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Raster

This tab contains tools for enhancing raster data, mosaicking images, classifying data, change detection analysis, radar data analysis, modifying thematic data, and Fourier analysis.

The Raster tab is grouped into these categories (see below for details):

Resolutionis grouped into these categories (see below for details): Geometry Classification Change Detection Radar Toolbox

Geometryinto these categories (see below for details): Resolution Classification Change Detection Radar Toolbox Raster GIS

Classificationcategories (see below for details): Resolution Geometry Change Detection Radar Toolbox Raster GIS Scientific

Change Detection(see below for details): Resolution Geometry Classification Radar Toolbox Raster GIS Scientific Resolution Radiometric

Radar ToolboxResolution Geometry Classification Change Detection Raster GIS Scientific Resolution Radiometric Click to open

Raster GISGeometry Classification Change Detection Radar Toolbox Scientific Resolution Radiometric Click to open the

ScientificClassification Change Detection Radar Toolbox Raster GIS Resolution Radiometric Click to open the Radiometric menu

Resolution

RadiometricDetection Radar Toolbox Raster GIS Scientific Resolution Click to open the Radiometric menu to enhance images

Click to open the Radiometric menu to enhance images using the values of individual pixels within each band.

Lut Stretch

Rescale

Autonomous Atmospheric Correction

AAIC. AAIC is a trademark of Applied Analysis, Inc.

Haze Reduction

This function sharpens the imagery using either a Tasseled Cap or Point Spread Convolution approach. The Haze Reduction dialog opens.

Noise Reduction

Periodic Noise Removal

Landsat 7 Reflectance Click to convert Landsat 7 ETM+ raw DN values or Radiance data to Reflectance values. The Landsat 7 Reflectance Conversion dialog opens.

Click to transform the image pixel digital number (DN) values through a previously saved Lookup Table (LUT) stretch. The LUT Stretch dialog opens.

Click to stretch the image pixel digital numbers between any bit depth types, such as scaling 16-bit imagery to 8-bit. The Rescale dialog opens.

Renders an atmospherically corrected, reflectance-based image from multi and hyper spectral imagery. Requires a license of IMAGINE

Click to reduce haze in an image. Atmospheric effects can cause imagery to have a limited dynamic range, generally perceived as "haziness" or reduced contrast.

Click to apply an edge-preserving smoothing technique to reduce noise in an image. The Noise Reduction dialog opens.

Click to apply Fourier Domain transformations to automatically reduce periodic noise effects such as striping. The Periodic Noise Removal dialog opens.

Destripe TM Data dialog opens.

Click to destripe Landsat TM imagery. Requires the data to be non-geocoded (the striping is in the vertical columns of the input data). The Destripe TM Data

Replace Bad Links

Click to replace bad scan lines or columns in raster data. Sensor fall-out and wash-out can create bad (blank or noise-filled) lines or columns within a raw

image. The Replace Bad Lines dialog opens.

Histogram Match

Click to match the overall scene brightness and contrast from one image to another so that they more seamlessly blend into each other. The Histogram Match

dialog opens.

Brightness Inversion Inversion dialog opens.

Click to reverse both linear and nonlinear image intensity range in an image. Dark detail becomes light and light detail becomes dark. The Brightness

Histogram Equalization

maximizes the contrast of the data and redistributes pixel values so that there are approximately the same number of pixels with each value within a range. The Histogram

Click to apply a nonlinear contrast stretch to increase contrast at the peaks of the histogram and lessen contrast at the tails of the histogram. This

Equalization dialog opens.

Topographic Normalize

Click to use a DEM to minimize the sun-angle shading effects present in most satellite or aerial imagery. Requires knowledge of the solar azimuth and

elevation at the time of image acquisition. The Lambertian Reflection Model dialog opens.

Spatialacquisition. The Lambertian Reflection Model dialog opens. Click to open the Spatial menu to enhance images

Click to open the Spatial menu to enhance images by modifying pixels values based on the values of surrounding pixels.

Click to reproject a georeferenced, orthorectified, or geometrically calibrated image from its current projection system to a new projection system. For example,

Reproject

transform from Geographic Lat/Lon to a UTM zone. The Reproject Images dialog opens.

Resample Pixel Size

Degrade

NIDP When DPM is installed, click to register, combine, and chip images while downgrading. The NIDP dialog opens.

Convolution

Non-Directional Edge

enhancement filters. The Non-directional Edge dialog opens.

Texture

low texture. The Texture Analysis dialog opens.

Adaptive Filter

Crisp

Click to resample image pixels to a different resolution without altering the projected coordinate system. The Resample dialog opens.

