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First Semester 2012



1. IAEA Water Availability Enhancement (I-WAVE) Project
A National Workshop on Hydrogeological Data, Data Compilation and Management and
Aquifer Characterization in the Philippines was conducted on March 12-15, 2012 to assess
the national status of hydrogeological data, data compilation and management and
aquifer characterization and to introduce for discussion the state-of-the-science
approaches for managing hydrological data at a national scale. It is in support of the MGB
project on Groundwater Resources and Vulnerability Assessment of the Philippines
The workshop was attended by 45 local and international representatives from NWRB,
PNRI, MGB, MGB Regional Offices, Water Districts (Cagayan de Oro WD, Cebu WD,
Bacolod WD, Davao WD, Calumpit WD, Baliwag WD, Academe (UP-NIGS, NHRC), DILGWSSU-OPDS, MWSS and its two concessionaires, BSWM, NIA, DOH, NAMRIA, PAGASA,
NPC, BRS, DPWH, EMB and RBCO. International experts came from IAEA, USGS and IHEUNESCO
The workshop came up with action plans on the implementation of the activities that
would produce the Groundwater Availability Map and Groundwater Vulnerability Maps of
the country
An IAEA Technical Contract: Application of Isotope Hydrology Techniques by the PNRI in
Water Resources in Regions 2 and 10 in support of the DENR-MGB GRVAP project will be
awarded to PNRI with funding of EU 18,000 in 2012.
Field investigations were conducted in the period 4-15 June 2012 by the PNRI-NWRBMGB team in Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Viscaya, and Quirino. Sample collections for
groundwater (deep and shallow), and surface water were conducted. Three rain sampling
reservoirs were designed for use by the Cagayan Water District to set up precipitation
collection stations for isotopes. Instructions and demonstrations on the collection and

storage of samples were given in the Seminar Training for Isotope Sampling conducted on
June 4 2012 at the DENR Regional Office, Tuguegarao City. As a result of the Workshop,
Tuguegarao Water District volunteered to set up and maintain rain collection stations for
isotopes in Cagayan.
2. Assessment of Trends in Freshwater Quality Using Environmental Isotopes and
Chemical Techniques for Improved Water Resource Management
An expert mission was conducted by Dr. Kshitij Mahadev Kulkarni in 18-24 March 2012 to
assist the team in the analysis and integration of isotopic data with the hydrogeological
information obtained for the groundwater resources of Bulacan province.
Water sampling was also conducted in Region 2 on 3-6 June 2012 for field data, tritium
and stable isotopes. This activity was in collaboration with Mines and Geosciences Bureau
and the National Water Resources Board.
The completion of isotopic analysis is underway. With the completion of data collection,
groundwater quality maps will be generated and changes in the groundwater regime will
be determined.


1. Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Harmful Algal Bloom Studies
1.a. Gamma-labeled Toxin for Receptor Binding Assay of Saxitoxin
The development of a novel gamma-based field detection system for in situ monitoring
of paralytic shellfish toxins is underway. The process for patent application has been
initiated with the UP Diliman.
Time-course iodination experiments on the GIIIA peptide analog have been done to
determine the optimum reaction conditions for radioisotope labeling. Percent efficiency
of iodination reactions [based on percent recovery of the iodinated peptide
derivatives] could not be inferred directly from HPLC (peak area) alone even when peptide
standards have been used to estimate peptide concentration. Analyses of reference
samples by LC-MS and for amino acid composition have been arranged to obtain the data
necessary to correct for estimation of peptide concentration by HPLC.

First Semester 2012

Alternatively, radiolabeling of peptide using carrier-free I-125 will be carried out to

directly estimate percent efficiency of iodination, which can then be related to both HPLC
data (peak area) and peptide concentration to arrive at a value known as the relative
response factor. The relative response factor is a correction factor (e.g., corrected for
shifts in UV spectra) that is used to more accurately estimate peptides (specifically labeled
peptides) of unknown concentration relative to the standard, native or unmodified
1.b. Historical Sedimentation Rate and Radiometric Fingerprinting of SuspendedSediment in selected HAB Areas
The results of the study demonstrated the potential of the 210Pb dating technique for the
establishment of sedimentation deposition at selected areas of Sorsogon Bay with the
cores near Cadacan River (SO-03) and Sorsogon City (S0-07) experiencing a higher
sedimentation rate than the core obtained near Castilla (SO-01). The results reflect the
land use pattern around Sorsogon Bay; field farming is more prevalent in places near
Sorsogon City and Cadacan River than in areas around Castilla River due to their proximity
to the sea where people tend to fish for income. Field tilling and farming inevitably result
in erosion and contribute to higher sediment influx to the bay. High sediment input will
make the bay shallower in time.
Sedimentation rate studies provide valuable quantitative data required for more targeted
sediment influx management. Sediment mixing can be observed from the 210Pb profile but
cannot be measured directly from the data collected. The moisture content and dry bulk
density profiles of the cores were also obtained. Sedimentation rate estimates have been
calculated using CIC model. However, further data verification using a complementary
method must be done to validate the 210Pb derived sedimentation rates to get reliable age
and dating data.
1.c. Applications of Radiotracer and Radioassay Technologies in Paralytic Shellfish
Poisoning Risk Analysis
Radiometric Receptor Binding Assay (RBA) is exploited in conducting toxicity risk analysis
for Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs). Kinetic studies were conducted in the field and in the
laboratory. A simple linear equation was formulated relating the amount of Pyrodinium
bahamense var. compressum (PbC) in the water column (cell density) and mussel toxicity
based on field data. This can be used by the regulatory body in predicting the toxicity of
the mussels in a particular site based on the cell density.

