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75 years of excellence

RECENT ADVANCES
in
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

RAME-2016

th

(14 & 15th October, 2016)

ODB: LHD_1.odb Abaqus/Explicit 6.10-1 Thu 07 13:46:27 India Standard Time 2016
Step: Step-2
Increment 1206504 : Step Time = 1.000
Primary Var:S, Mises
Deformed Var: U Deformation Scale Factor: +1.000e+00

Editors
Dr. Raj Kumar Singh
Dr. Amit Pal
Sh. Vijay Gautam
Dr. Girish Kumar

Organized by
Department of Mechanical, Automobile and Production & Industrial Engineering
Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering)
Bawana Road, Delhi-110042

Published by:
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Editors
Dr. Raj Kumar Singh
Dr. Amit Pal
Sh. Vijay Gautam
Dr. Girish Kumar
Editorial Assistance
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Amrik Singh
Yash Gupta
ISBN: -----978-194523970-0
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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
ON

RECENT ADVANCES in
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
RAME-2016
(14th& 15th October, 2016)

CHIEF PATRON
Prof. Yogesh Singh
Vice Chancellor, DTU

PATRON
Prof. S.K. Garg
Pro- Vice Chancellor, DTU

CHAIRMAN
Prof. R.S. Mishra, HOD

VICE CHAIRMAN
Prof. Samsher

ORGANIZING SECRETARY
Dr. Amit Pal

JOINT ORGANIZING SECRETARIES


Dr. Raj Kumar Singh
Sh. Vijay Gautam
Dr. Girish Kumar

TREASURER
Mr. M. Zunaid

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD


Prof. D Yogi Goswami, University of South Florida, USA
Prof. HM Cho, Kongju National University, S Korea
Prof. Afzal Husain, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
Dr. Nitin Upadhye University of Modern Sciences, Dubai (UAE)
Dr. Sanjay Kumar Thakur, Rolls Royce plc, Singapore
Dr. Narendra Pal,United Hydrogen, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania
Prof. Avinash Agrawal, ERL, IIT Kanpur
Prof. M P Sharma, AHED, IIT Roorkee
Prof. D Ravi Kumar, IIT Delhi
Prof. KA Subramanian, CES, IIT Delhi
Prof. SC Mishra,IIT Gawhati
Prof. Nilesh Jain, IIT, Indore
Prof. Emran Khan, JMI University, Delhi
Prof. Sudhkar Jindal, CET, Udaipur
Prof. Subashish Maji, SOET, IGNOU Delhi
Prof. Rajesh Kumar Singh, MDI Gurgaon
Prof. OP Chaurasia, NIT Patna
Prof. SS Kachhwaha PDPU, Gandhinagar
Prof. PL Patel, NIT Surat
Prof. RB Anand, NIT T iruchirappalli
Prof. Gajendra Dixit MANIT Bhopal
Prof. Abhishek Mishra, NIT Delhi
Prof. Abhishek Gandhi, NIT Delhi
Prof. Joseph Anand Vaz, NIT Jalandhar
Prof. Anup Kumar, NIT Hamirpur
Dr. Prashant Jain, IIIT Jabalpur
Prof. Sharad Pradhan, NITTTR Bhopal
Prof. PK Purohit, NITTTR Bhopal
Dr. Vipul Tanna, IIPR Ahmedabad

PREFACE
The technological advances in the field of mechanical engineering are growing faster than
any other time. Mechanical engineering is a very broad field of engineering that involves the
application of physical principles for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of
mechanical systems. The characteristics like higher efficiency, functionality, precision, selfrepair and durability continue to attract engineers and designers to pursue research in the
field of mechanical engineering.
International Conference on Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering (2016) is being
organized in DTU Delhi, India from October 14th to 15th. This international conference
focuses on different aspects of mechanical engineering such as thermal, production, design
and industrial engineering. It aims to provide an international academic forum for all the
researchers, practitioners, professionals, faculty members and students in related fields to
share their knowledge and results from their experimental, analytical and computational
work.
RAME -2016 book of abstracts collects the most up to date knowledge in mechanical
engineering. All the accepted papers have gone through the peer-review process and are
selected on the basis of originality, significance and clarity.The conference provides all the
participants an opportunity for developing interaction among academicians, engineers
from industries, and researchers.
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all the committee members and
organizers for their enthusiasm and hard work. We are extremely thankful to the DTU
authorities and sponsors for their support and encouragement to the conference. We would
like to thank every author, speaker and participant for their contribution to the success of
RAME 2016. Last but not the least, we thank one and all, who helped to make this
conference successful.

(i)

MESSAGE
Vice-Chancellor
I am pleased to know that an International Conference on
Recent Advances in Mechanical Engineering (RAME 2016) is
being organized by Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU
th
th
on 14 -15 October 2016.
I welcome all the delegates and participants from across
India and abroad for participating in RAME-2016 conference at DTU, Delhi. I am sure
that RAME-2016 will bring together the National and International talents focusing on
excellent opportunities for researchers, scientists and industrialists to share and
converse on the latest developments in the areas of Mechanical Engineering.
The role of Mechanical Engineering is inevitable to improve productivity,
product quality and safe working environment in the applied fields for the society at
large.
I wish that this conference will give more insight to the R&D initiatives in these
areas. I also hope that the conglomeration of eminent experts from across the globe will
highlight the importance of research and innovation and discuss the best global
practices.
I congratulate the organizing team of RAME 2016 and wish that the conference
will be a grand success, and help in branding Delhi Technological University as a leading
research university.

Prof. Yogesh Singh


Vice Chancellor

(ii)

Message: Chairman, RAME-2016


It is my great pleasure to welcome you to the International
Conference on RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING, RAME-2016 at DTU, Delhi. This conference has
brought together delegates from around the globe to discuss the
latest advances in this vibrant and constantly evolving field.
Undoubtedly, mechanical engineering has played a key role in transforming our society
to a "High Tech" in the recent decades and the pace of change can only be described as
constructive. The technology itself is progressing and exploring new horizons. The
delegates in RAME-2016 will discuss and present the latest advances in the field of
mechanical engineering. A diverse range of topics from RAC to Robotics, and their
potential to lead to new paradigms in design, development, manufacturing and
transportation, will be deliberated.
Apart from this stimulating program of the conference, with its tourist attractions, the
diversity and quality of its cuisine, and world-class facilities, would be an unforgettable
place to visit. It is my hope, therefore, that you get a chance to explore Delhi and its
surroundings, and enjoy the exotic and vibrant atmosphere of our city.
It has been a great privilege for me to serve as the Chairman of RAME2016 and it is my
hope that you find the conference stimulating, fulfilling and enjoyable. I thank you for
your support of RAME and your attendance, and wish you a pleasant experience in Delhi
and RAME2016.
Prof R.S.Mishra
Head
Mechanical Engineering Department
and Chairman,RAME-2016

(iii)

Message: Convener, RAME-2016


On the behalf of organising committee of International Conference
on RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (RAME2016), I extend a warm welcome to all the delegates from academia,
research institutes and industries.
The main aim of the conference is to bring together the researchers
across the globe to discuss the various aspects of thermal, design
and production which are inevitable to the field of mechanical engineering.
The conference would consist of key note lectures, regular paper and poster
presentations. I am glad to submit that RAME 2016 received an overwhelming response of
authors from the country and abroad. Within a duration of about 45 days we received
more than 120 papers of which finally 96 good quality papers were selected and
registered. Out of these, 66 were selected for oral presentation and 30 for poster
presentation.
The papers cover a wide range of topics such as analysis and synthesis of mechanisms,
CFD, Advances in Manufacturing, composite materials, Fuel quality and alternative fuels,
combustion and emissions analysis and design of IC engines, advances in industrial
engineering, mechanisms and machines for rural, agricultural and industrial applications,
mechatronic systems, modelling and simulation, robotics, corrosion etc. Each paper was
subjected to peer review for the originality, concept and relevance. For this we took the
help of 70 reviewers within the DTU and also from the other institutes and research
organizations.
We have specifically checked all the papers for plagiarism using URKUND s/w provided
from UGC to the DTU.
We have organised Eight technical sessions: four of which will be on thermal engineering
and two each on design and production engineering respectively. Two poster sessions are
also planned. Six key note lectures on advance topics are also scheduled for the discussion.
Many people contributed towards the success of this conference. I thank all the authors for
contributing quality work to the conference. I also thank the reviewers for taking time in
critically evaluating the manuscripts. The international advisory board also helped us in
different tasks. I would like to thank the DTU authorities and private organisations for
supporting the event through participation and sponsorship. I would like to thank the
colleagues in the organising committee, the faculty and staff of Mechanical, Production &
Industrial Engineering and automobile engineering department for their efforts towards
organising this conference. Last but not the least I would like to thank our students who
worked hard and helped in different activities of the conference.
Dr. Amit Pal
Organising Secretary

(iv)

CONTENTS
S.No.

Page No.

Title

1. Fabrication of Al6082/ZrO2 Surface Composite by Friction Stir


Processing
N.Yuvaraj and Vipin
2. Comparison of Micro-Hardness in Dry and Thermal Assisted Machining
on Turning of EN8 Steel.
Nitin Sehra, Jasvinder Singh, Prof. Sandeep Sharma, Mohit Gaba

1-6

7-12

3. Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Synthesis Via Enzymatic Interesterification


Onkar and Amit Pal

13-18

4. Overview of Carbon Nano Tubes


Navriti Gupta and Pushpendra

19-22

5.

23-30

Stress Life Fatigue Approach for the Design of Automotive Engine Thermostat
Kadir zdemir and Turker Temiz

6. A Review on Thermoelectric Generator used in Automotive Waste Heat Recovery


Vikrant Mishra and Amit Pal

31-38

7. Effect of Variation of High Temperature R1234ze Condenser Temperature


and Intermediate R1234yf Temperature Cascade Condenser and Low
Temperature Evaporator Circuit in three Stage Cascade Refrigeration
Systems
R S Mishra

39-44

8. Biodiesel Feedstock in India: A Review


Sanjay Mohite, Sudhir Kumar, Sagar Maji and Amit Pal

45-52

9. Triacylglyceride's Transesterification for Biodiesel: A Review


Amrik Singh, Amit Pal, Harwinder Singh and S. Maji

53-64

10. Mathematical Analysis of Exhaust Based Thermoelectric Generator


Vikrant Mishra, and Kiran Pal

65-74

11. Optimization of Solar Assisted Production of Biodiesel From Cotton Seed Oil
Manisha, Vikrant Mishra, R.S. Mishra, Amit Pal

75-80

12. Experimental Analysis of Solar Assisted Biodiesel Productionfor RAME 2016


Manisha, Amit Pal and R.S. Mishra

81-86

13. Biodiesel Production: A Review on Innovative Techniques


Manisha, Amit Pal and R.S. Mishra

87-94

14. Fabrication of Magnesium Based Metal Matrix Composites Through Friction


Stir Processing A Review
Sumit Joshi, N Yuvaraj, Rajiv Chaudhary and R C Singh
(v)

95-100

15. Energy Analysis and Parametric Study of Flat Pate Collector Area
of a Solar Driven Water-Lithium Bromide Half Effect Vapour
Absorption Refrigeration System for a Given Cooling Load
Abhishek Verma, Akhilesh Arora and R.S. Mishra

101-110

16. Comparative Performance, Emissions and Combustion Analysis


of Single Cylinder CI Engine Fuelled With Biodiesel Derived From
Castor Oil
Akash Deep, Sarbjot Singh Sandhu and Subhash Chander

111-118

17. Process Optimization of Transesterification for Biodiesel


Production From Jatropha Oil
Kumar Gaurav, PB Sharma and Richa Srivastava

119-124

18. Analysis of the Merits of Hot Runner System Over Cold Runner
System in Moulding Technology
Sandeep Mathur, V. K. Mittal, Nitin Upadhye, Vipul Mathur and
Kshitij Mathur

125-134

19. Numerical Analysis of Forced Convection in A Lid Driven


Cavity With Different Heat Source Locations Along the Bottom Wall
Divyaj Shah, Ketaki Godbole and C.M Sewatkar

135-144

20. Application of Design of Experiment Technique For Optimization


of Machining Process Parameters: A Review
Lalit Kumar Sharma

145-150

21. An Empirical Study on Application of Information and Communication


Tools (ICT) in Indian SMEs
Dr. Ravinder Kumar, Udit Kukreja and Sahil Joshi

151-156

22. Thermoeconomic Insulation For Environmental Sustainability


Radhey Shyam Mishra

157-164

23. Thermo Economic Analysis and Optimization of Thermal Insulations


R.S. Mishra

165-172

24. Performance Analysis of Biogas Run Dual- Fueled Diesel Engine


S. Lalhriatpuia, Kunal Kumar Bose and Diwakar Gurung

173-180

25. An Empirical Study on Problems & Risks Faced by Indian


Small & Medium-Sized Enterprises
Ravinder Kumar, Shikhar Saxena and Ashish Kumar Aggarwal

181-190

26. Vibration Response of Finite Element Modeled FGM Plate n


Thermal Environment
Sanjay Singh Tomar and Mohammad Talha

191-198

27. Offshore Wind Resource Evaluation of Four Locations in Indian Ocean


Garlapati Nagababu, Surendra Singh Kachhwaha and Vimal Savsani

199-206

(vi)

28. Job Shop Scheduling Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm


Rohitash Singh and Ajai Jain

207-214

29.Optimisation of Ultrasound Assisted Enzymatic Interesterification


Biodiesel Production by Taguchi Methods
Onkar and Amit Pal

215-222

30. Numerical Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade at Different


Angle of Attack and Reynold Numbers Using Ansys
Mohammad Zunaid, Md. Gulam Mustafa and Nausad Ahmad Ansari

223-228

31. Performance Evaluation of Fouled Evaporator Vapour


Compression System
Naveen Solanki, Akhilesh Arora and Raj Kumar Singh

229-236

32. Effect of Diethyl Ether and Biodiesel Blend on the Performance


and Emissions from a Diesel Engine
Mohit Kumar, Shashank Mohan and Amit Pal

237-246

33. Effect of Grain Size on Springback in V-Bending of


Interstitial Free Steel
Vijay Gautam, Rohit Shukla, Jitendra Singh and D. Ravi Kumarr

247-252

34. CFD Analysis and Optimisation of Operational Parameters for


an F1 Racing Car's Front Wing to Maximize Its Aerodynamic
Performance
Raj Kumar Singh, Mohammad Zunaid, Md. Gulam Mustafa and Jasmeet Singh

253-260

35. Mechanical Characterization of Epoxy Based Thermoses Polymer Composite


With Sugar Cane Trash Natural Filler
Naveen J and Veerendra Kumar A N

261-268

36. Recent Research Development in Micro Forming


Dhruv Anand and K R Patel

269-276

37. Effects of Cetane Improver on Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions


Nitesh Bansal, Rajiv Choudhary and R. C. Singh

277-282

38. Storage Stability of Biodiesel: A Review


Ashok Kumar Yadav, M. Emran Khan, Amit Pal and Alok Manas Dubey

283-288

39. Catalysts used in Biodiesel Production


Balbir Singh and Amit Pal

289-294

40. Biodiesel Production from WCO using Heterogeneous Catalyst


Balbir Singh and Amit Pal

295-302

41. CFD Analysis of Wavy Edge Rectangular Micro-Channel


Heat Sink at Different Reynolds Number
Mohammad Zunaid, Afzal Husain, Anant Jindal and Avinash Gupchup

303-308

(vii)

42. Availability Analysis of A Mechanical System With Load Sharing


Arrangement Using Semi-Markov Approach
Gaurav Khattar, Tushar Gupta and Girish Kumar

309-316

43. Go-Kart Chassis Analysis: Design Methodology Integrating


Revolutionary Safety Features
Aditya Natu

317-328

44. Performance Analysis of Solar Air Conditioning: A Review


Ashok Kumar Yadav, Vikram Pandey , Sachin Singh, Suyash Rai,
and Abhinav Verma

329-334

45. Thermodynamic Analysis of Different Desiccant Cooling Cycles


Ranjeet Kumar Jha and Durgesh Sharma

335-340

46. Evaluation of Static Fracture Toughness (KIc) of Al2014-T6


Sanjay Kumar and Vikrant Tiwari

341-346

47. Thermoeconomic Comparative Analysis of Constructal


and Conventional Heat Exchangers
Dr. Manjunath K.

347-360

48. Impact of Cutting Parameters on Tool Tip Temperature


in Turning Operation
Sagar Barvaliya and S. Jindal

361-368

49. A Review on Zeolite - Water Adsorption Refrigeration System


Navendu Srivastava, Rashi Srivastava, Ravi Shekhar Singh,
and Ashok Kumar Yadav

369-376

50. Application of Additives to Improve the Performance of


Biodiesel Fueled C.I. Engine: A Review
Siddharth Srivastava, Pragya Sharma, Gaurav Kumar Kanaujia,
and Ashok Kumar Yadav

377-382

51. Modeling and Analysis of Machining Parameters on Surface


Roughness and Cutting Force in Finish Dry Hard Turning
(FDHT) of AISI D2 Tool Steel by RSM Approach
Vaibhav Chandra, Umesh Khandey, Sudarshan Ghosh and P.V. Rao

383-392

52. Application of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies In


Indian SMEs: Opportunities and Challenges
Dimple Bhandari, Rajesh K. Singh and S.K Garg

393-402

53 Combustion Characteristics of Jatropha Biodiesel In A


Single Cylinder Diesel Engine
Hang Muk Cho and Bhupendra Singh Chauhan

403-408

(viii)

54. Production, Utilization and Performance of Diesel-BiodieselEthanol Blends in IC Engines


Neeraj Budhraja and Amit Pal

409-416

55. Kusum : A Potential Non Edible Feed Stock for Biodiesel Production
in India for 2016
Naveen Kumar Garg and Amit Pal

417-422

56. Review of Formula One Aerodynamic Devices


Salman Javed, Farhan Javed, Taha Bilal, Samsher Gautam and Tarun Mehra

423-436

57. Potential Research Study of Utilizing Water- Diesel Emulsion


In Diesel Engine An Overview
K R Patel and Dhruv Anand

437-444

58. Solving the Vendor Selection Problem Using Fuzzy Topsis


Pravin Kumar and Rajesh Kumar Singh

445-458

59. Sustainable Manufacturing System: Literature Review


Prashant Kumar Singh and Saurabh Agrawal

459-466

60. Design of Gear Train for Speed Magnification using the


Cumulative Effect of Compounded Sun-Planet Gear Train
Sameen Mustafa and Ateeb Ahmad Khan

467-470

61. Development of Polynomials for the Thermodynamic


Properties of Refrigerant R-134a.
Aseem Dubey

471-476

62. Comparison of Cooling Duty and Pressure Drop of Green


Secondary Refrigerant (Ice Slurry) with Chilled Water
in a Plate Heat Exchanger
Rajinder Singh and Surendra Singh Kachhwaha

477-484

63. Experimental Investigation of the Performance Characteristics


of a Spark Ignition Engine by Varying the Compression Ratio
P. Goyal, S.K. Sharma and Amit Pal

485-490

64. Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing Performance : An Experimental


and CFD Approach
Paras Kumar and Ashish Gupta

491-496

65. Characteristic Behavior Effect of Al 6061 By Tic in Metal


Matrix Composites (Mmcs)
Dr. S.K. Dhakad, Dr. Pankaj Agarwal and Utkrash Pandey

497-504

66. Design & Development of a Fixture to Study Biaxial


Behavior of Engineering Materials in Tension
Vijay Gautam, Rakesh Singla and Sunil Kumar

505-512

(ix)

67. Experimental Studies and Fe-Simulations on Spring Back


In U-bending of Deep Draw Quality Steel Sheet
Vijay Gautam and Jitender Singh Rajawat

513-520

68. Energy Analysis and Parametric Study of Flat Pate Collector Area
of a Solar Driven Water-Lithium Bromide Half Effect V Apour
Absorption Refrigeration System for a Given Cooling Load
Abhishek Verma, Akhilesh Arora and R.S. Mishra

521-528

69. Key Technologies of using Hydrogen as a IC Engine


Fuel in Indian Scenario
Gurpreet Singh and Amit Pal

529-536

70. Optimization of EDM Process Parameters with Al-8% SiC


Composite Produced by Stir Casting Route
Pankaj Kumar Sharma, Vijay Gautam and Atul Kumar Agrawal

537-542

71. Search for Ecofriendly Alternatives Refrigerants in Vapour


Compression Refrigeration Systems for Reducing Global
Warming and Ozone Depletion
R. S. Mishra

543-546

72. Modelling of Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems Using Ecofriendly


Alternatives Refrigerants in Primary Circuit and Nano Based Brine (R718)
in Secondary Circuit for Reducing Global Warming and Ozone Depletion
R. S. Mishra

547-552

73. Formability Characterisation of AISI202 Stainless Steel


Prahlad Tewari, Vijay Gautam and D Ravi Kumar

553-560

74. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Formability of Aa1200


Manoj Kumar, Suresh Kumar , Vijay Gautam and Prahlad Tewari

561-568

75. Bio-Diesel Derived from Waste Vegetable Oil as an Alternative Fuel


for Diesel Engine: A Review
Shiv Kumar Ray and Om Prakash

569-576

76. Heat Transferin Microchannel Heat Sink: Review


Sunny Chandra and Om Prakash

577-584

77. Low-Cost Manufacturing and Implementation of an Optimized Model


of Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbine and Test Bed Assembly
Suyash Nigam, Tanmay Nema, Vansh Sharma, Shubham Bansal
and Raj Kumar Singh

585-592

78. Engineering Mathematical Assessment of Buckling Effect on the


Mechanical Pumps Column-Beam Structure During Crude
Deportation Through the Bore Well
L. N Das and R.K. Singh

593-598

(x)

79. Design of a Mechanical Hexapod using Klann Mechanism


Akshay Kaushika and Raj Kumar Singh

599-602

80. Exprimental Study of Two Stroke Engine on Variation of Exhaust


Pipe Diameter
Rajashekhar Sardagi

603-608

81. Automatic Turn-Off Indicator System for Vehicle Safety in two Wheelers
Jasminder Singh, Mudit Aggarwal and Prajay Lohani

609-614

82. Fuzzy Method for the Selection of Suitable Feed Stock for
the Production of Biodiesel
Kiran Pal and Naveen Kumar Garg

615-618

83. Effect Of Friction Coeficient On En-31with Different


Pin Materials Using Pin-On-Disc Apparatus
Ramakant Rana, R. S. Walia and Manik Singla

619-624

84. Clean India Mission: Issues and Challenges


Kiran Pal, Tulika Srivastav and Manish Jain

625-630

85. Biodiesel Feedstock in India: A Review


Sanjay Mohite, Sudhir Kumar, Sagar Maji and Amit Pal

631-640

86. CFD Analysis of Single Phase Turbulent Flow with Forced


Convection Heat Transfer inside a Circular Micro-Channel
Shubham Srivastava and Raj Kumar Singh

641-652

87. Experimental Assessment of Waste Vegetable Oil As Alternative


Dielectric Fluid in Electric Discharge Machining
Nitesh Kumar and Manoj Kumar

653-662

88. Review on Morphology and Microstructure Analysis of


MGO Reinforced Al Composites For Rame 2016
Surabhi Lata, Nitish Kumar Verma, Chetan Singh ,
Roop Lal and Ramakant Rana

663-670

89. Harmonic Analysis of First Stage Gas Turbine Blade Made of 1N738 alloy
Sushila Rani and Atul K Agrawal

671-680

90. Corrosion and its Remedy in Dry Type Fire Sprinkler System in
LPG Bottling Plant: A Case Study:
Arpit Vashist and K. Srinivas

681-688

91. A Review of Solar Energy Utilization System


Dheeraj Kumar and Om Prakash

689-694

92. Current World and Indian Energy Scenario: The Challenges


of Achieving 175 gw of Renewable Energy by 2022.
Anubhav Uppa and J P Kesari

695-702

(xi)

93. Engine Performance Parameter and Combustion


Characteristics for Biodiesel: A Review
Amrik Singh, Amit Pal, Deepanjali Nimker, Harwinder Singh and S. Maji

703-712

94. A Literature Review of Hydrogen Production From Biomass Gasification


Koushik Maji, P. Goyal and Amit Pal

713-718

95. Performance Analysis of CI Engines Using Biodiesel-Diesel Blends


Shashank Mohan, Amit Pal and RS Mishra

719-726

96. Split and Recombination Micromixer with Offset Inlets


Farhan Ahsan Khan, Noorul Huda, Afzal Husain,
Mohammad O. Hamdan and M. A. Ansari

727-732

97. Thermal Performance and Emission Test of CI Engine Using Biodiesel


Produced from Waste Cooking Oil Blend With Diesel
Jatinder Kataria, S.K. Mohapatra and K. Kundu

733-742

98. A Comparative Study on Electronic Design Automation Tools


Neeta Pandey, Shruti Dutta and Naman Saxena

743-749

(xii)

RAME-2016
Oct. 14 & 15.

Fabrication of Al6082/ZrO2 Surface Composite


by Friction Stir Processing
N. Yuvaraj and Vipin

Abstract- Nowadays surface composites are given more attention in fabrication of service life of the
components. In this present work, Friction stir processing (FSP) was used to fabricate the surface composite on
Al6082 alloy with ZrO2 particles. Aluminum with four different volume % fractions of ZrO2 reinforcement
particles were used to synthesize the composite. The microhardness and tensile properties of the surface
composites and base alloy were investigated. Microstructural observations and fractured tensile surface of the
composite layer were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope. The results show that the hardness and
tensile strength of the composite produced by 15 % ZrO2 composite was higher than other volume percentage of
ceramic surface composites.
Keywords- Friction stir processing (FSP); ZrO2: Tensile; Hardness

ntroduction The conventional aluminum alloys does not provide the sufficient properties under all
service conditions, which are overcome by reinforcing those alloys with ceramic particles. Aluminum
based Metal Matrix Composites are used in automotive, aircraft and structural applications. Various
methods are used for fabricating the Aluminum matrix composites such as Thermal Spraying, Laser Beam
Techniques, Powder metallurgy, stir casting, pressure less infiltration, squeeze casting, and compo casting [12]. All these methods are difficult to reinforcing the ceramic particles in the matrix due to poor bonding between
reinforcement and matrix. Recently great attention has been paid for the new composite fabricating technique
named friction stir processing based on the Friction stir welding (FSW) [3]. In the FSP process, the rotating tool
non consumable tool with shoulder and specially designed tool pin is inserted in a work piece. The heating is
accomplished by friction between the tool shoulder and the work and pin causes intense stirring of the material.
The localized heating softens the material around the pin and translation leads to movement of material from the
front of the pin to the back of the pin causes intense stirring of the matrix and reinforcement material. M. Salehi
et al. [4] studied the process parameters for producing Al6061/SiC composites by FSP method and found that
rotational speed is most influential parameter. A. Devaraju et al. [5] found that the SiC and Graphite particles are
greatly influenced on wear & mechanical properties of aluminum hybrid composites via FSP. S. Shahraki et al.
[6] reported that rotational speed and traverse speed of the FSP are greatly influenced for fabrication of
Al5083/ZrO2 surface composites. F. Khodabakhshi et al. [7] reported that the hardness and yield strength of
FSPed Al-Mg/TiO2 surface composites was increased with increasing the volume fraction of TiO2 particles in
the composites. C. Maxwell Rejil et al. [8] reported that FSP of Al6360/TiC/B4C composite surface layer has
lower wear rate than base material. Both the TiC and B4C particles behaved as one type of reinforcement
particles which is difficult to be achieved by conventional liquid processing route due to segregation. N.Yuvaraj

N. Yuvaraj and Vipin


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110 042, India
e-mail: yuvraj@dce.ac.in, Tel:+91987153668
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Yuvaraj and Vipin

et al. [9] studied the effect of number of passes on the surface nano composite fabricated through FSP technique.
A.Thangarasu et al. [10] studied the effect of different volume content of TiC particles in the Al6082/TiC
composite and found that with increase in TiC particles the hardness of the composite was increased. Zirconium
di boride (ZrO2) ceramics have a high melting point, high hardness, high electrical conductivity, excellent
corrosion resistance and excellent thermal shock resistance [11]. In the present study, FSP technique is used to
fabricate the Al6082/ZrO2 surface composite. The effects of hardness and tensile properties of the surface
composite were investigated.
2. Materials And Methods
Al6082-T6 alloy of 6 mm thickness and commercially available ZrO2 powder size of 10m were used as
substrate and particulates. The chemical composition (%) of the base metal is 1.2Si, 0.78Mn, 0.75Mn, 0.4Fe,
0.15Cr and rest Al. The plates were cut into rectangular pieces of 180 mm80 mm6 mm. Four different groove
width sizes of 0mm, 0.5mm, 1.0mm and 1.5mm & constant 3mm depth of four such plates were prepared, in
order to get the different volume fraction (0, 5, 10% and 15%) of the particles in the composite. The volume
fractions of the particles are calculated based on the formula mentioned below [12].