Click to reduce the pixel resolution of an image, but retain as high a quality on the resulting imagery as possible. The Image Degradation dialog opens.

Click to enhance images using operations such as averaging, high-pass (edge enhancing), or low-pass (smoothing) filtering. The Convolution dialog opens.

Click to enhance edge features within the imagery no matter what orientation those features may have. This option uses the Sobel and Prewitt edge

Click to measure the level and type of texture within a moving window passed over the image. For example, forest areas generally have high texture while grassland has

Click to apply a spatially varying contrast stretch across the image. The Wallis Adaptive Filter dialog opens.

Click to increase the fine detail (edges) within a multispectral image without affecting broader-scale features. This option sharpens the overall luminance of the image. The

Crisp dialog opens.

Statistical Filter

Click to suppress very high frequency noise in an image. The Statistical Filter dialog opens.

Homomorphic Filter

Click to use an illumination/reflectance model to enhance contrast. This is often used to bring out detail in shadowed areas. The Homomorphic Filter dialog

opens.

Morphological

Click to perform morphological operators such as erode, dilate, open, and close. The Morphological Operators dialog opens.

Focal Analysis

Click to analyze or measure particular functions on a moving window such as the focal sum, mean, standard deviation, median, maximum, and minimum DN or

class values. The Focal Analysis dialog opens.

Pan SharpenDN or class values. The Focal Analysis dialog opens. Click to open the Pan Sharpen menu

Click to open the Pan Sharpen menu for increasing the resolution of a color image using a high resolution panchromatic image.

Subtractive Resolution Merge

IKONOS or Formosat satellites. This uses a subtractive algorithm to pan sharpen MS images.The Custom Subtractive Resolution Merge dialog opens.

HPF Resolution Merge

mixed sensors). Allows trading color fidelity against scene sharpness. An ideal technique to use where there is a large discrepancy in pixel ratio between Pan and Multispectral

(greater than 6:1). The HPF Resolution Merge dialog opens.

Modified IHS Resolution Merge sensors).

Click to use this fast, user-friendly, and radiometrically accurate technique for merging Pan with multispectral (MS) data from the Quickbird,

Click to use this highly customizable and robust High Pass Filter pan sharpening technique that can be used with a wide range of sensor types (including

Click to use the Modified Intensity Hue Saturation pan sharpening technique applicable to a wide range of sensor types (including mixed

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Merging is weighted based on the overlap of the Pan image wavelength with those of each of the multispectral bands. Consequently color retention (spectral fidelity) is excellent, but bands with little or no overlap with the pan will receive less sharpening. The Modified IHS Resolution Merge dialog opens.

Wavelet Resolution Merge

Fourier transform, long continuous (sine and cosine) waves are used as the basis. The wavelet transform uses short, discrete "wavelets" instead of a long wave. The Wavelet

Resolution Merge dialog opens.

Ehlers Fusion

processing. The Ehlers Fusion dialog opens.

HCS Resolution Merge

designed for WorldView-2 sensor 8-band data, and works with any multispectral data containing 3 bands or more. The Hyperspherical Color Space Resolution Merge dialog opens.

Resolution Merge

Click to use legacy techniques such as the Principal Component, Multiplicative, and Brovey Resolution Merges which are good for producing contrasty, good-

looking outputs, but at the expense of radiometric fidelity. The Resolution Merge dialog opens.

Click to merge two precisely coregistered images. Wavelet-based processing is a complex technique similar to Fourier transform analysis. In the

Click to use Ehlers Fusion method which uses Fourier transform substitution techniques. Results can be good, but the complexity of the algorithm leads to slow

Click to use the Hyperspherical Color Sharpening algorithm. Data is transformed from native color space to hyperspherical color space. This option is

color space to hyperspherical color space. This option is Spectral Click to open the Spectral menu

Spectral

Click to open the Spectral menu to enhance images by transforming the values of each pixel on a multiband basis.

Stack multiple (usually single band) images as bands/layers into a single output multi-band image file. Examples of when this is commonly used include IKONOS

Layer Stack

multispectral imagery delivered as separate TIFF or NITF files (one band per file) or to combine multiple derivate image measures (texture, independent components, and so forth)

into a single multi-band image to improve classification accuracy. The Layer Stack dialog opens.

Principal Component

Inverse Principal Component

Independent Component

features inherent in the imagery. The Independent Components dialog opens.

Tasseled Cap

wetness (or other). The Tasseled Cap dialog opens.

Decorrelation Stretch

using the Principal Components transformation. The Decorrelation Stretch dialog opens.