Toxin production of PbC was also analyzed, and it was determined that saxitoxin (STX) is
the first analogue of PST being produced by the dinoflagellate. STX is then biotransformed
into other PST analogues. In addition, physical parameters such as pH, salinity and
temperature may not be critical in the uptake and depuration of the saxitoxins. The
environmental/physical factors may indirectly affect the accumulation and depuration
kinetics through PbC bloom dynamics and accessibility of PbC as food for the mussel.
Laboratory experiments wherein the mussels were fed with laboratory cultures of PbC
showed that at high PbC concentrations, toxin accumulation rate is high but at lower
retention in mussels; and at lower PbC concentrations, the opposite was observed.
Biotransformation of the toxin from one analogue to another in the mussel was also
Biosynthetic labelling of saxitoxin was carried out to produce Carbon-14 labelled saxitoxin
with application for the study of toxin transfer in marine organisms. Two hundred fifty six
(256) GBq/mole of saxitoxin was produced with about less than 1% of the spiked carbon14 labelled sodium bicarbonate utilized by the dinoflagellate in toxin production.
However, the produced labelled compound was not enough to conduct experiments on
bioaccumulation of saxitoxin in the dissolved pathway. Initial attempts using unlabelled
STX standards and HPLC-ECOS for detection showed that accumulation in the dissolved or
particulate pathway is possible but needs further confirmatory experiments.
In conclusion, data gathered from the field supports data in the laboratory. Accumulation
and depuration kinetics are successfully modelled and above all, the use of radiotracer
and radioassay techniques enhances the capability in the formulation of risk assessment.

2. Application of Radiotracers and Stable Isotopes for the Assessment of Nutrient

Loading from Various Sources into the Manila Bay
In line with the Supreme Court (SC) Decision G. R. Nos. 171947-48 ordering DENR to clean
up and rehabilitate Manila Bay, restoring and maintaining its waters to SB level, the
project was conceptualized by the DA-BSWM and sought collaboration with PNRI. It is
aimed to identify and trace sources of nutrients in the Manila Bay (MB) using stable
isotope techniques and quantify nutrients loaded from different sources into the MB.
For this purpose, a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between DENR, DENR-MBCO, DABSWM and DOST-PNRI is being drafted. Under the MOA, the DOST-PNRI shall partner

First Semester 2012

with the DA-BSWM in the implementation of this project giving full cooperation to the DABSWM by providing the necessary technical expertise in the conduct of the studies.

Separate samples were collected on quartz filters for the OC/EC analysis in (20) Valenzuela
and (5) Angat sampling sites

The PNRI made an oral presentation on the collection and preparation of environmental
samples for stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen analyses to DENR, DA-BSWM, NIA and
other project collaborators. Likewise, hands-on sampling demonstration/training on the
collection of environmental samples (sediment, water and biota) in Pampanga River basin
for stable isotope analysis was conducted.

Data on PM2.5 gathered by PNRI since 2001 are now being used by the Inter-Agency
Technical Committee (IATC) organized by DENR to set the Philippine standard on PM2.5.

3. Applications of Isotope and Geochemical Techniques to Uncover Point and Non-Point

Sources of Organic Nutrient Contamination in the Neritic Zone of Boracay Island
This is a new project funded by DOST-GIA where stable isotopes are being used to study
the status of health of the waters of Boracay island. Preliminary consultations and
reconnaissance trip in Aklan was undertaken on 10-13 May 2012 where PNRI
representatives met with Aklan Governor Marquez to solicit local support for the sampling
trips and other related activities of the project.
The first sampling trip was conducted on 23-28 May 2012. Analyses of samples are ongoing.



1. Air Pollution Studies in Metro Manila using Nuclear Analytical Technique

PNRI continues to collect air particulate samples at Ateneo de Manila University, Poveda
Learning Center, Valenzuela sampling sites and Notre Dame de Vie in Angat, Bulacan.
Collected samples were analyzed for particulate mass determination by gravimetry, black
carbon by reflectometry. Two sites are being maintained for the collection of particulates
for OC/EC determinationValenzuela and Angat.

PNRI is a member of the Inter-Agency Technical Committee tasked to draft the DENR
Department Administrative Order for the setting up of PM2.5 guideline values. Likewise,
the PNRI is also participating in the drafting of an Administrative Order in response to the
tire pyrolysis- related environmental and health problems being experienced by the
Notre Dame de Vie community in Encanto, Angat.
1. Development of Sterile Insect Technique for Dengue Mosquito Vector Aedes
Aegypti Using Gamma irradiation
The project is aimed to develop Sterile Insect technique (SIT) for Aedes aegypti mosquito
vector using gamma irradiation. This will be beneficial in addressing the dengue problem
brought by the mosquito vector using alternative methods of control.
After coordination with Office of the Barangay Captain at Old Balara, PNRI collected
mosquitoes from traps set by the Old Balara Health Center. Unfortunately there were very
few collections (n= 5 ). Hence, PNRI collected mosquito immatures from Villa Beatriz in
Barangay Old Balara. The immature (larvae/pupae) were allowed to develop into adult
stage in the mosquito laboratory at PNRI.
Pairing of male and female mosquitoes in mylar cages was done in the laboratory to study
the life cycle of the insect.

