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Maximum Landing Mass (MLM) is best defined as: Maximum permissible total mass o

n landing under normal operating conditions

What name is given to the load at which the aircraft structure will fail?
Ultimate Load.
An aircraft which has been grossly overloaded will:
1. Require increased take-off and landing distances.
2. Have a reduced IGE hover ceiling.
3. Have a reduced maximum level flight speed.
4. Have increased range and endurance.
5. Have a reduced rate of climb and operating ceiling.
Which of the above are correct?
a. 1, 2, 3, & 5.
Maximum Zero Fuel Mass (MZFM) is best defined as:
of the aircraft with no useable fuel.

Maximum permissible mass

Maximum Take of Mass (MTOM) is best defined as: Maximum permissible total mass a
t the start of the take off run.
Which of the following situations may, under certain conditions, result in struc
tural damage occurring? An aircraft being flown above its maximum all up mass.
Never exceed speed (VNE) is the red radial line on the ASI and marks the speed a
t which:
Flight is permitted in smooth conditions only.
Rotor Profile Power is:
or and ancillary equipment.

Power required to drive the main rotor, tail rot

An aircraft is loaded such that its C of G is on the aft limit:

I) It is significant to command stick in reverse to keep the helicopter hovering
II) It is significant to command stick in forward to keep the helicopter hoverin
III) During take off it is possible to have a contact of tail rotor with the gro
IV) Stick forces increase, which is a negative factor.
a. Only II and III are correct.
Certification requirements stipulate that when loading a light aircraft:
The C of G should remain within the defined limits and the Maximum Take-off Mass
must not be exceeded.
Induced Power is the:

Power required to induce flow and produce rotor thrust.

DOM (Dry Operating Mass) is defined as: The total mass of the aircraft ready for
a specific type of operation including crew, crew baggage and special equipment
but excluding useable fuel and traffic load.
An aircraft loaded in a dangerous manner, so that its C of G is beyond its forwa
rd limit will: Will require longer available distance for landing due to limite
d possibility for flare.
The flight characteristics of an aircraft which has its C of G at the forward li
mit will be:
Insensitivity to Pitch Control and great Longitudinal Stability.
You plan to carry your aircraft's maximum permissible 'Traffic Load'. Your princ
ipal consideration during your flight planning will be that:
Your fue
l load may have to be limited to prevent you exceeding the Maximum All Up

Traffic Load:

Is the total mass of passengers, baggage and freight.

The consequences of operating a helicopter with the C of G beyond the aft limit
will be:
I) During take off it is possible to have a contact of tail rotor with the groun
II) It is significant to command stick in forward to keep the helicopter hoverin
III) While cruising and in a condition with strong gusting wind, would prevent u
s to pitch up.
a. All statements are correct.
Parasite Power is:

Power required to overcome fuselage parasite drag.

What is used as the aircraft reference for the C of G limit?


C of G limits are set by the manufacturer and: Are mandatory.

When calculating the MZFM (maximum zero fuel mass), the following are included:Crew, Passengers, Baggage & Catering.
What is the effect of runway slope on the take-off?
rease the take-off distance.

An uphill slope will inc

That part of a runway surface which is used for normal operations during take-of
f,excluding any clearway or stopway, is referred to as: The take-off run availab
le (TORA).
If the density of the atmosphere is reduced, the take-off distance will be:
If the density of the air is increased above ISA conditions, the effect will be:
To increase the take-off performance.
When the density of the atmosphere is relatively low, the resulting reduction in
Both lift and engine power will require a longer take-off distance.
Increasing the aircraft's gross weight will have what effect on the take-off?
Decreasing acceleration and increasing the take-off distance required.
Climbing at Vy will achieve:
iod of time.

The greatest increase in altitude in a given per

To gain the greatest amount of height in the shortest time period the aircraft s
hould be flown at:
The best rate of climb speed (Vy).
Increasing the mass (and, therefore, weight) of the aircraft will:
the rate and angle of climb.
Climbing at Vx will achieve:


The maximum angle of climb.

Who is responsible before a flight that the load is safely distributed and secur
The Commander of the intended flight.
A pilot wishes to fly at a speed which will give him maximum range. He knows tha
t he is flying with a tailwind. How will the speed selected by the pilot compare
with the maximum range speed for still air?
It will be decreased by
a margin slightly less than the amount of tailwind.

Which of the next cases will result in worsening of performance and possibility
of exceeding structural limitations of helicopter?
Helicopter is loaded ove
r maximal allowed weight.
What is the effect of head wind on glide angle and range in autorotation?
Glide angle is increasing and range is decreasing.
With weight increase a helicopter range is:


Helicopter cowered with small amount of ice will result in:

and weight.

Increase of drag

What would be the effect of an increase in temperature upon the air density and
aircraft performance?
Reduced density and reduced aircraft performance
What is the effect of an increase in mass on the hover in ground effect (HIGE) a
nd landing distance required?
Decreased HIGE Ceiling and increased lan
ding distance.
The VNE of a helicopter is determined by:

Retreating blade stall.

If a helicopter is hovering over a fixed position, and there is a wind blowing,

which is the most critical position of the Centre of Gravity? Close to the aft
The easiest way to determine the pressure altitude is setting an altimeter to:
1013.2 hPa and reading the altitude.
The basic reason for calculating the density altitude is determining by:
The aircraft performance.
What is pressure altitude?
The altitude indicated when the barometric press
ure scale is set to 1013.2 hPa.
Under which condition will pressure altitude be equal to true altitude?
When standard atmospheric conditions exist.
Which of the factors below increases the density altitude of an airport?
Increase of temperature.
Under what condition is indicated altitude the same as true altitude?
sea level under standard conditions.