Click to perform Principal Components analysis. The Principal Components dialog opens.

Click to convert Principal Component layers back to image space. The Inverse Principal Components dialog opens.

Click to perform Independent Component Analysis on multispectral imagery. Decorrelate the original spectral bands in order to recover the original

Click to study vegetation content in an image using the Tasseled Cap transformation. Compute derivative layers which represent scene brightness, greenness, and

Click to perform a contrast stretch on the imagery to decorrelate the bands and thereby produce a more "contrasty" and strongly colored output image

Natural Color

Click to simulate a true color RGB image from 3 band Color Infrared imagery (such as SPOT XS) that lacks the blue wavelength information. The Natural Color dialog

opens.

RGB to IHS opens.

Click to transform three bands on an input image (taken to represent Red, Green and Blue) to Intensity, Hue, Saturation (IHS) color space. The RGB to IHS dialog

IHS to RGB

Click to perform the inverse transform to convert Intensity, Hue, Saturation color space to Red, Green and Blue color space. The IHS to RGB dialog opens.

Spectral Mixer

Click to perform linear combinations of the bands of the input file to make a new three-color band (RGB) output file for display. The Spectral Mixer dialog opens.

Geometry

Mosaicfor display. The Spectral Mixer dialog opens. Geometry Click to combine multiple images into single (or

Click to combine multiple images into single (or tiled) color balanced and compressed ortho-mosaic imagery. The images must be rectified and/or calibrated.

MosaicPro

MosaicPro from 2D View

color balanced and compressed ortho-mosaic output. The imagery is autoloaded based on Preference settings in the MosaicPro category.

Mosaic Express

balancing or perform interactive operations such as seam polygon editing.

Unchip NITF

The Unchip Tool dialog opens.

Click to open MosaicPro workspace for combining multiple images into single (or tiled) color balanced and compressed ortho-mosaic output files.

Click to open MosaicPro and automatically load all image data present in the currently active 2D View to combine the images into a single (or tiled)

Click to open Mosaic Express, the Wizard-based version of setting up and executing a MosaicPro project. Useful if you do not wish to preview steps such as color

Click to rebuild a large NITF file (with common RPCs) that has been previously chipped (subset) into smaller tiles for storage on a CD, DVD, or other transfer media.

tiles for storage on a CD, DVD, or other transfer media. Subset & Chip Click to

Subset & Chip

Click to copy a subset of an input data file into an output data file using options in the Subset & Chip menu.

Create Subset Image

type - no data stretching is applied. Use Rescale if you wish to transform the image data type. The Subset dialog opens.

NITF Chip

NITF Chip tool from the active View. The File Selector opens.

Mask

Dice Image

neighboring new images are overlapped with each other.

Image Slicer When DPM is installed, click to cut long, rectangular images into smaller overlapping segments. The Image Slicer dialog opens.

Click to copy a selected portion, or subset, of an input data file into an output data file. Data is merely truncated based on bounding-box, layers and data

Click to chip or core all data layers in the currently active View to NITF file or files. Additional files can also be added to (or substituted for) any data loaded into the

Click to mask out areas from one image based on selected class values in a second (generally thematic) image. The Mask dialog opens.

Click to split an input image up into smaller, regularly sized and spaced, output tiles. The Dice an image dialog opens. You can specify the collar extent so that

dialog opens. You can specify the collar extent so that Click to perform geometric calibration or

Click to perform geometric calibration or orthorectify without first opening the image in the View, using options in the Geometric Calibration menu.

Create RPCs

model for a rigorous physical model. After selecting the oriented images in a File Selector, the RPC Generation dialog opens.

Create Affine Calibration

opens, where you select the image file name to use. Display the image using the Orient Image to Map System option in the Raster Options tab of the File Selector to see the calibration node effect.

Calibrate with Sensor Model and Terrain

image using the Orient Image to Map System option in the Raster Options tab of the File Selector to see the calibration node effect.

Orthorectify without GCP

orthorectified image without measuring GCPs (ground control points). For example, transform a NITF image with RPCs to an orthorectified image. After selecting the file in the File

Selector, the Set Geometric Model dialog opens.

Geometric Calibration

Click to export imagery with adjusted RPC (rational polynomial coefficients) models to a universally understandable format. This also creates a generic replacement

Click to define and apply an affine geometric model as a calibration node in the header of a selected image. The Set Geo Correction Input File dialog

Click to select and apply a sensor model as a calibration node in the header of a selected image. The File Selector opens. Display the

Click to orthorectify an image to a resampled image in the output map projection by first selecting a geometric model. This option creates an

by first selecting a geometric model. This option creates an Reproject Click to reproject the active

Reproject

Click to reproject the active georeferenced, orthorectified, or geometrically calibrated image from its current projection system to a new image in a new projection

system. For example, transform from Geographic Lat/Lon to a UTM zone. The Reproject Images dialog opens.