First Semester 2012


1. Development of Safe. Quality and Shelf-Stable Filipino Ethnic Foods for Immunocompromised Patients and Calamity Victims

Determination of D10 value of Escherichia coli inoculated in Pork Adobo

The test microorganism (E. coli) was inoculated in cooked pork adobo and initially
irradiated at 1 kGy for the challenge test. Subsequently, samples were exposed to varying
doses of gamma radiation such as 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, & 1.4 kGy. Results showed that
the D10 value of E. coli inoculated in Pork Adobo is 0.2 kGy
Determination of Decontamination Dose for Chicken Pork Adobo
Irradiated (2, 4, 6 kGy) and non-irradiated (control) chicken pork adobo were evaluated
for microbiological (aerobic plate count & molds and yeast count) and sensory criteria.
Two trials were performed both for samples stored at chilled and frozen conditions. Shortterm (10 days) storage study was also conducted for samples stored in chilled conditions.
Results obtained that irradiation at 4 kGy is effective enough to reduce the microbial level
in chicken adobo. The samples retained its sensory characteristics up to 10 days of
storage. Validation studies and experimental trials are currently on-going for the
evaluation of 4 kGy irradiation dose stored at frozen conditions. Pilot scale sensory
evaluation of irradiated chicken adobo will be also undertaken.
2. Enhancing Cytogenetic Biological Dosimetry Capabilities of the Philippines for Nuclear
Incidence Preparedness
This project is aimed at updating the technical knowledge and laboratory competence of
the PNRI biodosimetry group on the latest techniques in biological dosimetry in order to
improve its capability in the assessment of absorbed dose of individuals suspected of
having accidental gamma radiation exposure or occupational overexposures. This includes
conducting in-vitro gamma-irradiation of blood samples from normal and healthy donors
and then establishing the dose-response curves of blood lymphocytes for each of the
techniques. The various established curves can be used, later on, in the evaluation of an
exposed individuals absorbed dose.
Four (4) subjects were screened and recruited as consenting blood donors. After blood
extraction, blood samples were immediately divided into seven vials where six (6) vials

were subjected to gamma irradiation at the following doses : 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 & 6 Gy
while one vial served as the non-irradiated control. Following gamma irradiation, the
seven blood-containing vials were immediately set-up into duplicate cultures and
incubated for 48 hours. Harvesting and slide preparation commenced after the 48-hr
incubation. Four (4) slides were prepared from each of seven cultures, with a total of 28
slides per subject. Four (4) slides have been analyzed for number of occurring dicentrics
and rings.
Procedures currently being conducted at the Cytogenetics Laboratory were documented.
3. Radon Monitoring of the Valley Fault System and Its Implication as an Earthquake
This project is aimed to utilize radon detection technique in the surveillance program of
the northern segment of the Philippine Fault (Central Luzon Section) and the Valley Fault
System (VFS) which transect a major portion of metro Manila. The use of radon is
expected to contribute in strengthening the monitoring program being undertaken by
PHIVOLCS along these two seismically active areas.
For the first semester 2012, PNRI conducted monthly radon monitoring of the west and
east valley fault systems using two approaches, the in-situ radon monitoring system and
alpha track detector system. In-situ radon in soil measurements were performed using the
Durridge RAD7 radon monitor and a total of 160 radon measurements were taken along
the twenty-eight (28) established stations comprising of 14 stations on the west and four
(4) on the east, including the 10 traverse stations. As to the alpha track approach, the
plastic nuclear detectors buried in the ground for 30 days were retrieved, processed and
developed. Scanning and track density measurement of the processed films are on-going.
Radon results are continuously being evaluated and analyzed for any occurrences of
anomalous radon concentrations that may indicate possible seismic activities.
Ocular inspection was also conducted along the southern portion of the VFS to identify
suitable sites for the establishment of additional radon monitoring stations in Bicutan,
Sucat, Alabang, Muntinlupa, San Pedro-Binan areas.

First Semester 2012



protein content was obtained at 800 Gy which ranged from 17.40 - 23.20% in comparison
with the control with 20.43 - 20.95%.


The M5 generation of mungbean was harvested and data gathering as well as processing
of seeds were done. The mutants developed at PNRI (PAEC 2, 3. 5 and 10) for seed
maintenance were also harvested.

1. Rice
The general objective of this project is to develop rice mutants with desirable agronomic
characteristics and improved grain quality (increased protein and low to intermediate
amylose contents) using radiation induced-mutation. Low amylose is a key determinant of
eating quality of rice. Its typical characteristics are sticky texture, a tendency to remain
soft when cooked and exhibits a glossy appearance when used for baking cakes or
cookies. Low to intermediate amylose content is the target variety to be developed under
the FNCA project on "Composition or quality crop breeding in rice".
The analysis of amylose content using the qualitative method (iodine staining) of M6
seeds irradiated with 200 and 300 Gy gamma rays was completed. Results showed that
at 200 Gy, 12 lines out of 153 lines/sample analyzed belong to low to intermediate
amylose, while at 300 Gy, only one line out of 127 lines belong to low to intermediate
amylose. Those with low amylose can be considered promising mutant lines. However,
confirmation of the results will be done using the quantitative method of analysis. The
control and the check variety (IR 64) belong to high amylose.
Multiplication of Denorado mutant and the control for seed maintenance were done
inside the screenhouse . Field preparation for planting those lines selected with low
amylose content and with desirable agronomic traits was also continued. Included in the
selections were those irradiated with gamma rays and ion beam.
2. Mungbean
PNRI continued studies on mutation techniques application on mungbean. Protein
content analysis of M4 mungbean seeds was completed in two varieties (Psj-B-11-176 and
VC - 2917 A). Results showed that one plant at variety Psj-B-11-176 irradiated with 400 Gy
obtained the highest with 28.22 % followed by 600 Gy (one plant also) with 26.62 %.
Protein content of the control ranged from 22.53-23.63%. In variety VC-2917, a high


Fruit Crops

Maintenance of experimental plants employing cultural management is a continuing

activity in the field for cashew and mangosteen as well as in in-vitro maintenance in
Evaluation for survival and growth characteristics of both control and irradiated cashew
trees was continuously being undertaken. Fruit setting of Batch A trees in some irradiated
and control trees was observed.
Another batch acquisition and irradiation of cashew seeds, Makiling variety was done. A
total of 27 seeds per treatment was irradiated with 100 Gy, 200 Gy. 300 Gy and 400 Gy
dose at the Gamma cell. Immediately after irradiation, these seeds with the unirradiated
ones were planted in the prepared seed boxes. Germination and survival percentage will
be observed.
Shoots and plantlets that developed from mangosteen seeds from Davao previously
germinated in vitro in Murashige and Skoogs basal medium with Vitamins, full and half
strength concentration were irradiated. Irradiation dose of 10, 20, 30 and 40 Gy dose of
gamma rays were used in these shoots/plantlets. Irradiated and unirradiated shoots and
plantlets were immediately sub-cultured in fresh MS medium after irradiation. This is to
avoid formation of free radicals in the medium which can affect growth of cultures. These
cultures will be the source of micropropagation studies using vegetative parts i.e. stem
sections, nodal and internodal sections, shoot tips to advance generation. Data gathering
is in progress.

