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Vehicle Emissions Measurement

Kigali, Rwanda
10th/11/2014

Andriannah Mbandi
Stockholm Environment Institute
University of York
Email: andriannah.mbandi@york.ac.uk
Environment Department

Combustion process
Ambient air quality standards
Combustion: Ideal, Real
Combustion gases &
particulates
Petrol or diesel?
Units of measurement
Vehicle emission legislation
Vehicle technology
Vehicle fleet in Rwanda
Inspection & Maintenance
Conclusion
Environment Department

Combustion process

Fuel:
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Water Vapor

Petrol, Diesel

Environment Department

Ambient air quality standards


SA National Environmental Management: Air
quality Act No.39 of 2004:
National Ambient air quality standards, 2009
Compound Limit
Exposure
CO
30 mg/m3
1 hour
Pb
0.5g/m3
Annual
NO2
200 g/m3
1 hour
120 g/m3
O3
8 hours
50 g/m3 *
PM10
Annual
25 g/m3**
PM2.5
Annual
SO2
500 g/m3
10 min
*Reducing to 40g/m3 in Jan/2015
** Reducing to 20g/m3 in Jan/2016

Environment Department

Combustion process

Ideal Combustion = 1
O2

Fuel
O2

Fuel

CO2
CO2

Fuel
CO2

O2

Environment Department

Combustion process
Lean Mixture > 1
O2
O2

O2
CO2

Fuel

CO2

Fuel

Fuel

O2

CO2

O2

O2
O2

Rich Mixture < 1


CO2

Fuel
O2

Fuel

Fuel

CO
O
Unburnt
Fuel

CO2

O2

Environment Department

Combustion gas: oxygen (O2)


O2 levels inverse of CO levelswithout air injection system
Lean Mixture: O2

Rich Mixture:

O2

O2 content increases sharply


as >1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nIhDLnTGMAE

Environment Department

Combustion gas: carbon dioxide (CO2)


Result of complete
combustion

Global Greenhouse gas emissions data

Overall combustion and


catalytic converter
efficiency
Not a pass or fail gas
CO2: 12-16%

clickcarparts, 2014

IPCC, 2007

Environment Department

Combustion gas: carbon monoxide (CO)

Incomplete combustion
Excess fuel = rich mixture
Partially burnt fuel
Catalytic converter requires air/fuel ratio to vary
lean to rich
Pre-catalytic converter: CO<1.5%
After catalytic converter: CO~0%

Feedback carburetted ran rich at idle: CO~9%

Environment Department

Combustion gas: hydrocarbons (HC)


Unburned fuel due to incomplete combustion
All engines produce HC:
Pre-catalytic converter: 150-300 ppm
After catalytic converter: ~0 ppm

Wasted fuel
1% partially burnt fuel produce 200 ppm HC

Environment Department

Combustion gas: oxides of nitrogen (NOX)


Primary contributor of ozone
Formed under high T & P: not formed at idle or
light loads

Lean mixture at high T: excess O2 molecules


combine to form NOX
Exhaust gas recirculation(EGR): O2 and T
Environment Department

Combustion gas: oxides of sulphur (SOX)


High sulphur (S) content in fuel

Reduction in S
content reduces
emissions in
exhaust
Marine engines
have higher
contribution
Bilfinger, 2014

Environment Department

Combustion particles-particulate matter (PM)


Formed in combustion cylinder and in the exhaust
system of the vehicle.
Mostly attributable to heavy duty diesel vehicles
Mix (condensed) liquid & solidOrganic or Inorganic

Sulphates
Nitrates
Ammonia
Sodium chloride
Black Carbon
Mineral dust
Water

ARB, 2009

Environment Department

Petrol and Diesel Engines


Petrol Engine

Diesel Engine

Spark Ignition

Compression Ignition

Fuel/Air premixed before


compression
Lower efficiency & Lighter

Fuel/Air not premixed

AFR:14.7 (predetermined)
Emissions: More fuel, >CO2,
less NOX and low PM

AFR: 20-100/1 (air injected not


controlled)
Emissions: less fuel, <CO2,
>NOX Higher PM

Pollutants: CO, HC, NOX

Pollutants: NOX, PM, Smoke

Higher efficiency-High
compression ratio & Heavier

Environment Department

Units of measurement
Gases
O2: %
CO2: %
CO: %
HC: ppm
NOX: ppm
PM
Particulate Mass (g/m3)
Particulate Number (#/km)
Smoke:
Opacity: %
Smoke density: m-1
Engine: , RPM, T, P

Environment Department

Vehicle Emission Legislation


Emission limits

Standards

Test cycles

Test and
Measurement
Specifications
Regulations
Result Calculation
and reporting
specifications
AVL, 2014

Environment Department

USA Emission legislation

AVL, 2014

Environment Department

EU Emission legislation
Light Duty

Heavy Duty

AVL, 2014

Environment Department

Vehicle technology and fuel quality

DOC
TWC
DPF
ECU

EGR
SCR

ICCT, 2012

Environment Department

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)


Diesel engine control emissions
technology
Reduces NOx (~90%) using urea as a
reductant within a catalyst system
End product: N2, H2O and small CO2

factsaboutscr, 2014

3 Way Catalytic converter (TWC)


Petrol engine control emissions technology
Most vehicles sold have TWC
use of TWCs with an oxygen sensorbased closed-loop fuel delivery system
Simultaneous conversion of the three
criteria pollutants-HC, CO, and NOx
clickcarparts, 2014

Environment Department

Vehicle fleet in Rwanda


Base Emission Standards
on fleet characterization!!