Lat/Lon to a UTM zone. The Reproject Images dialog opens. Check Accuracy Click to open the

Check Accuracy

Click to open the Metric Accuracy Assessment (MAA) tool for quantitatively measuring the accuracy of an image that is associated with a 3D geometric model

(such as RPC or orbital pushbroom models). The Select Images dialog opens first.

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Classification

Page 3 of 6 Classification For instructions that explain how to perform and evaluate image classification

For instructions that explain how to perform and evaluate image classification see Classification Workflows.

Unsupervised

Click to open the Unsupervised Classification menu containing tools for categorizing pixels using unsupervised feature extraction techniques.

Unsupervised Classification

algorithm to the selected image. The Unsupervised Classification dialog opens.

Click to form clusters of pixels with similar spectral characteristics by applying the Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA)

NDVI

Click to perform band-ratio calculations on the selected image, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The Indices dialog opens.

Indices

Click to calculate vegetation and mineral indices and ratios. The Indices dialog opens.

Image Segmentation

a single segment. The Image Segmentation dialog opens.

RGB Clustering

thematic data. The RGB Clustering dialog opens.

Advanced RGB Clustering

classes. The RGB Cluster dialog opens.

Click to partition raster images into segments based on pixel values and locations. Pixels that are spatially connected and have similar values are grouped in

Click to compress three bands of data into one, or to perform a simple unsupervised classification. Often used to rescale 24-bit data (three-band RGB) to 8-bit

Click to use the advanced version of RGB Clustering providing greater control over the parameters used to partition the pixels into similar clusters or

Grouping Tool

Click to use the Class Grouping Tool to label classes and clusters resulting from an unsupervised classification process. The Class Grouping Tool dialog opens.

Fuzzy Recode

Click to perform Fuzzy Recode on the results of the Grouping Tool to resolve conflict between class groupings (that is, where certain groups have been set to

belong to more than one class). A weighted convolution window is used to determine the most probable class for any given pixel. The Fuzzy Recode dialog opens.

Supervisedclass for any given pixel. The Fuzzy Recode dialog opens. Click to open the Supervised Classification

Click to open the Supervised Classification menu containing tools for categorizing pixels using interactive supervised techniques.

Supervised Classification

software algorithms to derive rules for mapping all other pixels into the class values. The Supervised Classification dialog opens.

Signature Editor

subsequently used to classify imagery. The Signature Editor dialog opens.

Feature Space Image

A feature space image is a graph of the data file values of one band of data plotted against the values of another band (often called a scatterplot). The Create Feature Space Images

Click to create a Feature Space image to define training signatures or for evaluating the results of different decision rules used for the classification process.

Click to categorize pixels using interactive supervised techniques. You provide examples of what particular classes look like, which are then used by the

Click to use the Signature Editor to collect training examples of each desired output class from imagery. Training is used to derive signatures which are

dialog opens.

Feature Space Thematic

Click to transform a thematic raster layer onto a feature space image. This is useful for showing classification decision boundaries. An existing feature

space image must be used when generating a thematic feature space image. The Create Thematic Feature Space Images dialog opens.

Fuzzy Convolve

classification decision for each pixel. A probability and distance weighted convolution window is used to determine the highest probability class value. The Fuzzy Convolution dialog opens.

Threshold

to be incorrectly classified. The Threshold dialog opens.

Click to refine a classification that was performed using the Supervised Classification dialog by determining which pixels in the new thematic raster layer are most likely

Click to deconflict the classes of a fuzzy classification (where each pixel has more than one possible class with associated probabilities) and produce a final

Grouping Tool

Click to use the Class Grouping Tool to label classes and clusters resulting from an unsupervised classification process. The Class Grouping Tool dialog opens.

Fuzzy Recode

Click to perform Fuzzy Recode on the results of the Grouping Tool to resolve conflict between class groupings (that is, where certain groups have been set to

belong to more than one class). A weighted convolution window is used to determine the most probable class for any given pixel. The Fuzzy Recode dialog opens.

Accuracy Assessment

Click to evaluate the accuracy of a classified image file by using known ground truth locations and values. The Accuracy Assessment dialog opens.

Area Frame Sampling

The Frame Sampling process is a statistical methodology used to estimate the size of the occurrence of a particular material of interest (such as a crop or

landcover type) across a broad area by using coarse resolution imagery to break the larger area down into frames and then sampling within these frames using higher resolution imagery in local areas. Thus time and costs can be minimized while still producing accurate estimates of the size of material of interest.