First Semester 2012

4. Ornamental Plants
The Patent Application No. 1-2011-000184 for "Production of Mutant Philippine Endemic
Hoya by Gamma Irradiation of Stem Cuttings" filed on May 25, 2011 has been published at
the Intellectual Property Office of the Philippines (IPOPHL) E-Gazette Vol. XV No. 22 on
June 4, 2012. The technology was developed in the DOST-PCARRD-PNRI project entitled
"Varietal Improvement of Selected Ornamental Crops (Spathoglottis Orchids, Foliage-type
Anthuriums and Hoyas) Through Gamma Irradiation." It relates to the procedure of
producing mutant Philippine endemic Hoya by gamma irradiation of various stem cuttings
obtained from different species, subspecies, varieties, forms and hybrids of hoyas that can
be found only in the Philippines.
Maintenance of experimental ornamental plants employing cultural management
practices is a continuing activity in the field and screenhouse.
Two (2) putative mutants of irradiated Adenium obesum were selected. These putative
mutants have shown changes in leaf shape and chlorophyll mutation on leaf blade
margins (albo-marginata). Continuous observation and evaluation of these plants will be
Multiplication of radiation-induced mutants namely Murraya Ibarra Santos, Dracaena
Marea and Cordyline Medina was continuously done through seeds and cuttings.
In-vitro maintenance of Euanthe (formerly Vanda) sanderiana or Waling-waling orchid in
the tissue culture laboratory is continuously being done by sub-culturing in fresh Knudson
C medium. A total of eight (8) bottles of in-vitro plantlets and approximately 100
seedlings of Vanda are being cared and grown for flowering in the screenhouse.


1. Extraction of Uranium and Other Valuable Materials from Phosphoric Acid
PNRI was accepted in the IAEA Interregional Project with Project Number: INT2015 and
Title: Supporting Uranium Exploration, Resource Augmentation and Production Using
Advanced Techniques. The project is aimed to enhance the capacity in uranium
exploration, resource evaluation, mining and processing of uranium ores, and extraction
of uranium from unconventional sources. One of the unconventional sources is uranium
production from phosphate rock/phosphoric acid using well established techniques since
many of the rich primary uranium sources are getting depleted. This offers advantages at
an environmental level and in the sustainable development of natural resources. The
recovery can also contribute towards improving the economics of the development of
low-grade phosphate resources, and helping conserve the rapidly depleting phosphate
resources of the planet.
A plant visit to Philippine Phosphate Fertilizer Corporation (PILPHOS) in Isabel, Leyte was
undertaken on April 25-28, 2012 to conduct a pre-feasibility study of extracting uranium,
rare earth and other valuable elements from phosphates and phosphoric acid. Part of the
pre-feasibility study was to conduct in- situ gamma ray spectrometric measurements of
the phosphate rock samples, various fertilizer products, and phosphoric acid samples,
including dose rate measurements were performed. Discussions were also made with
PHILPHOS Management for possible project collaboration.

A putative mutant from previously irradiated and grown Bignay (Antidesma bunius)
seedlings at M1V1 showed changes in leaf shape and form. This plant is a native
ornamental tree, very attractive especially when fruiting.

2. Characterization of the Natural Radioelement Signatures of Phorphyry Copper-Gold

Deposits in the Philippines by Gamma Ray Spectrometry: Implications to Minerals

Meanwhile, control Powderpuff lily (Scadoxus multiflorus) has 88.3% pollen fertility, while
irradiated plant #1B has 66.1% and plant #2 has 66.3%, respectively. Moreover, plant #2
has an umbel diameter of 20.5 centimeters (cm), while both control and plant #1B
measure 17.5 cm across. Pre-selected putative mutant plant #1A at V1 did not flower but
its V2 is also variegated.

This project is being continued to establish the possibility of whether a relationship exists
between the natural radioelements (Potassium, Uranium, Thorium and their ratios) vis-vis copper within known porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the country.
Seventy-six (76) samples from Didipio, Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya were analyzed for silver,
copper, lead, zinc, cobalt, manganese and iron using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer
(AAS). A total of 532 analyses were performed and the range of values are as follows:
silver (0.76 3.66 ppm), copper (58.36 3,115.04 ppm), lead (17.79 85.45 ppm), zinc

First Semester 2012

(13.99 114.55ppm), cobalt (7.83 42.96 ppm), manganese (98.24 2,045.33 ppm) and
iron (0.93 10%).
3. Recovery of REE and Nuclear Materials from Allanite and Monazite
Several trials are continuously conducted to determine if the extraction of the rare earth
elements (REE) from the allanite and monazite beach sand minerals in Northern Palawan
can be maximized. The amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which was used as the
precipitant was doubled. Approximate amount of REE was 32.32 %. Another trial was
done using ammonium hydroxide as the precipitant. Approximate amount of REE was
14.62 %.


