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Figure 9 Simulation and measurement results with a photograph of

fabricated filter. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which
is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

TABLE 3 Comparison Between Some Previous Reported


Dual-Mode Dual-Band BPFs and the Proposed Filter
Ref.

Fo1/Fo2
(GHz)

IL1/ IL2
(dB)

RL1/ RL2
(dB)

API
(dB)

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]1
[4]2
[5]1
[5]2
[5]3
This work

3.6/5.3
1.7/2.15
1.8/2.4
1.8/2.2
1.8/2.6
1.8/2.36
1.8/2.36
2/2.76
2.4/5.25

1.1/1.0
3.5/4.8
1.08/1.42
2.8/3.5
1.6/2.3
2.5/2.5
2/2.5
1.5/2
0.42/0.75

15/15
13/15
14/10
10/14
12/19
10/10
10/15
15/15
22/24

35
22
43
27
39
25
50
20
44

Size (kg )
0.40
0.23
0.25
0.26
0.26
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.18

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

0.42
0.23
0.16
0.26
0.26
0.21
0.33
0.21
0.19

Fo1, Fo2, IL1, IL2, RL1, RL2, API, and kg are the first passband
center frequency, the second passband center frequency, the
minimum insertion loss at first band, the minimum insertion
loss at second band, the minimum return loss at first band, the
minimum return loss at second band, the adjacent passband isolation, and the guided wavelength at the center frequency of the
first passband, respectively. It can be seen that the designed filter not only has low insertion losses and better return losses but
also has relatively smaller size even though a relatively low
dielectric constant substrate was used.
4.

CONCLUSION

A novel miniature dual-mode dual-band BPF resonating at 2.4


and 5.2 GHz has been designed and fabricated. The measured
results show that the minimum insertion losses of the first and
second passband are 0.42 and 0.75 dB, and the return losses are
better than 22 and 24 dB, respectively. According to the comparison with some reported dual-mode dual-band filters, the
designed filter has better characteristics in terms of insertion
losses, return losses, and compactness.

2. Jian-Xin Chen, Tsz Yin Yum, Jia-Lin Li, and Quan Xue, Dual-mode
dual-band bandpass filter using stacked-loop structure, IEEE Microwave Wireless Compon Lett 16 (2006), 502504.
3. J. Wang, L. Ge, K. Wang, and W. Wu, Compact microstrip dualmode dual-band bandpass filter with wide stopband, Electron Lett 47
(2011), 263265.
4. S. Zheng and W. Chan, Compact dual-band bandpass patch filter
using coplanar waveguide feed method, Electron Lett 48 (2012),
14751476.
5. Sen Fu, Bian Wu, Jia Chen, Shou-jia Sun, and Chang-hong Liang,
Novel second-order dual-mode dual-band filters using capacitance
loaded square loop resonator, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech
60 (2012), 477483.
6. X.Y. Zhang, J.-X. Chen, Q. Xue, S.-M. Li, Dual-band bandpass filters using stub-loaded resonators, IEEE Microwave Wireless Compon Lett 17 (2007), 583585.
7. A. Gorur, Description of coupling between degenerate modes of a
dual-mode microstrip loop resonator using a novel perturbation
arrangement and its dual-mode bandpass filter applications, IEEE
Trans Microwave Theory Tech 52 (2004), 671677.
8. J.-S. Hong, H. Shaman, and Y.-H. Chun, Dual-mode microstrip
open-loop resonators and filters, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory
Tech 55 (2007), 17641770.
9. R.J. Cameron, General coupling matrix synthesis methods for Chebyshev filtering functions, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 47
(1999), 433442.
10. R.J. Cameron, Advanced coupling matrix synthesis techniques for microwave filters, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 51 (2003), 110.
11. Y.-T. Kuo and C.-Y. Chang, Analytical design of two-mode dualband filters using E-shaped resonators, IEEE Trans Microwave
Theory Tech 60 (2012), 250260.
C 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
V

FAST UNIFORM THEORY OF DIFFRACTION DIFFRACTION COEFFICIENT


USING ONLY ONE SQUARE-ROOT
Jean-Francois Legendre and T. Marsault
, 35170
DGA Information Superiority, TEC/SPC, Route de Laille
Bruz, France; Corresponding author: jeff.legendre@free.fr
Received 29 August 2013

ABSTRACT: This article describes an uniform three-dimensional coefficient for diffraction above a perfectly conducting wedges. Contrary to
the usual form of the coefficient of Pathak and Koujoumjian, it uses a
square root and simple mathematical operations to reach the result.
This form is obtained by limited development around the optical transiC 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt
tion ISB and RSB. V
Technol Lett 56:12381239, 2014; View this article online at
wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.28298
Key words: uniform theory of diffraction; wedge diffraction; wave
propagation

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

1. INTRODUCTION

This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, Grant No.2013CB328904), the
NSAF of China (Grant No.U1330109), and the Doctoral Fund of
Ministry of Educational of China (Grant No. 20120184110013).

