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Commissioning — The Interface Between Construction and Operations B Bailey 1 ABSTRACT This paper outlines

Commissioning — The Interface Between Construction and Operations

B Bailey 1

ABSTRACT

This paper outlines the role of commissioning in the project cycle, shows how to get organised for commissioning and describes the principal commissioning activities. Emphasis is placed on appointing key commissioning staff early in the project to coordinate the preparations for commissioning and on detailed planning and tracking to ensure that the required commissioning activities are performed satisfactorily. The management of safety during commissioning is reviewed.

INTRODUCTION

At the end of a project, as construction is nearing completion, but before the process is started, the installed equipment is inspected and tested prior to handover to the owner. This phase of the project is called commissioning. This paper outlines the preparations that are necessary to perform commissioning effectively. The paper focuses on the first stages of commissioning, called precommissioning, as the work involved is common to most projects. The later stages of commissioning, where the process is operated for the first time, will vary from project to project depending on the nature of the process. The main theme of this paper is that effective planning, done ahead of time, will result in fewer problems being encountered during the execution of precommissioning.

1. Senior Process Consultant, Hatch, Private Bag X20, Gallo Manor Johannesburg 2052, South Africa. Email: bbailey@hatch.co.za

WHAT IS COMMISSIONING?

Definition

The purpose of commissioning is to:

inspect and test the plant components to ensure the plant is handed over to the owner in a good operating condition;

test the plant systems with product to ensure the design performance is met; and

ramp-up the plant throughput to the design level.

The individual tasks undertaken during commissioning are usually simple, but complexity arises in trying to complete and document a large number of activities in a short space of time, as these activities will usually lie on the critical path of the project.

Stages

Plant commissioning is usually divided into two phases, precommissioning and commissioning. Precommissioning is usually performed by construction and the project engineer and involves the checking and testing of components of the plant once construction is complete. These checks and tests ensure that the equipment can be handed over to the owner, in good operating condition, ready for commissioning. Commissioning is usually performed by the plant owner and involves operating trials of the equipment and the start-up of the plant. The two phases can be subdivided into stages as shown in Figure 1.

Construction Tests after Tests on completion Inspection completion Equipment Check (Mechanical Completion) (Check
Construction
Tests after
Tests on completion
Inspection
completion
Equipment Check
(Mechanical Completion)
(Check Out Acceptance)
Defects Notification period
Pre-Commissioning
Equipment Test
System Test
Integrated System Test
Issue of Contract
Performance
Certificate
(Start Up Acceptance)
(the Works being complete)
Commissioning
Start Up
System Test
(Beneficial Occupation)
Trial Operation
Take Over Certificate
for EPCM design or
Install only Contracts
Integrated System Test
Ramp Up
(Preliminary Performance
Acceptance)
Priority
0
Defects
Take Over Certificate
for Contractor designed
Plant Contracts
Sustained Production
Priority
1
Defects
Performance Test
Priority
2
Defects
(Final Performance
Priority
3
Defects
Acceptance)
Priority
4
Defects
PRIME RESPONSIBILITY
Construction Manager
Pre Commissioning Manager
Commissioning Manager
Operations Manager
Operations Manager
Operations Manager
SUPPORT RESPONSIBILITY
Contractor
Engineering Manager
Technology Suppliers
Pre Commissioning Manager
Construction Manager
Pre Commissioning Manager
Construction Manager
Contractor
Technology Suppliers
Commissioning Manager
Pre Commissioning Manager
Technology Suppliers
Contractor
Commissioning Manager
Contractor
Technology Suppliers
Technology Suppliers
Commissioning Manager
PROJECT ACCEPTANCE AND RESPONSIBILITY PHASES FOR CONSTRUCTION, COMMISSIONING AND OPTIMISATION
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FIG 1 - Commissioning phases.

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TABLE 1

Commissioning definitions.