The particles were mixed with acetone and packed on the groove tightly. Then the substrates were fixed in the
hydraulic fixture of the FSW machine (11 kW& 40KN). Fig. 1 shows the typical FSP experimental setup.

Figure 1. FSP Experimental setup

Non-consumable cylindrical threaded tool made of H-13 steel were used to perform the FSP. The
shoulder diameter, pin diameter and pin length were 18 mm, 6 mm and 5mm respectively. The
shoulder tilt angle was fixed at 1. In order to prevent scattering of ZrO2 powder and its ejection
from groove during the process, groove's gap initially was closed with pinless tool. Three FSP
passes were carried out for uniform mixing of the reinforcement particles in the matrix.
2

Fabrication of Al6082/ZrO2 Surface Composite by Friction Stir Processing


The tensile specimens were extracted from the surface composites along the FSP direction as per ASTM: E8/E8
M-011 standard by wire cut electrical discharge machining. Figure 2 (a) shows the tensile specimen extracted
from the FSP region and (b) shows the schematic sketch of tensile specimen. The tensile test was conducted
with universal testing machine (Tinius Olsen H50KS) at strain rate 1mm/min. Hardness testing was carried out
on Microhardness tester with test load of 100 gm and dwell time of 10 sec. Micro structural characterization was
observed on Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) (Hitachi S3700).

Figure 2. (a) Tensile specimen extracted from the FSP region and (b) Schematic sketch of tensile
specimen.
3. Results And Discussions
Hardness
Figure 3 shows the SEM images of the different percentage of volume content of reinforcement composite
samples. It clearly indicates that the ceramic particles are distributed in uniform and homogeneous manner in
the matrix due to increase in FSP passes. Figure 4 shows the hardness values of the cross section of the
composite surface and base material. For experimental purpose, the average of three hardness value was taken
for all the samples. The hardness of the 15% ZrO2 specimen is higher than other Vol % of ZrO2 composite
samples. Composite sample exhibited increase in hardness by 37%, and the base material hardness was 802
Hv.

Figure 3 SEM micrograph of Al6082/ZrO2 surface composite


There was an increase in microhardness of the friction stir processed composite as compared base alloy. This

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Yuvaraj and Vipin

might be attributed to effective formation of refined grain structure due to the restrain of grain boundary and the
enhancement of the induced strain. Similar types of results are reported by various researchers [13-14]. As per
Hall petch relationship smaller grain size of the matrix has higher the hardness [15]. In addition uniform
dispersion of reinforcement particles in the matrix and good bonding between the matrix and reinforcement
enhances the hardness. With increase in number of passes and changing of tool direction between passes
increases the good bonding of ceramic particles with matrix also responsible for enhancement of hardness.

Figure 4. Effect of ZrO2 (vol%) content on microhardness of Al6082/ZrO2 surface composite


Tensile strength
Figure 5 shows the tensile results of the base alloy and composite samples. The 15% ZrO2 particles consists
composite sample has the maximum tensile strength value of 340Mpa. Similar type of results reported for
FSPed Al/6082/TiC composite samples [10]. The tensile strength is increasing with increase in % of ceramic
particles. The major contributions for enhancement of the mechanical properties of the surface composite is due
to fine grain size of matrix and load transfer from matrix to hard reinforcements. Figure 6 shows tensile tested
sample factography of the base alloy and composite sample. In base material larger size of dimples observed, in
the composite sample finer size of the dimples with some ceramic particles observed. It shows the composite
sample having good tensile properties with finer refinement of grain size and dispersion of the reinforcements.

Figure 5. Effect of ZrO2 (vol%) content on Tensile strength of Al6082/ZrO2 surface composite
4. Conclusion
In this study the effects of reinforcement particles on hardness and tensile strength of Al/ZrO2 surface composite
were fabricated through FSP and the following conclusions can be drawn.
1. Al-ZrO2 composite specimen exhibits with higher hardness and better tensile properties when compare to
base material.
2. ZrO2 particles are strengthened the Aluminum matrix composite. With increase in volume fraction of the

Fabrication of Al6082/ZrO2 Surface Composite by Friction Stir Processing


reinforcement particles in the matrix the mechanical properties of the composite was increased.
3. The composite specimens contains 15% ZrO2 has higher hardness of 110Hv and tensile strength of
340Mpa. Base material hardness and tensile strength were 80Hv and 302Mpa respectively.
4. Finer refinement of the grain size and uniform dispersion of reinforcement particles in the matrix are
responsible for enhancement of mechanical properties of the composite.

Figure 6. Tensile fractured surface of (a) Base Material (b) Al/15% ZrO2 surface composite
References
[1] D.B. Miracle, (2005) Metal matrix compositesFrom science to technological significance,
Composites Science and Technology Vol. 65, pp. 25262540, 2005.
[2] A.V. Muley, S. Aravindan, and I.P. Singh, Nano and hybrid aluminum based metal matrix composites:
an overview, Manufacturing Review. Vol. 2, pp. 1-13, 2015.
[3] V. Sharma, U. Prakash, and B.V.M. Kumar, Surface composites by friction stir processing: A review,
Journal of Materials Processing Technology Vol. 224, pp. 117-134, 2015.
[4] M. Salehi, M. Saadatmand, and J. A. Mohandesi, Optimization of process parameters for producing
AA6061/SiC Nano composites by friction stir processing, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, Vol. 22,
pp 1055-1063, 2012.
[5]
A. Devaraju, A.Kumar, and B. Kotiveerachari, Inuence of rotational speed and reinforcement on wear
& mechanical Properties of aluminium hybrid composites via FSP, Materials and Design, Vol. 45, pp.
576585, 2013.
[6] S. Shahraki, S. Khorasani, R.A. Behnagh, Y. Fotouhi, and H. Bisadi, Producing of AA5083/ZrO2
Nanocomposite by Friction Stir Processing (FSP), Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Vol. 44,
pp. 1546-1553, 2013.
[7] F. Khodabakhshi, A. Simchi, A.H. Kokabi, M. Nosko, F. Simancik, and P. Svec, Microstructure and
texture development during friction stir processing of Al-Mg alloy sheets with TiO2 nano particles,
Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 605, pp. 108-118, 2014.
[8] C. M. Rejil, I. Dinaharan, S.J. Vijay, and N. Murugan, Microstructure and sliding wear behavior of
AA6360/(TiC + B4C) hybrid surface composite layer synthesized by friction stir processing on aluminum

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[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]
[15]

Yuvaraj and Vipin

substrate, Materials Science and Engineering A Vol. 552, pp. 336-344, 2012.
N. Yuvaraj, S. Aravindan, and Vipin, Fabrication of Al5083/B4C surface composite by friction stir
processing and its tribological characterization, Journal of Materials Research Technology, Vol. 4, pp.
398-410, 2015.
A. Thangarasu, N. Murugan, I. Dinaharan, and S.J. Vijay, Synthesis and characterization of titanium
carbide particulate reinforced AA6082 aluminium alloy composites via friction stir processing,
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 15, pp. 324-334, 2015.
H. Zhu, J. Min, Y.L. Ai, D.C.H. Wang, and H. Wang, The reaction mechanism and mechanical
properties of the composites fabricated in an AlZrO2C system. Materials Science and Engineering A,
Vol. 527, pp 61786183, 2010.
R. Sathiskumar, N. Murugan, I. Dinaharan, and S.J. Vijay, Characterization of boron carbide particulate
reinforced in situ copper surface composites synthesized using friction stir processing, Materials
Characterization, Vol. 84, pp. 16 27, 2013.
M. Amra, K. Ranjbar, and R. Dehmolaei, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Behavior of CeO2 and
SiC incorporated Al5083 Alloy Surface Composites, Journal of Materials and Engineering and
Performance, Vol. 24, pp. 3169-3179, 2015.
N. Yuvaraj, S. Aravindan, and Vipin, Wear Characteristics of Al5083 Surface Hybrid Nano-composites
by Friction Stir Processing, Trans. Ind. Inst. Met., DOI10.1007/s12666-016-0905-9, 2016.
H. Izadi, R. Sandstrom, and A.P. Gerlich, Grain Growth Behavior and HallPetch Strengthening in
Friction Stir Processed Al 5059, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 45A, pp. 5635-5644,
2014.

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Comparison of Micro-Hardness in Dry and


Thermal Assisted Machining on Turning
of EN8 Steel.
Nitin Sehra, Jasvinder Singh, Sandeep Sharma
and Mohit Gaba

Abstract-With the advancement in technologies, the need for high strength and wear resisted materials is
rising. But the difficulty has been found in machining these materials efficiently, due to their extra strong
properties as compared to conventional materials. Advanced high-strength materials offer a huge application
potential within highly stressed components in various industrial areas. But their machinability is still limited
when applying established and conventionally available technologies. An alternative pathway to achieving
greater tool life is thermally assisted machining (TAM). This approach is seemingly contradictory to the
traditional method and instead relies on introducing heat from an external source to reduce the work piece
material's strength and hardness, thereby reducing cutting forces and making the material easier to machine. In
present research to investigate experimentally the role of thermal assisted machining on various parameters at
recommended speed, feed and depth of cut, and to compare the effectiveness of dry machining with thermal
assisted machining on EN-8 steel. The objective of present work is concluded and recorded that as there is
temperature involved in the process, it is expected to raise the micro hardness of the
material.
Keywords- Microhardness, Thermal Assisted Machining, Orthogonal Array

ntroduction Metal cutting is one of the most important methods of removing unwanted material in the
production of mechanical components. In metal cutting process in which a wedge shaped, sharp edged tool
is set to a certain depth of cut and moves relative to the work piece. Under the action of force, pressure is
exerted on the work piece metal causing its compression near the tip of the tool. The metal undergoes shear type
deformation and a piece or layer of metal gets repeated in the form of a chip. If the tool is continued to move
relative to work piece, there is continuous shearing of the metal ahead of the tool.
Over US$ 100 billion is spent annually worldwide on metal part finishing processes such as turning, milling,
boring and other cutting operations. It is envisaged that up to 20% savings should be possible by using the
correct choice of tooling and machining conditions [1].The metal working is used in machining which help to
increases tool life due to decrease in friction and heat generation at the machining zone. Cutting fluid may be

Nitin Sehra,
Mechanical and automation Engineering, Assistant Professor, NIEC, New Delhi (INDIA)
nitinsehra441@gmail.com
Jasvinder Singh
Assistant Professor, Mechanical and automation Engineering Department, NIEC, New Delhi (INDIA)
baaz_singh1987@yahoo.co.in
Prof. Sandeep Sharma1 and Mohit Gaba2
Professor1 , Assistant Professor2 , Mechanical Engineering Department, Asra College of Engg. & Technology,
Bhawanigarh (India)
sandeepsswastik2002@yahoo.co.in1 , asramemohit@gmail.com2 Contact No.:+91- 99962-90918, +91- 9253872990

PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, DTU


DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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Sehra et al.

significantly affecting the cutting temperature at interface of tool and work material.
1.1 Metal Working Fluid (MWF)
Metal Cutting fluids/ Metal working fluids are usually classified into four main categories: straight oils, water
soluble oils, synthetics, and semi-synthetics. The base oil used for straight and water soluble cutting fluids is
usually petroleum based, whereas synthetics are water based solutions of complex organics and contain no
mineral oil. Semi-synthetics are a combination of both synthetic and mineral oils. Straight oils are applied
undiluted, while water soluble, synthetic, and semi-synthetic fluids are usually diluted in water. In general,
dilutions are between 1% and 20% cutting fluid concentrate in water, with 5% being the most common.
As cutting fluids are complex in their composition, they may be irritant or allergic. Even microbial toxins are
generated by bacteria and fungi present, particularly in water-soluble cutting fluids, which are more harmful to
the operators. To overcome these challenges, various alternatives to petroleum-based MWFs are currently
being explored by scientists and tribologists. The major negative effect is particularly linked to their
inappropriate use, which results in surface water and groundwater contamination, air pollution, soil
contamination, and consequently, agricultural product and food contamination. So, to eliminate the use of metal
working fluids several new techniques are being investigated. The techniques like Dry Machining, Minimum
Quantity Lubrication and Thermal assisted Machining.
1.2 Thermal Assisted Machining
Workpiece temperature plays an important role in the chip formation during the metal cutting process as it
affects the material deformation. The large amount of energy generated due to the bulk deformation and friction
is almost exclusively converted to thermal energy, leading to high chip and tool cutting temperatures.
Temperature in the workpiece is especially important when thermally enhanced machining is used. The effects
of externally applied heat sources on the temperature distribution of the workpiece must be known. Peak
temperatures must be known so that thermal damage is prevented or minimized in the workpiece surface, and
the temperature must be known at the cutting point to control the process. TAM improves the machinability of
titanium alloys though a reduction in cutting forces, typically reported between 15% to 50% [3]. TAM shows
that 80% of the flank wear and 60% of the crater wear have been reduced 4[]. Laser Assisted Machining (LAM)
of Inconel 718 reported a reduction of tool wear by 40%, cutting force by 18% and increase in metal removal
rate by 33% 5[].
Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of thermal assisted machining. A heat source is normally used in thermal
assisted machining, as the assistance of thermal energy helps to soften the material, and thus easy removal of
metal. A heat source is normally introduced near the cutting tool while machining, at a constant temperature,
and softens the material while cutting. This process is normally used in hard to machine materials, as
conventional process would lead to premature tool failure, and causes irregularities in surface morphology,
which is obviously unwanted. For precision works a good surface finish is highly required, and ease of

Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of Thermal Assisted Machining [].


machining could cause a lesser tool wear. Thermal assisted machining helps in ease of machining, and increase
machinability.

Comparison of Micro-Hardness in Dry and Thermal .......

1.2.1 Advantages of TAM


w Decreased tool wear
w Surface Integrity and Part quality
w Environmentally-friendly green manufacturing
w No More Hazardous Coolants
w Low Overhead Charges
w Sustainable Manufacturing
2. Experimentation

Figure 2. Thermal Assisted Machining


for the present experimental studies, EN 8 steel were plain turned in a rigid and powerful HMT lathe by carbide
inserts CNMG12408 at industrial speedfeed combinations under both dry and thermal assisted machining
conditions.
Since there was not any mechanism to control the temperature, a temperature range has been selected 3800 C to
4300 C. the temperature was continuously measured using an infrared thermometer. The experimental
conditions are given in Table 1.
The ranges of the cutting velocity, depth of cut and feed rate were selected based on the tool manufacturer's
recommendation and industrial practices
2.1. Experimentation Setup
Table 1. Experimental Conditions

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The present experiment is performed on EN8 steel material to investigate the effect of thermal assisted
machining processes by the varying different input parameters. In this experiment, the technique used for
introducing the heat to cutting zone is by Butane torch.
Figure 3. Thermal Assisted Machining Setup
Table 2.Experimental Data

10

Comparison of Micro-Hardness in Dry and Thermal .......


The experimental set up consists of a butane torch, Pressure gauge, and flow control valve shown in Figure 3.
Table 3. Orthogonal Array

The Detail of the experiments performed is represented by the following Table 2.


2.2 Design of Experimentation
A total of 18 experiments based on Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array were carried out with different combinations
of the levels of the input parameters as shown in Table 2. In this experimental work, the assignment of factors
will be carried out using L9 orthogonal array were conducted on Lathe machine for turning operations through
TAM technique and dry machining technique.
3. Results And Discussion
After all the experiments were completed the results were analyzed. The input factors cutting environment i.e
Thermal assisted and dry machining, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were varied at different levels, the
value of output parameters micro-hardness was recorded and plotted graphically. This study is made to
investigate the effects of thermal assisted machining and dry machining techniques on EN8 steel. According to
the design of experiment, different values of output parameters were measured by precisely relevant
instruments. The observations are detailed as per experimental results given below: From the results of
experimentation, the effect of dry and thermal assisted machining at different cutting speed and feed
combinations on output parameter micro-hardness rate is observed, explained and plotted in graphs.
3.1 Effects of dry and thermal assisted machining on Micro-hardness.
Micro hardness is measured with Digital Micro-hardness Tester Mvh-II .Test force of 500gm was used with a
holding time of 15 sec. micro-hardness was measured in HV units. Following graphs show the results of testing
in dry and thermal assisted machining environments. The graphs clearly reveal the effect of TAM on microhardness at various speed, feeds and depth of cut. At high depth of cut the values of micro-hardness increased

Figure 4. Micro-hardness at different machining parameters


otherwise there is no significant change in micro hardness is found as compared to dry in other input conditions.

11

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Sehra et al.

This is also beneficial as the EN8 steel is used for axle shafts, gears and nut bolts, surface hardness is required in
most of its application. Increase in micro-hardness is thus desirable.
4. Conclusion
In the present research, an investigation of effects of various input parameters was done on EN 8 steel. Due to
the ease in machining by application of heat. Heat softens the material and helps in easy removal of the material,
hence lesser tool wear, lesser cutting forces. As there is temperature involved in the process, it is expected to
raise the hardness of the material. So micro-hardness is taken as another parameter for this research. But as the
both processes i.e. dry machining and TAM involves heat, there is no significant increase in micro-hardness
comparatively.
References
1.
Ezugwu, E., Key improvements in the machining of difficult-to-cut aerospace superalloys. International
Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2005. 45(12): p. 1353-1367.
2.
Abdalla, H., et al., Development of novel sustainable neat-oil metal working fluids for stainless steel and
titanium alloy machining. Part 1. Formulation development. The International Journal of Advanced
Manufacturing Technology, 2007. 34(1-2): p. 21-33.
3.
Shivade, A.S., et al., Optimization of Machining Parameters for Turning using Taguchi Approach.
International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE) ISSN: p. 2277-3878.
4.
Baili, M., et al., An Experimental Investigation of Hot Machining with Induction to Improve Ti-5553
Machinability. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2011. 62: p. 67-76.
5.
Bermingham, M.J., et al., Tool life and wear mechanisms in laser assisted milling Ti6Al4V. Wear, 2015.
322323(0): p. 151-163.
6.
Rawat, U.M. and V. Potdar, A Review on Optimization of Cutting Parameters in Machining Using
Taguchi Method. International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE)
2014. ISSN: 2349-2163
7.
Amin, A.K.M.N., M.I. Hossain, and A.U. Patwari, Enhancement of Machinability of Inconel 718 in End
Milling through Online Induction Heating of Workpiece. Advanced Materials Research, 2011. 415417: p. 420-423.
8.
Jakhale Prashant, P. and B. Jadhav, Optimization of surface roughness of alloy steel by changing
operational parameters and insert geometry in the turning process. Int. J. Adv. Engg. Res. Studies, JulySept, 2013. 17: p. 21.
9.
Rebro, P.A., Y.C. Shin, and F.P. Incropera, Design of operating conditions for crackfree laser-assisted
machining of mullite. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2004. 44(7): p. 677694.
10.
Germain, G., P. Dal Santo, and J.-L. Lebrun, Comprehension of chip formation in laser assisted
machining. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2011. 51(3): p. 230-238.
11.
Pfefferkorn, F.E., et al., A metric for defining the energy efficiency of thermally assisted machining.
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2009. 49(5): p. 357-365.
12.
Chang, C.-W. and C.-P. Kuo, An investigation of laser-assisted machining of Al 2 O 3 ceramics planing.
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2007. 47(3): p. 452-461.
13.
Anderson, M., R. Patwa, and Y.C. Shin, Laser-assisted machining of Inconel 718 with an economic
analysis. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2006. 46(14): p. 1879-1891.
14.
Leshock, C.E., J.-N. Kim, and Y.C. Shin, Plasma enhanced machining of Inconel 718: modeling of
workpiece temperature with plasma heating and experimental results. International Journal of Machine
Tools and Manufacture, 2001. 41(6): p. 877-897.

12

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Synthesis Via


Enzymatic Interesterification
Onkar and Amit Pal

Abstract Biodiesel, being a greener energy fuel, is turning to a noteworthy alternative among all conventional
substitutes of fossil diesel. The conventional biodiesel production using chemical catalysts is a cost oriented
and involves many separation processes. The Interesterification of vegetable oils/fats uses alkyl acetates as a
reaction solvent and eliminates the need for glycerol separation but also produces a fuel additive triacetin (TA).
TA is completely soluble in biodiesel and also improves the fuel properties. The enzymes as a catalyst are
dominating over chemical catalysts due to their environmental benefits. Enzyme catalyzed biodiesel
production is carried out at normal reaction environments and biodiesel with high purity is obtained. The
ultrasonic assistance in the process significantly reduces the reaction completion time and thus eliminated the
major drawback of enzymatic production processes. Methyl acetate, ethyl acetate and higher alkyl acetates can
be used for interesterification of vegetable oils.
Keywords Biodiesel, enzyme, interesterification, ultrasonic, methyl acetate, triacetin.

ntroduction Biodiesel has an outstanding potential as an alternative to petroleum diesel fuel. Vegetable
oils or animal fats are the foremost sources of biodiesel feedstock, but all these are required in a highly
refined form for conventional biodiesel synthesis. Also, the production cost incurred in the vegetable oil is
quite high in itself, which further questions the economic feasibility of conventional biodiesel production. The
use of biocatalysts like lipase unable the use of relatively low quality feedstock like waste cooking oil,
vegetable oil with high FFA concentrationetc., for biodiesel synthesis [1].The use of biocatalysts for
transesterification has numerous advantages over chemical catalysts like moderate process environment, less
energy intensive, more environmentally sound, glycerol obtained is free from catalyst like KOH etc. and
therefore there is no need of complex operation to purify the glycerol, Easy elimination of catalyst from final
reaction mixture,immobilized biocatalysts can be reused several times.Although there are some limitations
associated with biocatalysts such as long process completion time, high cost of the biocatalyst, decreased
catalyst activity in the successive uses, a little change in process parameters has magnified Figure 1. Enzymatic
interesterification reaction of triglyceride with methyl acetateeffect on process yield [2].
The major limitations like longer process time and deactivation of catalyst sites are nullified by the ultrasound
assisted enzymatic interesterification. The interesterification process involves the reaction of alkyl acetate with
triglycerides instead of alkyl alcohols. Unlike alkyl alcohols, an increased alkyl acetate to oil molar ratio has no
effect on the biocatalyst activity. Ultrasound assisted process makes use of ultrasound waves to generate
disturbances on a micro level and have a much larger impact on the number of reactant collisions per unit time.
Whereas in conventional mechanical stirring the disturbances are produced on a macro scale which is not that
effective [3]. Therefore the process completion time for ultrasound assisted enzymatic process got reduced by
25-35 times of normal enzymatic process time. Apart this, a major advantage of the process is to yield a glycerol
Onkar and Amit Pal
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, India
(onkarrathee@gmail.com, amitpal@dce.ac.in)
Onkar,: 1065,Sector 3, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India), Tel:+911262285856
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
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13

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Onkar and Pal

free end product i.e., a mixture of FAME and triacetin. The triacetin is soluble in biodiesel and used as fuel
additive too. The presence of triacetin in FAME has negligible effects on the biodiesel fuel properties.

Figure 1. Enzymatic interesterification reaction of triglyceride with methyl acetate


2. Enzymatic Interesterification
The process of biodiesel synthesis from triglycerides by reaction with alkyl acetates producing alkyl esters of
fatty acids i.e. biodiesel along with a byproduct triacetin instead of glycerol, is termed as inter-esterification.
The byproduct triacetin need not be separated out and it is indeed a fuel solvent for FAME unlike glycerol [4].
The biocatalyst used here can be immobilized lipase or raw lipase. The lipase used can be derived from
Pseudomonas sp.,Candida Antarctica, P. fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fragi,
Pseudomonas cepacia, Candida rugosa, Rhizopusdelemar, Bacillus sp. etc. [3].All the above mentioned lipases
are bacteria derived. We can also use the plant sourced lipase too but they are not that popular.The major
technical advantage of enzyme catalyzed interesterification is that the waste cooking oil as feedstock can also
produce higher yields. This significantlyreduces the biodiesel cost to a huge extent if waste cooking oil is used
as feedstock. Using with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor byproduct formed is triacetin instead of glycerol as in
the case of conventional trans-esterification. As compared to glycerol triacetin has great commercial value
because it is widely used as an additive in the pharmaceutical, tobacco and cosmetic industry [1]. Moreover, if
triacetin is not separated and left as it is in the final reaction product, it doesn't degrade the biodiesel fuel
properties much.