The diffracted field by a single perfectly conducting wedge can


be normalized with E0 incident field in free space, as shown on
Figure 1. A closed form can be written like this [1]:

REFERENCES
1. H. W. Liu, L. Shen, Z. C. Zhang, J. S. Lim, and D. Ahn, Dual-mode
dual-band bandpass filter using defected ground waveguide, Electron
Lett 46 (2010), 895897.

1238

E s0
5
E0 si

r
si
D11 1D12 6D21 6D22  e2jksd 1si 2s0
sd sd 1si

The diffraction coefficient [24] is given by the sum of four


complex terms:

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 56, No. 5, May 2014

DOI 10.1002/mop


!
21q11 apq 12p n Npq
Fpq
Dpq 5 p
cot
2n
2n j2kp sin b0



apq 521q11 p1upq 22p n Npq

where F(. . .) is the well-known transition Fresnel function [1]


introduced by Pathack and Koujoumjian, and Npq is the nearest
integer that leads to the minimum angle.

As we can see, more than 32 trigonometric functions are


necessary to compute this coefficient leading to a great computation time.

apq
Fpq 5F 2kLsin 2
2
1


p
Fx52j x ejx p exp 2jt2 dt

2. QUICK COMPUTATION OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

upq 521q11 /121p /o

First, we can express sinus and cosinus functions by limited


development [1] that leads to a speed up by a factor 8.
We got for x < p/4 (other angular parts can be deduced
easily):

We define the following angles ():

sinQuick x5x  1:020:16666666663x2 31:020:053x2 3120:1428571429  x2


cosQuick x51:020:53x2 31:020:08333333333x2 3120:03333333333x2 31:020:01785714283x2
sg51
3.

OUR COMPACT SOLUTION

if n < 0fn52n; sg52sgg


p
p
if n2 > 0fn5n2 ; sg52sgg
4
4

Let define L as the classical distance parameter of diffraction:


L5

si sd
si 1sd

We can define the g(x,y) function from we can derive the


uniform theory of diffraction (UTD) coefficient as the sum of
four terms.
 
 

p
p=41/2/o
p=42/1/o
D5 L g
; a 1g
;a
2n
2n


 
p=42/2/o
/1/o 22:n21p=4
;a
; a 6g
6g
2n
2n
The square root of L can be suppressed if we compute the
normalized diffracted field. That leads to a very fast computation of this field.
E
s0
5
gn11 ; a1gn12 ; a6gn21 ; a6gn22 ; a e 2jk sd 1s i 2s0
E0 sd 1si

p
The g(n,a) function is the following where a5n 2kL.
First, depending of n sign, we define sg as:

We set the y parameter as: y5a:sinQuick n and if y <


0fy52y; sg52sgg
The g(n,a) function is determined by the following
equations:
1
g52 10:39384228:y:11j if y2 < 0:005
2
h

i
0:511 1j 0:521
otherwise
g52 0:1994711402
2
2
y
y
y
The last operation is: g5g3cosQuick n3sg311j
This coefficient needs only one square root computation for
a parameter.

4. CONCLUSION

We have presented a very compact form of UTD diffraction


coefficient using only one square root instead of more than 32
trigonometric functions found in Pathack and Koujoumjian coefficient. The speed up is more than a Factor 6 and the maximum
relative error on diffraction value is less than 0.1%. Quick computation of cosinus and sinus can be also a good solution to
improve existing UTD codes because of widely use of trigonometric functions.
REFERENCES
1. M. Abramowitz and I. Stegun, Handbook of mathematical functions,
Dover, New York, 1965.
2. J. Keller, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, J Opt Soc Am 55
(1962), 116130.
3. R. Kouyoumjian and P.H. Pathak, An uniform geometrical theory of
diffraction for an edge in a perfectly conducting surface, Proc IEEE
62 (1974), 14481461.
4. J.F. Legendre, Study of propagation prediction models based on
UTD, INSA of Rennes, n D9501, PhD Thesis, January 1995.

Figure 1

Single wedge diffraction geometry

DOI 10.1002/mop

C 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


V

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 56, No. 5, May 2014

1239