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1.

The foot by being a flexible adapter allows the rest of the body to be eccentrically
loaded in all three planes through the entire Chain Reaction.
2. The foot by being a stable propeller allows the rest of the body to be concentrically
unloaded in all three planes through Chain Reaction.
3. The foot demonstrates tremendous stability while it is mobile and provides for
tremendous mobility while it is stable . . . mostability.
4. We need to design the functional environment with a conscious understanding of
function to facilitate the desired subconscious reaction of the foot as a part of the
C h a i n R e a c t i o n.
5. There are many specialized tests for the foot, such as gait analysis and excursion
tests, that will help analyze the foot in all planes of motion.
6. Foot analysis should include both controlled and natural environments.
7. We must create the environment to treat the cause of an injury as well as its symptoms
and compensations.
8. A key functional strategy is to consciously direct the training exercises in order to
make the reaction subconscious.
9. The 3D Jumping Jack Matrix and all its possible tweaks, is one of the best ways to
use the hips, trunk and shoulders to increase foot speed.
10. Training reactively rather than rhythmically requires the athlete to load more functionally.
11. The most active part of the golf swing is the feet.
12. Although the motion of the feet are not as great as the hips, trunk and shoulders,
their proportional significance as a teammate for an effective golf swing is of even
greater significance than any other body part.

14. Research supports the top-down, bottom-up approach to function.


15. Valid foot studies include measurement systems that measure not only foot movements, but also related movement at the hip and at the knee.

2002 Functional Design Systems

13. PEAK PE is a Healthier Physical Education founded upon our understanding of function.

v1.4 THE FOOT


Our Foundation
By: Gary Gray, PT

OBJECTIVES FOR THE FOOT


FUNCTIONAL GUIDE
To assimilate up-to-date information and knowledge
about the foot and its dependencies on the rest of the
body.
To learn how to apply effective functional techniques
when testing, training and rehabilitating the foot.
To understand and appreciate the tri-plane Chain
Reaction principles as they apply to the foot.

HOW TO USE THIS FUNCTIONAL GUIDE


This functional guide can be used as a convenient
summary of the programs contents to take with you
after viewing. You can also use this guide as a
notebook; space has been provided so that you can
make notes on relevant tracts as you watch them.

Strategy 1 - Bottom-Up/Top-Down
When dealing with the foot, it is essential to understand the function of the foot
and then relate its function to its influence on the function of the rest of the body.
It is just as important to understand the function of the body and then relate that
function to its ability to influence the foot.

Strategy 2 - Mobile Stability (Mostability)


The magic of the foot is its ability to quickly transform from a mobile adapter to a
stable propeller. The functional strategy to take advantage of is the realization
that the foot demonstrates tremendous stability while it is mobile, and provides
for tremendous mobility while it is stable . . . mostability.

Strategy 3 - Simple Complexity


The function of the foot is complex. The function of the body is complex. We
must understand these complexities so well that they provide us with a simple
and functional understanding of what is really going on and why.
Strategy 4 - Consciously Subconscious
Foot function is 100% subconscious. What the foot does is entirely reactive.
There is no time for any thought processes whatsoever. We, therefore, must
know what the foot reacts to and how it reacts to those forces in order to
functionally evaluate, test and train. We need to design the functional
environment with a conscious understanding of function to facilitate the
desired subconscious reaction of the foot as part of the Chain Reaction.

Introduction: The Miraculous Feet


Bones . . . ligaments . . . tendons . . . muscles . . . nerves . . . proprioceptors . . .
It is really amazing to understand that when the foot makes contact with the
ground it becomes a shock absorber and it allows, through the Chain Reaction,
the knee to also be a shock absorber and the hip to be a shock absorber as well
as the trunk in all three planes of motion. Through transformation a Chain
Reaction occurs that causes the foot to become a rigid lever and facilitates an
unloading of the entire chain. We will be taking a detailed practical look at the
foot, a remarkable tool in our functional success.
Two Responsibilities of the Foot
1. Becomes a flexible loader the body uses to absorb shock
2. Becomes a stabilizer the body uses to propel
Dual Approach to consider when evaluating, rehabilitating, training and
conditioning.
It is very important that we appreciate the foot, not only from the ground up,
what it does to the knee, what it does to the hip and the rest of the body, but it is
just as important what the rest of the body is doing for the foot. - Gary Gray
Top Down Approach (Body reaction forces) Effective evaluation and treatment
of foot function is enhanced by considering the wisdom of looking at the function
of the entire body as it relates to the foot.
Bottom Up Approach (Ground reaction forces) Effective evaluation and treatment
of foot function is enhanced by considering the wisdom of looking at the function
of the foot as it relates to the rest of the body.

