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Grounding Resistance for HVDC Transmission Lines

Yuntao Zou, Xiuli Wang, Haitao Zhang, Chunyang Liu

School of Electrical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University

Department ofElectrical Engineering and Shaanxi Key

Laboratory ofSmart Grid, Xi'an Jiaotong University

Shanxi Xi'an, 710049, China

E-mail address: 30064282@qq.com

State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Research Institute

Jiangsu Nanjing, 211100, China

of the sensitive and significant factors to affect the parameters of

travelling wave and the performance of fault location. Therefore

explicit fault location of high grounding resistance is proposed

lines in this paper. S transform is applied to analyze travelling

wave to demonstrate the characteristic and variation in timefrequency domain. The principle of type A and type D for fault

location are applied into proposed algorithm by magnitude

integral in frequency domain. The position of wave front in

travelling wave can be identified accurately and as a consequence

of it the time of which first arrived is affirmed to measure the

distance of fault. In the end of paper a simulation provide the

validation about accuracy and feasibility of this algorithm.

method was represented that the voltage distribution of

transmission lines could be calculated by the voltage and

current signals sampling after fault occurs and an mathematic

model of transmission lines and fault would be located

precisely from the voltage distribution. In [6] the difference

about transient energy and the relation between various

parameters of the line were analyzed and depending on

transient energy principle fault location was easily to complete.

In [7] the principle ofpattern recognition was applied into fault

location, which used Pearson correlation coefficients to depict

similarity between pattern voltage signals and ones after fault

occurs to ensure the fauIt location.

grounding resistance, integration of instantaneous frequency

spectrum, S trans form.

complicated analysis, accurately model and massive simulation.

And high grounding resistance will defuse the saltation of

voltage and produce adverse effect to fault location. Therefore

it should be exploit new method to complete fauIt location

which could be avoid the situation of principle being

maladaptive to some kind of faults occurring at transmission

line or other places. In this paper, a travelling wave based fault

location algorithm for HVDC transmission system is proposed.

In this algorithm a time-frequency domain analysis of shortwindow sampled voltage signals by S transform is presented.

The novel principle of this fault location is expressed by using

instantaneous frequency spectrum integration at time that detect

precisely the position of wave front that would be used to

determine location of fault reassured. And by this way of

detection, the principles of type A and type D for fault location

are applied into use. At last, to validate accuracy of fauIt

location, proposed algorithm is simulated in a HVDC

transmission system based on PSCADIMETDC and all results

of simulation are denoted in tables. The infallibility and

accuracy of proposed algorithm can be confirmed from the

consequences of simulation.

I.

INTRODUCTION

distance HVDC transmiSSIOn systems are pervasively

implemented in power system. Notwithstanding many

advanced fault location principles were massively applied into

HVDC transmission system such as some methods based on

travelling waves or transient variables. It's particularly

necessary and significant to accurately locate permanent and

nonpermanent fault at very long HVDC transmission line to

maintain stability and reliability of system. Many different

kinds of fault location methods and principles were proposed

and discussed in decades. Some conventional methods based on

time domain utilized the accurate time that the travelling-wave

arrived ends of lines to infer the fault location. Continuous

wavelet transform was applied in the travelling-wave principle

to detect precise time that traveling-wave was disseminated

through overhead lines and cables in [1]. A fault location

method under unsynchronized two-end measurement was also

put forward to deal with some fallible situation oflacking GPS

or losing GPS signal. In [2]. Many academics solved this by the

perspective of frequency domain. In [3] and [4] disparate

mathematic analysis processes were put into use to obtain the

natural frequency that had mathematic relationship with fauIt

distance. On the other hand, many entirely novel and discrepant

11.

CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS

Abipolar CSC-HVDC system is shown in Fig I, which

consists of converter stations, smoothing reactors, DC filters,

measurement device and transmission lines. Smoothing

This work was supported by the State Grid Corporation in China und er

Grant 52094016000C

1651

boundary (M and N) for high frequency component oftransient

signal in HVDC transmission system.

Boundary N

Boundary M I

I

and keep monitoring and recording voItage signal into buffer

memory in real time and time length of which is 3 ms. And

devices will save the data ofbuffer memory and begin to record

another voltage signal and time length of which is 8 ms if

absolute value ofvoItage is smaller than the threshold value Vset.

