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Transformer sheet

1 A single-phase 100 kVA, 1000/ 100 V transformer gave the following test results:

open-circuit test 100 V, 6.0 A, 400 W short-circuit test 50 V, 100 A, 1800 W

(a)

Determine the rated voltage and rated current for the HV and LV sides.

(b)

Derive an approximate equivalent circuit referred to the HV side.

(c)

Determine the voltage regulation at full load, 0.6 PF leading.

(d)

Draw the phasor diagram for condition (c).

Determine the voltage regulati on at full load, 0.6 PF leading. (d) Draw the phasor diag
2 A 1 single-phase, 25 kVA, 220/440 V, 60 Hz transformer gave the following test

2 A 1 single-phase, 25 kVA, 220/440 V, 60 Hz transformer gave the following test results.

Open circuit test

: 220 V, 9.5 A, 650 W

Short-circuit test

: 37.5 V, 55 A, 950 W

(a)

Derive the approximate equivalent circuit in per-unit values.

(b)

Determine the voltage regulation at full load, 0.8 PF lagging.

(c)

Draw the phasor diagram for condition (b).

Determine the voltage regulation at full load, 0.8 PF lagging. (c) Draw the phasor diag ram
3 A single-phase 10 kVA, 2400/ 120 V, 60 Hz transformer has the following equivalent

3 A single-phase 10 kVA, 2400/ 120 V, 60 Hz transformer has the following equivalent circuit

parameters: Zeq p = 2 + j5 Ω, R cp = 6.4 kΩ and X mp = 2.6 kΩ Standard no-load and short-circuit tests are performed on this transformer. Determine the following:

No-load test results:

V

oc

, I

oc

, P

oc

Short-circuit test results:

V

sc

,I

sc

, P

sc

For open circuit test on the primary side:

oc = 2400

V

V

Voltameter eadings

I

c

=

V oc

2400

=

R

c

6400

= 0.375 A

I

I

m

oc

=

=

V oc

2400

=

X

m

2600

= 0.923 A

2

I

2

 

0.375

2

0.923

2

 

+

 

=

  +   =   +
 

+

c

m

 
2   +   =   + c m   I The wattmeter readings is P

I

The wattmeter readings is P

oc

= I

2

c

=

0.997

0.997

A

R

c

=

= 0.375

0.375

Ameter readings

2

* 6400

=

900 W

For short circuit test on the primary side:

I

r

1

=

VA

10

*10 3

=

V

r

1

2400

= 4.167 A

The voltameter readins is I

sc

*

The wattmeter readings is I

2

sc

*

(R

eqp

(R

)

=

(Ameter readings)

eqp

+

4.167

jX

2

*

eqp

(

2

)

)

= 4.167 *

=

34.73 W

(

2 +

j

)

5 = 22.441 V

4- A single-phase, 250 kVA, 11 kV/2.2 kV, 60 Hz transformer has the following parameters.

R HV = 1.3 Ω X HV =4.5Ω, R LV = 0.05 Ω, X LV = 0.16, Rcs= 2.4 kΩ Xms = 0.8 kΩ. Standard no-load and short-circuit tests are performed on high voltage of this transformer. Determine the following:

No-load test results:

(b) The HV winding

V

oc

, I

oc

, P

oc

of the

Short-circuit test results:

V

sc

,I

sc

, P

sc

transformer is connected to the 11 kV supply and a load,

Z

L

= ∠−

15

90

o Ω

is connected to the low voltage winding. Determine:

(i) Load voltage. (ii) Voltage regulation.

Solution:

11000

a =

2200

= 5

R eqp

= R

p

+

a

2

R

s

= 1.3 + 5

2

* 0.05 = 2.55Ω

X

eqp

=

R cp

= a

X a

p

+

2

X

s

= 4.5 + 5

2

2

R

cs

=

5

2

* 2.4

= kΩ

60

* 0.16 = 8.5Ω

X mp

2

= a

X

ms

=

5 2

* 0.8

= kΩ

20

For open circuit test on the primary side:

oc = 11

V

kV

Voltameter eadings

I

I

c

m

I oc

V

oc

11000

= = 0.183 A

=

R

c

60000

11000

= = 0.55 A

20000

V

oc

X

m

=

2

I

2

 

0.183

2

0.55

2

 

+

 

=

  +   =   +
 

+

c

m

 

= I

  +   =   + c m   = I The wattmeter readings is P

The wattmeter readings is P

oc

=

I

=

0.58

A

Ameter readings

2

c

R

c

=

0.183

2

* 60000

=

2009

W

For short circuit test on the primary side:

