 POKE52,28:POKE56,28:CLR :rem 18
then enter NEW. This will clear BASIC memory
20 FORA=7313TO7679iPOKEA,0tNEXT : rem 148
30 FORA=7168T07312iREADBiPOKEA,BjNEXT of the program that was there, but will leave our
irem 55 custom character set intact, still protected.
142 COMPUTEI'i Gaietle November 1983
First Book of VIC Games
Authors: COMPUTEI Magazine Contributors Cupy Ca[
Price: S 12.95 Mo* and Dan fcmfl
On Sale: Now Tim ftrtrr
Crypic N'umlr . W
C.G. Mid/fit,
The VIC-20 is a versatile computer. Its pro Hunt . 105
grammable color, graphics, and sound can add
sI r*Bt - 112
a lot to game programs.
Over the past few years, COMPUTEI Pharaoh's Treasure . 120

Magazine has published a wide variety of Oak ami Kathn/n H K:dd

games for the VIC. But some back issues are Part 5: Scrolling
r.rand Pri. ft.,, 1.15
hard to find or unavailable.
J Mark VitIA
That's why the editors of COMPUTEI 137
have chosen the best games, revised them, Part 6: Dexterity
TriLin.iiTr.ini 143
and added previously unpublished games, put £W Sanders
ting them together into COMPUTE!'* First fli^frr 14?
Doug Ferguson .. .
Book of VIC Games. Each game has been Deflector 153
tested and debugged and is ready to type into Fran* /. Tynrw ,.
lumping /act
a VIC-20. Paul Burger ...
First Book of VIC Games contains fast- Sfcydiver

action arcade games that require guick

reflexes, as well as strategy games that test
J 4lsm Cwsiiv , ..
/( ..
Table of Contents
logical skills. For SI2.95 you get two dozen Appendix A: Creating Vour 0.
games, including: Gtttia flomf ™_
Time Bomb — You hear the time bomb tick Appendix B: VVriiing Your O»
fair CsmiJri 3
ing, and you have to find your way through Richard Mansfield
the maze to defuse it. But the maze is larger Appendix C: A Beginner's Gu ™ng a Simulation Game 1

Typing In Programs KiriwnJ Mansfield

than the screen, and you can't always see ™nj; An Gamr a
where the dead ends are. Cunvsnliiins
Closeout — The local department store is ftrt 2: Maze Games
having a sale, You try to snatch as many sale »p*w *m.».™. ,.„„„,, „.„,„. lime Numb 23
J Douy Snrmk
items as possible, while avoiding the horde of 25
bargain hunters who aie trying to thwart you. J Gary Bitilpn

Cryptic Numbers — A good logic game. The computer picks a pattern of

numbers that you have to guess. After each turn you learn how close you Anthom
Lnchmvar's Maze
Oari anJ Kslhryn U
Air Defense — Missiles are falling out of the sky onto your city. Aim M
t 3: Action Games
carefully: you get only one shot at each missile ClltiCTill! 43
ll a-j,..
Thunderblrd — Your goal is to break out of the playing field by using the
thunderoird that controls the satellite.
Sky Diver — Put on your parachute, jump out of the plane, and try to Balloons
land on one of the targets. Watch out for wind currents that may blow you
off course. Mim- W
tutot.aok Mttnlf...
Deflector — A ball is bouncing around the screen. You can aim it toward O mi ftrwin,,,,/. fay
targets by strategically placing deflectors that change its direction. Air 73
t,l miii..
Hidden Maze — Lost in a maze, you're trying to get out. But it is dark, H)
and you can see only a few spaces in front of you. rt 4: Brain Testers
Mail! Man X!
Outpost — Your small fortress is under siege, You have two types of lasers
and some torpedoes. Unfortunately, the energy supply is dwindling and
the computer is on the blink. The supply ship may (or may not] show up in
time to make repairs.
First Book of VIC Games is more than just a book of program listings. Each program is annotated and explained: you can modify the games if
you like or use the many programming techniques in your own games. Also included is a useful program you can use to draw mazes for
games you write. Three chapters show you how to develop a game program. Another tells you how to take advantage of the VIC'S sound,
graphics, and color capabilities. The index lists references where you can learn more about programming. And First Book of VIC Games is
spiral bound to lie flat while you are typing in programs.

To order directly, call ORDER NOW

TOLL FREE Available at computer dealers and bookstores nationwide. Or send a check or money order to
COMPUTEI Books, P. O. Box 5406. Greensboro, NC 27403.
800-334-0868 Add i! snipping and handling. Ou[side the LJ S ,idd S5 lor sir mail. SZ (or surface mail All orders prepaid, U S. rundsonly.
(919-Z75-9809lnNCJ S> I983. COMPUTE! PuWicarions. me VIC-20 K * ttMrmart of CommrxJorc Efcctronici HO
Rolling And Spinning Wheels
If you turn the computer off then back on, you
will have to rerun Program 1. Now enter, then
RUN, Program 2.