Project Manager

launched to step through the rest of the process. The Open/Create a Sampling Project dialog opens.

Grid Generation

form the basis of your sampling process. The Grid Generation Tool opens.

Click to open the Project Manager for setting up and controlling the process of performing an Area Frame Sampling analysis. It also provides a wizard to be

Click to generate a lattice grid of rectangular shapefile polygons over a reference dataset. The generated grids are stored as shapefiles, and can be used to

Sample Selection

Click to select locations within a study area to be sampled with imagery of higher resolution. The Statistical Sample Selection dialog opens.

Dot Grid Analysis

Click to open the Dot Grid Tool. A lattice of dots is laid over a high-resolution image. These dots are then manually labeled to identify the feature classes

are then manually labeled to identify the feature classes within the grid. The labeled grid is

within the grid. The labeled grid is used to calculate the percentage of a feature class of interest occurring within each frame stratum.

Polygon Analysis

resolution Sampling image. These polygons are labeled so that they identify the underlying features. This information is used to calculate the percentage of a feature class of interest occurring within that portion of the image.

Click to open the Polygon Analysis Tool, an alternative approach to using Dot Grid Analysis. Manually digitize a series of polygon AOIs on top of a high-

IMAGINE Objective

Click to open the Objective Workstation, providing a framework to automate the process of feature extraction from imagery.

The approach is modeled after the human visual system for image interpretation. Salient visual image interpretation cues for a feature are quantified, machine learning components are trained with these cues, then these learned cues are applied to the imagery to derive features.

learned cues are applied to the imagery to derive features. For information about using ERDAS IMAGINE

For information about using ERDAS IMAGINE Objective, see IMAGINE Objective User Guide.

Hyperspectral

Click to open the Hyperspectral menu containing tools for extracting information from hyperspectral images.

Spectral Analysis Workstation

(SAM), Spectral Correlation Mapping (SCM), Orthogonal Subspace Projection (OSP), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), and so forth.

Project Wizard

your data for analysis such as atmospheric correction.

Target Detection

infrequently and/or in subpixel quantities within the image. The Target Detection Wizard opens.

Material Mapping

frequently within the image. The Material Mapping Wizard opens.

Anomaly Detection

any prior knowledge or expectation of what types of materials might be present in the image. Anomalies can be compared against a spectral library to identify the most likely material(s) present at those locations. The Anomaly Detection Wizard opens.

Click to open Spectral Analysis Workstation, providing access to a variety of hyperspectral analysis techniques including Spectral Angle Mapping

Click to start the Project Wizard to guide you through the processes of creating a new project (or using an existing one) and the various methods of preparing

Click to use a wizard approach to map the locations of a selected material type (selected from a spectral library or image-derived) which is thought to occur very

Click to use a wizard approach to map the locations of a selected material type (selected from a spectral library or image-derived) which occurs more

Click to use a wizard approach to automatically map the locations of anomalous materials within the image. This approach does not require the user to have

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Spectral Library

Click to review the contents of standard spectral libraries, such as those provided by the USGS and JPL, including display of spectral profiles of the materials. The

Spec View dialog opens.

Automatic Log Residuals

Click to automatically perform three functions: normalize the hyperspectral data; calculate log residuals; perform a three-dimensional rescale. The

Automatic Log Residuals dialog opens.

Automatic Relative Reflectance

dimensional rescale.The Automatic Internal Average Relative Reflectance dialog opens.

Click to automatically perform three functions: normalize the hyperspectral data; calculate internal average relative reflectance; perform a three-

Normalize

Click to normalize each pixel DN value to the same total energy. This removes or minimizes albedo variations and topographic effects across the image. The Normalize

dialog opens.

IAR Reflectance

Click to convert raw DN values to relative reflectance. Each pixel spectrum is divided by the overall average spectrum. The Internal Average Relative Reflectance

dialog opens.

Log Residuals

Click to extract absorption features from raw DN values. This is done by normalizing each pixel spectrum to flatten the convex background, that is, to normalize the

baseline energy return to 1.0 for all wavelengths. The Log Residuals dialog opens.

Spectrum Average

Spectrum Average dialog opens.

3D Rescale

Mean per Pixel

darker or lighter than average pixels. Used to check for bad sensor cells. The Mean Per Pixel dialog opens.

Signal to Noise

specific channels from further processing. The Signal To Noise dialog opens.