Figure . Ultrasonic assisted interesterification setup


Also, no adverse effect of triacetin has been noticed on enzyme activity, unlike glycerol where the risk of
inhibited enzyme activity by glycerol covering remains persists. [3].
3. Key Process Variables
In most of the research works published, interesterification is carried out in batches using stirred tank reactors.
The ultrasonic assisted process makes use of a bioreactor with condenser arrangement to avoid alkyl acetate
loss, a separation funnel, ultrasonic generator with the horn. The reactor is provided a cooling bath to maintain
the constant process temperature as ultrasonic waves tend to increase the process temperature [5]. Some
researchers suggested the packed bed reactor operation too. Obviously, packed bed reactors offer a continuous
biodiesel production without a need to separate the catalyst [3].
The key operational variables in ultrasonic assisted interesterification are process temperature, enzyme

14

Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Synthesis Via Enzymatic Interesterification


loading, methyl acetate to oil molar ration (MAOMR), reaction time, ultrasonic power and duty cycle.
The reaction temperature is responsible for the mean kinetic energy of the reactant molecules and necessary
activation energy. As the triglyceride molecules involved in interesterification are of a much bigger size and
therefore, a high process temperature is obviously preferred for higher yield. But the lipase activity poses the
limit to maximum reaction temperature because lipase being a microorganism can't survive over a particular
temperature. The maximum temperature of the process varies from 400C - 600C and depend on the species from
which lipase is derived. Maddikeri et al. [1] investigated the process yield at temperature variations of 300C,
400C and 500C at MAOMR of 12:1 and catalyst loading of 1% by weight of oil using Novozyme lipase as
catalyst. The maximum yield 93% is obtained at temperature 500C with successive decreased yields of 88% and
78% for 400C and 300C process temperature respectively in 30 min. Subedharet al. [6] reported different results
for temperature variation of 300C, 400C and 500C using Lipozyme TL 1M lipase as enzyme and investigated
ultrasound process parameters as 180 min. reaction time, 400C temperature, 3% (w/v) catalyst loading,
MAOMR 9:1, 20kHz frequency, 80 W power with 60% duty cycle with a biodiesel yield of 96.1%. The data
depicts that the enzyme activity is very sensitive to process temperature and maximum process temperature is a
key property of species of lipase enzyme.
The enzyme loading is the amount of enzyme introduced to the process. Some researchers define it as x% by
weight of triglyceride, i.e., wt./wt. relation whereas many as y% by volume of triglyceride i.e., wt./vol. relation.
Subedhar et al. [6]investigated the yield for enzyme loading variation of 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% wt./vol. and
concluded 3% wt./vol. of Lipozyme TL 1M lipase enzyme loading as optimum. Maddikeri et al. [1] reported
1% wt./wt. of Novozym lipase enzyme loading as optimum out of 0.5%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25%. It can be seen
that for the case of optimum enzyme loading, a weighty conclusion is troublesome as compared to the case of
conventional alkali (e.g.,. KOH) catalyzed transesterification i.e., 1% wt./wt. There should be a different unit
for the enzyme loading which should not show huge variations. The enzyme loading expressed in 'No.
ofenzyme units per unit wt. of triglyceride' i.e., U/gm. can be used for measuring the enzyme loading. Instead,
U/mole would be more specific. The 1 enzyme unit (U) is defined as the amount that catalyzes the 1mol of
substrate transformation per minute under standard conditions where the standard condition are meant to the
optimum conditions for enzyme activity.
The methyl acetate to oil molar ratio (MAOMR) required is 3:1 as per the reaction stoichiometry. But the
reaction is reversible in nature and to shift the equilibrium to product side there is a need to add excess methyl
acetate. Maddikeri et al. [1]investigated process yield for MAOMR from 4:1 to 14:1. The trend shows an
increased process yield for an increase in MAOCR except for the case when it goes from 12:1 to 14:1. A yield of
90% is reported for 12:1 MAOMR in 30 min. at 400C process temperature and 1% enzyme loading. The results
obtained by Subhedar at el. [6] depicted a decreased reaction yield of 84% from 96.1% when MAOMR
increased from 9:1 to 12:1 and reported 9:1 MAOMR as optimum MAOMR for conventional
interesterification.
The marginal decrease in reaction time was reported when ultrasonic cavitation is used instead of a simple
magnetic stirrer. The ultrasonic waves produced by generator horn induces the intense turbulence on a
microscopic level and liquid acoustic streaming across the reaction medium and increases the frequency of
collisions among reactants. Thus this induced turbulence leads to a shorter reaction time for ester conversion.
Whereas in the case of conventional enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel, no such turbulence is introduced.
However, turbulence is there due to magnetic stirrer but on a macro scale [3]. Thus even after mechanical
stirring in conventional enzymatic interesterification, the reaction rates are very high. Subhedar et al. [6]
investigated a reaction time of 25 hours for a conventional enzymatic process yield of 90.1% at MAOMR 12:1.
Xu et al. reported [7] a yield of 67% in 36 hours at 400C from interesterification of refined soybean oil with
MAOMR of 20:1 and Novazym as a catalyst. Immobilized Candida Antarctica, catalyzed interesterification
yields 80% FAME for 20:1 MAOMR. The process time of just 30 min.is investigated by Maddikeri et al. [1]
with a process yield of 90% for MAOMR 12:1 when ultrasonic cavitation is used.
It is obvious that the increase in ultrasonic power will increase the rate of energy supplied to the reaction
mixture, so the microscopic turbulence. This increase energy supply should increase the reaction rate
proportionally, but it doesn't happen. Subhedar et al. [6] investigated the FAME yield for ultrasonic powers of
40W, 60W, 80W and 100W. A consistent increase in yield is noticed for an increase in power from 40W to 80W
and the increment in FAME yield reduces to negligibly small for further increase in power to 100W. Maddikeri

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Onkar and Pal

et al. [1] reported a consistent increase in yield when power is increased from 300W to 450W but a slight
decrease for further increase in power to 525W. Ji et al. [8] investigated for biodiesel yield for ultrasonic power
levels of 100W, 150W and 200W and found that an optimum FAME yield of 100% was obtained at 100W for
MAOMR 6:1 at 450C. An enhanced biodiesel yield is obtained for increase in ultrasonic power but up to a
certain level. But at higher ultrasonic power will decrease yield by deteriorating the enzyme configuration and
enzyme could be denatured.
The duty cycle is the ratio of time when ultrasonic generator is ON to the total operation time. For intense, a duty
cycle of 30% means the ultrasonic generator will remain ON for 3 sec then turned OFF for 7 sec. It is
advantageous to operate the ultrasound at a certain duty cycle as a continuous impact of ultrasonic irradiations
possibly deactivates the enzyme. The duty cycle is maintained between 40% - 70% as higher duty cycles are not
recommended by the equipment suppliers too for the proper functioning of equipment. Subhedar et al. [6]
reported a duty cycle of 60% for 180 min. process time with a FAME yield of 96.1%.
4. Reusability of Enzyme
One of the major technical advantages of the enzymatic process is the ability to reuse the immobilized enzyme.
The immobilized enzyme doesn't get dissolved in the substrate and remainssticking to the immobilization
media. It is screened after every use and washed with water followed by drying at 400C which can be used
further in next cycle. Zhang et al. [9] investigated the activity for Lipozym TL 1M and reported that only 20%
conversion was achieved after 6 cycles of use. Subhedar et al. [6] also reported that that only 25% of enzyme
activity was found after seven successive cycles. The use of ultrasound under optimum conditions does not
influence the enzyme activity in a significant manner but a little deterioration was there due to some changes in
the protein structure.
5. Contemporaneous Lipase Application
With the development of enzymatic processes opens up the availability of a range of lipase enzymes. The
feasibility of using more than one enzyme in the single reaction by immobilizing on one media is a new area of
research. Ibrahim et al. demonstrated the use of simultaneous two enzymes in a single reaction. They reported
the overall increased enzymatic reaction when Novozym 435 or Lipozym RM 1M was added with Lipozym TL
1M in the same interesterification reaction. They suggested that the immobilized enzyme was acted as a carrier
for another lipase enzyme [10].
6. Conclusion
A sound alternative to fossil fuels should be derived from renewable raw material, lesser environment impacts
and economically feasible production. The Enzymatic interesterification process of biodiesel production is
comparatively more environmentally sound, wider area for choice of feedstock, simplified production and
purification process and less energy intensive than the conventional transesterification of oils. Immobilization
and subsequent reuses can reduce the cost incurred with the enzyme.
The process time of enzymatic interesterification can be reduced to as low as 30 min. from 25-35 hrs. by using
ultrasound cavitation. Indeed, the enzyme loading also got reduced for ultrasonic assisted enzymatic
interesterification. The use of methyl acetate in interesterification process eliminates the possibility of enzyme
deactivation from methanol and glycerol in conventional transesterification. Also, the presence of triacetin in
FAME doesn't impact much on biodiesel fuel properties. The optimum temperature of interesterification
depends on the lipase species.
References
[1] Ganesh L. Maddikeri, Parag R. Gogate and Aniruddha B. Pandit, Intensified synthesis of biodiesel using
hydrodynamic cavitation reactors based on the interesterification of waste cooking oil, Fuel, vol. 137,
pp. 285292, 2014
[2] A. Robles-Medina, P. A. Gonzlez-Moreno, L. Esteban-Cerdn and E. Molina-Grima, Biocatalysis:
Towards ever greener biodiesel production, Biotechnology Advances, vol. 27, pp. 398408, 2009
[3] Roberta Claro da Silva, Fabiana Andreia Schaffer De Martini Soares, Thas Gonzaga Fernandes, Anna
Laura Donadi Castells, Kelly Caroline Guimaraes da Silva, Maria Ines Almeida Goncalves, Chiu Chih

16

Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Synthesis Via Enzymatic Interesterification


Ming, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo Goncalves and Luiz Antonio Gioielli, Inter-esterification of Lard and
Soybean Oil Blends Catalyzed by Immobilized Lipase in a Continuous Packed Bed Reactor, Journal of
the American Oil Chemists' Society, DOI 10.1007/s11746-011-1869-x, vol. 88, No. 12, pp. 1925-1923,
2011.
[4] C. Komintarachat, R. Sawangkeaw and S. Ngamprasertsith; Continuous production of palm biofuel
under supercritical ethyl acetate; Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 95, pp. 332-338, 2015
[5] Vishwanath G. Deshmane, Parag R. Gogate, and Aniruddha B. Pandit, Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis of
Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., vol.48, pp.79237927, 2009.
[6] Preeti B. Subhedar and Parag R. Gogate, Ultrasound assisted intensification of biodiesel production
using enzymatic interesterification, UltrasonicsSonochemistry, vol. 29, pp. 6775, 2016
[7] Y. Xu, Wei Du and D. Liu, Study on the kinetics of enzymatic interesterification of triglycerides for
biodiesel production with methyl acetate as the acyl acceptor, Journal of Mol. Cat. B: Enzymatic, vol. 32,
No. 5-6, pp. 241-245, 2005
[8] J. Ji, J. Wang, , Y. Li, Y. Yu and Z. Xu, Preparation of biodiesel with the help of ultrasonic and
hydrodynamic cavitation,Ultrasonics, vol. 44, pp. 411-414, 2006
[9]
J.C. Zhang, C. Zhang, L. Zhao and C.T. Wang, Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of sucrose fatty acid ester and
the mechanism of ultrasonic promoting esterification reaction in non-aqueous media, Adv. Mater. Res.,
vol. 881883, pp. 3541, 2014
[10] Hans C. Holm and D. Cowan, The evolution of enzymatic interesterification in the oils and fats industry,
Euro. Journal of life sci. and tech. DOI 10.1002/ejlt.200800100, vol. 110, No. 8, pp. 679-691, 2008.

17

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Overview of Carbon Nano Tubes


Navriti Gupta and Pushpendra

Abstract- In all manufacturing industries, tool cost accounts for about 50-55%. So, greater emphasis is given to
cutting tool cost and inventing newer tool coatings which significantly increases Tool life. Carbon is abundant
and unique element in periodic table. Not only in nano form it is also used in cutting tool industry as CBN,
industrial diamond .CBN is artificial diamond and has very high hardness, next only to natural
diamond.Reseach is going on how to use carbon nano coatings. Various synthesis techniques as PVD, CVD,
CCVD, Laser Ablation etc. are available to deposit carbon nano coatings on substrate. The challenge is yet to
develop a mechanism for large scale production of nano tubes. Further the quality of Nano tube obtained is also
important. Single walled Nano Tubes (SWCNT) is far more superior to MWCNT as far as their mechanical
properties are concerned. But they are purest form of carbon nano tubes and are difficult to obtain. Carbon nano
tubes are coiled grapheme tubes which possess a very high aspect (L/D) ratio. These carbon molecules are tiny
tubes with diameters down to 0.4 nm, while their lengths can grow up to a million times their diameter. They are
very light in weight and their toughness is very high. The carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for
the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is being tested. Advantage of superior
mechanical properties of the carbon nanotubes, can be taken by using them as fillers in epoxy resins.
Keywords- Carbon Nano Tube; Aspect Ratio; Diamond;Tool Coating; MWCNT,SWCNT.

NTRODUCTION One of most advanced manufacturing technology which is often labelled as


technology of future is Nanotechnology. It is often referred as Extreme Technology.It combines
miniturisation with precision. Nanotechnology covers the molecules having at least one dimension of
about 1100 nm. [1]
Carbon Nano Tubes are first discovered by Ijima[2] and since then their discovery has contributed a lot in
Physics, Chemistry and aterial Sciences.[3]
Carbon Nano tube are rolled up graphene tubes which can be found as either Single walled Carbon Nano Tubes
SWCNT or Multi walled Carbon Nano Tubes MWCNT. Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have well
defined atomic structure, have high length to diameter ratio,and higher chemical stability.[4]
However synthesis of SWCNT is big challenge because of greater control needed while yielding them .
However MWCNT are easier to synthesise but they are far inferior than SWCNT as far their physical properties
are concerned.

Figure 1. Graphene sheet rolled to form CNT


Navriti Gupta and Pushpendra
Mechanical Engineering Department, DTU, Delhi-110042, India
Navritigupta22@gmail.com, Corresponding Author; Tel: +919911541972
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)
19

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2. Synthesis of CNT
There are different techniques to synthesise SWCNT and MWCNT.
Previously very high temperature synthesis techniques as arc discharge method, laser ablation were used for
their synthesis, but nowadays low temperature synthesis thechniques as chemical vapour deposition (CVD)
techniques (<800) are abundantly used, as the latter process can be controlled better.[5]
Whatever types of CNTs are prepared by any above mentioned process, a number of impurities are present in
the CNTs. The extent of impurity will always depend upon the process of synthesis. Impurities present
generally are carbonaceous particles such as nanocrystalline graphite, amorphous carbon, fullerenes and
different metals (typically Fe, Co, Mo or Ni) that were introduced as catalysts during the synthesis.Therefore
one of fundamental challenge is to purify the CNTs.[6]
2.1 PVD Techniques:
These techniques involves deposition of carbon at very high temperatures.
2.1.1 ARC Discharge
Arc discharge processes use higher temperatures (above 1700 C) for CNT synthesis, as a result CNTs with
fewer structural defects are formed in comparison with other techniques.
Different catalytic precursors are used for the arc discharge deposition of CNTs.[7-8]
Usually the MWNTs are produced when no catalyst is used. On the other hand, the SWNTs are produced when
the transition metal catalyst is used.

Figure 2.Arc Discharge Method source: www.intechopen.com

2.1.2 Pulse Laser Deposition


Pulse Laser deposition (PLD) is dependant upon the laser properties as energy fluence, peak
power, repetition rate and oscillation wavelength, the structural and chemical structure of Target
workpiece, the chamber pressure, flow and pressure of the buffer gas, the substrate and ambient
temperature and the distance between the target and the substrate.Accelerated electrons are
discharged from cathode in short pulses ranging from milli to micro seconds.[9]

Figure 3: Pulse Laser Method Source:pubs.rsc.org

20

Overview of Carbon Nano Tubes


2.3 CVD Techniques
In 1996 a CVD method was invented for nanotube synthesis; 50 nm thick film of nanotubes that were highly
aligned perpendicular to the surface.[10]
This method is capable of controlling growth direction on a substrate. In this process a mixture of hydrocarbon
gas, acetylene, methane or ethylene and nitrogen is introduced into the reaction chamber. During the reaction,
nanotubes are formed on the substrate by the decomposition of the hydrocarbon at temperatures 700900 C
and atmospheric pressure [11]. Here the process is occurring at comparatively low temperatures.

Figure4: CVD Techniques Source:sites.google.com


3. Purification Of CNTs
Different post-growth treatments have been developed to purify the tubes and also to eliminate the defects in the
tubes. An ultrasonic bath method can be used to free many tubes from the particles that are originally stuck
together [12].
The smaller the particles the more difficult is the elimination. Impurities in MWNTs can be treated by oxidative
treatment by a liquid phase treatment in acidic environment. For SWNTs, methods are more complicated as
cross-flow filtration.
4. Properties oF CNTs
4.1 Physical Properties
The thermal vibrations of nanotubes can be used to find The Young's modulus of elasticity ; a very high average
value of 1.8 TPa was found by Wong et al. used a scanning force microscope [13-14].
The density of bundled nanotubes is 1.331.40 g/cm3, as compared with aluminium, possessing a density of 2.7
g/cm3 [15].
4.2 Electrical Properties
Carbon nano tubes are good conductors of electricity. Field emission is another good property of CNTs; they
emit electrons from their tips, when they are placed in an electrical field[16]
4.3 Thermal Properties
They possess good thermal properties and displays stability in vacuum up to 2800 C, and in air up to 750 C. is
6000W/mK at room temperature which is comparable with nearly pure diamond, which has 3320W/mK [17].
5. Application of CNTs
5.1 Genetic Engineering
The nanotubes conduct water at a rate similar to that of certain channels in the kidneys. These unusual transport
properties of carbon nanotubes might be used in biomedical applications, such as highly targeted drug delivery.
A carbon nanotube-tipped atomic force microscope can be used for tracing a strand of DNA and identify
chemical markers, used for gene identification.[18]
5.2 Aerospace And Automotive Industry
CNT have very high (L/D) or aspect ratio and has high strength combined with the low density which can be
used for the developing of a space elevator. Although this sounds a fancy but scientists are researching on
this.[19-20]

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Gupta and Pushpendra

5.3 Electronics And Chip Manufacturing


Essential devices like field-effect transistors (FET) have been developed using CNTs which have been termed
as carbon nanotube FET (CNT-FET).
The carbon nanotube-based devices operated at very low temperatures, with electrical characteristics
remarkably similar to silicon devices. [21]
6. Conclusions And Future Scope
CNTs are very promising materials of future engineering.They can be produced by high temperature processes
as PVD or low temperature processes as CVD.
Their mechanical properties are very promising strength comparable to diamond. Some researchers are using
them in Biomedicine and genetics. Also because of good semiconducting properties they are used for
developing microchips.
Their future usage includes developing Bullet-proof vests, Space elevators, Gene identifiers etc. Ijima et al. has
discovered revolutionary material as CNTs, for which he rightly got Nobel Prize in Physics in 1991.
References
[1]
A.G. Mamalis, L.O.G. Vogtlnder , A. Markopoulos. Nanotechnology and nanostructured materials:
trends in carbon nanotubes. Precision Engineering 28 (2004) 1630
[2]
S. Iijima, Nature 354 (1991) 56.
[3]
M. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, R. Saito, Carbon 33 (1995) 883.
[4]
H. Gommans, J. Alldredge, H. Tashiro, J. Park, J. Magnuson, A.G. Rinzler, J. Appl. Phys. 88 (2000)
2509.
[5]
11 Z. B. He, J. L. Maurice, C. S. Lee, C. S. Cojocaru and D. Pribat, Arabian J. Sci. Eng., Sect. B, 2010, 35,
1928.
[6]
I. Kruusenberg, N. Alexeyeva, K. Tammeveski, J. Kozlova, L. Matisen, V. Sammelselg, J. SollaGull_on and J. M. Feliu, Carbon, 2011, 49, 40314039.
[7]
N. Parkansky, R. L. Boxman, B. Alterkop, I. Zontag, Y. Lereah and Z. Barkay, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.,
2004, 37, 27152719.
[8]
Y. Y. Tsai, J. S. Su, C. Y. Su and W. H. He, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2009, 209, 44134416.
[9]
Neha Arora , N.N. Sharma.Arc discharge synthesis of carbon nanotubes: Comprehensive review.
Diamond & Related Materials 50 (2014) 135150
[10] Li WZ, Xie SS, Qian LX, Chang BH, Zou BS, Zhou WY, et al. Large-scale synthesis of aligned carbon
nanotubes. Science 1996;274:17013.
[11] Xie S, Li W, Pan Z, Chang B, Sun L. Carbon nanotube arrays. Mater Sci Eng A 2000;286(1):115.
[12] Ebbesen TW, Ajayan PM. Large scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Nature 1992;358:2202.
[13] Treacy MMJ, Ebbesen TW, Gibson JM. Exceptionally high Young's modulus observed for individual
carbon nanotubes. Nature 1996;381:67880.
[14] Wong EW, Sheehan PE, Lieber CM. Nanobeam mechanics: elasticity, strength, and toughness of
nanorods and nanotubes. Science 1997;277:19714.
[15] Collins PG, Avouris P. Nanotubes for electronics. Scientific American; December 2000. p. 3845.
[16] Rinzler AG, Hafner JH, Nicolaev P, Lou L, Kim SG, Tomanek D, et al. Unraveling nanotubes: field
emission from an atomic wire. Science.
[17] Collins PG, Avouris P. Nanotubes for electronics. Scientific American; December 2000. p. 3845.
[18]
Hebard AF. http://www.phys.ufl.edu/ argus/imagegallery/twotipssem.htm. Department of Physics,
University of Florida.
[19] http://flightprojects.msfc.nasa.gov/fd02 elev.html. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Flight Projects
Directorate, FD02 Advanced Projects Office, Huntsville, AL 35812.
[20] Edwards BC. Design and deployment of a space elevator. Acta Astronautica 2000;47(10):73544.
[21] http://ipewww.epfl.ch/gr buttet/manips/nanotubes/NTfieldemission1.htm. Ecole Polytechnique
Federale de Lausanne, Institut de Physiquedes Nanostructures (IPN).

22

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Stress Life Fatigue Approach for the Design of


Automotive Engine thermostat
Kadir zdemir and Turker Temiz

Abstract This article presents the findings of stress life fatigue (SLF) approach for the design of automotive
thermostat which is subjected to constant stress thus may cause safety concerns. In order to carry out stress life
fatigue investigation, CATIA and Ansys Workbench FEA software (Finite Element Analysis) were used and
linear static analysis and SLF theory were studied to evaluate fatigue life, meanwhile an experimental fatigue
test was performed to obtain specific results. Fatigue failure may derive from various sources including
mechanical stress, thermal stress and/or corrosion but this study concerns only mechanical fatigue damage of
the thermostat and aims to establish fatigue life improvement in which combination of experimental and FEA
tools and methodology. Comparison of FEA and experimental results for the evaluation of parts' fatigue
behaviour are presented. The integration of FEA tools and experimental test enable the designers to evaluate the
parts' fatigue behaviour.
Keyword- FEA, Stress life fatigue analysis, automotive component
1. Introduction
In order to remain competitive in a constantly evolving global economy, the automotive industry has
ambitioned to speed up product development processes. The trends have involved the utilization of computer
aided engineering technologies for accelerating the product development.
Thermostat is one of the most complex components among all engine components. Working principle of
thermostat is to control and maintain the engine optimum operating temperature by regulating the flow of
coolant to an air-cooled radiator. The thermostat progressively increases or decreases its opening, dynamically
balancing the coolant recirculation (fig.1). This continuous movement and cyclic loading can cause material
damage called fatigue which can be localized for structural damage. Because of the working principle of the
thermostat, fatigue occurs when the part is subjected to repeat loading and unloading conditions [1].
High frequency, low amplitude is an elastic cyclic behavior, and large numbers of cycles have a classification
called High Cycle Fatigue which usually refers to more than 100.000 cycles[4]. Stress life approach typically
deals with high number of cycles. Stress life analysis assumes that the stress always remain in elastic level
however if the loads are beyond the edge of its material properties, eventually a crack can occur then it reaches a
critical size, and the structure suddenly fractures. This study focuses on mechanical fatigue damage therefore
safety of the part and its fatigue life was aimed to be investigated by means of FEA linear static analysis, stress
life FEA fatigue analysis and experimental fatigue test, because fatigue testing alone is not adequate for fatigue
design procedure. CAE (Computer Aided Design) software programs are merely used to create models and
usually cannot take into consideration for all the aspects of fatigue such as corrosion, residual stress and
variable amplitude loading. Thus combination of CAE analysis and experimental testing are required for safe
Kadir zdemir
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa, Turkey,
kadirzdemir@gmail.com
Turker Temiz
Simutek Solution, Design Research and Development Center, Kadikoy 34722, stanbul, Turkey
turker.temiz@gmail.com
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)
23

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zdemir and Temiz

fatigue design [2].


Brooks et al. carried out structural optimization study using linear static stress analysis to determine stress
distribution for a double-wishbone suspension system then assessed fatigue life of the part with FEA fatigue
tool [3]. Fatigue types classified in Darlington and Booker study that highlighted high-cycle fatigue emerged
from their research as the most common fatigue failure in industry and commented on analytical techniques
such as FEA and concluded that they are very important to assist in failure predict [4]. Kurtaran et al. studied
hip prostheses, which was subjected to cyclic load and pointed out the benefit of stress life approach for their
solution [5].
Buciumeanu et al. worked on fretting fatigue of the suspension formed component, fatigue test was used to
finalize for the correct options of the different geometries which were evaluated by FEA results [6]. In the study
of Topac, Gunalay, Kural (2008) automotive rear axle housing was investigated by using FEA tool regarding
working life of the part, stress life approach was chosen due to part working conditions, study was supported by
an experimental test to conclude rear axle optimum design [7].

Figure 1
2. Methodology
The research focussed on the investigation of thermostat fatigue life. Fig.2 shows the architecture of study.
Initially, the designers developed 3D solid model of the thermostat with CatiaV5R19 software. Study moved to
Ansys Workbench FEA linear static analysis then following FEA stress life fatigue, the analysis was performed.
Meanwhile experimental fatigue test was carried out regarding stress base life. As mentioned above neither
fatigue test nor the CAE software was not able to finalize the design requirements, therefore both process were
carried out simultaneously.

24

Figure 2

Stress Life Fatigue Approach for the Design of .....


3. Finite Element Modelling
Linear static analysis by ANSYS Workbench is used to find out stress distribution under loading which does not
cause yielding occurrence. Static method is a linear elastic analysis that relates to linear material properties,
small deflection and constant load and boundary conditions. The detailed geometric model of the thermostat is
first created using the commercial CAD Package CatiaV5R19. The geometry is then exported as shown in
Figure 3 to ANSYS Workbench for static structural analysis that shows part stress results under load condition.
[8]

Figure 3
For the static structural analysis inputs need to be introduced to Ansys Workbench. ASIS1212 Otomat Steel is
used and its material specifications are shown below in figure 4.

Figure 4
The geometry is then auto-meshed using hex dominant element and additional body sizing defined for fillets
and cut out areas as shown below in figure 5. This mesh consideration is used to prevent any possible inaccurate
results. FEM model consisted of total 12911 eigth-noded orthotropic elements, SOLID164 type element which
is only used in static analysis.
Regarding the load and boundary conditions, side surface of the part subjected to fix support and frictionless
support is defined to quarter cross boundary of the part, subsequently 0.2 MPa load applied to the back side
results of working conditions.

Figure 5

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zdemir and Temiz

Ansys Workbench Static analysis pointed out high stress concentrations were found at the connection side of
the wheel bridge, encircled area. Stress result is lower than material yield point however stress life fatigue
approach should be considered for safety of the design due to the cyclic load.

Figure 6
4. Experimental Fatigue Test
Many parameters affect the fatigue intensity and performance of components. Some of these are related to
stress (load), geometry and properties of the component as well as the external environment. The stress
parameters include state of stress, stress range, stress ratio, constant or variable loading, frequency and
maximum stress. [9]
The aim of fatigue testing is two fold: 1) to obtain fatigue properties of the materials; and 2) to determine
geometrical fatigue durability of component. The part, which is manufactured for fatigue testing,is just like a
production part. The test machine in Fig.7 produces a uniform load for the duration of the entire test of the
specimen. The test method is known as constant load amplitude machines because despite changes in
material properties or crack growth, the load amplitude does not change. [9]

Figure.7

Figure.8

Specimen in Fig.8 was finely polished to minimize surface roughness effect and placed to test machine at room
temperature. Control and test data outputs were observed through computer with in house software.
During experimental fatigue testing, specimen was subjected to alternating load until failure. The test

26

Stress Life Fatigue Approach for the Design of .....


parameters are shown in Fig.9

Test
Force

22 kg-44 kg

Cycle

578000

Figure. 9
Upper limit of the load was obtained from Static FEA study, which was 191 MPa that was multiplied with 0.545
to obtain for the lower limit of load. Loading ratio was between 1 and 0.545 in this study and these figures were
obtained from 24-44 kg load conditions. Under these conditions experimental fatigue test results can be seen
below in Fig.10

Figure. 10
5. Fatigue Analysis of Thermostat using ANSYS Workbench
5.1 To Draw Wohler Diagram
Fatigue limit has been one of the main considerations in long-life fatigue design. The stress-life method is based
on the Whler S-N curve which is a plot of alternating stress (S) versus cycles to failure (N). In order to draw SN curve, the mean stress (Sa1) and fatigue strength (Sult) values should be calculated. The mean stress is equal to
ultimate tensile strength minus m. There is a relationship between fatigue strength Se and tensile strength Sult
that it can be defined one half of the tensile strength which is very close to the fatigue limit. [10]
m= max-min
2

Se = 0.504 Sult

There are other factors influencing S-N behaviour. For a brief definition, ka is surface finish factor, kb is size
factor, kc is load factor, kd is bending and temperature factor, ke is strength modification factor.
k=ka x kb x kc x kd x ke
S'e =k x Se
The results of these contributing factors are as follows: Sa1= 369 MPa and S'e =146 MPa respectively.

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zdemir and Temiz

Fig. 11 S-N data curve

Fig.12 Cycle Results

5.2 ANSYS Workbench Stress Life Analysis


ANSYS Workbench is one of the finite Element code that can be used to find out fatigue life. This study utilizes
FEA tools to evaluate the factors of safety and damage distribution on the thermostat. Von Misses stresses from
linear static analysis are employed into fatigue life process. Results indicate at Fig. 6 that maximum stress
concentration is 191 MPa. Loading type assigned as a ratio and loading ratio is 0.545 which was obtained from
experimental fatigue study according to 24-44 kg load conditions. Sodenberg theory considers from material
yield points of view for the stress life fatigue approach hence it is applied here. Fatigue simulation results can be
seen at Fig. 13 and Fig. 14 , which demonstrate that life of the high concentrated area has 348.800 cycles. These
findings can be accepted as a crack initiation cycle. According to the experimental test at Fig. 10, the part has
exactly the same failure, however requested working life should be more than 5.105 .