Two short sampIes of voltage signal will comprise a long

sampie and time length of which is 11 ms. This long sampie is

applied to complete time-frequency domain analysis by the way

ofS transform to obtain the A(t, 1).

IMeasure

Device

Transmi ssi on

Line

Rectifier

I

I

Double-tuned DC

filters bank.

Double-tuned DC

filters oo.nk

Inverter

The S transform, which is an extension of the ideas of the

continuous wavelet trans form , is based on a removable and

scalable localizing Gaussian window that the resolution is

related to frequency [8]. S transform can provide precise

position of signal singularity and mutation point by the

maximum of instantaneous frequency. S transform can be

regard as what can transform signal to a matrix which include

times and instantaneous frequency. That transformation will

assistant signal analysis to orientate the moment offauIt occurs,

which is considerably advantageous in latter fauIt location.

The result of signal is a complex matrix which can be

denoted as

set, f) =

A(t, f)e/P(t.!)

(1)

is the phase function of it. The t and f are time and frequency

respectively. In proposed algorithm more attention will

concentrate on the amplitude of every element in this complex

matrix.

III.

Oue to A(t, f), instantaneous frequency spectrum integration

of every moment can be acquired from it. Instantaneous

frequency spectrum integration can be defined as

I[t] = [A(t,f}![

of mutation point and The wave front detected by

aforementioned way will be utilized to positioning the location

of fault at transmission line.

will be represented as follow. The maximum value of I[t] is

considered as the position of wave front so that the ts of the

maximum value I[t s] corresponding that depict the time of

saltation will be recorded. This process can be described as

and tsn aforementioned way and distance from terminal M is

computed by

I = L + v(t'n! - t,n )

2

is velocity of travelling-wave and the L is whole length of

transmission line.

And the criterion offault location by principle oftype A will

be represented as follow. Oue to the time lag utilized by the

principle of type A between first transient traveling wave and

second travelling wave reflected by the other terminal, it is very

crucial to distinguish and locate two wave fronts. So this

criterion will employed the local maximum value ofintegration

to identifY these two wave fronts. Therefore according to

voltage signal the local maximum value can be used to detect

these two wave front and this process can be described as

i = 1,2,3

(2)

frequency spectrum. Taking considerable dc component of

voItage signal into account, the lower limit of instantaneous

frequency as which 1400Hz can be chosen should avoid

interference of dc component. The aforementioned treatises the

fauIt location principle shows that when a fauIt occurs at HVOC

system, the voItage offauIt position will sudden change and this

saltati on can be reflected in voltage travelling-wave. By S

transform the sampies of voltage signals are analyzed into a

matrix including many times and instantaneous frequency

spectrum corresponding. The instantaneous frequency

spectrum integration of every moment can be calculated from

the matrix, maximum value of which can positioning the wave

(4)

(5)

reflected wave and refracted wave. As we know attenuation is

the essential characteristic oftransmission line so it is easily to

understand that the magnitude offirst transient travelling wave

produced by fault occurring is the supreme value of all waves.

It is also easily to certain the front oftravelling wave detected

by algorithm which the wave that is produced by fault and

reflected by the other terminal. So the fault position will be

located by the t 5 1 of transient travelling wave front that

disseminates to detector directly and the t s2 of transient

travelling wave front that disseminates to and is retlected by the

other terminal, which the two corresponding values of I are

larger than others. This characteristic of distribution ofI[t] can

be described as follow equation. However, it should be noted

1652

the wave reflected by the other terminal when a fault occurs

with closed distance and infinitesimal resistance. And this

situation can be recognized by distribution ofmany consecutive

wave crests from result of S transform.

Equation (4) is applied to calculate the fault position.

On the other hand, ifthe principle of fault location is type

A, which means that only one terminal's information will be

used to locate fault position, (c) and (e) in FigA could be an

extremely classic example to depict. When fault occurs at line

I[ts2] > V local max {I[t]}

l ------ ------5a!i .

M id-5pan

(6)

~ G1

t '2 >t'l

9 .5 (m)

I = L _ V(tS2 - t'l)

2

IV.