1. Preliminary Investigation of the Effects of Biofertilization and N Levels on Nitrogen
Nutrition of Grain Cereals
The general objective of the project is to evaluate the effect of associative rhizobacteria to
the nitrogen nutrition and nitrogen use efficiency of maize and lowland rice.
A second field trial in collaboration with Philrice was established during this dry season of
2012. The experimental field was laid out following the Randomized Complete Block
Design (RCBD) with seven treatments replicated three times. A total of 21 15N microplots
were established for plant and soil sampling at different growth stages of rice. Direct
labeling of soil with 15N enriched ammonium sulfate was done. Ordinary ammonium
sulfate was applied outside the isotope plots and basal applications of phosphorus and
potassium fertilizers were done in both isotope and yield plots. PSB RC 10 rice cultivar
was sown and 21 day old seedlings were inoculated with bacterial inoculants and
transplanted in the field. Plant sampling were done at 10 and 30 DAP. Growth parameters
were also recorded. Care and maintenance of standing field experiment such as weeding,
pest control etc. are being done until harvest.

Reproducible results were obtained in the optimization of the mass spectrometer with the
available reference and analytical 15N labeled fertilizer standards. R2 value is 0.999.
However, there are still some parameters to be standardized in the instrument such as
good working flow rate of the mobile phase, temperature etc. inorder to achieve the best
resolution of the 15N and the other isotopes of nitrogen in the plant tissue samples.
2. Plant Growth Promoter from Irradiated Carrageenan
Preliminary field experiments were conducted by PhilRice (collaborator) on the plant
growth promoting effect of radiation modified chitosan and -carrageenan on rice under
Green House conditions. Results show that radiation modified chitosan has no significant
influence on yield and yield components of rice NSIC Rc160. However, application of
radiation modified carrageenan significantly affected the yield of rice. Compared with the
control, application of refined, semi-solid, and seaweed extract enhanced the growth of
rice. Moreover, grain yield did not vary among types of carrageenan.
Field experiments on the plant growth promoter effect of radiation modified carrageenan
on sweet corn hybrid variety (provided by East-East Seeds Philippines) and rice (done by
PhilRice) are on going. The harvest period has been reached and processing of the data is
being done. Likewise, pot experiments on the plant growth promoter effect of radiation
modified carrageenan (oligo-carrageenan obtained by radiation degradation only and in
the presence hydrogen peroxide) on soybean is on-going.
3. Elemental Characterization in Rice using EDXRF and INAA
Rice, both polished and unpolished were taken from Nueva Ecija, Bulacan and Aklan to
gain better understanding of isotopic signatures to distinguish inter-varietal and/or
geographical differences. Likewise, soil samples of rice samples sources were collected
for better understanding of uptake mechanisms.
Rice samples from Luzon showed distinct 13C signature from that taken from the Visayas.
Initial data indicate that polished rice, rather than unpolished rice, would be more useful
in provenance studies.

First Semester 2012


Development of an Integrated Pest Management Strategies Against Brontispa

longissima (Gestro) an Invasive Coconut Pest and Other Palm Species - Component
6: Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Sterility of B. longissima (Gestro)

harvested on B. philippinensis ( 353.2 ) as compared to B. occipitalis ( 322.3 ) on the first

month of egg collection period. Observation on adult longevity is still in progress.

The study aims to determine whether sterility in B. longissima can be induced using
gamma irradiation without affecting the quality and competitiveness of the insect.
PNRI continued data collection on egg collection and egg hatchability of irradiated adults
(males and females) mated with non irradiated adults. Egg hatchability was observed in
40 Gy dose. Hence, the dose was increased to 45 and 50 Gy.
Data collection on egg collection and egg hatchability for irradiated males or females as
well as adults that emerged from irradiated pupae is ongoing.
Irradiated adult males of Brontispa using 45 Gy (n=41) and 50 Gy (n=48). The irradiated
males were again mated with unirradiated females. The fecundity of adult female from
each pair and the percentage egg hatchability were determined. The insect is quite longlived. Hence, PNRI collected the above data including adult mortality throughout the
duration of its development.
PNRI also obtained six (6) pieces of coconut seedling from PCA Laguna Branch and
requested additional larvae from PCA for tests.
5. Compatibility of Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera occipitalis Sibling Species
of Oriental fruit flies.
Mass rearing of B. philippinensis using the liquid diet and B. occipitalis using the standard
artificial diet as source of test insects were continuously done in the Entomology
Preoviposition period of the two sibling species are almost similar ranging from 9.4 9.6
days. Total mean number of eggs per female of B. philippinensis and B. occipitalis were
775.0 and 667.9, respectively. Longevity of adults of the two species range from 80 93
Another batch of flies was set to compare adult longevity and total mean number of eggs
laid per female of the two sibling species. Higher mean number of eggs per female were


Using S & T to Enhance Delivery of Government and Social Services



Tc and 99mTc Radiopharmaceuticals: Preparation and Quality Control for

Nuclear Medicine Applications

Preparations for the procurement of Mo-99 and the eventual contract agreement of
supplier of Mo-99 are being undertaken. A business trip with a technical visit to Batan
Teknologi (Batek), Indonesia was undertaken by PNRI Staff where initial talks for the
supply of Mo-99 for use in the testing of the newly installed generator plant were
The equipment and materials of the Tc-99m Generator Plant from Isotopes Technologies
Dresden (ITD), Germany were delivered in PNRI in February 2012. ITD staff arrived in
March 2012 for the installation works. Initial testing of the Tc-99m generator plants
electrical connection has been made. Performance testing of the Tc-99m generator plant
and local training of PNRI staff for Tc-99m generator production will be scheduled.
Studies on the quality control procedures for the preparation of 99mTc and 99mTc
Radiopharmaceuticals are being undertaken.
A request for authorization to operate the Mo-99/Tc-99m Generator Plant Facility was
formulated and submitted to the Radiation Safety and Security Board (RSSB) and is
currently undergoing evaluation. An authorization to perform hot run testing of the hot
cell facility has been granted.
The finishing works for the installation of the Air Conditioning and Air Handling Facility
System is on-going. Installation and performance testing of all laboratory instruments and
associated equipment are currently undergoing.
Initial preparation of commonly used radiopharmaceuticals MDP (Methylene
Diphosphonate) and DTPA (Diethylene Triamine Penta-Acetate) kits are ongoing