 

Name

Construction

 

Commissioning

Sustained

 

production

Hatch name

 

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

   

Other names

 

Precommissioning

Trials

Ramp up

Performance testing

Check out

Dry runs

Cold commissioning

Wet commissioning

Hot commissioning

Start up

Activity

Construction

Equipment check

System check

System testing with product

Trial operation and ramp-up

 

completion

No product

Example motor

 

Motor rotation

Vibration check No load test

Full load test

Run process

 

Example conveyor

 

Align conveyor

Run conveyor, test interlocks, etc

Run conveyor with feed

Run process

 

Example pump

 

Leak checks

Pressure and flow test

Test with product

Run process

 

Example piping

 

Leak checks

Balance flows

Check flows with product

Run process

 

Flush

Responsible

Construction Manager

Precommissioning

Commissioning

Operations Manager

Manager

Manager

Indicators,

Yellow tag

Green tag

Blue tag

Beneficial

Operational

milestones

Construction completion

Mechanical completion

occupation

completion

The naming of the different stages varies from project to project but the activities are usually consistent. Examples of the names and the activities are shown in Table 1. The transfer of responsibility may vary depending on the owner’s requirements for commissioning and availability of staff to perform the tasks. On large projects there may be separate managers for precommissioning and commissioning. On smaller projects these roles will often be combined.

ORGANISING FOR COMMISSIONING

Define responsibilities

It is important to establish, at the outset, the procedures to be

followed and the division of responsibilities. Doing this will avoid misunderstandings in the heat of commissioning. Define with the owner who will be responsible for the different stages of commissioning. For example, who will do the equipment checks, equipment tests and system trials? Define with the owner what testing is required prior to handover and what handover procedure will be used.

Commissioning manual

A commissioning manual is needed to establish procedures and

ensure that everyone on the commissioning team knows what is expected. The author currently uses a manual with four main

volumes.

Volume 1 – Introduction to Commissioning

The Introduction to Commissioning volume provides an overview of commissioning activities and explains why the different commissioning procedures are necessary. Having the

‘reasons why’ in this volume allows the procedures volumes to

be more concise.

Volume 2 – Organisation and Standards

The Organisation and Standards volume defines the

precommissioning activities, from planning through to handover

to the owner’s commissioning team.

Volume 3 – Administrative Procedures

The Administrative Procedures volume sets out the procedures that will be followed to control and document the precommissioning of the plant.

Volume 4 – Technical Procedures

The Technical Procedures volume outlines the standard inspections and tests that will be performed on individual pieces of equipment and systems. These volumes contain generic commissioning procedures and can be applied to most projects for the precommissioning activities. A fifth volume, Performance Tests, is project specific and is usually developed by the owner for each project.

P&IDs and equipment lists

The principal sources of information for commissioning planning are the piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs) and the project equipment list. These documents provide a complete inventory of the equipment to be commissioned and the logical relationships between equipment items. It is essential that these documents be kept up to date throughout the life of the project so that current information is available for commissioning planning. It often happens that design changes during the execution of the project are not fully reflected in the P&IDs and equipment lists, which can lead to confusion and extra work during commissioning. Equipment lists produced by different disciplines need to be prepared in compatible formats and use agreed equipment identification conventions so that the lists can be drawn together to produce a comprehensive commissioning database.

Commissioning database

It will nearly always be necessary to use some form of commissioning database to associate equipment items with their commissioning systems, to facilitate planning of the commissioning work, to track progress and to monitor the correction of identified deficiencies. These comprise the punch list items.

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COMMISSIONING — THE INTERFACE BETWEEN CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATIONS

Commercial systems are available for commissioning management and anyone involved in commissioning has usually developed a little system of their own.

PLANNING COMMISSIONING

It is best to start commissioning planning early in the project cycle to coordinate activities with the owner, engineering, procurement and construction. The objective is to ensure that project information is available in a form that is readily usable for commissioning and that project systems are handed over to commissioning in a sequence and to a schedule that facilitates the commissioning activities. Typical early planning tasks are:

ensure that the equipment database will be complete and in a form that commissioning can use;

agree with the owner who will be responsible for the different commissioning activities;

agree with construction and the owner the required order of completion for sections of the project;

prepare the commissioning manual;

identify the staff required for commissioning; and

develop the commissioning plan.

Identification of equipment and systems

Commissioning involves the inspection and testing of individual pieces of equipment and the testing of functional systems. Subsystem scoping defines the boundaries of the smallest groups of equipment that can be tested together. These boundaries will also facilitate equipment turnover from construction to precommissioning. Subsequently, these groups will be combined to form packages that are suitable for operational testing. An example of the grouping of equipment into logically defined systems is shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2

Grouping of equipment.

Name

 

Definition

Example

Project

All items included in the project scope of work at a particular location.

Plant upgrade.

Area

Group of systems, logically connected that operate as a whole.