Program 2
10 PRINT"{CLR}":C=PEEK(646):POKE38630,CtP
20 FORA=0TO3:POKE7910,A:POKE7912,3-A:FORT

As you can see, all this program does is POKE

custom characters to the center of the screen. The
effect of the spinning wheels is created by POKE-
ing the screen with various wheels (characters)
with the spoke in different positions. You can
vary the speed of the spin by changing the
variable SP in line 10. A lower value will increase A close-up of the custom characters used in the example
the speed of the spin, a higher value will slow it. programs.
Study line 20 of Program 2. It contains a pro
gramming technique that might be of interest to
you. While the "FOR A ..." loop is set to count
forward (to animate the left wheel running The Running Stickman
clockwise), the second POKE (7912) in line 20 in ef
Press RUN/STOP-RESTORE, then enter NEW.
fect counts backwards. This is how the right
Now enter Program 4 and RUN.
wheel is made to run counterclockwise. By sub
tracting the variable A from the constant 3, the Program 4
FOR A loop seems to run backwards. It's like hav
ing two FOR/NEXT loops in one — one counting 10 PRINT"(CLR}":POKE36879,27:FORA=38400TO
forwards, the other counting backwards.
enter NEW. Now enter Program 3 and RUN. This NEXTA
program uses the same wheel characters, but in 30 GETAS:IFA$=""THEN20
stead of spinning in one place, the various wheels 35 SP=150
40 POKE7910,32iFORA=7680TO8185:POKEA,N;PO
are POKEd to successive positions, producing the
effect of the wheel rolling across the screen. HENN=4
Again, the variable SP in line 10 controls the 50 NEXTA
speed. If you change the speed and make the pro
As you can see, Program 4 also POKEs
gram run too fast, the rolling effect is almost lost.
custom characters {various poses of a stickman) to
Program 3 the center of the screen. The animated running
effect here is produced with four different custom
10 PRINT"tCLR)":POKE36869,255:C=PEEK{646)
character stickmen. If you watch the animated ac
=90 tion closely, it even looks as if the stickman is
20 FORA=7680TO8185:POKEA,N:POKEA-1,32:N=N alternating legs while running.
+1s FORT=1TOSP:NEXTT:IFN=4THENN=0 Now press any key on the keyboard and
watch the stickman run across the screen. Again,
Notice POKE A-1,32 in line 20. This POKE speed is an important factor here. Change the
puts a blank space {screen POKE character 32) on variable SP in line 10 to 0, then RUN. As you can
the screen just before the current position of the see, the speed is so fast that not only is the anima
rolling wheel. This causes the wheel to erase the tion effect lost, but it's hard to even recognize the
space just behind itself as it rolls across the character as it moves.
screen. Remove this POKE from the program, Program 4 shows the main drawback of ani
RUN it, and see what happens. mating with POKEd custom characters: jumpy
Speed is important when animating custom action. This effect is caused by the characters
characters. If they move too fast, the eye cannot moving one character block, or eight pixels, at
see all the subtle changes in the characters, and one time. For truly smooth animation, high-
the effect is lost. On the other hand, if the pro resolution graphics is better because it allows you
gram runs too slow, the characters appear to to move objects one pixel at a time. However, we
jump, and the effect of smooth animation is lost. will not touch upon hi-res animation here because
144 COMPUTE!'* Gazette November 1983
it is an advanced programming technique that • ■•■•■•■•■•■•■•IDlaltKI

requires machine language.

BIBLE Software
Exploding UFOs And Other
EDUCATION BIBLE Software emphasises Bible learning.
Effects Each program teaches a particular book or theme An added
POKEd animation isn't limited to making objects
feature with most of the programs is the option to enter your
move. You can also create interesting effects with
own Questions on any subject
stationary objects. Again, press RUN/STOP—
ENTERTAINMENT BIBLE Software programs use the
RESTORE, then enter NEW. Now enter and RUN
color, graphics, sprites, and sound capabilities Of the Com
Program 5. This program uses custom characters
to make a flying saucer explode and disintegrate. modore 64 m a wav that makes learning a challenging game

Change the variable SP in line 10 to 250, then JONAH and the WHALE True-False questions User
RUN it again. Notice how tiny bits (pixels) of the has the option to enter own questions Plaver can go fishing
saucer seem to fly outward, then disappear. with joystick Score for correct answers and for fish netted Se

cond bonus program,NOAH and COD'S PROMISES

Program 5 MESSAGE RUNNER An exciting matching game from
10 PRINT"{CLR}":POKE36879,27:POKE36869,25 Matthew 5-7 user has option to enter own auestions Player
5iPOKE38630,0:SP-120 runs bv charging lions, deadly snakes, and alligators to deliver
15 POKE7910,10iFORT=lTO500!NEXTT
message (Joystick reauired)
T :NEXTA t FORT=-1TO500 iNEXTT i GOTO15 BIBLE OLYMPICS Sible quizzes were never as fun as they
are in this learning game1
Once you've conquered the art of animating
Send S16 95 per game olus S2 00 shipping and handling to BIBLE
with custom characters, you can add the final
touch: sound. Adding the sounds of footsteps as
the stickman runs across the screen, or an ex 4169 S E Davidson, Albany, OR. 97321

ploding sound as the flying saucer disintegrates, (specify Disk or Tape)

will provide that little extra touch that makes your ■■■■■■■•■•■•B*B•■•■•■•■•■•
graphics animations fun and enjoyable. &}

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Merging Programs
On The 64
John A. Winnie

For intermediate programmers, "Merger" reason, all DATA statements to be added should
allows you to build up large programs by begin with a line number higher than those already
working on smaller portions separately and present in the program. When you have finished,
then linking them together later. This approach jusf erase Merger by deleting lines 1 through 5.
is used by many professionals.
How Merger Works
First, clear out your Commodore 64 by typing
If you do much BASIC programming, sooner or NEW and pressing RETURN. Then enter the fol
later you'll need to merge two short programs to lowing simple program:
form a larger one. Or perhaps you'll need to
append onto a program a series of DATA state
ments - DATA for sprites, redefined characters, Press RETURN, and the one-line program is
sound and music, or whatever. Here is a quick now entered into memory beginning at address
and easy way to add those DATA statements - or 2048 and running on upward. To see just how the
any other BASIC statements, for that matter - program is stored, enter:
onto the end of your programs. FOR 1 = 2048 TO Z0S6:PRINT PEEK (I) ;NEXT I
Of course, various techniques for merging
programs have been around for some lime. When If all this has been done correctly, you now
should see a list of memory contents which looks
all that is needed is a simple append, however,
like this:
the method presented here does the job nicely.
The program below, "Merger," is designed to 0,7,8,10,0,143,0,0,0