Figure. 13

28

Stress Life Fatigue Approach for the Design of .....

Figure. 14
6. Discussion and Evaluation
According to S-N graph in this study, the part goes to infinite cycle life at 146 MPa. If stress concentrations
dropped around infinite cycle life figure, it would be a significant improvement. It is the general target to be as
close as possible for this infinite cycle level by reducing stress concentrations. In order to reach this goal
different options and approaches could be used. First of all, one could be assigning new material with higher
fatigue resistance that might demonstrate close stress figures regarding infinite cycle life level. Secondly,
changing the curvature of the radius of stress concentrated area is also an attractive option to obtain possibility
of close stress figures to reach infinite cycle life level. These two solutions could increase the life of the
component but often, owing to the company request by means of project restrictions, geometry and material
type cannot be changed. Therefore authors have decided to increase the part thickness to 1.5 mm. As a results of
thickness change, the linear static analysis and the subsequent stress base fatigue life analysis fulfilled again.
Fig 15 represents stress concentration figures and factor of safety results for this second proposed solution.

Figure. 15
7. Conclusion
Improvement of the thermostat fatigue life was the main concern of this study. Linear static analysis and
subsequent stress base fatigue approach have been conducted to understand and predict the part fatigue

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zdemir and Temiz

behaviour. Even though there could be additional contributors for the fatigue life of the part, experimental test
results provided a sound conclusion that increasing the part thickness results in better fatigue life. Improvement
of the fatigue life is closely associated with reducing of the stress concentration which was achieved by
increasing of the part thickness as indicated FEA tool. It can be highlighted that the methodology leaded to
scientific approach to solve fatigue life issue.
References
[1]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermostat (Last accessed 10.02.2013)
[2]
2006 international ANSYS Conference, hand-outs
[3]
M. Hilba, D.C Barton, P.C Brooks, M.C Levesley, Review of life assessment techniques applied to
dynamically loaded automotive components, Computer and Structures 2002, 80; 481-490
[4]
J.F. Darlington, J.D Booker Development of a design technique for the identification of fatigue
initiating features, Engineering Failure Analysis 2006, 13; 1134-1152
[5]
A. Z.Sunalp, O. Kayabasi, H. Kurtaran Static, dynamic and fatigue behaviour of newly designed stem
shapes for hip prosthesis using finite element analysis, Material and Design, 2007, 28; 1577-1583
[6]
M. Buciumeanu, A.S Miranda, A.C.M. Pinho, F.S Silva, Design improvement of an automotiveformed suspension component subjected to fretting fatigue, Engineering Failure Analysis, 2007, 14;
810-821
[7]
M.M Topac, H. Gunay, N.S Kuralay Fatigue failure prediction of a rear axle housing prototype by
using finite element analysis, Engineering Failure Analysis, 2009, 16; 1474-1482
[8]
Donald M, 2011, Practical Stress Analysis with Finite Element
[9]
Davis G, 2001 Materials for Automotive Bodies, Elsevier Ltd.
[10]
Stephens R, Fatemi A, FuchsH, 2001, Metal Fatigue in Engineering, John Willy&Sons Ldt

30

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Oct. 14 & 15.

A Review on Thermoelectric Generator used


in Automotive Waste Heat Recovery
Vikrant Mishra and Amit Pal

Abstract-The increasing demand for electric power in passenger vehicles has motivated several research and
advancement since the last two decades. This demand has been revolutedby the unrelenting, rapidly growing
reliance on electronics in modern vehicles. Thermoelectric Generators can generate electrical energy by
utilizing waste heat of automobile exhaust gases on the basis of Seebeck Effect. This paper presents the review
of previous work done related to thermoelectric conversion from automobile exhaust gases. Most of the
previous researches are related to design consideration of heat exchangers used in complete unit of
thermoelectric generator, but there is a few literature about power loss during module mismatching when two or
more thermoelectric generators are electrically connected. This paper also presents the concept of module
mismatch in the operation of thermoelectric generator. If power loss due to module mismatching could be
minimized, the thermal of electrical conversion efficiency of the system will increase significantly.
Keywords- Thermoelectric Generator; Seebeck effect; Heat exchanger; Module Mismatch.

ntroduction In recent years, Energy crisis has become a major challenge due to quickly increasing
demands and consumption of Energy. The scientific and public awareness on environmental and energy
issue has brought in key interest to the advancement in technologies and research particularly in highly
efficient internal combustion engines. Generally, there are two basic methods to improve efficiency of internal
combustion engine. First method is optimization of combustion process and second is to recover waste heat of
the engine exhaust gases. In a typical IC engine driven automobile, Vehicle mobility and accessories utilize
only about 25% of the supplied fuel energy. During the combustion process in an automobile engine, 40% of the
energy is lost through exhaust gases and about 30% is reflected in the form of the heat carried away by the
engine coolant liquid [1].So, an effort should be made to capture a significant portion of the available heat
energy of exhaust gases. It can not only help in reducing engine loads and alternator size but also decrease
pollutant emissions and fuel consumption [2]. There are many waste heat recovery (WHR) technologies such as
Rankine bottoming cycle technique, Six-stroke internal combustion engine cycle technique, Turbocharger and
Thermoelectric energy conversion technique [3]. But thermoelectric power generation technique directly
convert thermal energy into electrical energy. Moreover, Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) has no moving parts
and it is compact, quiet, highly reliable and environmentally friendly.
In 1821, Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered the phenomenon of thermoelectricity. When a temperature
gradient is established between the hot and cold junctions of two dissimilar materials (metals or
semiconductors), a voltage is generated, i.e., Seebeck Voltage. Based on this Seebeck effect, thermoelectric
devices can act as electrical power generators [4]. The major drawback of thermoelectric generator is their

Vikrant Mishra
P.G. Student, Mechanical Department, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road Delhi-110042,
E-mail- mishra92vikrant@gmail.com
Amit Pal
Associate Professor, Mechanical Department, Delhi Technological University,
Bawana Road Delhi-110042, E-mail- amitpal@dce.ac.in
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, DTU
DELHI , INDIA
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)
31

Mishra and Pal

RAME-2016

relatively low conversion efficiency (typically 5-10%). Therefore, TEGs have mostly been used in specialized
electrical equipment in aerospace and military applications [5]. With technological advancement in the last two
decades, The TEG has shown ever increasing potential for application that can be widely used in power
generation from automobile exhaust waste heat, industrial waste heat, solar energy and other natural thermal
energies.
The total energy consumption in India, as per Global Energy Statistical yearbook 2015, is 872 Mtoe. The
transportation sector consumes approximately 30% (261.6 Mtoe) of the total energy consumption [6]. So there
is a great scope for thermoelectric power generator in automotive applications, which can reduce fuel
consumption.
2. Seebeck Effect
Seebeck effect is the direct conversion of temperature gradient into electricity. Basically, the materials used to
generate Seebeck effect are two different metals or semiconductors. The output is a measure of the magnitude of
an induced thermoelectric voltage in response to a temperature difference across that material.In Figure 1, the
materials used in the two legs are N and P-type semiconductors. The open circuit voltage Voc generated by this
TE couple is then governed by the equation
(1)
Where Sn and Sp are Seebeck Coefficients for N-type and P-type semiconductors respectively.

Figure 1.Basic illustration of Seebeck Effect


If the Seebeck coefficients are approximately constant for the measured temperature range in the TE legs
(which is often true), Equation (1) can be simplified as [7]:
(2)
If the temperature difference T between the two ends of a material is small, then the Seebeck coefficient of this
material is approximately defined as [7]:
(3)
where V is the voltage seen at the terminals.
3.

Thermoelectric Materials
Attempts are being made to improve the performance of thermoelectric material by improving the figureof-merit. Saniya LeBlanc [8] discussed about new thermoelectric materials and material performance. The

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A Review on Thermoelectric Generator used in Automotive .......


classification of TE materials is based on material structure and composition. Generally chalcogenide,
skutterudite, clathrate, half-heusler, silicide and oxide are some types of TE materials.

Figure 2. Figure of merit (ZT) versus Temperature curves.[9]


In these types, Chalcogenide materials are widely used in demonstrated thermoelectric application with
bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and lead telluride (PbTe) being the most noticeable. Bismuth Telluride and its solid
solution with antimony and selenium are commercially used for thermoelectric modules in case of low
temperature. Whenever there are higher temperatures (500~600C), Lead Telluride is used for better
thermoelectric properties. The properties of TE materials mainly depend on temperature which emphasize
multiple challenges for application-specific materials selection.
4. Analysis Of Previously Developed Models Of Teg
Wang et al. [10] presents a mathematical model of a Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) device using the exhaust
gas of vehicles as heat source based on Fourier's law and Seebeck Effect. The model pretends the influence of
various related factorson the output power and efficiency, such as vehicles exhaust mass flow rate, mass flow
rate of different types of coolants,temperature of exhaust gas, temperature difference across TEG, convection
heat transfer coefficient, height of P-N couple and the ratio of external electrical resistance to internal resistance
of the circuit on the output power and efficiency of the TEG system. The results showed that the output power
and efficiency increase significantly by varying the convection heat transfer coefficient of the hightemperature-side than that of low-temperature-side. The results also showed that the power output achieved a
peak value for optimum height of P-N couple. Besides it the peak output power value decreases when the
thermal conductivity of the PN couple is decreased, and increases when the Seebeck coefficient and electric
conductivity of the material are increased. Additionally, a maximum value of power output and efficiency of
TEG device appear when external electrical resistance is greater than internal resistance. This is not usual as
common circuit and with the augmentation of dimension-less figure of merit (ZT), the maximum value of
output moves toward the direction of an increasing ratio of external resistance to internal resistance.
Zhang et al. [11]designed, employed and compared the parallel-connected thermoelectric power generator
system. The advantage of this system is that it provide dual DC bus and it has high overall system efficiency.
The low efficiency in the pure battery discharging mode can be evaded with other switching circuit. So this
parallel-connected system is a superior choice for automotive application excluding the series-connected
system.
Martins et al. [12]assessed the potential of the use of heat pipes (HP) as a means of transferring energy from the
hot exhaust gases to the TEG modules at a well-suited temperature level while diminishing the loss of efficiency
due to reducing temperature. In this work, Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was used and its
arrangement has the benefit of inducing good temperature control. Various types of heat pumps were designed,

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Mishra and Pal

manufactured, verified and improved with the purpose of enhancing the overall heat transfer process, enabling
an optimal level of electric energy recoveryusing proper arrangement of TEG modules. The results indicate that
the use of VCHPs in conjunction with thermoelectric generators is a convincing technique for recovering waste
heat energy from the automobile exhaust gases.
Tongcaiet al. [13]proposed a new type of open-cell metal foam-filled plate heat exchanger based thermoelectric
generator (TEG) system to utilize low grade waste heat. In this system thermoelectric generation works as a
parasitic mode which is attached to heat exchanging process. The major portion of waste heat is captured by the
process of heating water and an amount of this waste heat flux is converted by means of TEG into electricity as
by product. Performance of TEG is much dependent of the temperature difference. The open circuit voltage of
One TE couple increased approximately linearly from 0 to 5.5 mV with the variation of temperature difference
from 0 to 13.8C. When load resistance becomes equal to internal resistance, maximum power output of one TE
couple was obtained. The feasibility of increasing the number of TE couples was also demonstrated which helps
in enlarging the electricity generation capacity. The maximum open circuit voltage increases up to 108.1 mV
from 5.5 mV, when the number of TE couples was varied from 1 to 16.
Orr et al. [14] presented a combination of two promising technologies to recover waste heat of automobile
exhaust. The useful two technologies for this purpose were thermoelectric cells (TECs) and heat pipes. In this
work a bench type model was demonstrated which produced power by Thermoelectric cells using heat
pipes.The heat to electrical conversion efficiency of whole system was found 1.43% and the predicted
efficiency was 2.31%. The difference between predicted and actual efficiency was due to the cells not operating
at their optimum voltage.
5. Design Considerations Of Automotive Teg System
For an efficient automotive thermoelectric generator system, the designs of the complete device and its
components are considerably significant. Design of Heat Exchangers, Optimization of Fin distribution and
Thermal performance of heat exchangers are very important parameters which should be optimized while
designing the complete assembly of TEG system. The overall conversion efficiency also increases when design
heat exchanger is optimized. In the last decade, more researchers have worked in this area which gave better
result in the sense of making automotive TEG system commercial in automobile industries.
Deng et al. [15] discussed the thermal performance of the heat exchanger in automobile exhaust based
thermoelectric generator. Various internal structures of heat structures were applied with different TE
materials.This thermal optimization is done by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and then by
infrared image capture experiment. For CFD simulation two 3-dimensional models of hexagonal-prism-shaped
and plate-shaped heat exchangers were designed and taken into consideration. CFD simulation results show
that the interface temperature for hexagonal prism-shaped heat exchanger is just around 120C which is far less
than the required temperature of hot side of automotive TEG system. But in case of plate-shape heat exchanger
with several baffle plates, the interface temperature is around or sometimes more than 240C. Additionally, the
volume of hexagonal prism-shaped heat exchanger is very large compared to plate shaped heat exchanger
which is not advantageous due to greater heat loss. So all results depicted that plate shaped heat exchanger are
more suitable for waste heat recovery using TEG device.
Liu et al. [16]simulatedthe design ofheat exchanger with different internal structure. In the first case, no internal
fins were used which caused sudden expansion of exhaust gas flowing through the pipe. Uneven thermal
distribution occurred inside the heat exchanger and the outside temperature found (144C) was less and heat
exchanger could not meet the requirement. So after this, two 3-dimensional models of heat exchangers with
fishbone-shaped and chaos-shaped internal structures were designed. Simulation results showed that heat
exchanger with chaos-shaped internal structure have higher outlet temperature (220C on average) than in case
of fishbone-shaped (190C). Thus, Chaos-shaped heat exchanger design is more ideally suitable in TEG
application. Additionally, the thickness of the heat exchanger is also responsible for thermal performance. Heat
exchanger of chaos-shaped internal structure with different thicknesses of 3 mm, 5 mm and 8 mm respectively
were used for simulation comparison. The results shows that in case of 3 mm thickness heat exchanger the
outlet temperature is approximately 180C which is lesser than expected hot side temperature in automotive
TEG application. So heat exchanger with 5 mm and 8 mm thicknesses were used and there was little difference
in the interface temperatures. So the lighter size of TEG (5 mm thickness) is better because of reduction in
weight.

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A Review on Thermoelectric Generator used in Automotive .......


DeokIn et al. [17]presented various types of heat sinks used in automotive exhaust based thermoelectric
generator. The types used were rectangular pillar-shaped heat sink, forward facing triangular pillar heat sink
and backward facing triangular pillar heat sink. The generated peak voltage measured for rectangular heat sink
was approximately 2.7 V which was higher than generated 2.5 V and 2.4 V in forward facing and reverse facing
triangular heat sink respectively.
Ramade et al. [18] presented thermal optimization technique of thermoelectric generator system with different
kinds of heat sink. The observed efficiency was not quite in case of single stacked type cold side heat sink, so
thermal optimization of system is done to improve efficiency. Double stacked type heat sink was used which
gave better temperature difference across TEG. Thermal insulation was applied on the uncovered area to
neglect heat loss and counter flow type heat exchanger was arranged which increased the effective heat transfer.
Results were obtained with Bismuth-Telluride thermoelectric material at hot side temperature of 250C. Result
show that efficiency of TEG device and power developed increases with increase in speed of engine. The
efficiency of TEG device was 5.0708% and power generated was 15.12 W at engine speed of 3970 rpm.
Su et al. [19]presented experimental study on thermal optimization of the heat exchanger in an automobile
exhaust-based thermoelectric generator. In order to achieve temperature uniformity and higher interface
temperature, three-dimensional models of different types of heat exchangers were developed and then
compared with the help of CFD simulation. These types of internal structure of heat exchangers are fishboneshaped, accordion-shaped and scatter-shaped. The CFD simulation result indicates that the accordion-shaped
internal structure of heat exchanger provide a better uniform temperature distribution and it has also higher
interface temperature than the other two internal structures.
Yiping et al. [20]discussed about optimization of fin distribution to maximize the electrical power generated. A
CFD model of heat exchanger was constructed to describe the effect of various fin distributions on the
temperature uniformity. Four Factors: length of fins, spacing between the fins, angle of fins and thickness of the
fins, were considered for the optimization of fin distribution. Optimization of these four factors improved the
temperature uniformity without too great pressure loss.
Bai et al. [21] presented CFD analysis of heat exchangers used in automotive TEG with six different designs.
This CFD analysis was done to compare the pressure drop and heat transfer for all six different structures of heat
exchanger. The descending order of heat transfer as follows:serial plate structure, separate plate with holes,
parallel plate structure, pipe structure, inclined plate structure and empty cavity.The descending order of
pressure drop is same for all structures except the pipe structure which has the 2nd highest pressure drop.
6. Module Mismatch
There is a little literature available on the issue of module mismatch in thermoelectric generators. When two or
more thermoelectric modules are connected, the combined power is less than the sum of individual power
outputs of the modules. This phenomenon is known as module mismatch.
Nagayoshi et al. [22] introduced mismatching in their work and developed a Maximum Power Point Tracking
(MPPT) system. The MPPT power conditioner consists of internal power supply, a Buck-Boost converter and
microcontroller. MPPT system can increase conversion efficiency but particularly in case of transients system.
When thermoelectric generators are in steady state, MPPT system are not so useful but it still has the ability to
cause the modules to operate at their peak power. In this work, no analytical analysis was presented to find the
source of mismatch.
Module mismatching in case of thermoelectric modules is quite similar to the mismatching in photovoltaic
arrays. So the mismatch losses concepts in PV arrays should be considered in the development of the
thermoelectric module mismatch predictive equations. Chouder and Silvestre [22] presented experimental and
modeling results on mismatch effects in PV modules. In this study, power losses were observed around 10%
associated with mismatch between PV modules forming the PV array.Picault et al. [23] developed several
connection schemes for each of the PV modules and analyzed the mismatch losses for each of the connection
schemes. Because of the similarities between photovoltaics and thermoelectrics, parallels can be drawn with
regards to performance. There is need of further exploration to conclude the significance of the module
mismatch effect for thermoelectric modules.
7. Conclusion
This paper presents a brief review of automobile exhaust based thermoelectric generator which use exhaust gas

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Mishra and Pal

of vehicle as a heat source and convert this heat energy into electrical energy on the basis of Seebeck effect.
Most of the previous researches are focused on the making efficient TEG system. So some other technologies
suchas variable conductance heat pipes and open cell metal foam-filled heat exchanger, are used alongwith the
use of TEG. The combined system of heat pipes or heat exchanger with TEG made thecomplete waste heat
recovery unit efficient. This paper also presented the various design considerations of heat exchanger. It can be
depicted that for higher conversion efficiency the proper internal structure of heat exchanger is needed. In the
end, the concept of mismatch is introduced in case when two or more modules are electrically linked. Further
research should be focused on increasing conversion efficiency of complete waste heat recovery unit and
modules should operate at optimum parameters.
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P. Aranguren, D. Astrain, A. Rodrguez, and A. Martnez, Experimental investigation of the
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F. Stabler, Automotive Thermoelectric Generator Design Issues, Thermoelectric Applications
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Basel I. Ismail and Wael H. Ahmed, Thermoelectric Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy as an
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D. Crane, G. Jackson and D. Holloway, Towards optimization of automotive waste heat recovery using
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Jorge Martins, Francisco P. Brito, L.M.Goncalves and Joaquim Antunes, Thermoelectric Exhaust
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37

Effect of Variation of High Temperature


R1234ze Condenser Temperature and
Intermediate R1234yf Temperature Cascade
Condenser and Low Temperature Evaporator
Circuit in three Stage Cascade Refrigeration Systems

RAME-2016
Oct. 14 & 15.

R S Mishra
Abstract- The global warming and ozone depletion effects are well documented in the literature causes
Climate change through global surface temperatures increase in the last century.For stoping this phenomenon,
new regulations in terms of ban of CFC containing chlorine content refrigerants / greenhouse gas fluids (HFC
among them) have been approved. Only low-GWP refrigerants will be allowed in developed countries. HFO
fluids and most HFCs as refrigerants in HVACR systems possess similar thermo-physical properties such as
that the most promising modern refrigerant is R1234ze and R1234yf. In this paper three stage cascade vapour
compression refrigeration is proposed for industries (i.e. food, chemical, pharmaceutical and liquefaction of
gases) using HFO-1234ze in the high temperature circuit and HFO-1234yf in intermediate temperature circuit
and
effect of eight ecofriendly refrigerants in the lower temperature circuit and best performance have been
using R600 for better system's COP and second law efficiency with minimum exergy destruction ratio. And
worst performances (i.e. lowest COP and higher exergy destruction ratio occurs using R407c .The numical
computations have been carried out for three stages cascade refrigeration systems and optimum temperature
range of components have been observed for optimum performances (i.e.minimum exergy destruction ratio
alongwith optimum overall (Maximum System coefficient of performance) occurs) at -45oC of evaporator
temperature and -5oC of intermediate cascade evaporator optimum temperature.
Keywords- Three stage VCR; Reduction in global warming; Ozone depletion; Energy-Exergy computation;
first & second law analysis ; Ecofriendly refrigerants.

ntroduction Low temperature cascade refrigeration systems using HFC134a, R507a , HCFC 22 HFC 123
and R508b in the high temperature circuit are normally required in the temperature range from -30 oC to 100oC in the various industries such as food, chemical, pharmaceutical and liquefaction of gases such as
nitrogen, helium hydrogen etc [1]. The application of multistage vapour compression refrigeration system is
also not desirable for attaining very low temperatures due to the solidification temperature of the refrigerant
and also low evaporator pressure with larger specific volume along with operational difficulties in the
equipment with using single evaporator Gupta et.al [2] optimized the cascaded refrigeration-heat pump system
using R-12 refrigerants in the higher temperature circuit and R-13 in low temperature circuit for optimum
overall Coefficient of performance. The exergy analysis of multistage cascade refrigeration system for natural
gas liquefaction is carried out by Kanolu [3] in terms of performance parameters for exergy destruction and
exergetic efficiency with minimum work requirement for liquefaction of natural gases.
Dopazo et al. [4] carried out the optimization of coefficient of performance of a cascade refrigeration system for

R S Mishra
Department of Mechanical Preoduction & Industrial and Automobiles Engineering,
Delhi Technological University Delhi-110042
e-Mail: hod.mechanical.rsm@dtu.ac.in,
Corresponding Author; Tel: +91-9891079311,
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
39
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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R S Mishra

cooling applications at low temperatures. in the variation of evaporation temperature range (- 55C ) to (-30C)
using CO2 in low temperature circuit, 25 to 50C condensation temperature in high temperature circuit using
NH3 and (- )25 to 5C in cascade condenser. The overlapping (approach temperature) was varied between 36C. The effect of compressor isentropic efficiency on system COP is also examined and also optained
optimum condenser temperature. The effect of HFOrefrigerants was not studied by them . Ratts and Brown [5]
used the entropy generation minimization method an ideal cascade vapour compression cycle for determining
the optimal intermediate temperatures. Bhattacharyya et al. [6] predicted the optimum performance of the
cascade system with variation in the design parameters and operating variables by using CO2 in the high
temperature cycle of about 120C and C3H8 (Propane) in the low temperature cycle of about -40C. Agnew and
Ameli [7] used finite time thermodynamics approach for cascade refrigeration system refrigerants R717 in high
temperature circuit and R508b low temperature circuit and found better performance in comparison to R12 in
high temperature circuit and R13 low temperature. Nicola et al. [8] carried out first law performance analysis
using ammonia in high temperature circuit of a cascade refrigeration system , blends of CO2 and HFCs in low
temperature circuit of 216.58 K and observed that the ecofriendly CO2 (carbondioxide i.e. R744) blends are
excellent options for the low-temperature circuit of cascade systems operating at temperatures arround 200 K.
Lee et al. [9] carried out exergy analysis of a two stage cascade refrigeration system for ammonia and carbon
dioxide for maximization of COP and minimization of energy loss by optimising condensing temperature and
concluded that optimal condensing temperature increased with condensation and evaporation temperatures.
Kruse and Rssmann [10] computed COP of a cascade refrigeration system using NH3, C3H8, propene, CO2 for
the high temperature stage of heat rejection temperatures between 25 to 55 C and N2O (Nitrous oxide) as
refrigerant in the low temperature cascade stage and compared its result s with a conventional HFC134a
cascade refrigeration system and observed that by replacing the lower stage refrigerant R23 by N2O have same
energetic performance with high stage fluids R134a, ammonia and hydrocarbons. Niu and Zhang [11] compared
experimental results of a cascade refrigeration system using R290 in high temperature circuit and a blend of
R744/R290 in low temperature circuit with performance of with R13 in low temperature circuit and R290 in
high temperature circuit and found that good cycle performance of blended R744/R290 in low temperature
circuit gives promising performance by replacing R13 refrigerant by blends of R744/R290 when low
temperature evaporator temperature is higher than 200 K. Getu and Bansal [10] studied the effect of
evaporating, condensing and cascade condenser temperatures, sub-cooling and superheating in high
temperature circuits and low temperature circuits and carried out energy analysis of a carbon dioxide
ammonia (R744/R717) cascade refrigeration system using multi-linear regression analysis and developed
mathematical expressions for optimum COP using optimum evaporating temperature of R717 and the
optimum mass flow ratio of R717 to that of R744 in the cascade system.
2. Performance Evaluaton of three Stages Vapour Compresson Refrgeraton System
The three stages cascade vapour compression refrigeration system choosen in this paper has is that
tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234ze) is a hydrofluoroolefin has zero ozone-depletion potential and a low globalwarming potential (i.e. GWP = 6) was used in high temperature circuit which has as a "fourth generation"
refrigerant to replaceR404a, R407c R-410a in the high temperature circuit in the range of -10oC to 60oC and in
the intermediate temperature cycle HFO-1234yf is used because R1234yf is a new class of refrigerant
acquiring a global warming potential (GWP) of (1/335th) that of R-134a (and around four times higher than
carbon dioxide, which can also be used as a refrigerant in the intermediate temperature circuit between (-200C to
-500C) which has properties significantly different from those of R134a, especially requiring operation at
around five times higher pressure) and an atmospheric lifetime of about 400 times shorter. In the low
temperature circuit R134a has zero ODP and 1300 GWP is very good Good performance in medium and low
temperature applications because of very low toxicity and also not miscible with mineral oil and results were
compared by using hydrogen carbon in the low temperature circuit has very promising non-halogenated
organic compounds with no ODP and very small GWP values. Their efficiency is slightly better than other
leading alternative refrigerants. Iso butane (R 600a) has : ODP-0,GWP-3 has higher boiling point hence lower
evaporator pressure and also lowest discharge temperature alongwith very good compatibility with mineral oil.
Similarly Propane (R290 has zero ODP- and -3 GWP is also compatible with copper miscible with mineral oil

40

Effect of Variation of High Temperature R1234ze Condenser .......


alongwith highest latent heat and largest vapour densityand third of original charge only is required when
replacing halocarbons refrigerant in existing equipmentwith energy saving up to 20% due to lower molecular
mass and vapour pressure. The Approximate auto ignition temperatures for R134a is 740 C, and For R600a is
470 oC, and For R-290 is 465 oC respectively. The carbon dioxide has Zero ODP & GWP is also non
flammable, non toxic, inexpensive and widely available and its high operating pressure provides potential for
system size and weight reducing potential has draw back that operating pressure is very high side around 80
bars with low efficiency and only to be used up to -50 oC. The effect of Approach_1 (Overlapping temperature)
means intermediate temperature circuit Condenser temperature high temperature circuit Evaporator
temperature and effect of Approach_2 (Overlapping temperature) means Low temperature circuit Condenser
temperature intermediate circuit Evaporator temperature on the performance are also highlighted in this paper.
3. Results And Dscussons
Following data have been considered for numerical computation
Condenser Temperature=50 [oC ]
Evaporator_HTC=0.0 [oC ]
Evaporator_ITC=-50.0 [oC ]
Evaporator_LTC=-100.0 [oC ]
Compressor Efficiency_HTC=0.80
Compressor Efficiency_ITC=0.80
Compressor Efficiency_LTC=0.80
Approach_ITC=10[oC ]
Approach_LTC=10[oC ]
As overlapping temperature is increasing the total exergy destruction ratio of the system is also increasing.
Similarly by increasing low temperature circuit approach the second law efficiency , coefficient of performance
of whole system is also decreasing along with decreasing low temperature as coefficient of performance shown
in table-1(a) respectively. It was also observed that thre is no effect on COP of high temperature circuit using
R1234ze ( COP=3.215) and also no effect on COP of intermediate temperature circuit using R1234yf
(COP=2.204)and also similarly trends occurred by variation of approach (overlapping temperature between
intermediate circuit condenser temperature and high temperature circuit evaporator temperature as shown in
Table-1 (b) . As high temperature circuit condenser temperature increases along with total system exergy
destruction ratio (EDR) the the overall COP and high temperature circuit COP are also is also decreases along
with decreasing exergetic efficiency and no change of coefficient of performances of low temperature circuit
(COP=2.204) and coefficient of performance of intermediate temperature circuit COP=1.79 as shown in
Table-2. The table-3 shows the variation of evaporator temperature of high temperature circuit using HFO1234ze from -20oC to +20oC. It was observed that exergetic efficiency and overall COP of system is increases
and exergy destruction ratio decreases first and reached a range to a minimum level and then increases. The
optimum performances of cascade systems occurs at intermediate cascade evaporator optimum temperature of
-5oC.The variation of cascade evaporator of Intermediate circuit is increasing from -55oC to -30oC, The COP of
LTC circuit is decreasing while The COP of ITC circuit is increasing along with increasing exergetic efficiency
as shown in Table-4 respectively. It was also observed that there is a optimum (minimum) exergy destruction
ratio alongwith optimum overall (Maximum System coefficient of performance) occurs at -45oC.Similarly the
increasing temperature of LTC evaporator from -120oC to -90oC , the overall system COP and LTC COPis
decreasing and exergy destruction ratio is increasing as shown in Table-5. The effect of various refrigerants
used in low temperature circuit is shown in table-6 and it was observed that R600 gives better COP and better
second law efficiency with minimum exergy destruction ratio while R407c gives lowest COP and higher exergy
destruction ratio. It is seen that use of hydrocarbons are beneficial than using other ecofriendly refrigerants. R134a is also used up to a temperature -100oC.
Table-1a: Effect of Overlapping temperature of low temperature condenser and Intermediate evaporator
temperature Approach in the LTC of three stages Cascade Vapour compression Refrigeration systems using
R1234ze in high temperature circuit and R1234yf in Intermediate temperature circuit and R134a in lower

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R S Mishra

temperature circuit for a given data

Table-1b: Effect of Approach in the ITC of three stages Cascade Vapour compression Refrigeration systems
using R1234ze in high temperature circuit and R1234yf in Intermediate temperature circuit and R134a in lower
temperature circuit for a given data

Table-2: Effect of High temperature circuit condenser temperature in the LTC of three stages Cascade Vapour
compression Refrigeration systems using R1234ze in high temperature circuit and R1234yf in Intermediate
temperature circuit and R134a in lower temperature circuit for a given data

Table-3: Effect the HTC evaporator temperature of three stages Cascade Vapour compression Refrigeration
systems using R1234ze in high temperature circuit and R1234yf in Intermediate temperature circuit and R134a
in lower temperature circuit for a given data

Table-4: Effect the cascade intermediate evaporator temperature of three stages Cascade Vapour compression
Refrigeration systems using R1234ze in high temperature circuit and R1234yf in Intermediate temperature

42

Effect of Variation of High Temperature R1234ze Condenser .......