Materials handling.

System

Group of items, logically

All feed conveyors and bins.

connected, that operates as

whole for a specific purpose.

a

 

Subsystem

Division of system for commissioning purposes.

Flux feed conveyors and bins.

Module

Smallest unit or smallest group of devices that make

Conveyor.

a

logical entity for

commissioning purposes.

Device

Individual component.

Temperature sensor, motor.

The P&IDs are scoped to reflect subsystem boundaries and to assign equipment to specific subsystems. The general philosophy of scoping is to define interfaces and boundaries between two or more related systems. Systems are scoped into logical groupings of components designed to perform a specific operating function within the configuration of the plant and satisfy the following criteria:

defined testable unit or grouping,

satisfactory boundary for safety isolation, and

reasonable turnover grouping or package.

A simplified example of a scoped P&ID is shown in Figure 2. PC-615-CV--001 RECEIVING CONVEYOR
A simplified example of a scoped P&ID is shown in Figure 2.
PC-615-CV--001
RECEIVING CONVEYOR
M
PC-615-FE--013
WEIGH FEEDER
M
PC-615-CV--002
DELIVERY CONVEYOR
M

FIG 2 - Scoping of P&IDs.

Estimate of workload

Preliminary estimates of resource requirements

In the early stages of the project a preliminary estimate of the

cost of precommissioning can be taken as two per cent of the capital cost of the project. Commissioning will account for a further two per cent. As the scope of the project is better defined

the estimate can be based on the amount of instrumentation involved in the project using a factor of five to eight hours for each

IO (input/output), depending on the complexity of the project.

Detailed estimates of resource requirements

Once the equipment and instrument lists have been developed for the project it is possible to make a more detailed estimate of the time required for precommissioning. The estimate is based on counts of the different types of equipment and instruments combined with the typical times required to precommission each one. An allowance is added for administration based on the number of people required and the duration of the precommissioning activity. An example of such an estimate is shown in Table 3.

Schedule

A commissioning milestone schedule is useful to establish the

preferred sequence of commissioning for individual systems and the logic of prerequisite and dependent relationships between the various plant systems. The schedule indicates the sequence of system completions to meet milestone events and project completion. This schedule can also be used to track systems turnover, commissioning progress and to identify critical path

activities. It will also provide construction with completion priorities. The commissioning team will develop a detailed commissioning schedule to indicate the sequence of commissioning for all modules. This schedule is updated daily to track progress and coordinate activities.

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TABLE 3

Estimate of resources required for precommissioning.

 

Project preliminary estimate

 

Equipment

Count

IOs per

Total

Hours

Total

unit

IOs

per IO

hours

or item

Instrumentation and process control

 

Motors

390

7

2730

1

2730

Instruments analogue

1320

1

1320

3

3960

Instruments digital

1090

1

1090

1

1090

Sequences

250

Estimate

 

5

1250

Totals

   

5140

 

9030

Sequence integration

250

   

3

750

 

Total

9780

Mechanical and piping

 

Conveyors, feeders

109

   

10

1090

Pumps

84

   

6

504

Fans

66

   

10

660

Cooling towers

14

   

10

140

Tanks and bins

60

   

2

120

Piping, water

204

   

5

1020

Piping, air

138

   

5

690

 

Total

4224

Administration

 

9 people for 7 months

 

10

900

Total hours for precommissioning

 

24

904

Staffing

A typical commissioning team would consist of:

commissioning manager;

area engineers, technicians – number dependent on the size of the project;

safety officer – might be shared with construction;

tagging officer – area engineers might be tagging officers for their areas;

scheduler – usually separate from construction;

programmer – initially sets up the commissioning management software, then maintains remotely;

record office controller – assemble data packs;

data entry clerk – progress, punch lists, work lists, etc; and

secretary – preparation of manuals, certificates, correspondence, etc.

A typical organisation chart is shown in Figure 3. It is preferable to appoint the commissioning manager early in

the project, before the completion of the process design. This

allows the commissioning manager to draw up the

commissioning plan with the assistance of the process engineers

and ensure that construction planning considers commissioning issues. The commissioning manager and a commissioning engineer would work part time from the design stage and then switch to full time a month or two before commissioning starts.

