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2011150323 CEM 4

Concrete is made up of three basic components: water, aggregate
(rock, sand, or gravel) and Portland cement.
In its simplest form, concrete is a mixture of paste and aggregates,
or rocks. The paste, composed of Portland cement and water, coats
the surface of the fine (small) and coarse (larger) aggregates.
Through a chemical reaction called hydration, the paste hardens
and gains strength to form the rock-like mass known as concrete.

Advantages of Concrete

Ingredients of concrete are easily available in most of the

Unlike natural stones Concrete is free from defects and flaws.
Concrete can be manufactured to desired strength with
The durability of concrete is very high.
It can be cast to any desired shape.
Casting of concrete can be done in working site which makes it
Maintenance cost of concrete is almost negligible.
The deterioration of concrete is not appreciable with age.
Concrete makes a building fire-safe due to its non-combustible
Concrete can withstand high temperatures.
Concrete is resistant to wind and water. Therefore, it is a very
useful in storm shelters.
As a sound proofing material cinder concrete could be used.

Disadvantages of Concrete

Compared to other binding materials, the tensile strength of

concreter is relatively low.
Concrete is less ductile.
The weight of compared is high compared to its strength.
Concrete may contain soluble salts. Soluble salts cause

Plain Steel

Carbon 1.35%
Manganese 1.65%
Phosphorous .04%
Sulfur .05%
Silicon .06%

During the early 20th

century, new processes
allowed steel to surpass
iron as the most widely
used structural metal. Its

High Strength Steel

Carbon .25%
Manganese 1.65%
Phosphorous .04%
Sulfur .05%
Silicon .12%
Nickel 2.5%
Chromium .8%

Stainless Steel

Carbon .08%
Manganese 2%
Phosphorous .04%
Sulfur .03%
Silicon .75%
Nickel 8%
Chromium 18%

Adding alloys to steel

yield higher strength,

From spoons to blenders,

cars to trains, stainless
steel, with its sleek,
shiny surface, can glorify
even the simplest of
gadgets. In addition to
its aesthetic appeal, the
light weight and strength
of stainless make it ideal

To make steel, iron ore is first mined from the ground. It is then
smelted in blast furnaces where the impurities are removed and
carbon is added. In fact, a very simple definition of steel is "iron
alloyed with carbon, usually less than 1%."

Advantages of Steel

High Strength This means that the weight of structure that

made of steel will be small

Uniformity Properties of steel do not change as appose to
Elasticity Steel follows Hookes law very accurately
Ductility Can withstand extensive deformation without failure
under high tensile stresses
Toughness Steel has both strength and ductility
Maintain is strength indefinitely does not deteriorate with
age like timber and concrete
Can be recycled
Very strong and flexible
Steel has also high strength to weight ratio as compared to
Structures can be prefabricated in large sections

Disadvantages of Steel

Maintenance Cost steel structures are susceptible to

corrosion when exposed to air, water, and humidity. They must
be painted periodically.
Steel has very small resistance against fire as compared to
Fireproofing Cost Steel is incombustible material, however,
its strength is reduced tremendously at high temperatures due
to common fires.
Susceptibility to buckling as the length and slenderness of a
compressive column is increase5 its danger of buckling
Fatigue The strength of structural steel member if this
member is subjected to cyclic loading.
Brittle Under certain conditions steel may lose its ductility5
and brittle fracture may occur at places of stress
Steel cannot be mold in any direction you want. It can only be
used in forms in which sections originally exists.
It has a high expansion rate in changing temperatures.
Heavy and thus expensive to transport
Energy intensive to produce

Reinforce Concrete
Concrete is made from small stones and gravel called
aggregate, sharp sand, cement and water. The small stone and
gravel (aggregate) is the reinforcement and the cement is the
matrix that binds it together. Concrete has good strength under
compression but it is weak in tension. It can be made stronger
under tension by adding metal rods, wires, mesh or cables to the
composite. The concrete is cast around the rods. This is called
reinforced concrete.