I

r

1

=

VA 250 *10

3

=

V

r

1

11*10

3

= 22.73 A

(Ameter readings)

The voltameter readins is I

sc

*

(R

eqp

+

The wattmeter readings is I

(b)

Z

L

Z

′=

L

a

2

=

15

* Z

L

∠ −

=

5

2

90

*15

2

sc

o

*

(R

Ω

eqp

)

=

22.73

∠−

90

o

= ∠−

375

jX

eqp

)

(

= 22.73 * 2.55 +

2

(

* 2.55

)

=

1317.51 W

90

o

Ω

j

)

8.5 = 201.71 V

′=

V

2

V

1

Z

L

Z

′+

L

Z

eqp

=

11000

0

o

*

375

∠−

90

o

375

∠−

90

o

+

(

2.55

+

j

8.5

)

=

11270

∠−

0.4

o

Then load voltage =V

2

= V

2

/ a

=

11270 / 5

VR =

V 1

V

2

11000

11270

=

V

2

11270

=− 2.396%

=

2254V

5

A 1 φ , 10 kVA, 460/ 120 V, 60 Hz transformer has an efficiency of 96% when

it

delivers 9 kW at 0.9 power factor. This transformer is connected as an

autotransformer to supply load to a 460 V circuit from a 580 V source.

(a)

Show the autotransformer connection.

(b)

Determine the maximum kVA the autotransformer can supply to the 460 V circuit.

(c)

Determine the efficiency of the autotransformer for full load at 0.9 power factor.

of the autotran sformer for full load at 0.9 power factor. 6 Reconnect the wi ndings

6 Reconnect the windings of a 1φ , 3 kVA, 240/120 V, 60 Hz transformer so that it can supply

a load at 330 V from a 110 V supply. (a) Show the connection. (b) Determine the maximum kVA the reconnected transformer can deliver.

7 Three single-phase, 10 kVA, 46 0/120 V, 60 Hz transformers are connected to form

7 Three single-phase, 10 kVA, 460/120 V, 60 Hz transformers are connected to form a 3φ

460/208 V transformer bank. The equivalent impedance of each transformer referred to the high-voltage side is 1.0 + j2.0 Ω. The transformer delivers 20 kW at 0.8 power factor (leading). (a) Draw a schematic diagram showing the transformer connection. (b) Determine the transformer winding current. (c) Determine the primary voltage. (d) Determine the voltage regulation.

Determine the transformer winding current. (c) Determine the primary voltage. (d) Determine the vo ltage regulation.

8

A 1φ 200 kVA, 2100/210 V, 60 Hz transformer has the following characteristics. The

impedance of the high-voltage winding is 0.25 + j 1.5 Ω with the lowvoltage winding

short-circuited. The admittance (i.e., inverse of impedance) of the low-voltage winding is 0.025 - j O.075 mhos with the high-voltage winding open-circuited.

(a) Taking the transformer rating as base, determine the base values of power, voltage, current,

and impedance for both the high-voltage and low-voltage sides of the transformer.

(b) Determine the per-unit value of the equivalent resistance and leakage reactance of the

transformer. (c) Determine the per-unit value of the excitation current at rated voltage.

(d) Determine the per-unit value of the total power loss in the transformer at full-load output

condition.

loss in the transf ormer at full-load output condition. 9- A 460 kVA, (4600/460) V, 60

2.4 kΩ. The HV winding

of this transformer is connected to a 4.6 kV, 60 Hz supply while the LV winding is connected to a load of a resistance of 6.0 Ω, an inductor of 14.0 mH and a capacitor of 502 uF all connected in shunt. Calculate the voltage regulation, efficiency, input current and supply power factor.

R P = 2.6 Ω, R S = 0.024 52, Re+h = 4 kΩ, X S = 0.06 Ω,

X P = 6.0Ω, Xm =

Sol:

Z L

=

1

1

1

+

6

j 2 *

π

* 60 * 0.014

+ j 2 *

π * 60 * 0.000502

= ∠

6

0.076

Ω

Z

L

=

a

2

*

Z

L

= 100 * 60.076 = 6000.076Ω

′ L = a 2 * Z L = 100 * 6 ∠ 0.076 = 600

6000.076Ω

6000.076 + 2.6 + j6 = 6020.076Ω

0.076 Ω 600 ∠ 0.076 + 2.6 + j 6 = 602 ∠ 0.076 Ω 602.638

602.6380.65Ω

1

1

1

1

 