merge with any programs which are appended The 0 in address 2048 is invariable: all BASIC
to it, and it allows you to keep on appending programs begin with zero. They also always end
indefinitely. with a zero; in fact, they always end with exactly
three zeros - which is just what we see here in
Using Merger
memory locations 2054 through 2056. From this
After typing and saving Merger, load it in the point on in memory, BASIC will store any vari
usual way. Next, RUN Merger, and then load in ables and other information that it may need to
your main program. Now, as Merger instructs, execute the program.
POKE locations 43 and 44 with 1 and 8, respec In general, when a BASIC line is stored, it
tively. Your main program is now appended to will end with a single zero, not three zeros. When
Merger and ready for any DATA statements you
a new line is appended to the program, its code
may want to add later. begins immediately after that single zero. So in
Remember, Merger allows you to append the example above, if the line
programs only, not to insert them. So to prepare
for using Merger later, begin your programs with
a line number greater than five. For the same were now added to our sample program, the (link
146 COMPUTEfs Gazelle November 1983
Commodore 64

with your Joystick I

Now. you can create high-resolution pictures
on-screen with your joystick as a "pen." Design critters,
objects, pie-charts — whatever your imagination wishesl
SAVE your creations to tape or disk, and PRINT
them on a VIC printer. Educational and funi

Draw narrow or wide lines. curvy 01 straight; set points;

add captions, create background patterns; change
picture, background, and border colors; reverse colors for
a negative, even connect dois with straight lines
automatically! You control every dot on the screen.

A large "Picture Library" is included to gel you started, .. with a wing load of Quality software
pius a 20-page instruction manual. Joystick required. VIC
printer and diskdrive optional. Now on disk or cassette I for the commodore 64'"and VIC 20w
For the Commodore
Once? you've compared our programs, their features and
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of the) new lino would now come in at address To see this, enter PRINT PEEK(45),PEEK(46),
2055 - the address of the middle zero in the triplet; and out should come the pair 9,8. Since the ad
a new triplet of zeros would appear later in mem dress 2057 is the first address to follow our sample
ory, signaling the end of line 20 and the new end program, and 2057 = 256*8 + 9, we have the ex
of the program. (Try this later to see for yourself.) pected result.
So, to merge programs, we simply have (o mcike Now that we have the address of the first
sure that we load in the new section at the address location after the end of the program, the rest is
of the middle zero (2055, in our example) within easy. The new program is simply loaded into
the three zeros which signal the end of our original memory two places before this location. In our
program. What we need to do is raise the floor of example, we load at location 2055 (2057-2). And
BASIC to this new address, load the section to be that's all there is to it.
merged, and then lower the floor to its original The basic idea behind Merger should now be
value (here, 2049). clear. Everylhing of interest is packed into line 4.
First, for any program which begins with these
Tinkering With BASIC lines, the new floor for BASIC is computed using
Raising the floor of BASIC is easy. The new ad the contents of locations 45 and 46, as described
dress is simply POKRd into addresses 43 and 44 above. Next, the floor of BASIC is raised to the
in low-byte, high-byte order. (HI = INT (AD- new location. As a result, any new program now
DRESS#/256) :LO = ADDRESS#-25(S*HI.) Finding loaded will .start right at the tail end of the previous
this new address is another matter, but fortu program- just where we want it.
nately, this turns out to be easy as well. 1 PRINT "(CLRJ{10 DOWN]";TAB{15)"MERGE?"
As I mentioned above, BASIC needs (o know :GETA?:IFA$=""THENFORI=0TO500:NEXT:GOT
where it is safe to begin to store its variables. In 01
other words, BASIC needs to know the first ad 2 IFA$<>"Y"THEN5
dress to come after the three zeros which end the 3 PRINT"[CLR}(10 DOWN}";TAB(5)"LOAD YOUR
program. Hence, the computer stores this address
in a pair of memory locations in the usual low-byte, 4 E=2 56*PEEK(46)+PEEK(45)-2:H=INT(E/2 56)
high-byte form. In the 64, these locations are ad :L=E-256*H:POKE43,L:POKE44,H:END
dresses 45 and 46. 5 REH I'J}