Click to calculate an average spectrum from a small set of pixels. This spectrum may then be added to a spectral library for future comparison and analysis. The

Click to rescale a hyperspectral image to 8-bit data without altering the shape of the spectral curves. The 3 Dimensional Rescale dialog opens.

Click to generate a grayscale image by averaging the DN values for each pixel and scaling to 8-bit data. This grayscale image may then be visually examined for

Click to create a signal-to-noise image for each channel of the input image. These images may then be visually evaluated to mark the inclusion or exclusion of

be visually evaluated to mark the inclusion or exclusion of Subpixel Click to open the IMAGINE

Subpixel

Click to open the IMAGINE Subpixel Classifier menu.

Subpixel classification deals with detecting the presence of materials of interest which are mixed with other materials and occupy less than a whole pixel in the image being analyzed. In general the tools are used in order, starting from the top of the menu and working downward through the processing steps.

Use History and Auto Filenames

same name as the associated image except with the .sch extension. History files provide a record of what processing was done to a particular image file and a means of recalling the

last file used. Output file names will also be suggested.

Preprocessing

Signature Derivation and MOI Classification. The Preprocessing dialog opens.

Environmental Correction

to an image during the Signature Derivation and MOI Classification processes. The Environmental Correction dialog opens.

Signature Derivation

When checked, the software creates and maintains a processing history file for each image processed. History file are text files and have the

Preprocessing must be run prior to initiating other Subpixel Classifier processes. This process surveys the image for backgrounds that will be removed during

Click to calculate a set of correction factors to compensate for variations in atmospheric and environmental conditions. These factors are then applied

Build material of interest (MOI) signatures from training sets for performing subpixel classification and mapping.

Manual Signature Derivation

confident of the material pixel fraction in the training set. The Manual Signature Derivation dialog opens.

Automatic Signature Derivation

determined the need for a subpixel signature, or when you know the material pixel fraction in the training set is subpixel. The Automatic Signature Derivation dialog opens.

Signature Evaluation/Refinement opens.

Click to generate a single signature from a fixed set of input parameters. This option is recommended if you have whole-pixel training sets or are

Click to automate the process of choosing the best signature from a training set with a subpixel MOI. This process is best used when you have

Click to refine your signature to account for signature variability and scene-to-scene variability. The Signature Evaluation/Refinement dialog

Signature Combiner

Click to combine existing signatures and environmental correction factors for input into the Multiple Signature Classifier. The Signature Combiner dialog

opens.

Development of a high-quality signature is an iterative process of developing, testing and refining the signature by adjusting the training set and the signature parameters.

Subpixel Classifier signatures are unique to Subpixel Classifier and are not compatible with other IMAGINE processes.by adjusting the training set and the signature parameters. MOI Classification There are two types of

MOI Classification

There are two types of Classification: In-Scene and Scene-to-Scene, depending on whether the signature was developed from the current scene or from a different scene. The MOI Classification dialog opens.

Click to apply a signature to an image to identify pixels containing the landcover material you are trying to locate in the scene.

Subpixel Utilities

Quality Assurance

Artifact Removal

artifact areas removed. The Artifact Removal dialog opens.

Click to identify Duplicate Line Artifacts (DLAs) in older types of Landsat TM imagery. The Image Quality Assurance dialog opens.

Click to remove several types of artifacts from Landsat TM imagery. The process takes an input image with artifacts and produces an output image with the

Knowledge Engineerimage with artifacts and produces an output image with the Click to open the Knowledge Engineer

Click to open the Knowledge Engineer menu for building expert rules to categorize pixels. Also referred to as Knowledge Based Classification.

Knowledge Engineer

Click to start the Knowledge Engineer to identify the variables, rules, and output classes of interest and to create the decision tree for complex, rules-based

classification.

Knowledge Classifier

Click to use a Wizard-based approach for applying an existing knowledge base to new imagery. The Knowledge Classification dialog opens.

to new imagery. The Knowledge Classification dialog opens. See Classification Process in ERDAS Field Guide for

See Classification Process in ERDAS Field Guide for more information about classifying an image file.

Change Detection

about classifying an image file. Change Detection Zonal Change Click to open the most recently used

Zonal Change

Click to open the most recently used Change Detection option.

Zonal Change

the most recently used Change Detection option. Zonal Change Click to open the Change Detection menu

Click to open the Change Detection menu for options to detect changes between images in the same geographic area.

Zonal Change

Discriminant Function

Function Change Detection dialog opens.

Image Difference

Detection dialog opens.

Click to compute the differences between two images within shapefile zones (per-polygon change detection). The Zonal Change Detection dialog opens.