When at

If the outside air temperature (OAT) at a given altitude is lower than standard,
the density altitude is:
Higher than pressure altitude.
What is density altitude?

The pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard

The density altitude could be approximately calculated from the pressure altitud
e without using a navigation calculator by:
Increasing/decreasing the pressu
re altitude by 120 ft for each C deviation above/below the standard temperature.
Air density is reduced by:
decrease in pressure.

Increase in temperature, increased humidity and

How does higher air humidity affect aircraft take-off performance? Take-off dist
ances are:
Longer due to thinner air.

Which combination of atmospheric conditions will reduce aircraft takeoff and cli
mb performance?
High temperature, high relative humidity and high densit
y altitude.
What effect does an uphill runway slope have on takeoff performance?
s takeoff distance.


What effect does high density altitude have on aircraft performance?

es climb performance.

It reduc

Which speed would provide the greatest gain in altitude in the shortest distance
during climb after takeoff?
Best angle-of-climb speed (Vx).
The aircraft's rate-of-climb during a steady climb depends on
f power.

Excess o

After takeoff, which airspeed would the pilot use to gain the most altitude in a
given period of time?
Best climb speed (VY).
What is the proper use for the best-rate-of-climb speed (Vy)?
ing to get cruising altitude quickly.

When try

What is the influence of the wind on an airplane's rate of climb?

No effect.
What influence does the wind have on an airplane's angle-of-climb?
nd will steepen the angle-of-climb.

A headwi

A helicopter is flying at a constant speed and altitude and in a correctly balan

ced turn. Which of the following is correct?
The total rotor thrust is greate
r than the mass of the helicopter.
The service ceiling of a helicopter is defined as:
The altitude where the r
ate of climb can no longer be maintained at a minimum of 100 feet per minute.
During landing on an airport with high elevation the true air speed (TAS) of an
aircraft is higher than normal. What indicated speed (IAS) should be kept in suc
h cases?
Normal speed.
Helicopter climb performance is most adversely affected by:
dard temperature and high relative humidity.

Higher than stan

If the QFE at the departure point is 1000 mb and at the destination is 1013 mb,
and assuming the temperature at both points is the same, which of the following
is correct?
The helicopter performance at the destination point would be wor
se than at the
departure point.
Why should speeds in flight above VNE be avoided?
may be exceeded, if gusts are encountered.

The design limit factor

A helicopter moves forward from a hover condition to forward flight. Which of th

e following is correct?
The power required decreases, and the total roto
r thrust remains constant.
Detailed performance information of a specific helicopter variant is listed in w
hich of the following documents?
The Helicopter Flight Manual.
A helicopter is operating off cross-sloping ground. As the pilot raises the coll

ective, the helicopter rotates about the higher skid, and the cyclic does not ar
rest the rolling. The pilot should:
Lower the collective swiftly.
How will higher altitude affect the cruising indicated airspeed of an aircraft i
f a throttle remains unchanged?
It will be lower.
The best rate of climb speed results (Vbroc) with:
height in a given time period.

The greatest increase in

The absolute ceiling of a helicopter as specified in its performance data, is th

e altitude at which the helicopter is: No longer able to climb at all.
The abbreviation Vy means:

Speed for best rate of climb.

How do you define VNE? Velocity never exceeded.

Maximum endurance:

Will be achieved by flying with minimum fuel flow (kg/hr

In cruise, an extreme aft longitudinal centre of gravity:

Brings the cycli
c stick closer to its forward stop and increases the stress in the rotor
A helicopter in the hover that requires an excessive amount of aft and right cyc
lic may indicate the centre of gravity is too far:
Forward and laterally to
o far to the left.
A helicopter in the hover that requires an excessive amount of forward and right
cyclic may indicate the centre of gravity is too far:
Aft and laterall
y too far to the left.
A helicopter with its fuel tanks located aft of the centre of gravity is more pr
one to: Exceed its forward centre of gravity limits when landing with little fue
Exceeding the forward CG limit will result in: The helicopter being nose-heavy
and the pilot may run out of aft cyclic.
Who determines the CG limits for a helicopter? The pilot in command.
Who is responsible for calculation of CG for a specific flight?
t in command.

The pilo

Which of the following factors has greatest effect on take-off power?



A headwind will:

Increase the climb flight-path angle.

What should be done first, following a single engine helicopter's engine failure
in flight?
Enter autorotation.
A helicopter will obtain a maximum flight distance at the speed:
mum range.

For maxi

Assume a helicopter is autorotating following an engine failure. The pilot may d

ecide to operate at the shallowest angle of descent (range speed), or the maximu
time in the air (endurance speed). Which of the following is correct?
The best still air range speed is slightly higher than the best endurance Speed.

Who establishes the limits of CG?

The manufacturer

The most unfavorable combination of conditions for helicopter performance is:

High density altitude, high gross weight, and calm wind.
How does high density altitude affect helicopter performance?
efficiency is reduced.
As altitude increases, the VNE of a helicopter will:


The most power will be required to hover over which surface?

The abbreviation Vx means:

Engine and rotor

Speed for best angle of climb.

High grass.