Basics of Foot Function Reviewed

The foot by being a flexible adapter, because of ground reaction, body weight,
gravity, and momentum, allows the rest of the body to be eccentrically loaded
in all three planes through the entire Chain Reaction.
The foot by being a stable propeller, through its body reactive transformation,
allows the rest of the body to be concentrically unloaded in all three planes
through the Chain Reaction.
Simple Complexity
On the surface the foot is fairly complex, but when you truly understand what it
does and why it does it, it becomes fairly simple and it becomes an integral part
of your whole functional process to benefit those that you have the opportunity
to work with. - Gary Gray

Case Presentation with Bill Kenyon


History - Intermittent chronic left calf strain with recent (1 1/2 weeks ago) acute strain
Unable to train
Long time runner with proper shoe wear
Wants to run in a race real soon
Does traditional calf stretches after one-mile jog warm-up and after training run
Gait Analysis
Fast Normal Walk
Focus: quick glance at symmetry, angle, base of gait
Toe-In Walk
Focus: how feet and body deal with internal rotation position of hips
Toe-Out Walk Focus: how feet and body deal with external rotation position of hips
Long Stride Walk
Focus: exaggeration of sagittal plane requirements
Low Ceiling Walk (Squat Walk) Focus: ability to ambulate while in flexed posture
Low Ceiling Walk/Toe In Walk Focus: flexed posture with internally rotated position
(Note: early heel lift left side)
Excursion Tests

Knee flexion excursion right and left


Knee flexion excursion right and left with arm rotation
Ankle dorsiflexion excursion right and left
Ankle dorsiflexion excursion with hip driver to externally rotate and invert foot
(Note: lack of ankle dorsiflexion on left with foot locked up)
Prone Examination of Feet

Callus palpation
Rear foot position
Forefoot position
Rear foot motion
Supine Examination of Feet

Mid-tarsal joint motion (locked and unlocked)


1st ray position and motion
Hallux motion
Calf and tendon palpation

Hip Hiker Test Focus: checking for symmetry


TrueStretchTM Exam
Right foot everted on platform with facilitation of additional internal rotation by trunk
and arm position / right knee extended and flexed
Left same as right (mirror image)
(Note: decreased left knee flexion with tightness / tenderness in calf)
Right foot inverted on platform with facilitation of additional external rotation by trunk
and arm position
Left same as right (mirror image)
(Note: lift of left heel, lack of ankle dorsiflexion with knee extended and knee flexed
Repeat of mini right knee squat (knee flexion eversion) with arm rotation
Repeat of mini left knee squat (knee flexion eversion) with arm rotation
(Note: decreased trunk rotation with left sided test)
Analysis Debrief with Bob Wiersma
A quicker examination with certain assumptions because of previous familiarity
However, assume nothing before the evaluation process begins
Why We Typically See Calf Strains

Prolonged sitting
Different types of shoe wear
Variable ground surfaces
The calf controls many parts of the body besides the foot, ankle and knee
Disuse (improper use) syndrome
Key Elements of Every Foot/Ankle Evaluation

Gait with and without shoes, properly tweaked


Foot structure and foot dynamics
Full body functional profile
Bottom-up drive, top-down drive
All three planes of motion
Controlled environment evaluation, i.e., TrueStretchTM
Normal environment evaluation i.e., Balance Reach Tests
Discussion of Functional Documentation

Problem Presentation
Rehabilitation is integrated into the analysis with the presentation and demonstration
of the problem.
Key Problem
1. Lack of proper warm-up, training and conditioning of calf group in preparation
for hills and uneven terrain.
2. Lack of calf group eccentric flexibility with ankle dorsiflexion, mid-tarsal joint
locked-up, heel inverted and leg externally rotated (requirement just prior to
heel lift during running, especially on hills and uneven ground) and hip
extended.
Plan
Teach more functional warm-up during one-mile warm-up jog
Teach proper and more functional calf stretch
Demonstration and Teaching of TrueStretchTM Calf Stretch and Wall Calf
Stretch
Emphasis
Hands high to get hip extension
Drive knee to wall
Drive knee back and forth
Create sagittal plane load along with transverse and frontal plane load in foot,
ankle, calf and knee