Click to compute the probability of change per pixel using unsupervised spectral classification and discriminant function anaylsis. The Discriminant

Click to compute the differences between two images (per-pixel change detection) and to highlight changes that exceed a user-specified threshold. The Change

changes that exceed a user-specified threshold. The Change DeltaCue Click to open the DeltaCue menu to

DeltaCue

Click to open the DeltaCue menu to identify changes of interest in imagery acquired on two different dates. A series of algorithms, procedures and automated

processing steps are provided to co-register image data and perform differencing operations.

DeltaCue can distinguish significant change from insignificant change and then helps you identify changes that are of specific interest to your application.

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Wizard Mode

with the Change Display Viewer and run new processing iterations.

Change Display

analysis. The DeltaCue Change Display Viewer opens.

Site Monitoring

Viewer provides several change detection visualization tools and enhancements to help you quickly identify changes at the site.

Click to open the Wizard to produce an initial set of change detection results in broad area search mode. Once you have produced initial results, you can view them

Click to display the original image pair as well as the change detection output. The Change Display Viewer contains tools for change detection interpretation and

Click to open the Site Monitoring project file dialog to identify changes at a specific site rather than search for change over broad areas. The Site Monitoring

Radar Toolbox

change over broad areas. The Site Monitoring Radar Toolbox Radar Toolbox Radar Analyst Click to open

Radar Toolbox

Radar Analyst

Click to open the Radar Toolbox menu, providing specialized tools for processing radar data in a standard remote sensing or GIS environment.

Click to open the Radar Analyst tab to correct brightness variations in SAR data, enhance edges of radar data to extract features, and swipe multiple overlain

images. Divide (slice) an image into a discrete number of levels to extract features using the Level Slice tools.

of levels to extract features using the Level Slice tools. Interferometry Click to open the Interferometry

Interferometry

Click to open the Interferometry menu. Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (InSAR) is an imaging technique for measuring topography and motion of a

surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface.

DEM Extraction

Coherence Change

Displacement Mapping

employed in different operational contexts at two general levels. First, a screening analysis allows change over large areas to be detected using a limited set of SAR images. Second, a quantitative analysis of a detected or known change, potentially yielding a detailed image-map of the change or deformation that occurred.

Click to to derive a digital elevation model (DEM) from Interferometric SAR image pairs. The InSAR Wizard opens.

Click to derive georeferenced images showing change from Interferometric SAR image pairs. The Coherence Change Detection Wizard opens.

Click to derive georeferenced motion map images from Interferometric SAR image pairs. The D-InSAR Wizard opens. The D-InSAR procedure can be

The D-InSAR Wizard opens. The D-InSAR procedure can be Geometric Tools Click to open the Geometric

Geometric Tools

Click to open the Geometric Tools menu.

Coregister Image Pair Click to remove or minimize the geometric differences between a pair of radar images. The Coregister Radar Images dialog opens.

OrthoRadar

Click to open the Set Geo Correction Input File dialog. Requires a license of OrthoRadar.

Click to georeference (geocode or orthorectify) a SAR image using a rigorous orbital modeling approach using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) Model Properties.

StereoSAR DEM

Click to create a digital elevation model (DEM) from a SAR image stereo pair. Click to open StereoSAR Project Selector dialog. Requires a license of StereoSAR

DEM.

Selector dialog. Requires a license of StereoSAR DEM. Utilities Click to open the Radar Utilities menu.

Utilities

Click to open the Radar Utilities menu.

SAR Metadata Editor

SAR Metadata Editor is a stand-alone button.

Radar Conversions

Click to attach SAR image metadata, required for SAR processing, to SAR images. The SAR Metadata Editor opens. In Radar Analyst tab > Tools tab, the

Click to isolate specific data from radar images, such as magnitude and phase, which you may then use as input to other applications. The Radar

Conversions dialog opens.

Radar Speckle Suppression

Click to reduce speckle noise in a SAR image. The Radar Speckle Suppression dialog opens.

Sensor Merge

Radiometric Terrain Correction

information. The resulting products are the radar backscatter coefficient Sigma-Nought and the corresponding incidence angle mask. The Radiometric Terrain Correction dialog

Click to increase the resolution or interpretability of a color image by merging with a SAR panchromatic image. The Sensor Merge dialog opens.

Click to radiometrically calibrate an orthorectified Beta-Nought SAR image based on terrain information (DEM) and acquisition geometry

opens.

Brightness Adjustment

Click to correct the brightness variations which occur in a SAR image due to the often oblique look angles in which these sensors operate. The

Brightness Adjustment dialog opens.