C1

TABLE I

Double-tuued filters

2

11.71

9.047

C2/~F

5.84

L2/mH

CdelF

LdmH

C2

15 .7 [ m)

(7)

:w .[m)

TOWEl: 0C2

SIMULATION

Abipolar CSC-HVDC system is built in PSCADIEMTDC

shown as FigA. The dc and ac voltage level are 500 kV and

383 kV respectively and the power of HVDC system is 1000

MW. The model of I 000 km transmission lines is shown as Fig.

5. Two DC double-tuned filters are applied in this system

concurrently and the parameters ofwhich are given in Table I

and smoothing reactor is 0.12 H. SampIe frequency is 100 kHz.

Time offault occurred is l.2 s. The wave velocity is 2.97 x 10 5

km. The parameters of l2th/24 th double-tuned filter and 12th/36 th

double-tuned filter are expressed as Table I.

12thl24th

~~,,------"----\.

O lm )

-->

l hm"rn)

Re la tive Glound Perme-ability: 1 .0

Earlh Return Formula : Ana lvtics i A[)CfOxirnation

and one ofthem will be retlected by the terminal N and go back

to terminal M so it is explicit from (c) and (e) that two transient

travelling waves reach to terminal M successively and two

notable time points of them are tsl and t s2 respectively. Then

fault position can be obtained by calculation of equation (7).

PARAMETERS OF FILTERS

2

Cl/elF

Ll/mH

6.46

3.752

C4/~F

L4/mH

11.35

1.2

1.202

1.204

1.206

1.208

1.204

1.206

Time (s)

6 plusc

(a)

hr ige

1.198

1.2

1.202

Time (s)

(b)

A single-pole-to-ground fault with 1000 ohms occurs at 700

km from terminal M and results of S transform and integration

values ofinstantaneous frequency spectrum are shown in FigA.

The characteristics of travelling-wave's process can be

observed clearly from FigA. Ifthe principle offault location is

type D, (e) in FigA provide a notable value which comes from

an obvious signal in (c) to detect the front oftravelling wave at

1653

1.202

1.204

Time (s)

(e)

1.206

200

500

1000

0.01

200

500

1000

1.2

1.202

900

l.204

1.20238

1.20238

1.20238

1.20306

1.20306

1.20306

1.20306

1.20442

1.20442

1.20442

1.20375

1.20374

1.20375

1.20374

697.06

697.06

697.06

897.53

899.02

897.53

899.02

-0.42

-0.42

-0.42

-0.27

-0.11

-0.27

-0.11

Time (s)

(d)

TABLE 111

Fault

distance

(km)

100

Time (s)

f:l '1' ~

(e)

300

'j

500

Time (s)

(f)

700

Fig.4 Single-pole-to-ground fault with 1000 ohms occurs at 700 km rrom end

M. (a) Voltage 01' end M. (b) Voltage 01' end N. (c) Time-Frequency

Distribution ofVoltage ofend M. (d) Time-Frequency DIstnbutlOn ofVoltage

01' end N. (e). Integration value 01' end M. (f) Integration value 01' end N

900

disparate grounding resistanee are shown as Table II with

prineiple oftype A. And faults with same eonditions are shown

as Table III with prineiple oftype D. The loeation results and

errors ofthem are also expressed in Table 11 and Table III. From

these eonsequenees, it have indieated that the proposed

algorithm with two prineiples ean aeeurately loeate faults

regardless of the position of whole transmission line, with the

largest error being less than 3%. Moreover, the wave front

deteetion and fault loeation preeision are not affeeted by

grounding resistanee.

TABLE 111

Fault

distance

(km)

100

300

500

700

Grounding

resistance

(n)

0.01

200

500

1000

0.01

200

500

1000

0.01

200

500

1000

0.01

Time of

direct

wave

front (s)

1.20036

1.20036

1.20035

1.20036

1.20104

1.20104

1.20104

1.20104

1.20171

1.20171

1.20171

1.20171

1.20238

Time of

reflected

wave

front (s)

1.20644

1.20644

1.20643

1.20644

1.20577

1.20576

1.20576

1.20576

1.20509

1.20509

1.20510

1.20509

1.20442

Location

result

(km)

Error

(%)