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Planet Miners S12.00 Spinnaker
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Pharoh's Curse $26.95
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The Automatic Proofreader
Using The Proofreader
• IMPORTANT: We added a POKE to the "Automatic All VIC and 64 listings in COMPUTE!'*; Gazette now have a
Proofreader" (October) to protecl it from being erased checksum number appended to the end of each line, for example
when you LOAD another program from tape. The "xem 123". Don't enter this statement when typing in a program.
POKE does protect the Proofreader, and the Proof It is just for your information. The rem makes the number
reader itself is not affected. However, a quirk in the harmless if someone does type it in. It will, however, use up
VIC-20's operating system means that programs typed memory if you enter it, and it will confuse the Proofreader,
in with the Proofreader and SAVEd to tape cannot be even if you entered the rest of the line correctly.
LOADed properly later. If you LOAD a program When you type a line from a program listing and press
SAVEd while the Proofreader was in memory, you see RETURN, the Proofreader displays a number at the top of
?LOAD ERROR. This applies only to VIC tape SAVEs your screen. This checksum number must match the checksum
(disk SAVEs work OK, and the quirk was fixed in the number in the printed listing. If it doesn't, it means you typed
64). The solution is this special LOAD procedure: the line differently than the way it is listed. Immediately
recheck your typing. Remember, don't type the rem state
1. Turn the power off, then on.
ment with the checksum number; it is published only so you
2. LOAD the program from tape (disregard the
can check it against the number which appears on your screen.
The Proofreader is not picky with spaces. It will not
3. Enter: POKE45,PEEK(174):POKE46,PEEK
notice extra spaces or missing ones. This is for your con
venience, since spacing is generally not important. But occa
4. ReSAVE the program to tape.
sionally proper spacing is important, so be extra careful with
The program will LOAD just fine in the future. This spaces, since the Proofreader will catch practically everything
month, the Proofreader has been updated to prevent else that can go wrong.
this problem. It also has been improved in other ways. There's another thing to waich out for: if you enter the
Please observe these new procedures: line by using abbreviations for commands, the checksum
will not match up. But there is a way to make the Proofreader
1. After first entering the Proofreader, SAVE it
check it. After entering the line, LIST it. This eliminates the
before typing RUN. The new Proofreader erases its
abbreviations. Then move the cursor up to the line and press
BASIC loader from memory when first activated.
RETURN. It should now match the checksum. You can check
2. The new Proofreader checks itself for typing
whole groups of lines this way.
errors in the DATA statements when first RUN.
When you're done with the Proofreader, disable it by
3. The new version now works on both the VIC
pressing RUN/STOP-RESTORE (ho!d down the RUN/STOP
and 64. Since the POKE to protect the Proofreader has
key and press RESTORE). If you need it again, enter SYS
been removed for the VIC's sake, when using tape you
886. It will then be ready once again to act as your personal
must reLOAD the Proofreader and RUN it whenever
typing aid. However, sometimes (he Proofreader can be
you type in a new program.
wiped out of memory. In this case, you'll have to reLOAD
4. SAVE to tape wipes out the Proofreader, so
the Proofreader from tape or disk.

We strongly recommend that you type in the new Automatic Proofreader For VIC And 64
version of the Proofreader and discard the old one. 100 PRINT"{CLR)PLEASE WAIT...";FORI=886TO
We apologize for any inconvenience this may have 1018:READA;CK=CK+A:POKEI,A:NEXT
caused you. 110 IF CK<>17539 THEN PRINT"fDOWN}YOU MAD
"The Automatic Proofreader" will help you type in program
listings from COMPUTERS Gazelle without typing mistakes. It
is a short error-checking program that hides itself in memory.
886 DATA 173,036,003,201,150,208
When activated, it lets you know immediately after typing a
892 DATA 001,096,141,151,003,173
line from a program listing if you have made a mistake. 898 DATA 037,003,141,152,003,169
Please read these instructions carefully before typing any 904 DATA 150,141,036,003,169,003
programs in COMPUTEI's Gazette. 910 DATA 141,037,003,169,000,133
916 DATA 254,096,032,087,241,133
Preparing The Proofreader 922 DATA 251,134,252,132,253,008
1. Using the listing below, type in the Proofreader. 928 DATA 201,013,240,017,201,032
Watch out for typing an 1 instead of a 1, oranO instead 934 DATA 240,005,024,101,254,133
of a 0, extra commas, etc. 940 DATA 254,165,251,166,252,164
2. SAVE it on tape or disk at least twice before running it 946 DATA 253,040,096,169,013,032
for the first time. If you mistype the Proofreader, it may 952 DATA 210,255,165,214,141,251

cause a system crash when you first run it. By SAVEing 958 DATA 003,206,251,003,169,000
964 DATA 133,216,169,019,032,210
a copy beforehand, you can reLOAD it and hunt for
970 DATA 255,169,018,032,210,255
your error. Also, you'll want a backup copy of the Proof
976 DATA 169,058,032,210,255,166
reader because you'l! use it again and again - every
932 DATA 254,169,000,133,254,172
time you enter a program from COMPUTtl's Gazette.
988 DATA 151,003,192,087,208,006
3. RUN the Proofreader. It will be POKEd intoa relatively
994 DATA 032,205,189,076,235,003
safe area of memory, the cassette buffer. 1000 DATA 032,205,221,169,032,032
4. Type RUN to activate the Proofreader. If you ever 1006 DATA 210,255,032,210,255,173
need to reactivate it, just enter the command SY5 886 1012 DATA 251,003,133,214,076,173
and press RETURN. 1018 DATA 003

Novemborl983 COMPUTEIS Gazette 149


And RESTORE Statements

By now you have typed in programs from COM- 10READA,B,C,D,E,F These three IOA = 3
20 DATA 3,4,7,2,7,8 lines are 2(1 II = 4
PUTEI'sGazette and probably have them running
30E'KINTA + B,C-D,E*F equivalent lo: .10C = 7
for your own use. If you have had any trouble,
the most likely place for errors (other than simple 50E = 7
60F = 8
typing errors that are easily recognized) is in
7l)I'HINTA + B,C-D,E"F
DATA statements. This month we'll discuss some
data examples that will help you understand how When the computer executes line 10, the
the data is used and why typing (he DATA state instructions are to read and assign values to the
ments exactly is so important. If you do get some variables whose names are A, B, C, D, E, and F.
errors involving data, you can follow the com The computer finds the values in (he DATA state
puter's RESTORE and READ process lo pinpoint ment, line 20. The computer assigns the first data
trouble spots. item to A, the second data item to B, and so forth
DATA statements are used in combination according to the READ statement. You can try
with READ statements. Generally, fewer program typing the DATA statement as line 5 or line 35
statements can be used in a DATA-READ proce instead of line 20, and you'll see it doesn't matter
dure than using "assignment" (LET or A = 4 type) where the DATA statement is located. If you have
statements. A DATA statement starts with the several READ statements and several DATA state
line number, then the word DATA (which may ments, however, then your DATA statements