First Semester 2012

2. Development of Radiation Processed Honey-Wound Dressing

The absorbency and percentage gel fraction of honey-alginate dressing with the addition
of two percent (2%) starch was produced and tested. Results showed that the gel fraction
(%) and absorbency (%) decreases with increasing radiation dose.
On the anti-microbial testing of honey, the antimicrobial activity of organic honey from
UPLB was tested. Honey dilutions in agar showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of
19% for P. aeruginosa and 17% for S. aureus. Both the test (Organic) and control (Manuka)
honeys showed little to no activity against E. coli, however the manuka honey had
exhibited activity against S. aureus that was not present in the organic honey.
3. Semi-commercialization of PVP Carrageenan Hydrogels for Burn/Wound Dressing and
Bed Sores (Phase 3): Stability Testing and Technology Transfer
The draft Licensing Agreement between PNRI and Biotecos has been formulated, for
approval of both parties. The process flow of production of PVP-carrageenan hydrogel at
Lloyds Laboratories (a toll manufacturing plant) has been finalized. The PNRI has aided
Lloyds in determining actual cost of production for purposes of determining
manufacturing fees for Biotecos. Meetings have been made between Biotecos and Lloyds
for BFAD application. Stability testing is being continued.
4. Nuclear Safety and Security

UNSCEAR is conducting a full assessment of the levels and effects of radiation exposure
due to the nuclear incident after the 2011 great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.
4.b. Study and Evaluation of the Co-Location of the Borehole Disposal Concept and the
Near Surface Radioactive Waste Repository Project in the Philippines
This project is aimed to perform a preliminary post closure safety assessment of the
preferred site as a potential disposal site for low to intermediate level radioactive waste
and borehole disposal of disuse sources.
A technical site visit at Gattaran, Cagayan was conducted. An interface with the local
government and the DOST regional office was also held during the visit. Water samples
from six (6) strategic locations were collected and analyzed for eight (8) different
elements. The general location of the proposed NSF and BDC facilities with reference to
the contours given by available topographic surveys has been made. The site
development plan, showing the disposal facility, borehole location and creeks has been
established. The facility was designed to host four (4) disposal pits, each with several
concrete vaults. The current design of the NSF considers direct disposal of waste streams
with void spaces backfilled with grout. The preparation of the proposed design of the BDC
is on-going. The final conceptual design will be established as soon as the additional data
from the field as well as data from the drilling of the deep borehole becomes available.
4.c. Nuclear Regulatory Services

4.a. Radiological Emergency in Response to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

Field sampling was conducted in Subic Bay, Zambales last June 2012 to collect surface
seawater, bottom sediment and biota. All samples will be analyzed for key anthropogenic
radionuclides Cs 134/Cs-137.
PNRIs participation in the proficiency Test for Cs-137/Cs-134 analysis in seawater samples
organized by the IAEA Environmental Laboratory in Monaco was initiated. PNRI collected
seawater samples from Manila Bay which will be used in the PT exercise. Analysis of the
sample is currently being done at the PNRI health physics laboratory for submission before
July 30, 2012.
Post Fukushima incident data on Philippine seawater, sediment and biota were submitted
to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR).

Licensing Review and Evaluation

PNRI reviewed and evaluated applications for authorization to use, possess, store, sell and
import radioactive materials. For the period under review, PNRI issued a total of 142
licenses. PNRI also prepared 280 certificates of release for sealed radiation sources for
the Bureau of Customs to release imported materials to licensed users. PNRI signed a
Memorandum of Agreement with the Bureau of Customs for the implementation of the
National Single Window (NSW) Project.

First Semester 2012

Inspection and Enforcement

The PNRI conducted a total of 75 regulatory inspections of radioactive materials and
facilities to verify licensees compliance with PNRI regulations and specific requirements
relative to safety and security of radioactive sources. A total of 2,206 certificates of
Authority to Transport were also issued to licensees for the transport of sealed
radioactive materials to authorized locations in the country.
Standards Development


The Institute also resolved the BoC/US Embassy concern on the importation of a dual use
4.e. Global Threat Reduction Initiative
The Global Threat Reduction Initiative of the US Department of Energy is a new
comprehensive global initiative to address the issue of nuclear security around the world
and reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism.
During this period, PNRI undertook the following activities:

To further enhance safety in the use of radioactive materials in the country and to assist
licensees in complying with regulatory requirements, the PNRI pursued the development
and revision/updating of regulations, regulatory bulletins, regulatory guides and model
procedures, as follows:

PNRI facilitated the drafting of regulation on the Security of Radioactive Sources

during Transport, completed the installation of Transport Control
Communication at the CAS and installed the Global Positioning System (GPS) in
one of the vehicles of PNRI.

Code of PNRI Regulations (CPR) Part 13: Licenses for medical Use of
radiopharmaceuticals- under revision
CPR Part 26: Security of Radioactive Sources- under revision
CPR Part 25: Licenses for Commercial Provider of Nuclear Technical Servicesprepared 2nd draft for comments/evaluation
CPR Part 27: Security on the Transport of Radioactive Sources -under revision
PNRI Bulletin No. 12-01: Notification and Reporting of Incidents to Include Acts of
Terrorism, Insurgency, Mutiny, Rebel Attack and Other Related Events dated 3
January 2012
Regulatory Guide for CPR Part 16: Licenses for the Use of Radioactive Sources
Contained in Industrial Devices draft under review

Conducted transport security survey to hospitals with category 1 sources to

develop functional requirements for the vehicle that will be used to transport
radioactive materials.