37

circuit and R134a in lower temperature circuit for a given data

Table-5: Effect the Low temperature evaporator temperature(LTC) of three stages Cascade Vapour
compression Refrigeration systems using R1234ze in high temperature circuit and R1234yf in Intermediate
temperature circuit and R134a in lower temperature circuit for a given data

Table-6: Effect the ecofriendly refrigerants temperature used in low temperature circuit evaporator of three
stages Cascade Vapour compression Refrigeration systems using R1234ze in high temperature circuit and
R1234yf in Intermediate temperature circuit for a given data

4. Conclusions & Recommendations


The numical computations have been carried out in the three stages cascade refrigeration systems and following
conclusions have been made.
1. There is a optimum (minimum) exergy destruction ratio alongwith optimum overall (Maximum System
coefficient of performance) occurs at -45oC.
2. The optimum performances of cascade systems occurs at intermediate cascade evaporator optimum
temperature of -5oC
3. R600 gives better COP and better second law efficiency with minimum exergy destruction ratio.
4. The minimum performances occurs using R407c gives lowest COP and higher exergy destruction ratio

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References
[1] Bansal, P. K. and Jain, Sanjeev( 2007), Cascade systems: past, present, and future. ASHRAE
Transactions; Vol-113,No.1: pp.245-252.
[2] Gupta V. K. (1985)Numerical optimization of multi-stage cascaded refrigeration-heat pump system. Heat
Recovery Systems Vol.5, No.4: pp.305-319.
[3] Kanolu M. (2002)Exergy analysis of multistage cascade refrigeration cycle used for natural gas
liquefaction. International Journal of Energy Research; Vol.26: pp.763774.
[4] Dopazo J. A, Fernndez-Seara J, Sieres J., Uha F. J. (2009) Theoretical analysis of a CO2NH3 cascade
refrigeration system for cooling applications at low temperatures. Applied Thermal Engineering ,Vol- 29,
No-8-9, pp.1577-1583.
[5] Ratts E.B. and Brown J. S. (2000) A generalized analysis for cascading single fluid vapour compression
refrigeration cycles using an entropy generation minimization method. International Journal of
Refrigeration Vol.23:,pp.353-365.
[6] Bhattacharyya, S., Mukhopadhyay, S., Kumar A., Khurana R.K. and Sarkar J. (2005) Optimization of a
CO2/C3H8 cascade system for refrigeration and heating. International Journal of Refrigeration;
Vol.28,pp. 1284- 1292.
[7] Agnew B. and Ameli S.M.( 2004 )A finite time analysis of a cascade refrigeration system using alternative
refrigerants. Applied Thermal Engineering Vol-24: pp.25572565.
[8] Nicola G. D., Giuliani, G. , Polonara, F. and Stryjek, R.( 2005) Blends of carbon dioxide and HFCs as
working fluids for the low-temperature circuit in cascade refrigerating systems. International Journal of
Refrigeration; Vol.28: pp.130140. [
[9] Lee T. S., Liu C. H. and Chen T.W.(2006) Thermodynamic analysis of optimal condensing temperature of
cascadecondenser in CO2/NH3 cascade refrigeration systems. International Journal of
Refrigeration;Vol.29:pp.1100- 1108.
[10] Kruse, H. and Rssmann, H. (2006)The natural fluid nitrous oxide-an option as substitute for low
temperature synthetic refrigerants. International Journal of Refrigeration; Vol.29: pp.799-806.
[11] Niu, B. and Zhang, Y.( 2007) Experimental study of the refrigeration cycle performance for the
R744/R290 mixtures. International Journal of Refrigeration; Vol.30: 37-42.
[12] Getu, H.M., Bansal P.K. (2008); Thermodynamic analysis of an R744/R717 cascade refrigeration
system. International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol.31, No.1:,pp.45- 54.

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Biodiesel Feedstock in India: A Review


Sanjay Mohite, Sudhir Kumar, Sagar Maji and Amit Pal

Abstract- The demand for petroleum products are rising day by day due to rapid industrialization in the world.
But the petroleum resources are limited and these will be depleted in the near future due to excess exploitation
of these resources. Researchers are working to find out alternative feedstock which may have economic
viability as well. Non-edible vegetable oils are one of the best alternatives as compared to edible vegetable oils.
India has scope for the cultivation of non-edible plants and hence, the production of biodiesel. In this paper,
Thumba, Linseed, Wild Apricot, Algae, Cottonseed and Mahua are chosen to find out its viability as potential
resources for biodiesel in India.
Keywords- Biodiesel Feedstock; Thumba; Mahua; Algae; Wild Apricot; Cottonseed.

ntroduction It is reported that there are 100 billion barrels reserves of petroleum in the world and are
presumed to be exhausted in around 40 years [1]. In comparison to gasoline, the consumption of diesel is
more than five times in India [2]. India will become the third biggest consumer of fuel in the transport
sector after USA and China in 2020 with annual fuel consumption growth rate of 6.8% [3-4]. Fossil fuel
reserves are limited in earth and its depletion is a major concern because of its extensive use in the world. Its use
also deteriorates the atmosphere, giving harmful emissions. Serious efforts are required to prevent further
deterioration of the environment. Considering these factors, there should be search for renewable source of
energy which can replace fossil fuels. Therefore, renewable energy technologies from solar, wind and biomass
are being explored and its popularity is also increasing. Utilization of renewable energy technologies is at a
slow pace because of lack of availability and its technical know-how with economic constraints. But, biofuel is
becoming more popular as a renewable energy source because it can be used as a substitute for fossil fuel
directly in internal combustion engine without any engine modification or little engine modification. Biofuels
are obtained from various plant seeds [7]. In comparison to other petroleum fuels, diesel fuel is widely used to
generate power in various sectors like transport, agriculture, commercial and industrial. Various researchers
considered biodiesel as the best alternative fuel to substitute diesel [8].
Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester derived from a chemical reaction between vegetable oils and alcohol with or
without the presence of a catalyst. Biodiesel acts as a renewable energy sources to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions (GHG). It can also replace the fossil fuels in case of depletion of its reserves [9]. Biodiesel is
generally renewable fuel and is derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. It is generally produced by the
method of transesterification in which, vegetable oils or animal fats is converted into fatty acid methyl esters

Sanjay Mohite and Sudhir Kumar


Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra,
Haryana, India
1

Sagar Maji and Amit Pal


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, India
Corresponding Author; Tel: +91 9953190067, Fax: +91 1744 238350
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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Mohite et al.

[10-11]. It is evident that biodiesel reduces harmful emissions. Biodiesel can be produced easily and it has
higher cetane number, good lubricating properties, higher density and low sulphur emissions as compared to
diesel. Biodiesel production has reached up to 2.2 billion gallon in the world. It is reported that more than 350
numbers of oil bearing crops are found to be used in the manufacture of biodiesel [11-12]. Soybean, palm,
rapeseed, peanut and sunflower oils are considered as potential source for biodiesel production among more
than 350 oil bearing available plants. However, non-edible oils such as Jatropha, Cottonseed, Mahua, Karanja
etc. are more advantageous in comparison to edible oils [15-17]. Developing countries like India can produce
renewable energy from non- edible oils in an effective and economical manner [19]. Required characteristics of
feedstocks for biodiesel production should be its local availability, compatible with present farm infrastructure,
high oil yield, easily grow in local environment conditions which includes type of soil, latitude, rain etc., good
fatty acid composition, lesser requirement of water, pesticides and fertilizer, well-known growth season,
uniform seed maturity, useful by-products and ability to grow on wastelands and with off-season also. Oilseeds,
algae, animal fats and low-value materials such as greases, used cooking oil etc. are the four types of major
feedstock for biodiesel production [20]. First generation biodiesel is made from edible vegetable oils. Second
generation biodiesel produced from non-edible plants can be raised in semi or non-arable lands which results in
higher revenue collection for under-utilized lands. These feedstocks are relatively cheaper thereby reducing the
price of biodiesel production. Scientific knowledge for these feedstocks are unfortunately not sufficient,
resulting in a pile of challenges for their development [21]. Biodiesel produced from macroalgae and
microalgae is called third generation biodiesel. Their yields are higher in comparison to first and second
generation biodiesel with respect to per cultivation area due to algae's higher photo-synthesis capability. Algae
also absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere during its growth. Algae can be grown without the use of land or fresh
water resources if cultivated on or near sea unlike other oil crops. Technologies use in the production of
biodiesel from algae are not sufficient, resulting in higher consumption of energy and unsatisfactorily yield
during harvesting and drying. Microalgae production is troublesome to maintain with advanced bio-reactor
while there are hazards of pollution by other microorganisms in open pond system [21-22].
Biodiesel Feedstock in India
Thumba
Thumba is a non-edible vegetable oil plant. It is a creeper type plant. It can grow in sandy soil. It springs up in
several regions of Rajasthan and Gujrat in India and rely on rain. Local soap industries use raw thumba seed oil
for soap preparation. It starts bearing after 6 months [4]. It is called Indrayan in Hindi and Bitter apple in
English. It originates from Turkey and found in various portions of Asia and Africa. The plant has 3-7 lobed
leaves which are 5-10 cm in length at the middle portion. Its fruit is round in figure and yellow in color. Its
flowers are monoecious. It grows alongwith Bajara crops and hence minimal care is required. This plant is
eatable by animals. Laxative and anti-inflammatory drugs are being prepared with its use [23]. Its other names
are Colocynth, bitter cucumber, wild gourd. It is a desert viny plant which grows in sandy, arid lands. This plant
is native to the Mediterranean basin and Asia. It is an annual or a perennial plant in Indian arid zones and causes
a great survival rate under extreme xeric conditions. It survives in areas of annual rainfall 250 mm to 1500mm
and an annual temperature of 14.80C to 27.80C. It grows from sea level up to 1500 meters above sea level on
sandy loam, subdesert soils and sandy sea coasts with a pH range between 5 and 7.8. The roots are large, fleshy
and perennial, leading to a high survival rate due to long tap root. Leaves are palmate and angular with 3 to 7
divided lobes. The flowers are yellow and solitary in the axes of leaves and are borne by yellow-greenish
peduncles. Each has a subcampanulated five lobed corolla and a five parted Calyx. They are monoecious. The
fruit is smooth, spheric with a 5-10 cm diameter and extremely bitter taste. Each plant produces 15 to 30 fruits.
The seeds are gray and 5mm long and 3mm wide. The seeds are bitter in taste, nutty flavored and rich in fat and
protein. The oil content of the seeds is 17-19% (w/w). It contains 67-73% Linoleic acid, 10-16% oleic acid, 58% stearic acid and 9-12% palmitic acid. The yield of oil is 400 liter per hectare. The thumba oil can also be used
for medicinal and soap products. The yield of seeds is about 6.7 to 10 tons/hectare [24]. The seeds also contain
high amount of arginine, tryptophan and sulfur containing amino acids. The seed flour is rich in micronutrients
and could thus be applied in food formulations in regions with low milk consumption as West Africa [25]. This
plant can be produced on marginal soils and can improve soil quality with intercropping. Colocynth is

46

Biodiesel Feedstock in India: A Review


generally cultivated with Cassava (intercropping) in Nigeria [26]. Cucurbitaceae is a large plant family
consisting of 100 genera and 750 species and is available in regions of tropical, subtropical, deserts and
temperate regions. Cucurbits seeds contain about 50% oil and up to 35% protein. Thumba belongs to genus
Citrullus species of Cucurbitaceae family, consisting of different varieties called as melons. Thumba is also
found in middle east, Nigeria, Ghana, Togo, Benin and other African countries. It is interplanted as a crop with
Maize, Cassava and Yam. It resembles as Safflower, Corn, Cottonseed, Sunflower and Sesame oil due to the
presence of unsaturated fatty acid in it [27].
Algae
Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment of Algae. Algae does not like the various structures that
characterize plants on land as the phyllids of bryophytes, rhizoids in nonvascular plants and the roots, leaves
and other organs that are found in tracheophytes ( vascular plants) [28]. As algae biodiesel does not compete
with food production for land, its importance is increasing day by day. Algae can be developed in farm or
bioreactor. Its production cost is high and therefore, it creates hindrance for its commercialization. Researchers
have also reported that algae can also be grown on flue gas, thus consuming greenhouse gases [29]. Oils of
micro and macro algae are one of the best sources for biodiesel production. Diatoms (Bacillar- iophyceae),
golden brown (chryso-phyceae), green algae (chlorophyceae) and blue green algae (cyano phyceae) are the
types of micro-algae. 25,000 micro-algae species are available and only 25 species are being practiced today. It
is a high yielding feedstock. It is an organism with a capacity to cause photo- synthesis and is less than 2mm
in diameter. Micro-algae oils are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with four or more double bonds [30-32].
Microalgae is the third generation feedstock and is very economical as compared to edible oils. It has the
highest oil yield capacity as compared to other oil crops and it is up to 25 times higher than the yield of palm oil
[33-34]. Microalgae have faster growth rates than other crops. The yield is 20,000 to 80,000 liters of oil per acre
in a year. Farmland or freshwater is not needed for its development. Microalgae grow faster than Macroalgae
and it contains more oil also. Biodiesel production process from algae is similar to other ordinary crops with
some minor changes in the process of extraction. The extraction operation to retrieve the oil from microalgae is
of high cost. The methods use for the extraction of oil from algae are supercritical fluid extraction, solvent
extraction, ultrasonic extraction and mechanical pressing. Solvent extraction, ultrasonic extraction and
mechanical pressing methods require lots of time and solvent and the supercritical fluid extraction method
require a lot of energy [35-39]. Greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced by 4.7% if diesel is replaced by
algae biodiesel. The production cost of algae biodiesel is 60% more than that of diesel in present scenario [40].
Linseed
It belongs to Linaceae family. Linseed is a herbaceous plant. Its botanical name is Linum usitatissimum and it is
also called flax. This plant produces seeds 4 to 6 cm long, pale, dark brown, oval and flattened in shape. The tree
rises to a peak of 0.3 to 1m. It is utilized for the production of cloth fiber, seed and linseed oil. Fertile, fine
textured and loamy soils are suitable for the cultivation of Linseed crops. The favorable conditions for oil
content and quality in Linseed crop, is sufficient moisture and cool temperature. Seeds are placed in round
capsules containing one to ten seeds per capsules. Linseed seeds contain 33 to 47% oil. The yield of irrigated
crop is 1200 to 1500 kg per hectare. Linseed seeds contain 30-40% lipids, 20-25% proteins, 4-8% moisture, 34% ash and 20-25% dietary fiber. Linolein, Linolenin and olein are important glycosides in Linseed oil.
Arachidic and palmitic are also present in a small amount. Linseed oil contains free fatty acids such as stearic,
oleic, palmitic, linoleic and alpha- Linolenic. Linseed oil contains 1.94% free fatty acids. Linseed cake, obtain
after extraction of oil, is used to feed cattle. It is also employed as an additive in baking goods. Big amount of
decrease in viscosity and flash point of linseed oil biodiesel is reported after transesterification. Several
methods are employed for the production of Linseed oils like alkali refined, cold pressing, sun bleached and
solvent extraction method. It is an edible oil. But its consumption is very less in human food because of its
potent smell and aroma. India produces 500 tons of linseed per annum. Linseed is available in various
countries of Europe, North and South America and Asia (particularly India). Climate and soil conditions are
favorable for the production of Linseed in India. Linseed oil contains 60% unsaturated fatty linolenic acid,
whereas this acid is available below 1% in other types of oils with the exception of soybean and rapeseed oil
containing 8 and 7% linolenic content. Presence of Linolenic acid in large quantity in Linseed oil makes it

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Mohite et al.

suitable for drying paints purpose. Wood is also treated when linseed oil is used on it. It is likewise utilized in the
manufacture of Linoleum, a floor cover made from natural materials mixture. It is likewise applied in industrial
lubricants, leather product, treatment and to prevent rust. Drying alkyd paints are made up with the oil prepared
by crushing these seeds. Drying alkyd paints contain linseed oil which has a higher amount of linolenic acid.
This is a unsaturated compound which is oxidized easily [16,19, 41-44]. Number of double bonds are
responsible for oxidation stability of biodiesel. Methyl Linolenate is more susceptible to oxidation in biodiesel
and therefore, EN 14214 restricts its content up to 12%. Methyl Linolenate content in Linseed oil biodiesel is
around 45-47%, which is more susceptible to oxidation [45-46]. At the temperature of 9000C when the diesel
engine is running, Linseed oil biodiesel may be polymerized and oxidized due to the presence of two double
bonds between reactive methylene groups [46-47].
Cottonseed
Soya bean oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil are the common oils which are mostly used for biodiesel
production. Cottonseed oil is a cheaper oil used for biodiesel production. The botanical name of cottonseed oil
is Gossypium hirsutum L and it belongs to Malvaceac family. It gives natural fiber, which is used in textile
industry. It is also reported that it is ninth best crop for oil production. Cotton seeds are extracted to produce oil,
which gives the cottonseed oil and cottonseed cake. It is reported that cottonseed cake contains 20% oil and
37% polysaccharides so that biodiesel and biohydrogen can be produced out of this cake [48-51]. It is a cooking
oil extracted from seeds of G. hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum species of cottonseed. Its oil has clear light
golden color. Because of its stability properties, Cottonseed oil is used in preparing food for mayonnaise, salad
oil, salad dressing, etc. After extraction, the level of Gossypol is reduced in untreated cottonseed oil by
intensive treatment, as it has undesirable side-effects on consumption. Cottonseed oil contains natural
saturated fatty acids like oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. It is also named as being naturally hydrogenated by
scientists. The production capacity of its oil is 4.6 MT per annum. It consists of 70% unsaturated fatty acids
which includes 52% polyunsaturated (linoleic) and 18% monounsaturated (oleic) and 26% saturated (stearic
and palmitic) [32,52-53]. It is a herbaceous annual plant. It is cultivated in 3 months per year. Cottonseed
contains 15% oil and yields 0.1 to 0.2 t/ha. In Brazil, cottonseed is used for biodiesel production because of its
low cost [54-56].Cottonseed oil has been used in foods such as potato chips. Now cottonseed is being used in
processed foods, including cereals, breads and snack because of its lower price than Olive or Canola oil [57].
Mahua
Mahua is a medium size, deciduous tree which is available in various rural area in India. The Mahua tree grows
up to a height of 60-70 feet. 20 to 40 kg of seeds can be brought about by a Mahua tree per annum. 1,35,000
million tons of Mahua oil is produced per annum in India. Greenish yellow is the color of raw Mahua oil [58].
Mahua seed and kernel contains 35-40% and 70% oil respectively. Mahua oil can be used for soap making and
biodiesel production. Its flowers are used to produce ethanol in an economical way. Its oil cake can be used to
feed in a poultry farm. It contains about 20% FFA. India has a production capacity for Mahua oil as 181000
metric tons per annum [53, 32,59-60]. Mahua tree is a tropical tree. It is from Sapotaceae family. It grows to 20
m height in a short span of time. It is adaptable to arid climate. It gives fruits in a span of 4 to 7 years which is
non-edible. Mahua oil biodiesel has poor low temperature properties because of presence of relatively high
percentage of saturated fatty acid [60-64]. It is cultivated in warm and humid regions for its oleaginous seeds. It
produces 20 to 200 kg of seeds annually per tree. The seed cakes obtained after extraction of oil constitute
fertilizer. The flowers are used to produce an alcoholic drink in tropical India. Various portions of the tree,
including the bark, are utilized for the medicinal purposes. [65]. The two major species of Madhuca are
Madhuca Indica (Latifolia) and Madhuca Longifolia which are available in India. In India, seed potential of the
tree is 50,00,000 tons and oil potential is 1,80,000 tons. The flowering seasons range from February to April. It
is rich in sugar (73%) and next to cane molasses. It is the most significant raw material for alcoholic
fermentation. Mahua seeds contain 35% oil and 16% protein [66].
Wild Apricot
Wild apricot is grown in temperate region of the world and its major producers countries are Greece, Italy, USA,
Spain and France [67]. India covers 2.42% earth surface, i.e. 328 million hectares geographical areas. Wild

48

Biodiesel Feedstock in India: A Review


apricot (Prunus armeniaca Linn) is also called Chullu, Khurmani, Shara, Aaroo and Khubani in local language
in India. It belongs to Rosaceae family and subfamily Prunoidea. The tree is found in dry, temperate regions of
northwestern Himalayas in India upto an altitude of 3000 m. It is also found in the Kumaon region of India. It is a
hardy plant. It is having 45-50% oils in kernel resembling almond oil. This oil is used in cosmetic, medicine and
confectionery. The tree has 50-60 years age. The cake after extraction of oil can be used as manure as it contains
Nitrogen (6.64%), Phosphorus (2.2%) and potash (1.14%). After detoxification of hydro-cyanic acid, the cake
may also be used for feeding cattle. The tree can be grown in deep and well drained soils with pH values of 6 to
6.8. Its fruits can be grown favorably in the long winter, frost free and warm spring seasons. The suitable
temperature for its growth is 16.60C to 32.30C. Annual rainfall of 100 cm is suitable for its growth. The wild
apricot tree is approximately 10-15 m tall with a red brown bark. The tree starts yielding over 4-5 years and
continues to do so up to 50-60 years. After 10-15 years, it starts full yielding of about 85-100 kg fruits per tree.
Well maintained tree yields 120-150 kg fruits [68]. Weight of fruit ranges from 8 to 15.1 g, diameter from 2.3 to
2.5 cm and pulp ranged from 77.8% to 87.3%. Pulp to stone ratio varies from 3.5 to 6.9:1 [69]. The wild apricot
is not suitable for table purpose due to the presence of high acids and low sugars. The seed yields 27% of the
kernels and Kernels contains 47% of oil [70]. Presence of a cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin causes bitterness
in the taste of kernels [71]. Oil contains 94% unsaturated fatty acids. It contains 75% oleic acid and linoleic
acids [72-73]. Libing Wang and Haiyan Yu found that Siberian Apricot has a high oil content, low acid value and
water content. Excellent Cold flow properties of Siberian apricot were found to be -140C. It is also stated that
Siberian apricot is low cost, low acid value and high oil producing species for biodiesel production in China
[74]. New castle, fruit of wild apricot is used for the preparation of jams, chutney and naturally fermented and
distilled liquor. It is also reported that apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars have been prepared to cater the
requirements of proteins for adult and children. It is also reported that every part of wild apricot is used for the
preparation of different types of value added products and therefore, economy of farmers can be enhanced by
the commercial use of this fruit [75]. Wild apricot fruits are used as medicine to get relief from diarrhea, fever,
thirst and its seed tonic are used in liver troubles, earache, piles and deafness [76]. It is reported that apricot cake
after oil extraction contains 0.06% hydrocyanic acid and hence it is not recommended for animal feed as such. It
may be employed as animal feed only after removal of essential oil (1.2% -1.8%) with the distillation operation.
After boiling, apricot cake is used for feeding animals in Ladakh. Wild apricot seedling yields bitter kernel
constituting about 22-34% of the pit. These bitter kernels are used for oil extraction. The oil content in kernel
ranges from 36%-62%. The apricot oil is rich in Carotenoids and vitamin E. It contains 70-75% oleic acid and
16-22% Linoleic acid as major fatty acids. The protein content in kernel ranges from 20.5 -45.2%. Bitterness in
apricot kernel is due to the presence of Amygdalin which on hydrolysis yields hydrocyanic acid, which are
harmful for consumption to human. Therefore oil cake must be detoxified before using it for food purposes. A
sizeable quantity of apricot kernels is available in Ladakh which are mostly used for oil extraction. Oil color is
generally light to deep yellow [77].
Conclusion
Non-edible vegetable oils are one of the best alternatives as compared to edible vegetable oils. India has scope
for the cultivation of non-edible plants and hence, the production of biodiesel. Thumba, Linseed, Wild Apricot,
Algae, Cottonseed and Mahua may be used as potential resources for biodiesel production in India.
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52

Triacylglyceride's Transesterification for


Biodiesel: a Review

RAME-2016
Oct. 14 & 15.