be abbreviated D shift-A), then numbers or words must be in the proper sequence matching the
separated by commas. A DATA statement may READ statements, but it doesn't matter where

not be combined with any other statements for they are placed in the program.
the line number. A DATA statement may be It also doesn't matter if you type a few extra
numbers in (he DATA statement; the extra items
placed anywhere in the program. If the computer
will just be ignored until another READ statement
comes to a DATA statement, the statement is
ignored until a READ statement is encountered. needs them. However, you must have enough
When the computer comes to the first READ items to satisfy the READ statement. If you have
statement, it then looks for the first DATA state too few items, you will get an OUT OF DATA
ment and assigns the value in the DATA statement
to the variable in (he RHAD statement. Numbers
or strings may be used, and all items are separated Matching Variables To Data
by commas. You may READ one or any number Another stipulation is that you need to match
of items. When the computer meets another READ strings with string variable names. If you use a
statement, the computer will read the very next string variable in the READ statement, the item in
data item which hasn't been used, whether it is in the DATA statement will become the value for
the same DATA statement previously used or the string variable (and it may be a number or
not. The computer keeps track of where it is in a alphabetic characters or symbols). If you want to
series of data items. Let's look at an example. READ a numeric variable, you must have a cor-
150 COMPUTErtGmette November 1983
VIO20 s: commodore COMMODORE 64
1525 80 Column Printer S219.00
1600 VIC Modem S59.00
1610 VIC Term 40 S49.00 $249
1650 AD/AA Modem S89.O0
1701 14" Color Monitor $249.00
1311 Joysticks (each) S5.99
1312 Paddles S11.99
1110 VIC 8K $43.00 1530
1111 VIC 16K S69.00 DATASETTE
1011 fiS-232 Interface S42.00
1211 Super Expander
Epson (mxsoft. mioo. rxbo. F«ao. fxiooi CALL
Okidata (si. 83. B4. 92, 93) CALL
Star Gemini 10X S299.00
Smith Corona TP-1 S469.OO COLOR 163
C.lloh Prowriter8510P $379.00 PRINTER/PLOTTER
C.Itoh Gorilla 5209.00

cammodarB tnrwonx HEB MICRDSPEC
1906 Super Alien 114.00 C-64 Cassettes VIC 20 Ca»*llfti vie 20 Ca*»n««
191O Radar Ral Race 114.00 Bndga 3.0 S14 9S TOrg 114.00 Spelling See-
1917 VooQoo Castle 119-00 C-54/VIC 20 Casiettai Skier S14 9S Grartos2. 3. 4. 5, or 6 . . IS.00
T 922 Cosmic Cruncher... 11 4 00 Teacher |P<I 11 1.95 Tank Wart -- $14.95 Marh Drill... .sa.oo
1923 Gorf .117.00 MiionrRniiMD
Pak B«mbti .„. S12.Q5 Portfolio M i-.i j' ■ . . *ie oo
1924 Omega Hace.- .117.00 VIC 10 Cassettes Djui Bombs' % 12.95 ii i'.i Mansgvr SiB.OO
11D VIC i''-ri •■uida... II 5.00 Mll'llin HfllO 116.00
M.ii« of Mikor S14.Q5 vie 30 daka
■ IJJi.l Hi'' .i .'Guide... SI 8.00 Shark Trip (16.00
lAtei Bllti S14.B5 Gnnnral Ladgpi 160.00

EABV BUBINEBB Mirll .■'.mil ',y,'lh,-- '.'■! ..116.00 PJnbnll $■ 2.95 M,ill ii i| Ll9l M i |n J35.00
Tnnk Trap Si 4.OS Inventory Package SG9.00
VIC 20 c ■■-■■fS-|i-- $QD 00
C-64 Disks VIC 20 Cassettes
VIC rorlh 947.95 Data bheb $49.00
^asyCalc 64 159 00 Motor Mouse 133.00
HES Mon $20.00 C-64 C li-1-
Easy Finance 64 *19 00 Centipede S23.O0
HES WnlBi . S20.OO Black Box $1?-00
EasyMoil 64 SI9.00 Raid ToaB S23.00
Aggrea*or • S31 .95 Color Sfceich $20.00
EflSyScripi 64 139.00 C-64 Ceisetles
'■• - - i 'i i ii ■ .. i S47.95 Mal^h M?krjf $16.00
Word/Name Machine.. ..SI6.00 Kama Toad 123.00
$29.00 C-64 Onki
PRDOQAMMER l.i'RIEB CREATIVE BOCTWARE Prelector $3? OO Mailing List Managar $45 00
C-64 OiSkl VIC 20 Ceasetlei TuMlfl Graphic* .,,.*,.... 131.95 Invaniory Pach»g» $T90C
Assembler • 18.00 Homi Finance. ......116.00
C-fl4 Carti.tJgaa General Ladgtr $79-00
Logo... 139.00 Home Inventory 116-00
HES Mon %29 00 $69 00
Pilot 130.00 VIC 20 Cartridges HES Wnlar $35-00 $16 00
Pal Emulator 110-00 Astro BIIII 129.00 i.i i 11 ■ i i * > • - n Color 5x*ich •.•..... $2? 00
Screen Editor.,.. tie.00 BKCk Moll 129.00 Mmtch Maker 120 00
VIC 70 C«<t*11lt
Video/ Music Support ... .115.00 Tnahmin 129.00
Alian Panic- 110.00 TRONIX
ACTS MUSIC SEPIES Clmiiliflar 529-0a
Faca Fun-Drag Ric« $1600 VIC 30 Ca$iflTt«i
C-64 Diskl EPYX The Ca inp. -l $10 00 Galactic BlitJ SI 9.95
Music Machine SI6.00 VIC SO Cassettes E ■Terminator ,„„ $19.00 Swarm._ 122.95
Mubic Composer SI 6-00 Sword oi Fargoal 524.00 C-Gfl Citaetlat Sidawmdar S22 3b
Mats Music I S39 00 Rescue at Rigel 124 00 3-D Man 116.00 VICTORY
ROMDX C 64/VIC ."iLivi aa
Maiell 132.00 VIC "i I" i.lrnln.".
prir>ca*aar.dFrao430}... $24.00 /■--!■■■'.■' Pak 1(3 ■ ■ ni ■ $12.00
Verbetum 126.00 Word Processor S49 00
Anterior (2O.'fl4| $26.00 A.r,i ■-,.■*■ r i!- 11. i , '\ in ;.. .112.00
Elephent SIB.95
UMI T*PO {20/64) S26.O0 Annihilation iio.oo
CARDCO. vie io cartridges WhJj Kiel (20/S4) S20.00 i-r.i.,' RobDe' ii i.oo
Light Pan 137.00 Amok ..,.130.00 l~l< nlnl □ i ii>; $16.00
I ! '\ IIUUU W
Castette Interlace 12B.O0 Meteor Hun S40.00
C 64 Dilkt Trak .. $11.00
Parallel Printer Interface ... S69.00 Allen III.-- S30.00
Personal Financ* $4 & 00 PRDFESHIDNAL
3-Slot VIC Expansion VIC 20 Cassettes Wntar'a Aianlani $95 00 SOFTWARE
Interface 131.00 Vilerm A 116.00
Word Pro 64 $65.00
6-Slol VIC Expansion Tne Alien 116.00
Interface 179-00