Explanation of 3D Walk/Jog Matrix Warm-Up


For detailed demonstration of all 3D Walk/Jog Matrix warm-up exercises refer
to: 3D Walk/Jog Matrix Video by Gary Gray at Functional Design Systems.
Call: 800-230-8300 or log on to functionaldesign.com (Quest Videos)
Home Workable Exercises with Goals and Expectations
Scheduled Follow-up

Rehabilitation Debrief with Bob Wiersma, Executive Director, Functional


Rehabilitation Network
The assumption of being either right or wrong
Creating the environment to treat the cause / symptoms / compensations
Offer honest advice as part of the treatment
List of challenging questions
Sometimes the answer is, I have no idea

Gary Instructing Dougs Foot Quickness Workout


Goal of Training Session - Take advantage of Dougs hip, trunk and shoulder power
to develop increased foot quickness.
Functional strategy of Training Session (consciously subconscious)
The best way to get quickness is not to think about quickness.
The strategy is to consciously direct the training exercises in order to make the reaction
subconscious. Get the mind out of the act. - G. Gray
Functional Process - Begin with simple (known) exercises and move away from the
targeted part (feet) with more complex movement in all three planes of motion with
speed and task oriented tweaks. Let the body generate the force to move the feet more
quickly and effectively so the feet can move the body with more power and efficiency.
Primary Functional Goal - Have fun while enhancing function
3D Jumping Jack Matrix Exercises
Legs
Arms
Frontal - out of sync
Frontal - in sync
Sagittal - out of sync
Sagittal - in sync
Transverse - out of sync
Transverse - in sync
Frontal - out of sync
Frontal - out of sync
Frontal - out of sync
Sagittal - out of sync
Frontal - out of sync
Transverse - out of sync
Frontal - out of sync
Transverse - in sync
Frontal - in sync
Transverse - in sync
Frontal - in sync
Transverse - in sync
Sagittal - out of sync
Transverse - out of sync
Sagittal - out of sync
Frontal - out of sync
Sagittal - out of sync
Sagittal - out of sync
Transverse - in sync
Sagittal - out of sync
Transverse - in sync
Frontal - in sync
Transverse - out of sync
Transverse - out of sync
There are multiple variations for the 3D Jumping Jack Matrix

Speed Ladder Drills


Frontal and sagittal plane drive - two in and two out each way
Sagittal anterior and frontal plane drive - one out (hold) and two in
Sagittal posterior with frontal plane drive -one out (hold) and two in
Sagittal anterior with frontal plane drive - one out and two in
Sagittal posterior with frontal plane drive - one out and two in
Sagittal anterior with frontal plane drive - double speed ladder - one out and two in frontal plane transition
Sagittal anterior with frontal and rotational plane drive - double speed ladder - one out
and two in - transverse plane transition (forward and backward rotation)
Sagittal anterior reactive with frontal plane drive - one out and two in - react and
explode forward
(Note: Create patterns with the speed ladder that are predictable as well as more
reactive in all three planes of motion)
Circle Hoop Drills - Create any pattern with the circle hoops
Exercises
Two in and get to next hoop
Two in with rotation transition to next hoop
Discussion of adding tweaks to the above drill
(For a list of and discussion of Tweakology by Gary Gray, log on to
functionaldesign.com and click on to the Wynn Marketing Function Junction)
Functional Key - Progress with additions and changes in unpredictable way so the
athlete will load and unload feet and the rest of the body in all possible ways. This
requires the athlete to react as opposed to rhythmically loading. This kind of loading
is more functional. In addition, it requires the athlete to load by taking great advantage
of the hips, trunk and shoulders. The natural outcome is enhanced balance, quickness
and power in desired functional movement patterns.