Amrik Singh, Amit Pal, Harwinder Singh and S. Maji

Abstract-Biodiesel can be produced from various oils or TAG's by transesterification in the presence of
different catalyst. Biodiesel can be used either in pure form or blended form can be directly used in diesel engine
without any modification or little modification. This review presents the transesterification of oil using
different catalyst and their mechanism. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are discussed along with
their advantages and disadvantages. This review also gives insight on the microwave heating of reactions and
traditional method of heating of reactions. Apart from this use of enzyme based catalyst and current status is
explained. Now a day's nano-size catalyst also gains much attention due to large surface contact area.
Keywords- Transesterification; Catalyst; Enzyme; Nanoparticle catalyst.

ntroduction There are many feedstock's from which biodiesel is obtained. This oil cannot be directly used
to run engine due to high viscosity and low volatility which leads to injector coking and engine deposit
[1,2]. However this problem is eliminated by transesterification of oil to alkyl ester [1, 3].
Transesterification is also called alcoholysis. Transesterification is reversible reaction in which triglycerides
are converted to di-glycerides and to mono-glycerides which finally gives glycerol. Biodiesel floats at the top
while glycerol sinks to the bottom which is separated easily [4]. In transesterification methanol and ethanol is
mainly used as alcohol due to low cost. However octanol, propanol, butanol and tert butanol can also be used
but their cost is higher as compared to methanol and ethanol [5,6,7,8]. If methanol is used in reaction then
process is called methanolysis. General equation for transesterification is represented as in fig. 1 [9].
This reaction generally takes place in presence of catalyst which may be acidic or basic in nature as alcohol is
scarcely soluble in oil, so catalyst increase the solubility, thus accelerates the reaction [4]. The
transesterification process removes the glycerin, so viscosity decreases but heating value and cetane number
does not change [10].

Figure1: Transesterification reaction

Amrik Singh, Amit Pal, Harwinder Singh and S.Maji


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
Corresponding author: amriksingh200@gmail.com
1

PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

53

RAME-2016

Singh et al.

1.1. Kinetics of transesterification reaction


The oil from which biodiesel is produced is known as triglyceride (TAG). TAGs are formed by covalent
bonding of carboxylic acid with alcohol. In this context, TAG is an ester formed by combining of three
molecules of fatty acids covalently bonded with glycerol molecule [11]. Fatty acid has carboxylic group while
glycerol has three hydroxyl group which while combining form ester or TAGs. Transesterificationis a chemical
process in which carboxylic acid ester is converted into different carboxylic acid esters.

Figure2 transesterification reaction


2. Base-Catalysed Transesterification
Base catalyst are mostly used for transesterification of vegetable oils [12,13,14,15,16]. When the tryglyceride
contains free fatty acids or excess amount of water then acid catalyst are used to reduce the soap formation
[13,16, 17]. Base catalyzed transesterification reaction is 4000 times faster then acid catalyzed reaction but it is
used only if trygleceride contains less then 2% free fatty acids [18]. Sodium and potassium hydroxide are
mostly used for industrial purpose.
2.1. Mechanism of Base catalyzed Transesterification
The transesterification using base catalyst involves four step pre step or first step in which base reacts with
alcohol and form protonated catalyst and an alkoxide. In the next step carbonyl group of oil is attacked by
nucleophilic and forms intermediate [19, 20,12]. In third step alkyl ester and anion of diglyceride are formed. In
fourth step the catalyst deprotonates, thus regenerating the base which again reacts with second molecule of
alcohol and starts another cycle.
Base catalyst are mostly used because reaction takes place at low temperature and pressure that is 60oC and 20
psi and obtain high yield about 98%. However there are some shortcomings it requires high energy, to separate
the catalyst from the media after transesterification pro-reaction treatment is required, difficult to recover
glycerol after the reaction moreover it forms soap with free fatty acids.

2.2. Factors affecting base catalyzed transesterification.


Effect of alcohol to oil molar ratio: the yield of methyl esters generally depends upon methanol to triglyceride
molar ratio. Theoretically three moles of methanol are required per mole of oil for transesterification. A
vegetable oil [21] studied the amount of alcohol required for transesterification of vegetable oil in terms of
alcohol to oil molar ratio.
Shazia sultana [22] studied transesterification on five different molar ratios in the range 2:1 to 10:1 and obtained
maximum yield 92% with 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio.On further increase in methanol to oil molar ratio the

54

Triacylglyceride's Transesterification for Biodiesel: a Review

Figure 3 mechanism for base catalyzed transesterification reaction


ester yield decreases.
Encinar J.M et al [23] studied different ethanol to oil molar ratio between range 3:1 to 15:1 for the
transesterification of cynarer oil and reported that reaction is incomplete when molar ratio is less than 6:1. The
yield of ester increases as the molar ratio increased upto 12:1 and obtained optimum value at 9:1. However
many authors reported that [24,25] with increase in methanol to oil molar ratio the yield decreases, for instance,
Lu et al [24] worked on different molar ratio ranges from 1:1 to 1:10 and reported that the maximum yield is
obtained at 1:1 and this may be due to inhibitory effect of alcohol on lipase activity.
Similarly Li et al [25] given same trend that with increase in molar ratio yield decreases, the achieved 95% yield
in 12 hour at molar ratio 4:1.

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Singh et al.

2.3 Effect of Catalyst Concentration


Mostly alkaline, acid and enzyme catalyst are used. If the oil contains high free fatty acids and large quantity of
water then acid catalyst is used for transesterification. Sultana Shazia [22] studied the effect of NaOH
concentration between the range of 0.1-0.9 wt% and obtained that yield increases with increase in catalyst
concentration from 0.1-0.5%. The yield decreases with further increase in NaOH concentration and reduced to
50% with 1.5% NaOH concentration. This is because with increase in the concentration of catalyst, soap
formation will take place and reduce the yield with increase in viscosity. Ma F et al [27] studied the effect of
NaOH and NaoME concentration and found that at 3% and 5% w/w of catalyst to beef tallow oil maximum
yield is obtained.
3. Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification
The acid catalyzed transesterification does not gain much popularity because it is 4000 times slower than the
alkali catalyzed reactions [18]. Its performance does not affected by the presence of free fatty acids and can
catalyze simultaneously both esterification and trans-esterification. Acid catalyst can produce biodiesel from
low cost feed stock having high free fatty acid FFA. The transesterification of triglyceride consist of three
reversible reactions.
Acid catalyzed transesterification mechanism is shown in fig for monoglyceride. Carbonyl group protonation
leads to carbocation which forms tetrahedral intermediate after the nucleophilic attack of alcohol. The glycerol
is separated and forms new ester. These reactions should be carried in the absence of water because carbocation
reacts with water to form carboxylic acids.

Figure 4. Mechanism of acid catalyzed reaction.


4. Catalyst for transesterification Process
For transesterification following catalyst are investigated, heterogenous, enzymatic and homogenous or alkali
catalyst like potassium and sodium hydroxide are mostly used in industrial transesterification because they
promote reaction at low temperature also [28].
4.1. Homogenous Catalyst
Homogeneous catalysts are further divided as homogeneous acids and homogeneous base catalyst.

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Triacylglyceride's Transesterification for Biodiesel: a Review


Homogeneous base catalysts are commonly used for transesterification of triglyceride. Homogeneous base
catalyst such as carbonates [29], alkaline metal hydroxide [30,31] and alkoxides [17, 32] are most commonly
used [28] the alkoxide are more difficult to handle then hydroxide because alkoxide are hygroscopic in nature.
Alkoxide does not form soap from triglyceride saponification due to the presence of hydroxide ion which act as
an impurity in alkoxide [28]. While using alkaline catalyst the free fatty acid content should not increase 0.5%
by wt. otherwise soap formation will takes place which hampers the production of biodiesel. Various authors
reported that 90% yield is obtained by using potassium hydroxide and boiler ashes in the methanolysis and
ethanolysis of coconut and palm oil [3323, 34, 35]. Ma et. al. [27] found that alkaline catalyst Naoh perform
better than NaoMe. However to obtain higher yield the concentration of naome is slightly higher as compared to
Naoh Ma et. al. [27]. Singh et al. [36] studied about alkaline catalyst (NaoH, KoH, KoMe and NaoMe) and
found that better yield is obtained by potassium based catalyst as compared to sodium based catalyst. Where
methoxide based catalyst produces higher yield compared to hydroxide based catalyst.
4.2. Homogeneous Acid Catalyst
For the transesterification of free fatty acid (FFAs) homogeneous acid catalyst are more effective as compared
to base catalyst. Acid catlysed reactions proceed 4000 times slower than the base catalyzed reaction[15].
However acid catalyzed reactions have lower moisture sensitivity as well as non-appearance of soap formation.
Acid catalysts are used where oil has higher FFAS [28]. If base catalyst are used it will form soap. Acid
catalyzed reactions are two stage processes, in first stage esterification takes place in the presence of acid
catalyst while in the second stage reaction takes place in the presence of base catalyst.
The acid catalyst mostly used are, sulphonic acid, organic sulfonic acid, hydrochloric acid, and phoshphoric
acid. Freedman et al. [32] uses sulphuric acid as catalyst with alcohol oil ratio 30:1 and found that to obtain 90%
yield reaction took 50h to complete at 65o C. Zullaikah et. al. [37] uses sulphuric acid as catalyst for the
transesterification of rice bran oil between temperature range of 60-80oC.
4.3. Heterogeneous Catalyst
It is difficult to separate homogeneous catalyst from the reaction mixture so heterogeneous catalysts are
developed. Heterogeneous catalyst. heterogeneous catalyst are advantageous because they does not form soap
through saponification of triglyceride and eliminate corrosion problems and reaction requires high temperature
and pressure. However there are some limitations like, they have poor performance compared to homogeneous
catalyst, and due to less surface contact catalyst does not participate effectively in reaction so catalyst must be in
porous state. The surface of heterogeneous catalyst must be hydrophobic in nature so that it adsorb triglyceride
and to avoid adsorption of polar by products like water and glycerol on surface. Solid catalyst which are mostly
used are, alkaline earth oxide, solid organic base, basic oxides supported, basic zeolite, insoluble metal salt and
hydroxide, basic metal oxide, hydrotolerite and hetropolyacids [38].
4.3.1 Alkaline Earth Oxide
Ca and Mg are alkaline earth metals which are most widely used as heterogeneous base catalyst. Gryglewicz
[31] found that alkali earth metal oxides sucessfuly catalyzed the transesterification reaction. Alkaline earth
oxides are basic due to M2+ and O2- ion pairs [39]. Various authors reported the use of Cao as catalyst for the
transesterification of sunflower, and rapeseed oil with methanol [40, 41]. Moreover, strontium oxide, Cao, Mgo
also investigated as catalyst for transesterification with high basicity [42, 43, 44].
Martyanov and Sayari [45] used calcium methoxide as catalyst for the transesterification of triglyceride and

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found that initially reaction is slower as compared to homogeneous sodium methoxide and magnesium
methoxide, but at later stage the rate of reaction is higher than magnesium methoxide. Alkaline earth metal
oxides assimilate with metal oxide and form composite oxide [46] which can be used as solid base catalyst for
transesterification. Composite oxides are more stable and easy to separate from the reaction media.
4.3.2. Acid Zeolite
Zeolites are most widely used as solid acid catalyst for transesterification of oil and made hydrophobic by
elimination of water of hydration. Shu et al, [47] uses La/Zeolite beta catalyst for the batch transesterification of
soybean oil and found that La/Zeolite base catalyst have higher conversion rate than zeolite beta heterogeneous
acid catalyst used in biodiesel production are mostly mesoporous [48, 49]. Subsume of microporous H-Zeolite with secondary mesoporosity create a heterogeneous solid catalyst which accelerates microalgae
transesterification by reducing the diffusion barriers [50, 51] uses zeolite catalyst for the transesterification of
waste cooking oil and found that yield is independent of porosity of zeolite and found that yield increases with
increase in strength of the acid.
4.3.3. Hetropolyacids
Hetropolyacids attains much attention due to its superacidic nature (PK H+> 12) and porous structure. They are
highly soluble in polar media in their native form which make their contribution in reaction as homogeneous
catalyst [52]. Chai et al, [53] uses heterogeneous catalyst (CS2.5 H0.5PW12O40) for transesterification of eruca
sativa gars oil and obtained the same result as by using sodium hydroxide or sulphuric acid with one advantage
of easy separation of catalyst from media and its reuse. Cao et al [54] use the hetroppolyacids (H35PW12O40.
6H2O) catalyst for transesterification of waste cooking oil. In 10h 87% yield is obtained using hexhydrate
catalyst. The catalyst would be separated easily and was reused many times.
5. Microwave Irradiation Effect on Biodiesel Production
Traditionally organic reactions are heated by various equipments such as sand bath, heating jackets and oil
baths. These techniques are not effective because they are slower and temperature gradient took place. But now
a days microwave dielectric heating is preferred in microwave heating radiation passes the wall and only heat
the solvent and reactants without heating the vessel [55].
Patil et. al., [56] used micro-algal oil to produce biodiesel by transesterification by heating with microwave
radiation and observed that microwave irradiation effect the reaction in two way 1. reaction is boosted by
thermal effect. 2. Vaporization of methanol due to strong microwave radiation. Ma et al, [57] observed that
microwave heating reduce energy and reaction time due to volumetric heating.Ma et al, [57] produced biodiesel
by transesterification of micro-algal oil in the presence of KOH by conventional heating and microwave
heating method and find that with conventional heating system reaction completes in 210 minute while with
microwave heating reaction completes in 5 min, obtained 96.54% conversion using KOH 1% wt, 1:8 oil to
methanol at 65oC.
6. Nanoparticle Catalyst In Transesterification
For the conversion of triglyceride to methyl esters transesterification takes place in the presence of catalyst.
Catalysts used are either base catalyst or acid catalyst. Base catalyzed reactions are much faster than that by acid
catalyzed reaction. However basic catalyst have some drawbacks such as loss of catalyst, some catalyst remain
in the biodiesel does not separated. To overcome this drawback heterogeaneous catalyst are used but require

58

Triacylglyceride's Transesterification for Biodiesel: a Review


long reaction time and large volume. Therefore, to improve the conversion of free fatty acid, lots of efforts are
done to produce catalyst with high surface area. Highest methyl esters can be produced by catalyst with high
surface area [58]. Many authors investigated that Nano sized catalyst have large contact area. For instance,
Wang et. al., [59] produced biodiesel from waste cooking oil in the presence of nano-sized catalyst (Aluminum
dode catungs to phosphate AIPW ) and observed that 96% conversion was achieved at 55o C due to large
surface area of nano paticle.
6.1. CaO/ MgO catalyst
Calcium oxide is heterogeneous base catalyst mostly used for transesterification reaction. It has many
advantages, such as easy availability, higher activity, reusability, low cost and mild reaction condition.
Pretreatment temperature range between 700-1000 K is used to remove water and CO2 which is adsorbed on the
surface of CaO [60]. Most of the catalyst has adverse effect on yield of methyl ester in the presence of water.
However CaO catalyst performs well in the presence of water, it forms methoxide ion in the presence of
methanol which is highly active. Mechanism of transesterification with CaO as catalyst is given in fig [61].
As shown in equation 1, Ca2+ extracts OH-and O2- extracts H+ from water so they are easily extracted by reactants
during chemical reaction. As shown in equation 2, methoxide anion and H2O forms when OH- extracts H+
methanol. In equation 3 again O-2 extract H+ and form surface methoxide anion. If water exceed by 2.8 wt% of
oil it hydrolyze the methyl esters and forms fatty acid and methanol. Liu et. al., [61] obtained 95% yield at
temperature 65o C by using CaO catalyst. Hsiao [75] used nano powder CaO as catalyst and obtained 96.6%
yield at 1:6 oil to methanol ratio, reaction time 1 hour, 338 K temperature and 3 wt% catalyst.

Fig 5. Transesterification mechanism in the presence of water using CaO as catalyst.

Due to easy preparation and low cost researcher focus attention on MgO and CaO catalyst. Huaping [62]
obtained 93% yield using CaO as catalyst. Di serio [63] achieved 92% yield by using MgO as catalyst. Dossin
[64] use MgO as catalyst in batch work reactor and found that satisfactorily at ambient condition. Magnesium
oxide is identified as good homogeneous catalyst for transesterification of ethyl acetate with methanol [64].
6.2. CaOZnO Catalyst
The combination of Cao and ZnO (CaOZnO) catalyst in palm kernel oil transesterification is studied. The
mixture of CaO and ZnO has small particle size which result in large surface contact area as compared to

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individual oxides. Ngamcharussrivchai [53] used CaOZnO catalyst with Ca/Zn ratio 0.25 for the
transesterification of palm kernel oil and obtained greater than 94% yield at reaction temperature 60oC,
methanol to oil ratio 30 and reaction time 60 minute. CaOZnO catalyst is used for the transesterification of sun
flower seed oil and 90% yield is obtained [65]. The CaO and ZnO are synthesized by Co-precipitation method
or impregnation method. Ngamcharussrivchai [53] found that the catalyst synthesized by the co precipitation
method result in higher yield (94.2%) compared to impregnation method (90%). The literature shows that the
activity of reaction depends on Ca to Zn atomic ratio it is synthesized between ratio, from to 4. At atomic ratio
of 0.25 the CaOZnO catalyst produce 93.5% of esters which is larger as compared to other atomic ratio.
7. Enzyme catalyzed transesterification
The problem related to conventional catalytic process, like removal of catalyst, treat large amount of waste
waterand high energy requirement are solved by using enzymes. Enzyme do not form any soap like alkaline
catalyst and without the need of washing they esterify both FFA and TAG in single step. These are biological
catalyst and can catalyze different chemical reactions. They can be either used in free or immobilized form in
transesterification that leads to the production of biodiesel [66]. A wide range of enzymes such as lipase has
been used for esterification [67]. Lipase from fungi and bacteria are mostly used for process and they belong to
group of hydrolytic enzymes which is also known as hydrolases.
The lipase catalyzed reaction is classified as [68].
1. hydrolysis 2. Synthesis a) esterification b) transesterification.
1) Hydrolysis
R1COOR2 + H2O
R1COOH
2
+R OH
Esterication
R1COOH +R2OH
R1COOR2
+H2O
Transesterification
Alcoholysis
R1COOR2
+ R3OH
1
3
2
R COOR + R OH
Acidolysis
R1COOR2
+ R3COOH
R3COOR2 + R1COOH
7.1.Immobilization of lipase
Immobilization of lipase is the state of arrest of the enzyme in region [69]. Immobilization provide number of
benefits such as enzyme reuse, easy separation of product from enzyme [70]. Many other properties are also
improved such as chemical, thermal and mechanical properties making them to use in harsher environmental
condition [71,72].Salah [73]obtained 25% conversion with immobilized lipase and 3% conversion with free
lipase while butanolysis of acetic acid. General technique used for immobilization are 1). Adsorption 2)
Entrapment 3) Cross linking 4) Encapsulation . Adsorption is simplest method; in this enzymes are attached to
the surface by combination of Vander wall or electrostatic forces.
7.2. Effect of presence and absence of solvent enzyme based transesterification
Using enzyme as catalyst for biodiesel production of oil is tried in the presence and absence of solvent. Nelson
[74]done methanolysis of tallow oil using hexane as solvent in the presence of Mucormehei lipase and obtained
77.8% yield. But many workers favours solvent free reactions. Furthermore toxicity and inflammability of

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Triacylglyceride's Transesterification for Biodiesel: a Review


solvents, prevent the use of solvent enzyme based transesterification. Oznur [76] done transesterification of
cotton seed oil using immobilized lipase and obtained 92% of yield in a solvent free medium.
8. Conclusion
This review includes the transesterification of oil using alkali and acid catalyst. The effect of parameters such
as, molar ratio, catalyst concentration and methanol to oil ratio are discussed. Selection of homogeneous,
heterogeneous and enzymatic catalyst is explained. Homogeneous base catalysts are commonly used for
industrial purposes whereas heterogeneous and homogeneous acid catalysts have lesser use. Homogeneous
acid and base catalyst require excess alcohol. Homogeneous catalyst is mainly used for batch mode process,
followed by catalyst separation. Moreover homogeneous alkali catalysts are sensitive to free fatty acids and
H2O, results in saponification. The feed stock having FFA require acid and base catalyst which is two stage
process in which acid catalyst are firstly used and then removed before the use of alkaline catalyst. However the
use of acid catalyst increases the corrosiveness. Now a days much more attention is focused on enzyme based
catalyst instead of chemical catalyst because enzyme based catalytic reaction proceed at moderate conditions,
require low alcohol to oil ratio, and easy product recovery. Use of nano- particle catalyst and heating reactions
with the help of microwave is discussed.
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RAME-2016
Oct. 14 & 15.

Mathematical Analysis of Exhaust Based


Thermoelectric Generator
Vikrant Mishra, and Kiran Pal

Abstract-This paper presents a mathematical analysis of automobile exhaust based thermoelectric generator.
In this analysis, power produced from the thermoelectric generator is calculated on the basis of Seebeck effect
and laws of heat transfer. The conversion efficiency is determined by comparing the power output produced to
the total heat transferred by exhaust gases to the hot side of thermoelectric module. In this paper, mathematical
expression for power ratios in case of module mismatching are also determined for both series and parallel
configuration of linking thermoelectric modules. The main purpose of connecting thermoelectric modules is to
increase the power produced. As single module can't generate enough amount of power which could be utilized
in small electronics accessories in vehicle, modules are connected in a large number to increase power output
which can be used in charging batteries or small electronics applications in vehicles.
Keywords- Thermoelectric Module, Thermoelectric Generator, Seebeck effect, Module Mismatch

ntroduction Transportation sector is one of the significant causes for increasing environment pollution
and petroleum fuel crisis. So there is a greater need of efficient utilization of petroleum fuels. In an internal
combustion engine approximately 40% of fuel energy is wasted through exhaust gases [1]. The heat
energy of exhaust gases can be utilized by many waste heat recovery technologies such as Organic Rankine
cycle, Thermoelectric power generation, Six stroke IC engine cycle [2]. Among these technologies,
thermoelectric power generation provides a promising technology in which the waste heat energy of exhaust
gases is directly converted into electrical power on the basis of Seebeck effect. Thermoelectric Generator
(TEG) are getting more attention in waste heat recovery from exhaust gases due to rapidly increasing
advancement in semiconductor technology. TEGs have no moving components and it is compact, quiet, highly
reliable and environmentally friendly in operation [3]. But the main disadvantage of using TEG is its low
conversion efficiency. The conversion efficiency is around 2.5% on a system and around 3.5% on a
thermoelectric generator level, despite the significant increase in the figure of merit (ZT) value of
thermoelectric materials [4]. The figure of merit (ZT) value is an important parameter in determining the
performance of thermoelectric module. The efficiency of the TEG will be higher for the thermoelectric material
with higher value of figure of merit [5]. So further research should be focused on increasing conversion
efficiency of automobile exhaust based thermoelectric generator with the development of thermoelectric
material with higher figure of merit value.
Vikrant Mishra
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana
Road Delhi-110042,
E-mail- mishra92vikrant@gmail.com
Kiran Pal
Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics, Delhi Institute of Tool Engineering,
Okhala, New Delhi-110042
E-mail- kiranpaldite@gmail.com
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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2. Power and Efficiency Calculation


Generally, TEG is composed of several thermoelectric modules which consists couple of assembled P-type and
N-type thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric modules are arranged in 'r' rows and in each row, there are
'm' thermocouples of P-type and N-type thermoelectric materials. So, total number of couples (n) will be equals
to multiplication of number of rows and number of couples in single row (n= r*m). In this analysis, exhaust gas
is considered as hot source of TEG device and ambient air as cold source. Let us consider the jth unit in the
theoretical model presented in figure 1. The power produced can be calculated in generalized way by
calculating power produced by jth unit (where, j = 1,2,3..,m). In the calculation of power produced, the outlet
temperature of the former module will be considered as the inlet temperature for the next module unit. In this
way, the power can be calculated for each unit.

Figure 1. Schematic model of thermoelectric generator containing 'n' number of modules [6]
In this analysis, there are some assumptions:
i. Thermal and flow properties of TE module should not vary with time i.e. steady state condition.
ii. The exhaust gas which entrapped in the gaps of device should be ignored.
iii. As the thickness of copper plate is enough small, thermal resistance of copper plate should be assumed
negligible (copper plate is used as an interface between exhaust gas and module).
iv. The thermal conductivity (k) of the thermoelectric material should not be the function of temperature,
i.e. it should be constant.
This mathematical analysis is based on the Seebeck effect of thermoelectricity, Fourier's law of heat
conduction. Based on Fourier's law, heat is transferred from exhaust gases to the hot side of TEG device.
The rate of heat transfer for P material at the hot side (Qp1) for jthunit can be expressed as:-

(1)

The rate of heat transfer for N material for jthunit:


(2)

Here, Sp1 and Sn1 are the Seebeck coefficient of P and N-type material at hot side, I is the output current, T1 is the
mean temperature of the hot side per unit length in axial direction, kp and kn are thermal conductivities of P and
N-type materials respectively. Ap and An are the cross sectional area and (dT/dy) is the temperature gradient in ydirection.Similarly equations for heat transfer rate (Qp2 and Qn2) at the cold side of the jthunit of TE module can be
written as:
(3)

(4)

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Mathematical Analysis of Exhaust Based Thermoelectric......


The correlation between temperature gradient with joule heat per unit height of P-N couple is expressed as:
(5)

(6)

Here is termed as the electrical resistivity of the material. For derivation of important mathematical relations
boundary conditions are:
At y = 0 ; Temperature of module (P-side temp), T = T1
At y = H; Temperature of module (N-side temp), T = T2.
Using boundary condition and integrating equations (5) and (6), we get:
(7)

(8)

Now using equation (7) in equations (1) & (2) and equation (8) in equations (3) & (4), the unit heat absorbed Q1
(at y=0) and unit heat released Q2 in jth unit of TE module can be obtained:
(9)

(10)

Where,

Hence 'K' is equivalent thermal conductance of the jth unit and R1 is the electrical resistance. The reciprocal of
thermal conductance (1/K) gives the value of thermal resistance in the unit module.
The output power for each unit of P-N couple can be expressed as:

(11)

And we can also calculate the efficiency of single module as:


(12)

For overall conversion efficiency and power output we take summation of all power values found from
individual modules:
(14)

(13)

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Where Pjis the power generated from jthTE module and Q1 is the total heat transferred by exhaust gases to the hot
side of thermoelectric module. In the formula of overall power output 'r' is the number of rows as described
earlier and m is the number of TE modules in single row.
3.
Comparison of Theoretical and Actual Efficiency
In this work, a single thermoelectric module was tested by locating it on the exhaust pipe of vehicle between
catalytic converter and muffler because the average interface temperature is better in this location [8].The
theoretical efficiency for thermoelectric module is given by following expression [9]:

(15)
Putting all the values at an instant when hot side temperature is 105.3C and cold side temperature is 33.5C.
w T = temperature difference between both sides of module = 105.3 33.5 = 71.8 K
w Z = figure of merit of thermoelectric material; For Bismuth Telluride module, Z = 3*10-3 K-1
w Tm = (Th+ Tc)/2 = 69.4 C = 342.55 K.
After calculation theoretical efficiency is found as:

The actual power produced by the module for same hot and cold side temperature is observed as 2.28312 W. So
the actual efficiency of module:

Where Q1 is equal to the heat absorbed by hot side interface of module from the exhaust gases, so it can be
calculated from Newton's law of heat convection.
(16)
w
w
w
w

Where, h = heat transfer coefficient in W/m2-K = 10 W/m2-K


As = Area of surface to which heat is transferred = dl = 3.14*5.08*10-2*0.15 = 0.0239 m2
Te = Exhaust gas temperature = 400C
T= Temp of surface (base plate) which is being heated. = 105.3C
Then, Q1 = 10 * 0.0239 * (400 105.3) = 70.433 W
act= 2.28312/70.433 = 0.0324 = 3.24%.

ence, Actual efficiency is comparable to theoretical efficiency which is 3.60% for same hot side and cold side
temperature condition.
4. Module Mismatch
It is seen that there are discrepancies among predicted power output and actual power output when
thermoelectric modules are connected electrically in series or in parallel. This phenomenon of differences
between predicted and actual power output is known as module mismatch [10-11]. This case generally occurs
when parameters of connected thermoelectric modules differ. Mathematically, the problem of module
mismatch can be analyzed as followThe power generated by unit TE module from equation (11) can be simplified as:
(17)

Here, S in the Seebeck coefficient of TE couple. For maximum value of power output concept of maximaminima is used. Hence,
(18)

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Mathematical Analysis of Exhaust Based Thermoelectric......