f-8OO.648.55ff f-8OO-255-395O
If. Ntf C*IH7O3]5BB 565fl D^pl MOGfl Ofdl- Slttix. ■ 5fl6 5BSJ "n P4 Ci" (71H32F 95^^ O*pT HOGd Ottfe* Slatus ■ 32T ^Ifl |
PO Ei- . \,t.i\'\ mi'.-i.i-i- nv,-i'i.i.m *r I t Th-fU Si rtiiiiannoon PAwroi |
Month. noOtcoi'ionC O 0 ont'i Pra<Di»dD'a*rir*c*rv*rrv*shipping WHin^rii*UPScanhn*nipiUflii*dSi*t*iwhmno wjiMing [■■ti.i.i id-. ,-n.rn',i. tu ■ *■ ■ a'nw\
Iddl'MiT '-inn 13 OOrtnippinq ""i '■ n'-mnq on am C 0 Q and ctdii ca'do^a-nv LA>t\*- ih-pnuni^m*, rnQuna ■dc(itJ(jn»i c-h.i-^r--. NV jnd PA ■•■• .< -. .ki.i ■..m'> 1hi> Ah
41 pi ni s % \j t] I f f1 E CO sfV^'^rVT^'l^t^ jH(1 ffrMrft i I"111 ■ ■ j * Vt W " r 11 ■ r> 11 ■■ ii\i,l,qiri^iq-r \ ninn 3rd (' 'r' Y ' I ■ I r ^ ■ ^' 'n lii ■ 11' i , | q i i - ■ 111 ■ 11 ■ i ■■ t's f\ \ M i^ r^nl IP ft f, Jl 11 t CJfl A "if 'iyf CJ U t C 4)t d ^O*|
responding number in the DATA statement. If the 50 FOR C=l TO 14
computer finds an alphabetic character or symbol, 60 READ N1,N2,L

you'll get a BAD DATA error. 70 POKE VI,Nl:POKE V2,N2

80 POKE 54276,17
Here's an example using string and numeric 90 FOR D=l TO 100*L:NEXT D
expressions: 100 POKE 54276,16
10 FOR 1-1 TO 4 110 NEXT C
20 READ NAME?,AGE,C5 120 POKE 54296,0
30 PRINT 130 DATA 34,75,1,34,75,1,51,97,1,51,97
40 PRINT NAME?;" IS ";AGE;"YEARS OLD." 140 DATA 1,57,172,1,57,172,1,51,97,2
50 PRINT "FAVORITE COLOR: ";C$ 150 DATA 45,198,1,45,198,1,43,52,1
60 NEXT I 160 DATA 43,52,1,38,126,1,38,126,1

This example illustrates a process repeated VIC-20 Version

several times. Three variables are read each time, 10 POKE 36878,15
NAMES, AGE, and C$. The first time through the 50 FOR C=l TO 14
program loop, the data items are read and as
70 POKE 36876,N
signed as follows. NAME$ = "RICH", AGE = 12,
90 FOR D=l TO 100*L:NEXT D
and C$ = "BLACK". Each time through the loop 100 POKE 36876,0
three more items are read. Note that it doesn't 110 NEXT C
matter if all three items are not in the same DATA 130 DATA 195,1,195,1,215,1,215,1
statement. Each DATA statement may consist of 140 DATA 219,1,219,1,215,2,209,1
150 DATA 209,1,207,1,207,1,201,1
one item or several items separated by commas,
160 DATA 201,1,195,4
although it saves memory to put as many items as 180 END
possible in each DATA statement The computer
accepts up to four VIC or two Commodore 64 You may also like to try graphics using DATA
screen lines for each program line. Be sure you do and READ statements. To POKE graphics onto
not put a comma at the end of the list of items. the screen, refer to the user's guide that came
A common use of DATA and READ state with your computer. Look at the screen and color
ments is to read variables into an array (sub memory maps, page 144 for the VIC-20 and pages
scripted variables). An example is: 138-39 for the Commodore 64. These maps give
10 FOR 1=0 TO 10
you the location numbers. I usually sketch a pic
20 READ A{I) ture on graph paper corresponding to these maps.
30 NEXT I The character numbers that you POKE or place
40 DATA 7,4,3,5,6,2,7,3,8,5,3 on the screen are called screen codes or screen
The first time through the loop, I is zero and display codes and are on pages 141-42 in the VIC-