MANAGING COMMISSIONING

Handovers

As the commissioning activities progress responsibility for sections

of the plant passes from construction to precommissioning to

Owner Project Manager Engineering Procurement Construction Pre-Commissioning Commissioning Operations Manager
Owner
Project Manager
Engineering
Procurement
Construction
Pre-Commissioning
Commissioning
Operations
Manager
Manager
Manager
Manager
Manager
Manager
Discipline
Area Engineers
Commissioning
Area Managers
Operators
Engineers
Technicians
Team
Vendor Support
Contractors
Safety Officer
Tagging Officer
Planner
Records
Controller

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FIG 3 - Organisation chart.

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COMMISSIONING — THE INTERFACE BETWEEN CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATIONS

commissioning and then onto operations. At each handover there is an inspection to determine the outstanding items that still have to be completed and to ensure that all necessary inspections and tests have been performed. The owner’s personnel cannot operate equipment or work in areas that have not been handed over from the contractor to the owner. Similarly, equipment, modules and systems that have been handed over to the owner are ‘off limits’ to the contractor. The contractor must seek special permission if work is to be done in such areas. These controls are necessary to ensure the safety of people in the plant, to prevent damage to equipment and to ensure the integrity of commissioning work already undertaken. As the entire plant is not handed over at once, the operating group and construction crew will have to coexist for a period of time. To minimise the problems such a situation may create, the interface between the owner and contractor must be clearly defined.

Tagging

The turnover tagging program facilitates the transfer of equipment, modules and systems from the custody of construction to precommissioning and then to commissioning by attaching to each device a tag identifying the related system and turnover status. Green tags usually indicate that equipment has been handed over from construction to precommissioning for inspection, testing and initial operation. Blue tags usually indicate that equipment has been handed over from precommissioning to commissioning for operation with process materials. Any other group wishing to work on tagged equipment must obtain authorisation from the authority indicated by the handover tag.

Inspections

Each piece of equipment is inspected to ensure that it has been installed according to the plant design and the manufacturers requirements and that it is in a condition to operate safely and reliably. Specific inspection procedures are followed for the different types of equipment, for example motors, pumps, fans and conveyors. Any deficiencies are noted and a decision made as to whether the equipment can be accepted with the outstanding deficiencies or whether the deficiencies must be corrected before handover. To facilitate the management of deficiencies it is useful to categorise them by type, priority and cause, as shown in Table 4.

Tests

After installation is complete, a number of tests are carried out to determine whether the installation is satisfactory and whether the equipment performs as specified. The tests are an important phase of commissioning. The results must be well documented and for this purpose a number of standard test reports are used. The equipment vendor, the commissioning engineer and the owner must agree on the test methods to be used.

Activities Interface Diagram

An Activities Interface Diagram is a matrix of standard tasks for precommissioning and commissioning for typical pieces of plant equipment with a coordinate system for reference to detail notes and record sheets for each activity. An extract from an activities interface diagram is shown in Table 5.

TABLE 4

Categories for deficiencies.

 

Type

A

Safety

B

Equipment performance

 

C

General installation

 

D

Documentation

 
 

Priority

 

0

Must

be

completed

prior

to

construction

handover

to

precommissioning

 

1

Must be completed prior to handover from precommissioning to commissioning

2

Must be completed prior to the completion of commissioning and before the trial operation begins

3

Must be completed by the end of the trial operation period and before the plant is handed over to the operation’s management

4

Must be completed before the final performance acceptance is issued

 

Cause

 

H

Design inadequate – requires additional input from the engineer

 

J

Installation incorrect – requires correction by the contractor

 

K

Work remaining – item not yet completed

 

L

Additional item – not a part of the project unless justified and authorised individually by the employer

TABLE 5

Extract from activities diagram.

 

Construction completion

 
 

Equipment

   

1234567

       

C

Piping general

Complete

Inspect, lubricate

Perform

Release piping hangers and HX expansion bolts

Perform code

Install temporary pipe and spool pieces for flushing and cleaning (construction)

 

installation of

and stroke

non-destructive

pressure tests

process piping

manual valves

testing

and speciality

 

items

F

Motors and

Align drives

Connect motor

Bump motors for rotation (construction)

Run-in and

Couple rotating

Tension drive

Service adjust,

drives

vibration test

equipment

belts

lubricate, and

motors

maintain

 

uncoupled

equipment

(construction)

P

General

Schedule

Complete

Remove

Schedule

Remove all

   

vendors as

mechanical

construction/

vendors as

scaffolding and

required for

equipment

shipping binds

required for

combustible

assembly

installation

construction

material

testing

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Each system is reviewed against the Activities Interface Diagram and applicable tasks that are relevant to the system are assigned. A system is considered complete for turnover to the next phase when all assigned tasks have been completed, including the supporting test and record documentation.