Vehicle Imports:
Test:
Mechanical &
Emissions
Test Centres

Vehicles from neighbouring countries


Test: Road side testing
PEMS

Existing Vehicle Fleet


Emissions Inventories
(g/km)
No. of vehicles
Scrappage:
Vehicle types
Test:
Age of vehicle
Mechanical & Emissions
Distance travelled
Test Centres
Fuel
Test: Safety & Emissions
I/M Centres
Vehicles to neighbouring countries
Test: Road side testing
PEMS

Environment Department

Inspection & Maintenance


I/M Standards-based on
distribution of emissions
levels
Set Inspection fees to
support I/M programs
Test

CO

HC

Idle Test

2-Speed idle Test

Phased Approach:
Learning
Adaptation
Capacity building
NOX

PM

Full load

Capacity building for all


actors in I/M

Smoke Cost

Snap or Free
acceleration Test
IM 240

I/M requirement for operating


vehicle + Linked to vehicle
registration

Time

Where?

low

fast

UK, EU

low

fast

UK, EU

low

fast

California, SA

High

Mediu
m

USA

High

Mediu
m

EU, USA,
Japan

Environment Department

EU Emission I/M Standards


Source: EU directives 96/96 EC and 2001/9/EC
Year

CO standard
(%)

Lambda
()

< 1986

4.5

Idle

> 1986

3.5

Idle

With Catalytic converter

0.5

Idle

0.3

Year

Turbocharged

< 1980
> 1980

3.0 m-1

0.97< < 1.03

Test (Petrol)

2 speed idle

Naturally aspirant

Test (Diesel)

2.5 m-1

Free acceleration

Environment Department

UK Emission MOT standards


Year

Test

Type (Petrol)

Pass or Fail

All

Visual Inspection

Visual

Black smoke/dense blue

>1975

Standard Emissions Gas Analyzer (noncatalyst test)

CO :3.5%-4.5%
HC: 1200ppm

>1992

Basic Emissions

Gas Analyzer & EC


Fast Idle

CO<0.2% HC<200ppm
0.97 < <1.03

Normal Idle

CO <0.3%

Year

Turbocharged
Opacity (m-1)

Normal
Opacity(m-1)

Test (Diesel)

<1979

Visual

1979-2008

2.5

Diesel fast pass

1.5

1.5

Diesel fast pass

> 2008

Environment Department

Decentralized: ~20 000


local car repair garages
Test:
Vehicle safety
Road worthiness
Exhaust emissions

www.gov.uk/government/publications/your-car-and-the-mot2014

Age: 3 years old


Annual test Cost: 30-130
Failure: notice & repair
Re-test: free or reduced fee
(defect/time)
Time: 45-60 min, 2 technicians

hicksmotandservice, 2014

Environment Department

USA Emission I/M Standards


California Air Resources Board (ARB)
Heavy-duty trucks and buses: control excessive smoke
emissions & prevent tampering (>6000lb)
Test-Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1667 snap
acceleration procedure-opacity measurement
Test using PEMS
Allowable levels of Smoke Opacity

All post 1991 or newer engines

Must not exceed 40% opacity

All pre-1991 engines

Must not exceed 55% opacity

Periodic Smoke Inspection Program (PSIP)


Heavy-Duty Vehicle Inspection Program (HDVIP)

Environment Department

Snap acceleration (Free


acceleration Test): Opacity
SAEJ1667 snap acceleration:
RPM recording (Idle/Max)

Sensing probe inserted


Driver accelerates 3 times with
transmission in neutral (to clear
loose particles) then repeat 3
times)

Applus, 2009

Environment Department

What is wrong in this picture?

UNEP, 2014

Environment Department

Conclusion
Introduction of I/M program
e.g. Clean air week: awareness and support
building activity
Vehicle emissions testing done for free
Make vehicles owners aware of the emission status
of their car
Collect realistic data about state of vehicle fleet
through random sample
Educate public and government of the severity of
vehicle pollution

Petrol vehicle test: CO, HC,NOX, CO2


Diesel vehicle test: Opacity, PM, NOX
Environment Department

I/M Good practice


Centralized I/M systems-test only systems: inspection
separated from maintenance
Government should regulate I/M programsimplementation (Private vs. Government)?
Need in-use vehicle emissions standards and test
procedure
Repair sector trained sufficiently to carry out the repairs
when vehicles fail
Look at the vehicle manufacturers for support in training
of the repair sector
Reliance on data management: coordination with vehicle
registration
Environment Department

Quick Survey
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

No of vehicles
Age of vehicle, technology
Type of fuel
No. of VKT travelled
Maintenance and servicing
Driver behaviour
Road condition

Environment Department