A(0) will be given the value of 7, the first data 20 manual and pages 132-34 in the 64 manual.
item. The second time through the loop I is in The following sample programs clear the screen,
cremented lol, and A(l) is assigned 4. The process then display 16 graphic characters to draw a
Line 2 in the Commodore 64 version changes
Saving Memory And Time the screen to white. Line 5 clears the screen. Lines
If you like to write music on your computer, you 10-50 POKE the graphics on the screen, and lines
may find using DATA statements is a way to play 60-90 contain the data for the graphics. Line 20
many notes without writing too many program READs S, the screen location, and C, the screen
lines. In the following examples I have not made character code number, then line 30 places that
the DATA lines as long as they could be; you can graphic character on the screen. Line 40 assigns
put as many items in one line as there is room. In yellow to that character's location.
these examples, line 10 turns on the volume. Lines
20-40 set up different variables for creating sounds VIC Face
on the Commodore 64. Lines 50-110 are the pro 5 PRINT"ECLR}"
10 FOR 1=1 TO 16
cedure to READ the note or tone number and the
length from the DATA statements, then play the 30 POKE S,C
note. The length is determined in line 90. 40 POKE S+30720,7
Commodore 64 Version 60 DATA 7865,85,7866,67,7867,67,7868,73
10 POKE 54296,15 70 DATA 7887,66,7888,81,7889,81,7890,93
20 POKE 54277,4 80 DATA 7909,66,7910,74,7911,75,7912,93
30 Vl=54273 90 DATA 7931,74,7932,64,7933,64,7934,75
40 V2=54272 100 END
152 COMPUJEI's Gazette Novembei 1983
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64 Face of that variable. As soon as you edit the program
2 POKE 53281,1 (make changes or add or delete a line), the vari
5 PRINT "tCLR]" ables will be zero, so PRINT the values first.
10 FOR 1=1 TO 16
Let's say you are trying to RUN the VIC Face
30 POKE S,C program above (the first version without the RE
40 POKE S+54272,7 STORE lines). Now suppose the program prints
50 NEXT I part of the face, then stops with an error message.
60 DATA 1402,85,1403,67,1404,67,1405,73 First, you can look to see how much of the face
70 DATA 1442,66,1443,81,1444,81,1445,93
appeared before the error. If about half the face
80 DATA 1482,66,1483,74,1484,75,1485,93
90 DATA 1522,74,1523,64,1524,64,1525,75 got printed, then the first half of the DATA state
100 END ment items are OK. You may also type PRINT I
and press RETURN, and the current value of I
The RESTORE Statement will be printed. You may also PRINT S,C to see
what the values of Sand C are. S should be a four-
The RESTORE statement tells the computer to
digit number starting with 7, and C should be a
RESTORE the data and start with the very first
two-digit character number. If you know the value
data item on the next READ statement. You may
for I and the face looks all right as drawn so far,
want to use the RESTORE statement if you want
you can count the number of pairs of numbers
to do a procedure more than once but hate typing
that you know are OK to try to pinpoint the trouble
numbers in DATA statements. If you program a
area. You may also list certain line numbers. For
song, you can play the song more than one time
example, type LIST 60-90, then press RETURN to
by putting a RESTORE statement before the first
see the DATA statements.
statement that reads the first note, and put the
When you list the DATA statements, you can
whole procedure in a FOR-NEXT loop for the
compare the screen listing to the published listing.
number of times you wanl the song lo play, or a
Make sure you distinguish between the number
GOTO loop that plays continuously.
zero and the letter O. Make sure you have the
Let's look at an example. Suppose you have
right number of commas in the right order.
just drawn a face with one of the above pro
If you get an OUT OF DATA error, the com
grams. Now you want another face in another
puter has read all the data items but needs more.
section of the screen. The screen characters used
List the DATA statements and make sure you
will be the same, and the relative positions of the
have the right number of commas. You should
characters will be the same. If we would like to
also check any program statements, such as FOR
use the same DATA statements we already have
statements, to make sure the numbers are typed
in the program, we can RESTORE the data for the
correctly. The program may be trying to make too
next procedure. Try it by adding these lines to the
many loops. In the Face programs, you could
"VIC Face" or "64 Face" program above.
LIST 10 to make sure line 10 ends with a 16 and
92 RESTORE not a 17.
93 FOR 1=1 TO 16
If you get a BAD DATA error, it means the
computer was trying to read a value for a numeric
95 POKE S+104,C
96 POKE S+104+30720,3 variable but the DATA statement contained a
97 NEXT I string. Again, check for commas in the right
places. You may also try PRINTing some previous
For the Commodore 64, change line 96 to: variables to see the latest correct value.
96 POKE S+104+54272,3