The Feet in Golf


The most active part of the body in the golf swing is the feet. Sam Sneed
Sam Sneed understood the golf swing and function so well that he knew the
feet had to give everything they had to make the rest of the body successful
in order to accomplish a proper and effective golf swing.
Tri-plane foot motion is required to create the proper Chain Reaction all the
way up the body, especially the hips, trunk and shoulders, for greater transformation
of the golf swing from the complete back swing (loading) to a powerful downswing (unloading) to a balanced follow through (loading).
Right Foot Criteria
Dorsiflexion, eversion and internal rotation on the ground to allow effective
loading up the chain
Left Foot Criteria
Same as right foot but even more motion in all three planes to actually cause
effective loading up the chain
Foot Waggle Drill
A waggle is a counterbalance movement in order to facilitate an effective
loading movement. - G. Gray
Plane Tweak
Frontal
Sagittal
Transverse
Transverse
Sagittal
Frontal

Tweak in/out
Loading
In
In
In
Out
Out
Out

Foot Position

Waggle

Everted
Dorsiflexed
Internally rotated
Externally rotated
Plantar flexed
Inverted

Inversion
Plantar flexion
External rotation
Internal rotation
Dorsiflexion
Eversion

The Functional Concepts


The whole idea of any functional rehabilitation, training and conditioning program
is to effectively evaluate, come up with a strategy based on success, understand
how to utilize tweakology, create the proper environments to allow for success
that will transform into desired function. - G. Gray
A range drill (exercise) is the right range drill (exercise) if it facilitates a more
effective swing (function) out on the course (in the real world). - G. Gray
The right and left foot must have the right 3D motion at the right time (mostability)
to become an effective teammate. Even though the motion of the feet are not
as great as the hips, trunk and shoulders, their proportional significance as a
teammate for an effective golf swing is of even greater significance than any
other part of the body.
Many times the least noticed teammates are the ones that consistently reveal
the greatest significance when it comes down to team success.

Our personal pursuit to understand function began over thirty years ago at the foot.
The pursuit continues today as we learn more effective ways to take care of our
patients, clients and athletes . . . and especially our kids!
Introducing PEAK PE . . . Promoting Encouragement and Athleticism in Kids
through Physical Education.
PEAK PE is a Healthier Physical Education founded upon our understanding of Function
PEAK PE is functional testing.
PEAK PE is functional training.
PEAK PE is consistent encouragement.
PEAK PE is building on functional success.
PEAK PE is you vs. you.
PEAK PE is creating the environment so the best you wins.
PEAK PE is earned awards and recognition.
PEAK PE is developing successful habits for a lifetime of health and physical fitness.
For more information on PEAK PE go to peakpe.com
Functional Research
Dr. David Tiberio, friend and functional research specialist discusses what we are learning
about function from the foot to the body and from the body to the foot.
Research Article
Frontal Plane Knee A n g l e A f f e c t s D y n a m i c P o s t u r a l C o n t r o l S t r a t e g y D u r i n g
F
Unilateral Stance by John Nyland, Dr. David N. M. Caborn: Division of Sports
Medicine, Department of Orthopeadic Surgery, University of Louisville, Louisville,
KY; and Sports Medicine Section, Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
This article describes a comparative analysis of separated groups of people, one group
demonstrating less than 5% varus or valgus in their knees and another group demonstrating
more than 5% varus or valgus in their knees. The study evaluates the influences on the
foot.

Findings
The study found that those people with the larger angles at the knees demonstrated
significantly more foot activity. The activity changed the pressure underneath the foot
on a force platform. This supports the top down, bottom up approach to understanding
function.
Discussion
Chicken and the egg
The use and effect of foot orthoses
Understanding motion, starting point, direction, amount and speed
Research Article
Kinematics Using One and Two Segment Foot Models by Brian Heiderscheit,
K
Des Moines University, demonstrates that using the wrong model of the foot or
placing the markers incorrectly leads to significantly altered results. Presented
at the Fourth World Congress of Biomechanics, Calgary, Alberta. Aug. 2002
Findings
Lack of coupling the legs and the feet in a research study produces inaccurate results.
Discussion
Orthoses are a tweak to allow the entire body to be more successful
Critical research requires the combined efforts of the researcher and clinical specialists
Designing foot orthoses to enhance hip function that can be immediately tested
The use of balance reach tests*
Looking at the simple side of complexity through foot and body function
*From the Total Body Functional Profile by Gary Gray PT and Team Research.
Available through functionaldesign.com
A special thanks to Dr. David Tiberio