+

+

4000

J 2400

600

0.65

=

510.653

12.85

Ω

510.653∠12.85Ω
510.653∠12.85Ω

Z in

= 510.65312.85Ω + 2.6 + J 6 = 514.5513.43Ω

I

1

=

V

1

4600

=

Z

in

514.55

13.43

Ω

=

8.94

∠−

13.43 A

So supply power factor is cos(13.43) = 0.973 Lagging

E

=

V

1

I

1

* (R

1

+

jX

1

)

=

4600

∠ −

0

8.94

∠−

13.43 * (2.6

+

j6)

=

4565.17

∠−

0.59V

I

′=

2

E 4565.17

∠− 0.59

=

602

0.076

602

0.65

=

7.58

∠−

1.233 A

′=

V

2

E

V

2

*

η V I

=

1

I

2

I

2

*

(R

′+

2

(

φ

)

cos

(

φ

inp

L

)

1

cos

JX

2

)

=

4565.17

∠−

0.59V

7.58

∠−

=

(

4545.19 * 7.58 * cos 0.076

)

(

4600 * 8.94 * cos 13.43

)

*100

=

1.233 * (2.6

86.133%

+

At no load the equivalent circuit becomes:

j6)

=

4545.19

∠−

1.16V

equiva lent circuit becomes: j 6 ) = 4545.19 ∠− 1.16 V Noload equivalent circuit Z

Noload equivalent circuit

Z excitation

=

1

1

1

=

+

4000 J 2400

2057.98

Then

V NL

=

4600

2057.98

59.04

+

2.6

+ j

6

59.04

Ω

* 2057.98

59.04

=

4585.56

∠−

0.024 V

Then voltage regulation can be obtained as following:

VR =

V ′ − V

2

NL

2

4585.56

4545.19

=

V

2

4545.19

*100

=

0.89%

10- A single-phase, 10 kVA, 2000/200 V, 60 Hz distribution transformer has the following characteristics:

Core loss at full voltage =120 W

Copper loss at half load =80 W i. Determine the efficiency of the transformer when it delivers full load at 0.8 power factor lagging. ii. Determine the rating at which the transformer efficiency is a maximum. Determine the efficiency if the load power factor is 0.9

iii. Determine the rating of transformer at 92% efficiency and 0.8 power factor.

iv. The transformer has the following load cycle:

No load for 6 hours 66% full load for 10 hours at 0.8 PF 85% full load for 8 hours at 0.9 PF Determine the all day efficiency of the transformer

2- (i) P

out = 10 * 0.8 = 8

kW

P core = 120

W

P cu

=

x

P

cu FL

,

2

P

cu FL

,

=

80

⎛ ⎜ 1 ⎞ ⎟

2

⎝ ⎠

2

= 320

W

η=

8000

8000

+

120

+

320

*100

=

94.74%

(ii) Maximum efficiency occurs at = P P core cu Then = 120 = x
(ii) Maximum efficiency occurs at
= P
P core
cu
Then
= 120 =
x
2 P
P cu
max
cu FL
,
120
P core
=
=
61.23%
x max =
320
P cu FL
,
0.6123 *10000 * 0.9
η=
*100
= 95.83%
0.6123 *10000 * 0.9
+
120
+
120
8000* x
=
92%
(iii) η
2 =
8000*
x +
120
+ 320*
x
(
8000 * x = 0.92 8000 * x +120 + 320 * x
2 294.4 x − 640 x + 110.4 = 0 2 640 ± 640 x
2
294.4
x −
640
x +
110.4
=
0
2
640 ±
640
x =
4 * 294.4 *110.4
2 * 294.4
=
1.087
±

0.898

Then x = 1.985 refused

or x = 0.189

2 )

(iv)

E

24 = 0 +

10 * 0.66 * 0.8*10

+

8* 0.9 * 0.85*10

=

E

E

core

cu

=

=

120 * 24 *10

3

320 * 0.66

2

*10

=

2.88

kWh

+

2

320 * 0.85 *8

=

3.244

kWh

Then

η

all

E

24

η all

*100

_ day

=

=

cu

 

E

24

+

E

core

+

 

114

114

+

2.88

+

3.244

E

*100

94.9%

day

=

_

114kWh

11- A 6kVA, 250/500 V, transformer gave the following test results short-circuite 20 V ; 12 A, 100 W and Open-circuit test : 250 V, 1 A, 80 W

i. Determine the transformer equivalent circuit.

ii. calculate applied voltage, voltage regulation and efficiency when the output is 10 A at 500 volt and 0.8 power factor lagging.

iii. Maximum efficiency, at what percent of full load does this maximum efficiency occur? (At 0.8 power factor lagging).

iv. At what percent of full load does the effeciency is 95% at 0.8 power factor lagging.