On solving above eq. (18),
(19)
Or
(20)
By putting this value of current (I) in equation (17), formula for maximum power produced by unit TE module
can be derived as:
(21)

If two modules are added electrically and P1 and P2 are the individual output power for module 1 and module 2
respectively. Then from equation (21),

(22)

Here, C1 and C2 are two ratios used to simplify equations, C1 is the ratio of seebeck coefficient of second module
(S2) to that of first module (S1). C2 is the ratio of electrical resistance of second module (R2) to electrical
resistance of first module (R1),
(23)

(24)

Equations (23) and (24) can be used to set up mismatch ratio when modules are connected electrically.
Now with the help of following governing equations the power ratio in case of series connection and parallel
connection of thermoelectric modules can be estimated. Governing equation are:
(25)
(26)

3.1.Module mismatching for Series connection


In series connection of modules, the current remains constant and voltage increases. Let us consider there are
two modules connected in series and voltage induce through them are V1 and V2respectively. Then from
governing equation (30),
(32)
(33)

(34)

Current passing through serially connected module (Is) by rearranging equation (34):

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(35)

From here, the equivalent maximum voltage (which is half of open circuit voltage) and equivalent maximum
current (which is half of the short circuit current) in case of series-connection of module 1 and module 2 can be
calculated as:
(36)

(37)

Here V0 is the open circuit voltage and I0 is the short circuit current. The value of maximum power will be
multiplication of maximum current and maximum voltage value of series-connected module.
(38)

Using the values of C1 and C2 in above equation (38), the value of peak power in terms of C1 and C2:
(39)

Now we can compare the maximum power produced by the module 1 and module 2 connected in series. This
value is lower than the sum of individual peak powers produced by both module. If we divide equation (39) by
equation (27) the ratio will indicate the level of mismatch.
(40)

3.2.Module mismatching for parallel connection


Parallel connection thermoelectric modules provide that there is same voltage induced across all the TE
modules but the current differs. From governing equation (31), electrical current passing through module 1 and
module 2 separately are:
(41)

(42)

The electrical current passing through full TE unit will be the sum of currents in individual module. Hence the
current passing through the parallel-connected modules (Ip):

(43)

Rearranging the equation (43) for the value of Vp,


(44)

Now, to find maximum value of current and voltage induced in parallel-connected TE module, the value of

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Mathematical Analysis of Exhaust Based Thermoelectric......


short circuit current (I0) and open circuit voltage (Vo) will be halved:
(45)

(46)

Now, peak power output can be determined by multiplying maximum current and maximum voltage in parallelconnected TE module:

(47)

Using the values of C1 and C2, the peak power can be calculated in term of C1 and C2
(48)

Now, the maximum power produced by parallel-connected modules can be compared with the sum of power
produced by individual modules. Parallel-connected modules have lesser value of power output. If we divide
equation (48) by equation (27) the ratio will indicate the level of mismatch.
(49)

3.3 Special cases


Some special cases for power ratios in series and parallel connection are as follow:
i.
When C1 = C2 ,
In this case, the power ratio for series connection,

For parallel connection,

So the condition when ratio C1 and C2 becomes equal, the problem of mismatch is incapacitated in seriesconnection of modules. But for parallel connection there is still a mismatching even the value of the parameters
ratios are same.
ii. When the seebeck coefficient of both the module are equal (S1 = S2) In this case the value of ratio constant C1 will equal to 1. Putting the value C1=1 in equation of power
ratios (eq. 40 and eq. 49),
The expression for series connection,

For parallel connection,

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Hence for the second case, parallel connection overcome the problem of mismatch and there is similar
mismatching in series-connection as in the parallel connection for the first case. From the second case it can be
concluded that if the value of seebeck coefficient (S) is same for all TE module, the performance of TEG system
will not be affected by mismatching in parallel configuration of connection.
iii. When the electrical resistance is same for both moduleIn this case the value of C2 will be equals to 1. This case gives same value of power ratio for both series
and parallel type connection of modules.

From the above equation, it is clear that when both modules have same electrical resistance, the value of power
ratio will never be less than 0.5.
5. Validation of Power Loss Due To Module Mismatching
To validate the power loss due to module mismatching, two different types of modules were connected and
observations found are as follow:

Figure 2. Voltage-current curve for individual and connected modules

Figure 3. Power-current curve for module 1, module 2 and the connected module

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Mathematical Analysis of Exhaust Based Thermoelectric......


The Power-current relationship clearly shows that maximum power generated by connected module is less than
the sum of maximum power produced by the both modules individually. These discrepancies between
predicted power output and actual power output can be minimized by using the condition described in the
previous section. In this work the power loss ratio due to module mismatching is calculated as:

Hence, the value of power loss ratio is less than one i.e. maximum power produced by the connected module is
less than the sum of individual peak powers produced by both modules.
6. Conclusion
This paper presents a mathematical analysis of automobile exhaust based thermoelectric generator. The
expression for power produced and conversion efficiency are determined on the basis of Seebeck effect,
Fourier's law of heat conduction and Newton's law of heat convection. The concept on mismatching in
thermoelectric generator is also mathematically analyzed. Power ratios for mismatching in series and parallel
configuration are derived which can help in using optimum values of Seebeck coefficients and electrical
resistances.
References
[1]
Yu C, Chau KT, Thermoelectric automotive waste heat energy recovery using maximum power point
tracking; Energy Convers Manage 2009; Vol. 50, pp. 15061512.
[2]
R. Saidur, M. Rezaei , W.K. Muzammil, M.H. Hassan, S. Paria, M. Hasanuzzaman, Technologies to
recover exhaust heat from internal combustion engines; Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
2012, Vol. 16, pp. 56495659.
[3]
Basel I. Ismail and Wael H. Ahmed, Thermoelectric Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy as an
Alternative Green Technology; Recent Patents on Electrical Engineering, 2009, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 27-39.
[4]
Fairbanks J. Thermoelectric applications in vehicles status 2008. In: Proceedings of the 6th European
conference on thermoelectrics, ICMPE-CRNS; 2008,pp. 18.
[5]
Saniya LeBlanc, Thermoelectric generators: Linking material properties and systems engineering for
waste heat recovery applications, Sustainable Materials and Technologies 2014, Vol.1-2, pp. 2635.
[6]
Yuchao Wang, Chuanshan Dai and Shixue Wang, Theoretical analysis of a thermoelectric generator
using exhaust gas of vehicles as heat source, Applied Energy 2013, Vol. 112, pp. 11711180.
[7]
J.P. Holman, Heat Transfer, Tenth Edition, The McGraw-Hill publisher, 2010, pp. 27-57.
[8]
X. Liu, Y.D. Deng, S. Chen, W.S. Wang, Y. Xu and C.Q. Su, A case study on compatibility of automotive
exhaust thermoelectric generation system, catalytic converter and muffler, Case Studies in Thermal
Engineering 2014, Vol. 2, pp. 6266.
[9]
Terry M.Tritt and M.A.Subramanian, Thermoelectric Materials, Phenomena, and Applications: A
Bird's Eye View; MRS Bulletin, March 2006, Vol. 31, pp. 188-198.
[10] A. Chouder and S. Silvestre, Analysis model of mismatch power losses in PV systems, Journal of Solar
Energy Engineering, 2009 Vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 024504-1 024504-5.
[11] D. Picault, B. Raison, S. Bacha, J. de la Casa, and J. Aguilera, Forecasting photovoltaic array power
production subject to mismatch losses, Solar Energy, 2010 vol. 84, no. 7, pp. 1301-1309.

73

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Optimization of Solar Assisted Production


of Biodiesel From Cotton Seed Oil
Manisha, Vikrant Mishra, R.S. Mishra and Amit Pal

Abstract - At present, there are many research and developments are taking place in every aspects of human
life, but still millions of people are facing the problem of deficient-electricity in India and all around the world.
It's true that biodiesel can be an alternative to petroleum-fuels (Gasoline and Diesel), but the production process
of biodiesel is still not so cost effective that it can be used commercially in automobiles. To make it cost
effective, a small parabolic dish type solar reflector was used for heating required in transesterification process
which avoid the use of electrical heating and magnetic stirrer. This paper presents optimization of different
process parameters used in solar assisted biodiesel production.
Keywords- Biodiesel; Solar irradiation; Taguchi's method; Transesterification; Yield.

ntroduction In recent years, new technologies of biodiesel production are becoming more promising.
Solar assisted biodiesel production is one of the new technologies which not only utilize solar energy for
heating purpose in place of electrical heater, but also produce biodiesel of better quality. In solar assisted
method, a parabolic dish type solar reflector is used which concentrate heat at its focal point. A vessel containing
oil, methanol and catalyst in different proportions is placed on the focal point of reflector and transesterification
process takes place when it is maintained at around 70C for one hour [1]. In transesterification process, there
are four process parameters: oil to methanol molar ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature, catalyst
concentration. In some previous work on conventional method biodiesel production, these process parameters
were optimized to increase the yield of biodiesel produced. Mishra et al. [2] presented optimization of process
parameters on the Neem oil methyl ester production. In this work, they used Taguchi's method of optimization.
Sherbiny et al. [3] discussed the production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using microwave irradiation method
and then optimization of process parameters was performed to increase the conversion yield. The optimum
conditions in this work were methanol to oil molar ratio as 7.5:1 and 1.5% potassium hydroxide as the catalyst.
The optimum reaction temperature was 60C. The conversion yield was found as 97.4% in just 2 min using the
microwave irradiation technique.
In this paper, process parameters are optimized using the Taguchi's method. This method not only optimized the

Manisha and Vikrant Mishra


P.G. Student1,2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi110042,
E-mail- manishasingh3090@gmail.com, mishra92vikrant@gmail.com,
R.S. Mishra
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi-110042
E-mail- professor_rsmishra@yahoo.co.in
Amit Pal
Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi110042
E-mail- amitpal@dce.ac.in
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

75

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Manisha et al.

process parameters but also make the better feasibility of solar assisted biodiesel production.
2. Design of Experiments using Taguchi's Method
At first, the design of experiments was done using Taguchi's method. In this work, the experiments were
designed using a 3-level and 4-factor database. The process parameters or factors and their level are tabulated as
follow:
Table 1. Process parameters and their levels

Taguchi's software generate a L9 type orthogonal array on the basis of 3-level 4-factors. The experiments were
performed using these nine iterations of L9 orthogonal array and the yield is calculated by performing
experiments. The following table shows the different yield percentage at different conditions of process
parameters:

Table 2. L9 orthogonal array with yield (%) calculated

With the help of this orthogonal array, Main effect plots for mean values of yield and signal to noise ratios are
generated by Taguchi's software.
3. Experimental Method of Solar Assisted Biodiesel Production
A parabolic dish type solar reflector was used in this work. At first, the cotton seed oil was heated up to remove
moisture content then it was cooled to 60C. A mixture of methanol and KOH is prepared in different beaker
then it is mixed with the cotton seed oil. Now, this mixture of oil, methanol and KOH is heated by putting it at
focal point of reflector. The flux temperature is maintained around 60C-80C for 50 to 70 minutes. In this way,
solar assisted transesterification is performed. The different yields of cotton seed oil methyl ester found from
different experiments are shown in table 2.

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Optimization of Solar Assisted Production of Biodiesel.....

Figure 1. Solar assisted transesterification.


4. Determination of Optimal Experimental Condition By the Design of Experiment
The yield of biodiesel produced under nine sets of experimental conditions are estimating by performing
experiments under the same experimental conditions. After conducting nine experiments and measuring the
percentage yields, there are nine observations in total for each experiment. According to the analysis for the
case of 'larger the better', the mean squared deviations (MSD) of each experiment were evaluated using the
following equation [2]:

Where 'n' is the number of repetitions of each experiment and 'yi'is the yield of biodiesel.

Figure 2. Main effect plot for means.


Signal to Noise (S/N) Ratio
In Taguchi optimization Signal to Noise Ratio is a significant parameter which is used to estimate the extent of
deviation of quality function from the expected value. Taguchi approach uses three types of S/N Ratios on the
basis of objective of the problem.
I.
Nominal-the-Best
ii. Smaller-the-Better
iii. Larger-the-Better
In normal-to-best S/N ratio, normalization problems are solved. Smaller-the-better S/N ratio is used for
minimization problem and larger-the-better is used for maximization of problem. In the transesterification
process, we need to maximize conversion yield of biodiesel, so larger-the-better ratio is used.

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The mathematical equation for these three types of S/N ratios are as follow-

Where,

i Experiment number
j Trial number
n Number of trials
So the optimum level of design factor will be the level with maximum signal to noise ratio.

Figure 3. Main effect plots for signal to noise ratios


ANOVA Table
The optimal value of different process parameters can be simply determined by signal to noise ratio
analysis. But this S/N ratio analysis can't distinguish the reason for different fluctuation of each factor level.
Improper experimental conditions or experimental errors might be the reason for this. Therefore, the
experimental error can't be estimated by S/N ratio analysis. Additionally, S/N ratios cannot systematically
calculate the differences among the mean values and specify the magnitudes of the factor effects using the same
standard.
Due to these drawbacks of S/N ratio analysis, ANOVA analysis is necessary for calculating the
magnitudes of the factor affecting the index. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted for identification
of the optimum set of process parameters. Response data is used for ANOVA analysis. The most significant
process parameter can be identified by calculating the percentage contribution of each parameter on the
conversion yield of biodiesel. The percentage of contribution can be calculated using the following equations-

78

Optimization of Solar Assisted Production of Biodiesel.....

Here SSi is the sum of the square for ith parameter and SST is the total sum of the square of all parameters.

In this work, ANOVA table generated by Taguchi's software is as follow:

Table 3. ANOVA Table

ANOVA table clearly shows that P-value is minimum for molar ratio, so the contribution of molar ratio is
affecting yield will be greatest. Reaction temperature and catalyst concentration have less contribution in
affecting yield.
Maximum yield prediction
The theoretical maximum yield of biodiesel can be predicted by using the following equation. The process
parameters are taken in optimum condition.

Where, SNRo S/N ratio under optimum conditions


Yo - Theoretical optimum yield
5. Results and Discussions
Taguchi's method used for optimization of process parameters also generate main effect plots of yield with
respect to different process parameters individually. The optimum conditions for transesterification can be
found by analyzing these main effect plots.
Main Effects Plot for Yield (%)
Data Means
95.0

94.5

Mean

94.0

93.5

93.0

92.5

92.0
1

Molar Ratio

Figure 4. Yield vs Molar ratio

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Figure 5. Yield vs reaction time

Manisha et al.

Figure 6. Yield vs reaction temperature

Figure 7. Yield vs Catalyst concentration


Main effects plots for yield with different parameters clearly depict that optimum conditions in this solar
assisted biodiesel production are: oil to alcohol molar ratio 6:1, reaction time 60 min, reaction temperature 70C
and catalyst concentration 1.0 wt%. At these conditions, the conversion yield was found maximum (95.56%).
The ANOVA table also depicts the P-values for every process parameters. Lower the P-value, higher is the
contribution of parameter in affecting yield. So, Effect of oil to methanol molar ratio on conversion yield is
higher than the effects of other parameters.
6. Conclusion
In this work, optimization of process parameters were done using Taguchi's software. Solar assisted biodiesel
production is cost effective because there is no use of electrical heater in this process. To make this process more
qualitative and commercialized, optimization of parameters is important. The maximum yield was obtained in
this case was 95.56% at optimum condition of molar ratio 6:1, reaction time 60 min, reaction temperature 70C
and catalyst concentration of 1.0 wt%.Thus, it can be said that solar assisted biodiesel production is not only
cost effective but also a qualitative method of biodiesel production.
References
1. Brian M Agee, Gene Mullins and Daniel J Swartling, Use of solar energy for biodiesel production and use of
biodiesel waste as a green reaction solvent, Sustainable Chemical Processes (2014), pp. 2-211
2. R. S. Mishra, Amit Pal, Anand Prakash Mall, Application of Taguchi Experimental Design for the
Optimization of Effective Parameters on the Neem oil Methyl Ester (Biodiesel) Production, International
Journal of Advance Research and Innovation (2015), Volume 3, Issue 3, pp. 490-497.
3. El Sherbiny SA, Refaat AA, El Sheltawy ST. Production of biodiesel using the microwave technique.
Journal of Advanced Research (2010), Vol. 1, pp. 30914.

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Experimental Analysis of Solar Assisted


Biodiesel Production for RAME 2016
Manisha, Amit Pal and R.S. Mishra

Abstract - In recent years, fossil fuels are rapidly diminishing due to increasing demand. Biodiesel has been
renowned as an alternative fuels for depleting fossil fuels since it is produced mainly from vegetable oils and
animal fats, is a renewable resource, and is non-toxic. Transesterification is the most commonly used biodiesel
production process in which triglyceride is heated with alcohol and catalyst. If this heating process in
transesterification can be done by the renewable source, the overall cost of biodiesel production could be
reduced. In this work, a parabolic dish type solar reflector is used which utilized solar energy for heating in
transesterification project. This paper presents an experimental analysis of biodiesel production from cotton
seed oil with the assistance of solar energy. The result shows that the yield of biodiesel produced is better in case
of solar assisted method than in conventional method.
Keywords- Transesterification; Solar irradiation; Biodiesel; Yield.

ntroduction It is well known fact that fossil fuel constitute a finite resource, so biofuel can be an
alternative source of energy in place of petroleum fossil fuels. Biofuels are generally organic combustibles
derived from biomass. These are mainly used for combustion to produce heat for industrial processes,
electricity generation and heat engine carburation in IC engines. Edible and Non-edible different kinds of crops
used as feedstock material for biodiesel. Generally, biodiesel is produced by transesterification of feedstock oil.
In the present scenario, although petroleum-based fuels can't be entirely replaced by biodiesel, there are various
advantages of biodiesel over diesel fuel. It is biodegradable and more than 90% biodiesel can be biodegraded
within 21 days. Cetane number and combustions efficiency are higher for biodiesel than in case of diesel fuel.
The Sulfur and aromatic content is lower in case of biodiesel i.e. use of biodiesel for combustion process in
engines does not produce toxic emission gases. Additionally, it reduces most exhaust emissions such as
monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate matter except oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [1].
Biodiesel production process can be made cost effective if the heating required in transesterification is done by
the use of solar energy. Agee et al. [2] discussed the production of biodiesel using solar energy for processing
heat in transesterification. In this work, a parabolic solar reflector made of satellite dishes was developed to
concentrate solar irradiation on its focal point. Feedstock oil with alcohol and catalyst was placed on the focal
point of the reflector and then transesterification process takes place in approximately in one hour. In this work

Manisha,
P.G. Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi110042,
E-mail- manishasingh3090@gmail.com,
Amit Pal and R.S. Mishra
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi-110042
E-mail- amitpal@dce.ac.in, professor_rsmishra@yahoo.co.in
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

81

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Manisha et al.

soybean oil was used as feedstock oil. For successful processing of transesterification, solar irradiation should
be greater than 400-450 W/m2. The result indicates that solar assisted biodiesel production is successful at millimolar and small molar scale. So further improvisation is needed to enhance the quality of biodiesel production.
Design modification such as making large size of solar reflector should be developed. Hou et al. [3] proposed a
new concept of utilizing solar energy application to supply steam and electricity for biodiesel production. As in
the biodiesel production process, the combustion of fossil fuels takes place to supply steam and electricity
needed for the refinement of crude fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). In this process, some pollutant gases such as
CO2, NOx and SOx are also released into the environment. To reduce these disapproving condition, solar energy
appliances can be utilized.
2. Experimental Setup
In this experiment, a small paraboloid solar reflector was used which concentrate heat at the platform placed on
its focal point. The specifications of the solar reflector are shown in following table 1:
Table 1- Specifications of the parabolic dish collector

The high concentration ratio of parabolic dish collector helps in rapidly increasing the temperature of the oil,
alcohol and catalyst mixture. The objective of this type of setup is to produce biodiesel without the use of
electrical heating. The vessel containing oil, methanol and catalyst mixture should be placed at the platform
provided at the focal point of the reflector. The parabolic solar collector should be installed in such a way that it
concentrate reflected solar rays to the vessel used for transesterification process.

Figure 1. Concentrating solar reflector used in the experiment


3.
Experimental Procedure
The edible or non-edible feedstock oils, used in biodiesel production process, may contain free fatty acids,
water, triglycerides and other contaminants in different quantity. So there is need of various pretreatment before
transesterification. Some undesirable contaminants in feedstock oil can be removed by different kinds of
degumming methods. The phospholipids solubility can be significantly reduced in case of hydration
degumming method, but this method is only applicable to hydratable phospholipids. Non-hydratable

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phospholipids are extracted by acid micelles degumming method in which phosphoric acid is added into the
feedstock oil. The supercritical extraction method can effectively extract the free fatty acids from the crude oil
by the refinement with supercritical CO2 extraction. But the requirement of high pressure in this process
restraints its application [4].
The next step in production of biodiesel is selection of catalyst for transesterification. Generally, three types of
catalyst are generally used- Alkali, Acid and enzymes. If the free fatty acid (FFA) content in feedstock oil is less
than 2.5 wt%, alkali base catalyst is used in transesterification and in case of FFA higher than 2.5 wt%, acid
catalyst are used. Enzymes are used when better quality of biodiesel is needed, but these are expensive. In this
work, Cotton seed oil is used as feedstock oil which has FFA content around 0.74 wt%, So alkali catalyzed
transesterification process is used in this work [5].
Solar assisted TransesterificationIn transesterification process, triglyceride is ultimately converted into methyl or ethyl ester of oil, which
is named as biodiesel. Triglycerides are esters of saturated and unsaturated monocarboxylic acids which found
in common feedstock oils along with trihydric alcohol glyceride. Triglyceride reacts with alcohol in presence of
the catalyst and converts into diglyceride and then into monoglyceride into consecutive processes. The
chemical reaction is shown as follows [5]:

In this work, methanol and potassium hydroxide (KOH) are used as alcohol and catalyst. The experimental
procedure for solar assisted transesterification is as follows:
Take 50 gram of cotton seed oil and heat up the oil using solar energy to remove the water content
present in it.
Then cool the heated oil up to 60 C in ambient air.
Then prepare a mixture of methanol and KOH in separate beaker and after mixing, this solution is
poured into cotton seed oil.
Transesterification reaction starts after this, maintain flux temperature around 70C for one hour to
accomplish the transesterification reaction properly.
After completion of transesterification, two layers appears in the beaker. The lower layer is of glycerol
which is higher in density and appears as dark brown color. The upper layer is of cottonseed oil methyl
ester (CSOME) which is our required product.
CSOME is separated from glycerol using a burette and then purified using the water washing process.
In this process, warm water (30% of oil quantity at 60C) is poured into the crude CSOME and the
contaminants of remaining alkali catalyst are neutralized due to water washing process.
The final product is gained by heating the CSOME after water washing to remove remaining water
content. Thus, quality of biodiesel production is maintained.

Figure 2. CSOME and glycerol produced

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4.
Medium Scale Production
To perform solar assisted trans-esterification at medium scale, a scheffler reflector was used in place of small
solar paraboloid reflector as it can rapidly heat up the oil-methanol-KOH mixture to flux temperature and then
the solution is maintained at flux temperature approximately for 40 to 50 minutes. The specifications of
scheffler reflector are as follow:
Table 2. Specifications of the scheffler reflector

Figure 3. Transesterification process using Scheffler reflector

In medium scale production, 500 grams of cottonseed oil were used. The oil to methanol ratio used was 6:1 and
catalyst concentration 1.0 wt%. The solution was maintained at flux temperature 70C approximately for 50
minutes. The final product is in the form of two separate layers. The lower layer of dark brown color is of
glycerol and upper layer is of CSOME. Glycerol is separated from biodiesel (CSOME) and water washing is
done to remove the alcohol impurities in the biodiesel produced. After 4 hours of water washing, the biodiesel is
heated to remove water content. In this way, the purified biodiesel is produced from cottonseed oil. The
conversion yield found for CSOME was 93.60% which is comparatively better than yield of CSOME produced
in conventional method.
5.
5.1

Results And Discussions


Effect of reaction time

Figure 4. Comparison of yield at different reaction time (a) for molar ratio 4.5:1 (b) for molar ratio 6:1

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Experimental Analysis of Solar Assisted Biodiesel Production.....


For small scale production, the reaction time was kept at 50 min and 60 min respectively. The yield
percentage shown is figure 4 depict that better yield was found at 60 min than in case of 50 min. Yield
percentage is also greater for oil to methanol molar ratio 6:1 than in case of molar ratio 4.5:1.
5.2 Effect of reaction temperature

Figure 5. Comparison of yield at different reaction temperature (a) for oil to methanol molar
ratio 4.5:1 (b) for molar ratio 6:1

Reaction temperature is a significant factor which affects yield of biodiesel produced. In this experiment, the
flux temperatures of mixture were maintained at 60C and 70C respectively. Results show that better yield is
found in case of 70C reaction temperature than in case of 60C.
5.3
Effect of Solar irradiation on Yield of biodiesel
For successful completion of solar assisted transesterification process, The average intensity of solar radiation
should be above 400 W/m2 [2]. The conversion yield increases with increasing solar intensity. The reaction time
also gets reduced with increasing solar intensity.

Figure 6. Conversion yield with respect to Average solar intensity

Figure 7. Comparison of yield at different scale for different alcohols.

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As from the results in the previous section, it is clear that yield is better for the case of molar ratio 6:1 and
catalyst concentration 1.0 wt%. So the experiments were performed at these condition and also at the same time
and reaction temperature was maintained around 70C. The results depict that conversion yield of CSOME
found from solar assisted method is better than in case of conventional method. It can also be seen that ethanol
should be preferred for solar assisted transesterification at medium scale.
6. Conclusion
This paper presented an experimental analysis of biodiesel production from cotton seed oil using solar energy
as a medium of heating required in transesterification process. Experiments were performed at small and
medium scale. The results show that the conversion yield of CSOME (biodiesel) is comparatively better in case
of solar assisted biodiesel production than in conventional method. This new technique of biodiesel production
does not use electrical heater and magnetic stirring, so it is a cost-effective technique and it can be
commercialized in future in the field of biodiesel production from various feedstocks.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge the support of National Institute of Solar Energy, Gurgaon in this
work.
References
[1]
Dennis Y.C. Leung, Xuan Wu, M.K.H. Leung, A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed
transesterification, Applied Energy 87 (2010), pp. 10831095.
[2]
Brian M Agee, Gene Mullins and Daniel J Swartling, Use of solar energy for biodiesel production and
use of biodiesel waste as a green reaction solvent, Sustainable Chemical Processes (2014), pp. 2-21.
[3]
ZhiHou, Danxing Zheng, Solar utility and renewability evaluation for biodiesel production process,
Applied Thermal Engineering 29 (2009), pp. 31693174.
[4]
Dennis Y.C. Leung, Xuan Wu, M.K.H. Leung, A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed
transesterification, Applied Energy 87 (2010), pp. 10831095.
[5]
Vineet Kumar, Manish Jain, Amit Pal, An experimental study on biodiesel production from cotton seed
oil through conventional method, International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and
Applied Sciences (2014), Volume 2 Issue 7, ISSN 2349-4476.