97.12

97.12

97.12

97.12

297.60

299.08

299.08

299.08

498.07

498.07

496.58

498.07

697.06

-2.88

-2.88

-2.88

-2.88

-0.80

-0.31

-0.31

-0.31

-0.39

-0.39

-0.68

-0.39

-0.42

Grounding

resistance

(n)

0.01

200

500

1000

0.01

200

500

1000

0.01

200

500

1000

0.01

200

500

1000

0.01

200

500

1000

Time of

wave

front at

terminal

M (s)

1.20036

1.20036

1.20036

1.20036

1.20104

1.20104

1.20104

1.20104

1.20171

1.20171

1.20171

1.20171

1.20238

1.20238

1.20238

1.20238

1.20306

1.20306

1.20306

1.20306

V.

Time of

wave

front at

terminal

N (s)

1.20306

1.20306

1.20306

1.20306

1.20239

1.20238

1.20238

1.20238

1.20171

1.20171

1.20171

1.20171

1.20104

1.20104

1.20104

1.20104

1.20036

1.20036

1.20036

1.20036

Location

resnlt

(km)

Error

(%)

99.05

99.05

99.05

99.05

299.525

301.01

301.01

301.01

500

500

500

500

698.99

698.99

698.99

698.99

900.95

900.95

900.95

900.95

-0.95

-0.95

-0.95

-0.95

-0.16

0.34

0.34

0.34

0

0

0

0

-0.14

-0.14

-0.14

-0.14

0.11

0.11

0.11

0.11

CONCLUSION

eonstituted of smoothing reaetor and double-tuned filter banks

and transmission line of HVDC system to instantaneous

frequeney speetrum of voltage travelling-wave, a travelingwave based fault loeation algorithm for HVDC transmission

lines is proposed in this paper. This novel fault loeation

prineiple is depend on using a kind of mathematie timefrequeney analysis method ealled S transform and the

integration value of instantaneous frequeney speetrum

originating from S transform, whieh ean identifY the different

loeation of fault with diserepant grounding resistanee and deteet

preeisely the position of wave front. Simulations based on

PSCAD/METDC are eompleted to verify the feasibility and

aeeuraey of proposed algorithm. The performance of algorithm

is doing weH but it is neeessary to do more amelioration of

dedueing sampIe frequeney and keep high preeision of

algorithm in the meanwhile.

REFERENCES

[1] Nanayakkara, K., and A. Rajapakse. "Location of DC Line Faults in

Conventional HVDC Systems With Segments 01' Cables and Overhead Lmes

Using Terminal Measurements." IEEE Transactions on Power DelIvery

27.1(2012)279-288.

[2] Liang, Yuansheng, G. Wang, and H. Li. "Time-Domain Fault-Location

Method on HVDC Transmission Lines Under Unsynchromzed Two-End

Measurement and Uncertain Line Parameters." IEEE Transactions on Power

Delivery 30.3(2015): 1-8.

1654

[3] He, Zheng You, et al. "Natural Frequency-Based Line Fault Location

in HYDC Lines." IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 29.2(2014):851-859.

[4] Jiandong, Duan, Zhao Zhao, and Liu Jing. "Combined fault location

algorithm for HYDC transmission lines based on natural frequency." 2015 5th

International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and

Power Technologies (DRPT). IEEE, 2015.

[5] Suonan, Jiale, et al. "A nove! fault-Iocation method for HYDC

transmission lines." IEEE transactions on power delivery 25.2 (2010): 12031209.

[6] Tom, Sherin, Jaimol Thomas, and M. Ganesh. "A nove! algorithm for

fault location and identification in HYDC transmission lines based on

transients." 2015 International Conference on Emerging Research in

Electronics, Computer Science and Technology (ICERECT). IEEE, 2015.

[7] Farshad, Mohammad, and Javad Sadeh. "A novel fault-Iocation method

for HYDC transmission lines based on similarity measure ofvoltage signals."

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 28.4 (2013) 2483-2490.

[8] Stockwell, Robert Glenn, Lalu Mansinha, and R. P. Lowe.

"Localization ofthe complex spectrum: the Stransform." IEEE transactions on

signal processing 44.4 (1996): 998-100 I.

1655

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