With a little practice and practical experience Bake A Cake

you'll be able to see patterns in your work and
This program illustrates the use of DATA, READ,
learn to use DATA and READ statements along
and RESTORE statements in a recipe file. First, you
with RESTORE statements in the most efficient
may go through a list of ingredients and press Y
(yes) if you have the ingredient or N (no) if you do
not have the ingredient. When the inventory list is
Debugging complete, the computer program will tell you which
I mentioned that I think DATA statements are the cakes can be made with the ingredients you have.
most likely place to have an error when you are You may then choose a cake recipe, and that recipe
typing in a program from a published listing. Here will be printed on the screen. You then have the
are some suggestions to help you find the error. option to convert the recipe. If you would like to
When the program stops with an error mes convert the recipe, enter a number or decimal frac
sage, you can PRINT the values of any variable tion - such as 3 to triple the recipe or .5 to halve the
and [he computer will tell you the current value recipe. The converted recipe will be prinled.
154 COMFUTEI'i Gazette November 1983
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For convenience in programming (especially is a null or zero, then that ingredient is not printed.
with the limited memory of the VIC-20), the However, if there is a value, the value is printed,
amounts in the recipes are given in decimals. For followed by the corresponding measure and name
example, 2/3 cup sugar is written as .67 c. sugar. of ingredient from the 1$ array.
In the Commodore 64 version you may want to Line 83 defines variables M(I) for measure
change the decimals to fractions. and C$(I) for ingredient for only those ingredients
The DATA statements in lines 101-107 contain in the recipe. These values are used in printing
the measure, then the ingredient, for 25 ingredients. the converted recipe, lines 97-99.
Line 3 READs A$, the measure, and B$(N,0), the For the inventory list, the computer keeps
name of the ingredient, then assigns I$(N) equal track of your Y or N answers in theBS(N,l) array,
to the measure pius a space plus the name of the where N varies from 0 to 24 for the ingredients.
ingredient. By the way, that's a zero in the sub Line 33 checks to see if an N is stored as a no an
script for B$. B$ is used in the inventory list, and swer for flour, sugar, or salt. If any one of these
IS is used in printing the recipe. Z is the number three items has a no, then no cakes can be baked.
of ingredients minus one (because the subscripts Y is a variable for the number of Y answers, and if
start with the number zero). there are not enough ingredients with a Y answer
As you are typing the DATA statements, you you cannot make a cake (checked in line 35).
may notice two or more commas together with Line 47 RESTORES the data, then ignores the
nothing between them {,,,). Be sure you get the first 50 items. Lines 49-51 check through the recipe
right number of commas as you are typing. This for each cake. If (here is an amount listed for an
indicates a null string, or a string variable equal to ingredient, then the corresponding B$(N,1) value
" ". You may also use " " in your DATA statements is checked. If it is N for no, then you are lacking
(two double quote marks with no space between). one of the ingredients required for the cake. The
The recipes are in the DATA statements in rest of the ingredients are skipped over and the
lines 109-123. The first item is the name of the cake. computer goes to the next recipe. If each of the
The next items are the amounts of the ingredients required ingredients also has a B$ value of Y for
in the following order: cups shortening, cups flour, yes, then the cake can be made and the name of
cups sugar, cups brown sugar, tsp. baking powder, the cake is printed.
tsp. salt, tsp. soda, cups cherry juice, number of These are real recipes that really work. No
cherries, cups bananas (mashed), cups sauerkraut, baking instructions are given because there isn't
cups milk, cups buttermilk, number of eggs, number room in the VIC-20 version, but usually the person
of egg whiles, tsp. red food coloring, ounces of baking knows how to bake the cake and just needs
chocolate, tbsp. cocoa, tsp. vanilla, tsp. cinnamon, to be reminded of the amount of each ingredient.
tsp. nutmeg, tsp. vinegar, cups salad oil, cups In case you want to try these recipes, all are for
water, and cups of oatmeal. The DATA will con cakes to be baked in two 9-inch layers. Mix the
tain a null string if the cake does not contain that shortening with the sugars, then add the dry in
ingredient. gredients alternately with the liquid, then add the
An example is the first part of line 109, the eggs and vanilla. Bake at 350 to 375 degrees.
data for banana cake: In the cherry cake, cut up the cherries before
adding to the mixture. For the oatmeal cake, pre
109 DATA. BANANA, .67,2.5,1.67, ,1,1,1,, ,1,,
, .67,2, , ,,, ,,CHERRY .. .
pare the oatmeal separately. While the oatmeal
cools, mix everything else, then add the oatmeal
The name of the cake is BANANA. The recipe to it. The wacky cake can be mixed all at once.
is .67 cup shortening, 2.5 cups flour, 1.67 cups Just dump everything into one big bowl and mix
sugar, 1 tsp. baking powder, 1 tsp. salt, 1 tsp. it up. For the red velvet cake combine the ingre
soda, 1 cup mashed bananas, .67 cup buttermilk, dients as usual, except for the vinegar and soda.
and 2 eggs. Mix the vinegar and soda together and fold into
the rest of the batter. The sauerkraut cake is worth
Program Explanation trying-just don't tell anyone what it is until after
How does the program work? To print a recipe, they have eaten ii. Rinse the sauerkraut well,
the data is RESTOREd first, then the first 50 in then chop it into small pieces before combining it
gredients and measures are read and ignored with the rest of the cake batter.
{line 73). The key you pressed to choose a recipe
is E$, and the ASCII code will be 65 for A, 66 for
B, and so forth. Lines 75-77 figure out which recipe Typing In The Program
was chosen and read through the title and ingre The VIC-20 version is very close to full memory. Be
dients to get to the appropriate recipe. Line 79 sure to leave out all the spaces and be sure to use
prints the title of the cake. Line 81 reads the the abbreviations for ail the BASIC words, such as ?
amount from the DATA statement. If the amount for PRINT and D shift-A for DATA. If you need to
156 COMPUTE!'* Gazette November 1983
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