Hosted 3rd Regional Radiological Security Partnership Review Meeting in

cooperation with IAEA, RSRS project (ANSTO) and US DOE held in Bohol on 18-20
January 2012.

Co-hosted World Institute of Nuclear Security (WINS) Workshop in Bohol.

Peer Review of the Revised CPR 26 held at Manila Marriot Hotel, Pasay City,
23 January 2012 with USDOE and ANSTO.

Hosted Radiological Security Incident Response Training specific for PNP held in
Tagaytay on 12-14 March 2012 in cooperation with US DOE
Assisted the US DOE team in the conduct of site assessments for category 2
sources such as high dose brachytherapy and industrial radiography facilities in
Cebu City and Metro Manila in April (2 facilities in Cebu and 4 facilities in Manila
and Pampanga).

4.d. Megaports Initiative

PNRI conducted two tertiary inspections of suspected container vans at South Harbor and
responded to Bureau of Customs Central Alarm Station (CAS) operators in the verification
of alarms. PNRI identified NORM Np-237 in ceramic materials and Th-232 in fiber glass,
aluminum and other materials.

First Semester 2012

Assisted the US-DOE team in the conduct of assurance visits at Dee Hwa Liong
Hospital and Center for Device Regulation, Radiation health and Research
regarding the security system installed.
Meeting with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) experts on transport security
in May. Discussed transport security vehicle for PNRI with the contractor

Assisted ORNL experts in performing vendor evaluation for custom made truck
that will be used to transport radioactive materials.

Hosted Training Course for Radioactive Source Security Inspection in cooperation

with US DOE held in Baguio.

Hosted the Pilot Training on Physical Protection and Security Management for
PNRI in coordination with National Training Center on 29-31 May 2012.

4.f International Safeguards Engagement Program (INSEP)

Conducted an outreach seminar for universities in cooperation with US DOE on 22

March 2012 held at PNRI.
Updated the action sheet in the roadmap such as the development of brochures
for Annex II items of AP, and procedures in hosting complementary access were
identified with INSEP Team.

5. Nuclear S & T Services


ornamental plants, aquarium plants, mangoes, chicken eggs, oranges, ponkan, coconut
leaf beetle, carrageenan, chitosan and whole blood.
On the other hand, a total of 23,671 samples from 35 clients were irradiated at the
Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility resulting in a gross income of PhP 4,466M.
Products irradiated for industry (for sterilization and reduction of microbial load) were:
spices, herbal products, dehydrated vegetables, food seasonings, cosmetics, cosmetic raw
materials and accessories, frozen bone graft, packaging materials, Samples for R & D
were: hydrogel, onion bulbs, carrageenan powder, PVC chitosan gel, injectable hydrogel,
pork & chicken adobo, bacteria, plastic bags, Ag-PAA nanocomposites, polyglycerol colactic acid, algal culture, water hyacinth fiber, lactose powder.
5.c. Personnel Radiation Monitoring Services
Personnel working with radioactive materials and other sources of ionizing radiation such
as x-ray equipment could be potentially exposed to and receive doses due to the nature of
their occupation. Because of exposure to radiation could be a health hazard to humans, it
is essential that doses received by these personnel are monitored and controlled to within
the safe limits. The PNRI is the only accredited agency in the country that provides
personnel monitoring services to occupationally exposed workers. The Institute is
mandated to provide consistent and reliable monitoring of the personnel of all licensed
users of ionizing radiation in the country.
For first semester 2012, PNRI issued 35,996 film badges and 6,241 TLDs for 14,429
radiation workers in the country generating a total income of PhP6,809,150.

5.a. Testing, Analysis and Calibration Services

The PNRI provides different testing, analysis and calibration services to its clients among
which are radioanalytical and related tests, biological tests and SSDL calibration services.
For first semester 2012, PNRI was able to provide 897 services to 534 clients generating a
total income of PhP1.855M.



5.b. Gamma Irradiation Services

1. Institution and Capability Building for the Establishment of an Electron Beam Facility

PNRI offers gamma irradiation services using two gamma irradiation facilities: a
Gammacell 220 and a Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility. For first semester 2012, a
total of 297 samples from 10 clients were irradiated using the Gammacell 220, resulting in
a gross income of PhP 14,535.00. Samples irradiated for research purposes included seeds
(calamansi, adlai, cashew, rice, onion, mungbean), mangosteen culture, rice culture,

A DOST-GIA Project was approved by the Department of Science and Technology aimed
to develop PNRI capability in utilizing EB technology for the development of functional
materials for different industry, health and environmental applications. The funds for the
project was released to PNRI in February 2012.

First Semester 2012


A meeting with representatives from EB Tech, the Korean supplier of electron accelerator
and project staff, consultant, representatives of MERALCO, OASEC-SPP-DOST and MIRDC
was held in PNRI last January 2012 to discuss details of the Electron Beam Project (design,
installation, commissioning, training). Using the diagrams provided by EB Tech on piping,
wiring, shielding, equipment layout, etc., detailed clarifications were made on different
aspects raised. The schedule of preparation of design/manufacture of accelerator,
shipping, installation, commissioning, and fabrication of cart conveyor system was also
presented and necessary adjustments in the schedule were made. The architectural and
engineering design of the EB facility has been approved and the bidding process can now
be initiated.

4. High Technology Materials: Development and Applications of Neutron Spectroscopic

and Other Related Techniques in the Characterization of Advance Materials

Two (2) OASEC-SPP-DOST personnel visited EB Tech Co. in Daejon, South Korea last
March 27-30, 2012 for the design of conveyor/product handling system.