Work planning

In preparation for precommissioning work on a system, a work plan is drawn up that identifies the:

activities involved;

resources required, eg tools, test equipment, assistance and work force;

safety issues and risk control measures; and

and

prerequisites,

eg

facilities

required

precommissioned beforehand.

systems

to

be

An example of a work plan summary sheet is shown in Figure 4.

Documentation

As equipment is handed over from one stage of commissioning to the next, all available information on the design and operation of the equipment is also provided. The basic handover document package for the release of equipment, modules or systems from the contractor to the owner includes the:

deficiency list,

System

Heat Transfer

Subsystem

045.21 Cooling Water

Module

21.04 Piping

Plan by: Julie Howes

Plan Date

22-Oct-03

Duration (days):

1.00

Activities

01 Install temporary bypass around each HX

02 Install temporary strainers at CW return to each tower

03 Remove FE orifice plates from each HX supply line

04 Visually check versus P&ID's and Drawings

05 IO Checks - energise & test control loops, verify interlocks

06 Inspect, lube and stroke valves

07 Fill lines with water

08 Flush the lines (use pump circulation)

09 Re-instate FE orifice plates to each HX supply line

10 Check temperature outputs

11 Check flow measurement and control functionality for each HX

12 Service test of piping

13 Remove temporary bypass around each HX and reinstate piping

14 Remove temporary strainers at CW return to each tower (after entire sytem complete)

Tools, Test Equipment, Modifications,

01 Temporary bypass around each heat exchanger

02 Temporary strainers at CW return to each tower

03 Spacers to replace FE orifice plates in each HX supply line

04 Temporary water supply for filling lines and make-up to tower

Safety Issues

01 Barricade and placard area while commissioning

02 Beware of leaks

03 JSA required

04 Lockout & Tag of valves where appropriate

Prerequisites

01 Housekeeping Acceptable

02 Electrical handover

03 Instrument Air to control valve

04 IO and loop checks

05 Piping handover

06 Temporary water supply

07 Cooling Tower Cells

21.01

Cooling Tower Cells

08 Cooling Water Pumps

21.03

Cooling Water Pumps

Assistance Required

01 Connection to temporary water supply

02 Instrumentation assistance

03 Pipe fitter in case of leaks

Estimated Workforce

1 Instrumentation

1 Pipe Fitter

160

FIG 4 - Work plan summary sheet.

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COMMISSIONING — THE INTERFACE BETWEEN CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATIONS

test reports,

construction data packs,

equipment manuals, and

handover certificate.

Coordination meetings

Keeping all the involved parties working to the same schedule is a major part of the commissioning management role. It is necessary to hold regular coordination meetings to plan and track the progress. The principal topics for weekly and daily coordination meetings are outlined below.

Weekly coordination meetings

Major safety issues;

construction, precommissioning and commissioning status and forecast completion;

systems/facilities to be handed over in the coming week;

exception list status and forecast completion; and

identified problems requiring resolution.

Daily orientation and planning meetings

Safety and new hazardous conditions;

safety isolations and de-isolations planned for that day;

tagging

authority

completion;

and

safety

permit

status

and

forecast

testing, shutdowns, tie-ins and work authorisations planned for that day;

construction, precommissioning and commissioning status and short-term forecast;

proposed inspection schedule for systems turnover; and

identified problems requiring resolution.

Progress tracking

The detailed commissioning schedule is updated daily to monitor all activities that are required to complete commissioning. Progress is reviewed at the daily coordination meeting and compared to the target schedule. Weekly and monthly progress reports are issued.

SAFETY DURING COMMISSIONING

Ensuring the safety of all employees during commissioning is a demanding task due to:

the unavoidable overlap with construction,

the inherent risks of testing equipment, and

the operators’ lack of familiarity with the new systems.

A qualified safety officer is required to implement the safety program and safety training for the commissioning group. The main features of an effective safety program are outlined below.

Training

All members of the commissioning team and any members of the construction team who will be on site during commissioning should receive training on safe working procedures during commissioning and be alerted to the specific hazards that will exist during commissioning.