Texture Analysis

Click to perform moving window operations to enhance or detect texture in a SAR image. The Texture Analysis dialog opens.

Radar Incoherence

To assist in interpreting coherence during the Coherence Change Detection (CCD) process, you can create an Incoherence image and an Inverse

Coherence image from the Coherence image (*.img) and the Filtered Coherence image (*.img) in the Rectify step. The Radar Incoherence dialog opens.

Polarimetric Classification Click to compute a polarimetric classfication from dual-pole or quad-pole radar image. The Polarimetric Classification dialog opens.

radar image. The Polarimetric Classification dialog opens. For more information about radar processing, see Radar

For more information about radar processing, see Radar Interferometry User Guide and Radar Processing Concepts. For more information about radar image enhancement, see Radar Imagery Enhancement in ERDAS Field Guide.

Raster GIS

Radar Imagery Enhancement in ERDAS Field Guide . Raster GIS Thematic Click to open the GIS

Thematic

Click to open the GIS Analysis menu for use on thematic data layers.

Thematic to RGB

Random Class Colors

Recode

Click to convert a single-band thematic image to a 3-band RGB representation

The Thematic to RGB dialog opens.

Click to apply a random color table to a thematic image. Useful for data such as Segmented or Clumped data. The Random Class Colors dialog opens.

Click to change selected Class numbers to other Class numbers. The Recode dialog opens.

Neighborhood

Click to use Neighborhood (moving window) operators for analyzing class values based on surrounding class values. The Neighborhood dialog opens.

Morphological

Click to perform morphological operators such as erode, dilate, open, and close. The Morphological Operators dialog opens.

Search

Click to perform a buffering operation to a specified distance from selected classes / features. The Search dialog opens.

Clump

Click to identify (clump) contiguous groups of pixels. The Clump dialog opens.

Sieve

Click to remove (sieve) clumps smaller than a user-specified size. The Sieve dialog opens.

Eliminate

Click to eliminate small island classes within larger classes. The Eliminate dialog opens.

Perimeter

Click to create an attribute field within a clumped thematic image and calculate the outside edge distance of every polygon. The Perimeter dialog opens.

Thematic Pixel Aggregation

majority value of the window. The Aggie -- GIS Aggregation dialog opens.

Zonal Attributes

Matrix Union

Summary Report of Matrix

number of acres (or hectares or square miles) in common, and percentages. Similar to Matrix, but the output is a report, not an image. The Summary dialog opens.

Click to downsample thematic imagery. The input image is divided into windows that produce a single pixel in the output image that reflects the

Click to extract the zonal statistics of the background image of a vector feature layer and save them as vector attributes. The Zonal Attributes dialog opens.

Click to create an output image file that contains classes that indicate how the class values of the input files overlap. The Matrix dialog opens.

Click to produce cross-tabulation statistics that compare class value areas between two thematic files, including number of points in common,

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Overlay by Min or Max

you rescale the data, if desired, to mask out certain data values. The Overlay dialog opens.

Index by Weight Sum

Click to combine two input image files based on the minimum or maximum values of the input files. A recoding option within the Overlay program lets

Click to create a composite .img file by adding together the class values of two "weighted" input raster files. The Index dialog opens.

If the input raster layer is thematic, make sure that statistics for the layer have been computed with a Skip Factor of 1, otherwise the operation may fail.input raster files. The Index dialog opens. Scientific Functions Click to open the Functions menu for

Scientific

FunctionsFactor of 1, otherwise the operation may fail. Scientific Click to open the Functions menu for

Click to open the Functions menu for single and two image functions.

Two Image Functions

Click to take two images or layers and produce an output by applying operators. The Two Input Operators dialog opens.

Single Image Functions

Click to apply a user-specified function to the DN values of an input image. The Single Input Functions dialog opens.

Fourieran input image. The Single Input Functions dialog opens. Click to open the Fourier menu to

Click to open the Fourier menu to work with images in the frequency domain.

Fourier Transform

Click to create the Fourier transform of a raster layer. The Fourier Transform dialog opens.

Fourier Transform Editor

Click to edit in the Fourier domain. Can be used to reduce striping, noise, and other periodic anomalies in raster imagery. The Fourier Editor opens.

Inverse Fourier Transform Transform dialog opens.

Click to perform the Inverse Fourier Transform on an edited Fourier transform image to reconstitute a geospatial image. The Inverse Fourier

Fourier Magnitude

Click to create an output image from an Fourier transform file which can be displayed in a regular 2D View. The Fourier Magnitude dialog opens.

For more information, see Fourier Analysis in ERDAS Field Guide . ERDAS Field Guide.

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