3- (I) From O.C. Test

P

o

= V I

o

cos

ϕ

o

o

* cos

P o

=

ϕ o

=

80

V I

o

o

250 *1.0

= 0.32

1

0.32

cos

ϕ =

V

Then

ϕ

o

=

cos

=

71.3371

1.0 * 0.32

=

o

Then I

I

m

1 =

Then

c

1 =

I

o

I

o

sin

o

o 1

ϕ =

o

=

0.7953

0.32

A

A

1.0 * 0.7953

250

R

c

1

= = 781.25Ω

=

I

c 1

0.32

And

X

m 1

=

V

o

1

250

=

I

m

1

0.7953

= 314.35Ω

As shown in Fig.3.16, these values refer to primary i.e. low-voltage side

From Short Circuit test:

The rated current of the secondary side is:

I

2 =

6000

500

=

12 A

It is clear that in this test instruments have been placed in the secondary i.e. highvoltage winding and the low-voltage winding i.e. primary has been short-circuited. Now,

Z eq 2

Z

eq1

Also,

=

V

2

20

sc

=

I

2

sc

12

= 1.667Ω

= a

2 * Z

eq 2

P sc

= I

2

2sc

R

eq 2

=

1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 2

2

*1.667

=

0.4167

Ω

Then,

Then,

Then,

X

R eq2

R

eq1

eq1

=

100

= = 0.694 Ω

12

2

2

= a

*

R

eq 2

=

1

2 ⎠ ⎟

2

* 0.694

=

0.174

R eq 2 = ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎟ 2 * 0.694 =
R eq 2 = ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎟ 2 * 0.694 =

Z

2

eq1

R

2

eq 1

=

0.4167

2

0.174

2

= 0.174 Z 2 eq 1 − R 2 eq 1 = 0.4167 2 − 0.174

Ω

= 0.3786 Ω

As shown in the following figure, these values refer to primary i.e. low-voltage side

j0.3786 0.174 I 0 V′ 1 2 314.35 781.25
j0.3786
0.174
I 0
V′
1
2
314.35
781.25

V

The parameters of series branch can be obtained directly by modifying the short circuit test data to be referred to the primary side as following:

SC test 20 V ; 12 A, 100 W (refered to secondery)

SC test 20*a=10V ; 12/a=24A, 100 W (refered to Primary)

Z

eq

1

=

P

V 1 = 0.4167Ω

sc

=

I 1 sc

= I

2

24

R

10

So,

Also,

Then,

X

 

1sc

 

eq 1

 

100

eq1

=

= 0.174Ω

 
 

24

2

 

Z

2

R

2

   

0.4167

2

0.174

2

=

= eq 1 − eq 1 =

eq1

eq 1

=

= eq 1 − eq 1 =
     

sc

R

eq1

Then,

It is clear the second method gives the same results easly.

= 0.3786 Ω

(II) Output KVA = 10 * 500 * 0.8 = 4 kVA

Now, from the aproximate equivalent circuit refeared to secondery :

V 1

δ =V′∠ + I′∠ϕ Z

2

0

2

*

o

o

o

eq

1

Then,

V

1

o

δ =

250

0

o

+

20

∠−

36.87

o

(

* 0.174

V R

=

2

=

=

257.358

257.358

0.89

250

o

V

1

V

*100

V

2

250

=

2.943%

out = 10*500*0.8 = 4

P

kW

,

+

=

P

oc

P i

P

cu

=

10

=

2

80W , and ,

*

R

eq 2

=

100*0.694

=

69.4

W

or

P

cu

η

=

=

P

*

I

2

2

=

100* ⎜ ⎛ 10

2

sc

I

2 SC

 

12

 

P

out

=

4000

 

P

out

+

P

i

+

P

cu

4000

+

80

+

69.4

= 69.4 W

*100

=

96.4%

j

0.3786

)

(III) maximum effeciency ocures when P

the The percent of the full load at which maximum efficiency occurs is :

=

P

cu

= 80

W

c

⎛ P ⎞ 80 c X = ⎜ ⎟ = = 0.8945% ⎜ ⎟ P
P
80
c
X =
=
= 0.8945%
P
100
cu FL
,

Then, the maximum efficiency is :

η=

6000 * 0.8945 * 0.8

6000 * 0.8945 * 0.8

+

80

+

80

*100

=

96.41%

(IV)

η

=

=

P out

P

out

+

P

i

+

P

cu

6000 * 0.8 * x

6000 * 0.8 *

x

+

80

+

100 *

x

2 =

= 0.95

Then,

95

x

2

240

x +

76

=

0

0.95

Then, x = 2.155 Or x = 0.3712

Then to get 95% efficiency at 0.8 power factor the transformer must work at 37.12% of full load.