Safety meetings

Weekly safety meetings of the leaders of all groups on the project site should be used to review safety performance, specific safety incidents and changes in the status of areas of the project that will require additional safety precautions.

Incident reporting

The reporting and evaluation of all safety incidents and potential incidents help the management team to focus on the critical issues to maintain a safe operation.

Audits

Periodic reviews of the safety management by an external safety expert help ensure that the vigilance necessary for a safe operation is maintained.

Lock out

As soon as equipment is live it should be locked out and only activated when required for commissioning testing. It is preferable to use the lock-out procedure in effect for an existing operation to simplify the administration of the procedure. However, the procedure may require some modification to cater for any unusual conditions that can occur in commissioning.

Work control procedures

Tagging

As the plant is gradually transferred from construction to commissioning to operations, tags are used to identify the group that is currently responsible for a piece of equipment or area of the plant. The responsible group controls all activities on its tagged equipment. This control helps ensure the safety of all working in the area and the integrity of commissioning work already completed. A system of tags is also used to indicate the status of a piece of equipment and any limitations on its operation.

Work authorisations

Anyone wishing to work in an area controlled by another group must obtain a work authorisation from the controlling group. The issuer of the authorisation will ensure that the work can be conducted safely and advise those who will be affected by the work.

Hot work permits

A hot work permit is a more restrictive work authorisation that controls activities with the potential to cause a fire.

Change authorisations

Any change to the equipment that is proposed during commissioning must be evaluated and approved by the appropriate design engineer prior to implementation. The change may require a further hazard and operability review if the operation of the equipment is modified.

Risk assessment

Many of the commissioning activities are not covered by standard operating procedures. In some cases, temporary modifications will be made to equipment so that tests can be performed. For any activity that is not covered by a standard operating procedure it is essential that a risk assessment be completed and risk mitigation measures deployed before starting the activity.

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TYPICAL COMMISSIONING PROBLEMS

Need for commissioning is not recognised

In some cases the plant operators expect a plant to start up immediately on the completion of construction. The delay incurred in testing the systems is seen as lost production rather than an insurance against larger losses at a later date if the equipment fails prematurely or does not reach its target performance. The allowance for an adequate schedule and budget for commissioning needs to be established in the early stages of project planning.

Commissioning staff appointed too late

In the early stages of a project the need for commissioning staff can be overlooked when attempting to achieve the immediate project goals. As a consequence many of the requirements for commissioning are not considered in the early stages of the project and an opportunity to optimise the project schedule is lost. Planning for commissioning occurs late in the project without the benefit of input from the design team to help reconcile discrepancies in the project data and to interpret the design intent.

Squeeze to meet target completion date

It is inevitable that there will be slippages in some parts of the project schedule along the way but every effort is made to respect the planned completion date. As a consequence commissioning will lie on the critical path to project completion and there will be great pressure to work long hours to meet the deadline.

Remedy

Most of these problems can be addressed by involving the commissioning staff in the planning of the project from the early stages. Discussions with the project owner will clarify the commissioning requirements and responsibilities. The commissioning team can ensure that the project data management systems will be set up to facilitate commissioning planning. The project schedule can be drawn up to allow the integration of construction completion with commissioning to keep commissioning activities off the critical path wherever possible. These scheduling activities will have repercussions back through construction, procurement and engineering and these issues can be resolved while there is still time to be flexible with the project schedule.

SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES

The following list summarises the principal activities along the road to a successful plant commissioning:

prepare commissioning manual;

complete equipment list;

complete P&IDs;

scope P&IDs (identify commissionable systems);

develop commissioning schedule;

agree on construction schedule;

develop commissioning plan;

staff for commissioning;

construction handover, inspections and documentation;

commissioning tests;

commissioning handover, inspections and documentation; and

trials and ramp up (commissioning assist operations).

CONCLUSIONS

As commissioning is the final step in project execution, there is usually great pressure to complete the work as quickly as possible. The commissioning team can best handle this squeeze on the schedule if advance planning has defined the commissioning activities and resources required. Appointing someone early in the project to be responsible for commissioning will help ensure that the necessary planning takes place.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Each time a project is commissioned something new is learned that can be used on the next project. Also, colleagues are happy to share their experiences and lessons learned from commissioning projects. The author would like to acknowledge the contributions made by Hatch colleagues and clients that have been incorporated into the current commissioning management method.

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