To meet the objective of this project of building competence and expertise in surface
sensitive x-ray techniques, adsorption of heavy metals and direct surface analysis, a
review of the functional and technical descriptions of the Total reflection X-Ray
Fluorescence (TXRF) apparatus was performed. A quantitative analysis of deep well
water sample was also conducted. The determination of calibration line and sensitivity of
the TXRF apparatus for elements using up to 100ppm of low Z elements with or without
1ppm of V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ga internal standard was documented.

The arrival of the EB equipment from EB Tech Co., South Korea is being awaited.

2. Access to Modern Diagnostic Treatment through Local Production of MedicalCyclotron produced Radioisotopes
The IAEA is organizing an Expert Mission to Manila to provide building, technical, &
operational advice to the Task Force on how best to carry out the mandate for the
establishment of a Centralized Cyclotron Facility for the country. The Task Force is in talks
with the IAEA on the National Cyclotron Project. Proponents are being asked to submit
definitive proposals including technical specifications and annexes for the forthcoming
Mission to study.
3. Radiation Grafting of Water Hyacinth as Metal Adsorbent
Preliminary grafting experiments were done using gamma radiation. The water hyacinth
fibers were provided by Philippine Textile Research Institute. The following parameters
were studied for their effect on grafting yield: solvent, glycidyl methacrylate
concentration, absorbed dose, dose rate. The results show that the optimum conditions
(based from the calculated grafting yield and evaluation of the physical appearance of the
grafted material) were as follows: 1:3 water/methanol solvent, 5% glycidyl methacrylate
concentration, 10 kGy absorbed dose, 8 kGy hour.

4.a. Capacity Building in the Use and Operation of Small Neutron Source
The PNRI conducted an inventory of available materials and detectors available in the
Institute which can be used at the neutron demonstration laboratory. Measurement of
the neutron calibrator (ITS neutron source) for gamma, neutron flux and neutron leakage
was also done. For the first time since the 1980s, neutron activation analysis using fast
and thermal neutrons was done where silicon and manganese were activated.
4.b. Heavy Metals and Radionuclide at the Liquid-Solid Interface of a Silica Surface

4.c. Rare-Earths, Thorium and Uranium Minerals: Characterization and Applications

using Neutrons and other Techniques
To meet the projects objective of building competence and expertise in the
characterization of rare earth and mineral samples found in the Philippines, activities in
the procedures for elemental analysis of rare earth, thorium and uranium bearing
minerals using Am-241 were performed. These were composed of separating minerals
found in the sands from Ombo, Palawan and the XRF analysis of these Ombo minerals and
the subsequent quantification of Ombo mineral elemental components by ratio and
proportion. The research staffs computational and programming skills were developed by
performing theoretical calculations of the XRF spectra of standard element oxides.
Optimization of the theoretical calculations of standard intensities and fitting of Rare
Earth elements were done.

First Semester 2012



A. Nuclear Training
The PNRI, through its Nuclear Training Center, conducts training courses for various
groups and sectors for capability building in the field of nuclear science and technology.
For first semester 2012, the NTC conducted 22 training courses, participated in by 369
professional and technicians from different government and private institutions. PNRI was
also able to accommodate 61 students, from 14 schools, under its on-the-job training
programs. Two (2) students from two (2) schools were accommodated for thesis/research
For its human resource development program, PNRI conducted a special Radioisotope
Techniques Training Course for PNRI staff hired in 2011 and organized a successful field
trip of BNPP to new staff hired in 2010 and 2011 and for old staff who have not seen the
B. Information and Library Services
The PNRI implements various information and communication strategies to increase the
awareness and enhance knowledge and understanding of different stakeholders regarding
nuclear science and technology as well as nuclear safety and security. For the period
under review, 2,533 clients were served by the Institute in this endeavor. To provide
support for the research requirements of both PNRI and non-PNRI clients, the PNRI
through the library services group has provided library support services to 1,810
C. International Cooperation
As national focal agency for matters regarding nuclear science and technology in the
Philippines, the PNRI continues to maintain its cooperative programs and forge linkages
with international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Regional-Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to
Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA) and Forum for Nuclear
Cooperation in Asia, Japan (FNCA), among others. For first semester 2012, PNRI hosted
the following:

Third Regional Meeting of the Southeast Asia Radiological Security Partnership, 17-19
January 2012

FNCA Workshop on Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers, 30 January 2 February

Initial Coordination Meeting of RAS 9071 Project on Establishing a Radioactive Waste
Management Infrastructure, 7-11 May 2012
First Coordination Meeting and Steering Committee Meeting of RAS5065 Project on
Supporting Climate Proofing Rice Production Systems (CRIPS) Based on Nuclear
Applications, 25-29 June 2012

D. Management Information System

PNRI rolled out for pilot testing the personnel management component of the Information
Systems @PNRI (is@P.PM) including the use of the Biometrics Fingerprint Recognition
Technology for the Institutes Time and Attendance Monitoring System. The system is
enhanced and modified based on results of the pilot testing.
The Institute also developed the project plan, requirements specifications, and designs of
the following proposed information systems: Radiation Personnel Monitoring, Regulatory
Management, Irradiation services management, nuclear training management and
Radiation Sources and Dose Registry. The system development of the Nuclear Training
Management component of is@P has been started.
PNRI continues to enhance the Institutes local area network (LAN) infrastructure, which
included the installation/configuration of a new appliance firewall; upgraded its wireless
network infrastructure, automated network setup, re-configured network servers for
better security settings, and refurbished broken network links.
In support to the preservation of nuclear knowledge, PNRI continued the digitization of
critical NPP-1 and other relevant documents.
On the Philippines commitment to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty
Organization (CTBTO), PNRI continues to manage and maintain the National Data Center
(N37 station) and provided ICT technical support to the operation and maintenance of the
RN52 monitoring station in Tanay.