(Unacceptable)

12- A single phase, 50 kVA, 2400/460 V, 50 Hz two-winding transformer has an efficiency of 0.95%

when it delivers 45kW at 0.9 power factor. This transformer is connected as an auto-transformer to supply load to a 2400 V circuit from 2860 V source.

(a)

Show the transformer connection.

(b)

Determine the maximum kVA that autotransformer can supply to 2400 V circuit.

(c)

Determine the efficiency of the autotransformer for full load at 0.9 power factor.

Solution:

(a)

2860

(b) I

s

,2

w

460 2400
460
2400

50 *10 3

=

2460

= 108.7

A

Then, kVA)

Auto = 108.782860 = 310.87

kW

(c)

η

2 w

=

3

50 *10 * 0.9

3

50 *10 * 0.9 +

P + P

i

cu FL

,

= 0.95

Then, P

i

η Auto

=

+

P

cu FL

,

= 2368.42

W

310870 * 0.9

310870 * 0.9

+

2368.42

=

99.61 %

13- Three single phase, 30 kVA, 2400/240 V, 50 Hz transformers are connected to form 3 ϕ, 4160/240 V transformer bank. The equivalent impedance of each transformer referred to the high voltage side is 1.5+j2. The transformer delivers 60 kW at 0.75 power factor (leading). (a) Draw schematic diagram showing the transformer connection. (b) Determine the transformer winding current (c) Determine the primary voltage. (d) Determine the voltage regulation. (e) determine the maximum efficiency if the maximum effeciency occurred at 90% of full load at 0.9 power factor.

Solution:(a)

Solution: (a) (b) kVA = 60 0.75 = 80 kVA 80 *10 3 I = =

(b) kVA

=

60

0.75

=

80kVA

80 *10 3 I = = 11.1 A 1 ph 3 * 4160 I =
80 *10 3
I
=
= 11.1
A
1 ph
3 * 4160
I
= I
= 11.1
A
1
L
1
ph
2400
a =
= 10
240
I
=
a
*
I
=
10 *11.1
= 111
2
ph
1
ph

A

I = 3 * I = 3 *111 = 192.3 A 2 L 2 ph
I
=
3 *
I
=
3 *111
=
192.3
A
2
L
2
ph
111
o
I 2 ph
V
′= 2400
0
V
,
I
′=
=
2
2
a 10
* (
)
V
=
V
′+ I ′
Z
1
2
2
eq
1

=

2400

∠ +

0

11.103

41.41

o

(

* 1.5

=

+

11.1

j

2

)

=

41.41

o

A

2397.96

0.66

o

V

Then the line primary voltage is

V 3 * V = 3 * 2397.96 = 4153.39 V L = 1 1
V
3 *
V
=
3 * 2397.96
=
4153.39
V
L =
1
1
− V ′
V 1
2
=
*100
V R
V ′
2
2397.96
− 2400
=
*100
=−
0.0875%
2400
30 *10 3
S 1 ph
I ′
=
=
= 12.5 A
2 rated
2400
V 1 ph
0.9 * 90 *10
3 * 0.9
P out
=
=
η max
3
2
2
P
+ 2
P
0.9 * 90 *10
* 0.9
+
2 * 0.9
*12.5
*1.5 * 3
out
cu

*100

=

98.46%

14- Three single-phase, 50 kVA, 2300/230 V, 60 Hz transformers are connected to form a three-phase, 4000/230 V transformer bank. The equivalent impedance of each transformer referred to low voltage is

0.012 + j0.016 Ω. The three-phase transformer supplies a three-phase 120 kVA, 230 V, 0.85 PF (lag) load.

(a)

Draw a schematic diagram showing the transformer connection.

(b)

Determine the transformer winding currents.

(c)

Determine the primary voltage (line-to-line) required.

(d)

Determine the voltage regulation.

currents. (c) Determine the primary voltage (line-to-line) required. (d) Determine the voltage regulation.
currents. (c) Determine the primary voltage (line-to-line) required. (d) Determine the voltage regulation.