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Biodiesel Production: A Review on


Innovative Techniques
Manisha, Amit Pal and R.S. Mishra

Abstract - Global demand for energy is continuously rising as the world economy is growing. Petro-fuels are
also depleting due to excessive usage, so biodiesel, which is non-toxic, biodegradable and environmentally
friendly, can be a good alternative to petro-fuels. In this paper, a review of different technologies used for
biodiesel production over the past decade has been presented. Among these different technologies,
transesterification is the most commonly used method of biodiesel production. Several factors affect the
conversion efficiency of biodiesel via transesterification e.g. feedstock type, amount and type of alcohol and
catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction time. In this paper, Conventional methods of biodiesel production
with the use of alkaline, acidic and enzymatic catalysts have been reviewed. New Trends of biodiesel
production have also been discussed, e.g. Microwave irradiation assisted biodiesel production, ultrasonic
irradiation and solar irradiation assisted biodiesel production.
Keywords- Transesterification, Biodiesel, catalyst, molar ratio, microwave irradiation, ultrasonic cavitation,
solar irradiation

ntroduction The role of energy and energy sources is highly significant fo r the development of a country.
Industrial development over the years and population growth have led to a vast increase in the global
demand for energy. Improper utilizations of energy resources over the past years have also created serious
issue of energy crisis in the upcoming time. So there is an emerging need to develop unconventional and
renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, bioenergy and biofuels, tidal power, geothermal
energy etc. It is well known fact that fossil fuel constitute a finite resource, so biofuel can be an alternative
source for energy in place of petroleum fossil fuels. Biofuels are generally organic combustibles derived from
biomass. These are mainly used for combustion to produce heat for industrial processes, electricity generation
and heat engine carburation in IC engines. Edible and Non-edible different kinds of crops used as feedstock
material for biofuel. Although at present Petroleum-based fuels can't be entirely replaced by biodiesel, still
there are numerous advantages of biodiesel over diesel fuel. It is biodegradable and more than 90% biodiesel
can be biodegraded within 21 days. Cetane number is higher for biodiesel than in case of diesel fuel. The
Sulphur and aromatic content are lower in case of biodiesel i.e. use of biodiesel for combustion process in
engines does not produce toxic exhaust gases. Additionally, it reduces most exhaust emissions such as
monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate matter except oxides of nitrogen (NOx) [1]. So biodiesel can
provide an alternative solution to the problems of petro-fuel crisis and environmental degradation.

Manisha,
P.G. Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road,
Delhi-110042,
E-mail- manishasingh3090@gmail.com,
Amit Pal and R.S. Mishra
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi-110042
E-mail- amitpal@dce.ac.in, professor_rsmishra@yahoo.co.in
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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2.
Various Feedstocks for biodiesel productionBiodiesel can be produced from both edible and non-edible oil-seeds. Various conventional and nonconventional feedstock, used for the production of biodiesel, are shown in Table 1. These include edible oils,
non-edible oils, wild oils, waste cooking oils, animal fats and non-conventional feedstocks [2]. The most
commonly used biodiesel feedstock in India are jatropha and waste cooking oil. The availability of sufficient
amount of feedstock is an essential condition for biodiesel production.
Table 1 Various feedstocks for biodiesel production [3]

Figure 1. Different feedstocks

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Biodiesel Production: A Review on Innovative Techniques


3.
Conventional Method of Biodiesel Production
Both Edible and Non-edible oils can be converted into fuels by several procedures such as pyrolysis, microemulsification, cracking, blending and Transesterification. These fuels have properties comparable to petrofuels.

Figure 2. Schematic diagram of transesterification [2]


Mostly, Transesterification method is used for biodiesel production due to its merits over other biodiesel
production processes. For example,Transesterification is carried out under normal conditions and the yield of
biodiesel produced is comparatively good. Transesterification is a chemical method in which the triglyceride is
converted into diglyceride and diglyceride is converted intomonoglyceride which is methyl or ethyl ester
named as biodiesel.The reactions consist of consecutive reversible processes are shown in following chemical
equations below. In transesterification process, triglyceride is ultimately converted into methyl or ethyl ester of
oil, which is named as biodiesel. The chemical reactions are shown below [3]:-

Here, R1, R2 and R3 are long-chain hydrocarbons, sometimes these are also called fatty acid chains. Generally,
there are five main types of chains invegetable oils and animal oils: palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic,
andlinolenic. In case of transesterification, when the triglyceride is converted stepwise to diglyceride,
monoglyceride and finally to glycerol, 1 mole of fatty ester is liberated at each step [4]. Usually, the alcohol
preferred for transesterification is methanol because of its high reactivity.
Uddin et al. (2013) presented a study on synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. A three-step method was
used in which first step was the saponification of the oil, second was acidification to produce FFA and the third
step was transesterification to produce biodiesel. In saponification process, the reaction time was noted as 2
hours when heated at 100C and the optimum molar ratio was 1:2 oil to NaOH. The molar ratio of soap to
hydrochloric acid in acidification process was 1:2 and in the third step of esterification, the molar ratio of
CH3OH to FFA was 6:1. The concentration of HCl was 5wt% of FFA, the chemical reaction temperature was
60C and the reaction time was 2 hour, with silica gel reaction time was reduced to 80 min and FFA content was
reduced to 0.94%.A factorial design was applied which enabled the esterification reaction to occur in optimum

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conditions. The result showed that 79% conversion yield was found at optimum condition. [5].
Berchmans et al. (2008) discussed a technique of biodiesel production from high FFA containing oil. For
example, crude jatrophacurcas seed oil (CJCO) contains high free fatty acids and use of alkali base catalyst in
transesterification could reduce the yield of methyl esters of fatty acids by a considerable amount. In such cases
of high FFA oil, Acid pretreatment is done at first step. The FFA content of crude jatrophacurcas seed oil is
reduced to less than 1% after acid pretreatment. In second step, transesterification process with alkali base
catalyst gives 90% yield of jatropha oil methyl esters [6].
Huang et al. (2010) presented the process of biodiesel production using microalgae in place of conventional
biodiesel feedstock. Microalgal oil have fatty acids content similar to common vegetable oils and it has short
term growth cycle. Composition of microalgae is relatively single. Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae is
preferred for lipids production. The reaction temperature was maintained at 30C and 100% catalyst quantity
was achieved. But for large scale production of biodiesel from microalgal oil is not successful due to many
drawbacks such as high cost of production process, low lipid content and low biomass [7].
Pal et al. (2013) discussed two different technologies of biodiesel production from thumba oil and waste
cooking oil (WCO). These two technologies are low frequency ultrasonic energy (28-33 kHz) and conventional
mechanical stirrer method. The experiments were performed for alcohol to oil molar ratios of 4.5:1 and 6:1
respectively with different concentrations of KOH (0.5%, 0.75% and 1%). The results showed that the viscosity
and density values of thumba and WCO biodiesel are with in permissible limits but these value in comparison to
petroleum diesel were slightly higher.[8].
4. New Trends in Biodiesel Production
To enhance the process of biodiesel production, some new technologies are developed such as
microwave irradiation techniques, Supercritical transesterification, ultrasonic baths, ultrasonic reactors
techniques and use of solar energy in chemical heating process of esterification. The use of these technologies
reduce reaction time and enhance the quality of biodiesel as a product.
4.1
Microwave assisted production of biodiesel
Chen et al. (2012) discussed production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using a microwave heating system.
The comparison of conventional and microwave assisted method was also done. The maximum yield of
biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil under conventional heating was 96.6%. In microwave assisted
system, the reaction time reduced to 1-6 minutes. The yield of biodiesel produced increased with reaction time
from 1 to 3 min, but then decreased from 3 to 5 min. For the microwave assisted production, the maximum yield
of biodiesel produced in microwave assisted method was 97.9%. The result showed that optimal condition in
this work were use of 0.75 wt% CH3ONa catalyst, a methanol to oil molar ratio of 6:1, microwave power of 750
W and reaction time 3 min [9].
Azcan and Danisman (2007) used microwave technology for transesterification of cottonseed oil in
the presence of methanol (CH3OH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). A Start S model microwave unit was used
in this work. Both conventional and microwave irradiation assisted method of biodiesel production were
compared by the estimation of critical reaction parameters such as the amount of catalyst, reaction temperature
and reaction time. High conversion yield of biodiesel, produced from cotton seed oil, were obtained in the range
of 89.3-92.8% at the reaction temperature of 333K for both types of methods. Also the optimal catalyst to oil
ratio for both methods was same as 1.5% except the reaction time. Microwave irradiation technique consume
only 7 min in comparison of 30 min used for reaction in conventional biodiesel production process [10].
Yaakob et al. (2008) presented the method of Fatty acid methyl ester preparation form jatrophacurcas oil with
the assistance of microwave oven for heating required in chemical process. In this experiment the maximum
yield of biodiesel produced was obtained as 86.3% with excess oil to methanol molar ratio of 30:1. The catalyst
used in this experiment was 4% NaOH at a reaction temperature of 55C. The quality of FAME prepared from
jatrophacurcas oil using microwave assisted method was better and reaction time also magically reduced. [11].
Kamath et al. (2010) studied the method of biodiesel production from Pongamiapinnata non-edible oil under
batch microwave irradiation technique. The free fatty acid content in Pongamiapinnata oil is higher, so a twostep method was adapted. The conversion yields were different for both one-step and two-step approaches. In
one-step approach the yiels was 80% while in two-step approach, the yield was 90% with a molar ratio of
alcohol to oil equals to 10:1 and amount of catalyst KOH as 1 wt% [12].
Sherbiny et al. (2010) discussed the production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using microwave irradiation

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Biodiesel Production: A Review on Innovative Techniques


method. In this experiment, same optimum reaction conditions to the microwave irradiation technique as in the
case of conventional method. In conventional process the best conversion yield was 99.8% using optimum oil
to methanol molar ratio as 7.5:1 and 1.5% potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the catalyst. The optimum reaction
temperature in this was 60C and reaction time was 60 min. On the other hand, under the same reaction
conditions for 2 min, conversion yield was found as 97.4% using the microwave irradiation technique [13].
Kanitkar et al. (2011) discussed transesterification process for rice bran oil and soybean oil using a batch
microwave heating system. The conversion yields were compared for methanol and ethanol. The results
showed that microwave technology reduce reaction time with both types of alcohols used and also reduce the
catalyst demand in comparison with conventional production. It was observed that ethanol is better in terms of
environmental issues and methanol is better in terms of effectiveness and performance [14].
Kumar et al. (2011) carried out a microwave-assisted transesterification of Pongamiapinnatausing methanol as
the alcohol and two types of alkaline catalyst, NaOH and KOH.The results indicated that optimum
concentration for NaOH was 0.5 wt% and for KOH was 1 wt%. An appropriate amount of methyl esters were
obtained as 97.5% using 1.0wt% KOH for 10 min and 96.0% yield using 0.5 wt% NaOH for 5 min. In both
condition, the optimum reaction temperature remained at 60C. Finally, the fuel properties were investigated
for all the reaction conditions and it was concluded that biodiesels produced from pongamiapinnata oil met the
ASTM standards for biodiesel. Microwave irradiation technique also reduced reaction time significantly from
3 hours in convention process to 5-10 min which makes the production process qualitative [15].
Hsiao et al. (2011) discussed the microwave-assisted biodiesel production from soybean oil using Nano powder
calcium oxide as catalyst. The maximum conversion yield under optimum condition was 96.6%. The results
indicated that combined use of microwave irradiation technique with nanopowder calcium oxide (nanoCaO)
catalyst make the biodiesel production from soybean oil very efficient and qualitative. [16].
Priambodo et al. (2015) conducted the experiments using novel technology to create biodiesel product from
cooking oil and waste cooking oil using microwave irradiation technique. They used the SrO catalyst which is a
heterogeneous base catalyst and insoluble into any liquid solution. Therefore, it can be recycling and reused.
The optimum condition using commercial SrO were, 40 to 180 seconds reaction time, around 80C reaction
temperature, oil to methanol molar ratio equals to 6:1 and 1000 W microwave power output. They determined
the conversion yield as 99% for the cooking oil and 93% for waste cooking oil [17].
Gude et al. (2013) presented potential of microwave energy for biodiesel production. Firstly they described the
characteristics of microwave irradiation and energy associated with microwave. The influence of microwave
energy is not strong enough to break chemical bonds, so microwaves cannot induce chemical reaction.
Microwave heat transfer mechanism was also discussed. In microwave enhanced transesterification process,
catalyst may or may not be required, heat losses are low. Reaction temperature is kept at 40-100C for a very
short period (3-6 minutes). Heating is done by electrical energy applied through microwaves. Process
efficiency is high, in the end, catalyst and soaps are extracted from biodiesel produced [18]. In this study the
following advantages of microwave assistance in biodiesel production were discussed:

Low energy consumption

Substantial reduction in reaction time of esterification

Reduction in amount of solvent requirement

Enhanced selectivity for production process

The conversion yield increases with less by-product formation

Many reaction that did not occur in conventional heating, could be completed with high
conversion yield under microwave irradiation technique.
So, it can be concluded that microwave irradiation assisted technique of biodiesel production can be better
option for biodiesel production on a commercial level.
4.2 Ultrasonic assisted production of biodiesel
Pal et al. (2013) discussed the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil as feedstock using power
ultrasound and hydrodynamic cavitation technology. In this work the stress was given to the development of
laboratory test rigs for ultrasound cavitation technique which enhanced the biodiesel production from waste
cooking oil. The best conversion yield was above 90% with optimum conditions of methanol to oil molar ratio
equals to 4.5:1 and amount of catalyst concentration equals to 0.5% (w/w). The transesterification process
using ultrasound cavitation techniques appeared to be effective and rapid in comparison of conventional
transesterification. The reaction time was also sufficiently reduced. The conversion yield obtained for methyl
ester was high which make this process viable for industries [19].

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Koberg et al. (2011) reported the direct methods of biodiesel production from microalgae biomass of
Nannochloropsis. In the first technique, Microalgae was cultivated by the application of a biotechnological
environmental system, so the cost of algae production was reduced significantly. In the second method,
microwave and ultrasonic irradiation technique were compared with the assistance of SrO catalyst. For the
second case, the result showed that direct transesterification using microwave oven technique is more simple
and efficient than the ultrasonic assisted technique. The yield of biodiesel was also observed higher (37.1%) for
microwave oven technique in reaction time of 5 min, while ultrasonic technique could provide only 20.9% yield
in same reaction time [20].
Lin et al. (2012) presented production of biodiesel from waste frying oil with the assistance of ultrasonic energy.
In the first step, the acid value of the waste frying oil was reduced by acidification process. The FFA content of
waste frying oil was found higher, so esterification process took place with H2SO4 catalyst. Observations were
taken under various oil to alcohol molar ratio from 6:1 to 11:1 with a step of 1. The amount of catalyst was also
varied from 1.0 to 3.0 wt%. In the second step, triglycerides in waste frying oil (acid value < 2.0) were
transesterified with oil to alcoholmolar ratio of 6:1. The alkali-base catalyst NaOH was used (1.0 wt%) in this
second step. After this two-step reaction, FAMEs were found as the top layer in the separating funnel which
were removed in a beaker after settling minimum 30 minutes, then water washing process of FAMEs took place
at least three times with acetate 30% and distilled water. At last the separated FAME was dried in an oven at 378
3 K. The ultrasonic mixing in second step increase yield of FAME in this process. 97.1% of conversion rate of
waste frying oil into FAME was achieved [21].
4.3 Use of Solar Energy in biodiesel production
Agee et al. (2014) discussed the production of biodiesel using solar energy for processing heat in
transesterification. In this work, the mixture of soybean oil with alcohol and catalyst was placed on the focal
point of a parabolic solar reflector in a black painted round bottom flask and then transesterification process
takes place in approximately in 1 hour. For successful processing of transesterification, Solar irradiation should
be greater than 400-450 W/m2. In this experiment, synthetic process of biodiesel took place without generating
any chemical and electrical waste. All thermal energy was supplied through solar without any electricity use, so
no electrical waste was there. [22].
Hou et al. (2009) proposed a new concept of utilizing solar energy application to supply steam and electricity
for biodiesel production. As in the biodiesel production process, the combustion of fossil fuels takes place to
supply steam and electricity needed for the refinement of crude FAME. In this process, some pollutant gases
such as CO2, NOx and SOx are also released into the environment. To reduce these disapproving condition, solar
energy appliances can be utilized. In this experiment, the proposal started with the reported process of biodiesel
production using fossil fuels utility; then a alkali- catalyzed transesterification process was developed with the
use of solar energy utility on a 8000 t per annum scale. The simulation was done using the Aspen Plus software.
The results indicated that renewability index of the biodiesel production process with solar utility is 99.9%
which is 10.5% higher than the renewability index in conventional method. Also the 4676 t of CO2 gas release
were eliminated in a year. 1275 t of coal consumption was saved per year. [23].
5. Conclusions
The selection of biodiesel production method is mainly depends on various parameters such as type of
feedstock used, reaction time, reaction temperature, oil to alcohol molar ratio and amount of catalyst used, some
other technologies such as microwave irradiation, ultrasonic cavitation and solar irradiation are being
investigated to enhance the quality and effectiveness of biodiesel production process.
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102 (2011), pp. 42654269.
21. Chin-Chiuan Lin, Ming-Chien Hsiao, Peir-Horng Liao, Ultrasonic-Assisted Production of Biodiesel from
Waste Frying Oil Using a Two-Step Catalyzing Process, Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (2012),
issue 2, pp. 117-121.
22. Brian M Agee, Gene Mullins and Daniel J Swartling, Use of solar energy for biodiesel production and use of
biodiesel waste as a green reaction solvent, Sustainable Chemical Processes (2014), pp. 2-21.
23. ZhiHou, Danxing Zheng, Solar utility and renewability evaluation for biodiesel production process,
Applied Thermal Engineering 29 (2009), pp. 31693174.

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Fabrication of Magnesium Based Metal Matrix


Composites Through Friction Stir
Processing A Review
Sumit Joshi, N Yuvaraj, Rajiv Chaudhary and R C Singh

Abstract- The scientists are concerned about the environment and they are inclined towards the light weight
materials fabricated by green technology. Magnesium is one of the light weight materials which have low
density, high strength to weight ratio, high damping capacity and excellent machinability. The properties of
magnesium alloys ensure fuel economy, reduced harmful emissions which ultimately lead to healthy
environment. Magnesium alloys exhibit appreciable decrease in mechanical properties when their components
are subjected to high mechanical/thermal stresses that discourage their application for critical components in
the automotive and aerospace sectors. So, to utilise the full capability of magnesium alloys, these alloys matrix
are incorporated with reinforcement particles to produce Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs). The potential
applications of the MMCs can be found in automotive, aerospace, biomedical and power industries. In order to
produce MMCs keeping in mind the environmental effect, an eco friendly and a solid state technique named
Friction Stir Processing (FSP) evolved which uses a non consumable rotating tool inserted into the workpiece
for heating and softening the material. This results in material severe plastic deformation resulting in improved
mechanical properties and refined grain structure. This paper presents the investigations of magnesium based
metal matrix composite fabrication by FSP carried by researchers. It was concluded that MMCs are
successfully fabricated through FSP and the processed region resulted in improved mechanical properties.
Keywords- Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs); Friction Stir Processing (FSP); Magnesium Alloys;
Reinforcement particles.

ntroduction Magnesium alloys are replacing aluminium and steel in the aerospace and automobile
industries and plastic in the electronic and computer industries due to light weight and excellent thermal
and electrical conductivity. This increasing demand of magnesium alloys is due to its low density, high
specific strength, good castability, weldability and machinability [1]. Magnesium alloys are developing their
demand in industries mainly due to their high strength to weight ratio. However, most of magnesium alloys
generally exhibit poor creep resistance at high temperatures, which discourages their industrial applications.
Further, Mg alloys posses inferior formability at room temperature due to their Hexagonal Closed Packed
(HCP) crystal structure; only three independent slip systems. Therefore, enhancement in ductility is the major
concerns for the industrial application of magnesium alloys, this is the reason that Mg based MMCs came into
existence. It is known that grain refinement is an effective approach to enrich the mechanical properties of
magnesium alloys. Fine grained structures have been achieved by applying various techniques, e.g. grain

Sumit Joshi, N Yuvaraj, Rajiv Chaudhary and R C Singh


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042, India,
sumitrke1989@gmail.com, nyuvdce@yahoo.com, rch_dce@rediffmail.com,
rcsingh68@hotmail.com
Corresponding Author; Tel: +91 9997581291

PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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refiners [2], altering, rapid solidification [3], spray co-deposition, recrystallization, and severe plastic
deformation such as equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) [4]. Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is one of the
severe plastic deformation (SPD) and solid state method which works on the principle of Friction Stir Welding
(FSW) invented by The Welding Institute (TWI) in UK in 1991 [5]. The schematic illustration of FSP operation
is shown in Figure 1.
FSP was initially applied for grain refinement of aluminum and magnesium alloys, but with the technology
development it also becomes a useful process for fabricating Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs). Mishra et al.
[6] fabricated the SiC/Al MMCs by FSP, and indicated that SiC particles were finely dispersed in the Al matrix,
and good bonding with the Al matrix was generated. There are various conventional methods for fabricating
MMCs such as powder metallurgy, laser melt treatment, plasma spraying, stir casting etc but these techniques
results in deterioration of composite properties due to interfacial reaction between reinforcement particle and
the metal matrix [7]. Moreover, These techniques involve the material transformation from solid to liquid or
vapour state during the process as compared to solid state technique. Further, precise control of processing
parameters is required to obtain desired microstructure in surface layer after solidification. FSP is one of the
solid state processing techniques which have proved its capability in fabrication of all variants of MMCs with
little or no interfacial reaction with the reinforcement. The present paper aims at overall summary of the
Friction Stir Processed (FSPed) MMCs for magnesium alloys and the influence of FSP parameters on the
mechanical properties of produced composite.

2.
Magnesum Based Mmcs Fabrcaton By FSP
Metal Matrix Composite (MMCs) fabrication is one of the important applications of FSP. t is defined as a
multiphase material in which the surface of the material is changed by embodying secondary phase in the form
of particles and fibres. Almost all literature reported groove filling and closing method for incorporation of
secondary phase particles in the metal matrix. In this method, groove on the plate is closed with a pinless FSP
tool to prevent escape of reinforcement particles, before performing the real FSP operation.

Figure 1 Schematic Illustration of FSP Technique.


Most of the FSP investigations is limited to AZ series magnesium alloy. Commonly used reinforcements for
fabrication purpose are Titanium Carbide (TiC), Silicon Carbide (SiC), Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3), MWCNTs
and Boron Carbide (B4C) etc. This paper includes the different results regarding MMCs processsed by FSP with
special emphasis on effect of different processing parameters.
Morisada et al. [8] dispersed the Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in AZ31 matrix by FSP. After
doing FSP, it was revealed that dispersion of MWCNTs particles in AZ31 matrix depend on traverse speed of
the rotating tool. Lower transverse speed exhibited fine distribution of reinforcement particles in the Mg alloy
matrix since it gives enough time for heat flow to produce desired viscosity in the matrix. An excellent
dispersion wass obtained for the sample FSPed at 25mm/min and 1500 rpm. Grain refinement due to FSP and

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Fabrication of Magnesium Based Metal Matrix Composites.......


extreme high strength of MWCNTs leads to increase of microhardness in composites. Maximum
microhardness obtained is 78 Hv compared to 55 and 41 Hv of FSPed without reinforcement and as cast alloy
respectively. Also, pinning effect exhibited by MWCNTs increase mechanical properties due to reduction in
grain growth of AZ31 matrix. Morisada et al. [9] further developed SiC/AZ31 MMCs by FSP. SiCp results in
grain refinement after FSP through recrystallisation process. Due to grain refinement by SiC particles and high
hardness of particles, microhardness of stir zone with SiC particles is high compared to parent Mg alloy and
FSPed Mg alloy. Fine grain structure of AZ31 obtained by FSP becomes unstable at high temperature while that
of AZ31 having SiC particles is not affected by heat treatment process.
Number of FSP passes also affects the grain distribution during FSP. C.J. Lee et al. [10] fabricated AZ61/SiO2
nanocomposite by FSP. After FSP, the nano-SiO2 particles were observed to be clustered in a size ranging from
0.1 to 3m and the level of clustering was found to be reduced for the composites produced with higher number
of passes and nano-particles were uniformly dispersed after four FSP passes. Moreover, M. Dadashpour et al.
[11] fabricated AZ91/SiO2 by FSP and concluded that reinforcement particles were distributed evenly inside the
base metal matrix without any defect formation. Also, agglomeration of nanoparticles is observed at lower
number of FSP passes, which can be corrected by increasing the no. of FSP passes. This leads to increase of
strength of material. Further, Navazania and Dehghani [12] fabricated AZ31/ZrO2 nanopowders by FSP and
found that increase in the passes of the FSP led to finer grains as well as less agglomeration of the ZrO2 particles,
thus enhancing the pinning effect of particles. This pinning effect will retard the grain growth which leads to
improvement of mechanical properties such as strength and hardness. Navazania and Dehghani [13] further
synthesized 5m TiC particles on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy matrix and observed that by
incorporating TiC particles; average grain size was reduced from 40 to 12 . Also, TiC particles had pinning
effect on Grain Boundaries which restrict grain boundary movement and therefore grain growth is retarded.
Intense temperature and severe plastic deformation results in fine microstructure. Also, discontinuous dynamic
recrystallization is the main mechanism responsibel for refinement of microstructure. Average hardness is
increased from 50Hv to 79Hv after embodying reinforcement particle. Recently, M. Balakrishnan et al. [14]
fabricated TiC/AZ31 MMCs using FSP. There is even distribution of TiC particles without any formation of
clusters. Moreover, there is no interfacial reaction between the Mg matrix and TiC particles due to inadequate
temperature developed in the matrix which can start the reaction. Jiang et al. [15] successfully synthesized
nano-SiO2 particles in the AZ31 Mg a matrix through FSP. The authors revealed that SiO2 particles resulted in
grain refinement of equiaxed ultrafine grains with sizes of less than 1 m. Moreover, hardness of the SiO2/AZ31
composites was found to be 90 Hv which was nearly two times than that of the original alloy. This increase in
hardness was attributed to dispersion of high strength SiO2 particles and grain refinement taking place in the stir
region of AZ31/SiO2 composites.
Asadi et al. [16] fabricated AZ91/SiC surface nanocomposite layer by 8 FSP passes with the help of groove
filling and closing method. From a starting grain size of 150 m, grain refinement was achieved up to 600 nm
and 7.21 m in AZ91/SiC composite and FSPed AZ91 without SiC particles, respectively. It was observed that
the increase in the tool rpm influenced the microstructure evolution due to the generation of higher amounts of
heat, which led to grain growth and also decreased the surface hardness. But increase in the tool traverse speed
resulted in lower grain size and higher hardness. Microhardness increased from 63 Hv to 115 Hv and 90 Hv for
the composite and AZ91 without SiC particles, respectively, after eight FSP passes. A higher level of uniformity
in the distribution of SiC was achieved by changing the tool rotating direction. In a similar work by Khayyamin
et al. [17], FSP was done to fabricate AZ91/SiO2 surface composites at three different traverse speeds (20, 40, 63
mm/min) and a fixed rpm of 1250. It was revealed that with increase in tool travel speed, grain size reduced
which ultimately increased the hardness. Therefore, it is evident from the following discussion that higher tool
travel speeds decrease the localized heat and reduce the grain growth issue during FSP.
Some of the studies also mentioned about the optimum traverse speed which will produce the sound and defect
free processed zone. Similar to the work of Asadi et al. [16], Erfan and Kashani-Bozorg [18] observed the
influence of tool rpm and tool traverse speed on the distribution of nano-sized SiC particles in AZ31 magnesium
alloy. It was reported that as tool rpm increases, the level of clustering of SiC particles was found to be reduced.
Also, the grain size was reduced with the increase in tool traverse speed due to the less generation of heat.

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Another important observation from the work is the development of tunneling defect with higher traverse
speeds. Therefore, it is clear from the above studies that there should be an optimum traverse speed which can
achieve grain size reduction along with the sound and defect free stir zone.
Most of the above mentioned literature review is concerned with grain refinement, microhardness
improvement, pinning effect of particles. Some of the research is also done on the improvement of mechanical
properties such as UTS and elongation. K. Sun et al. [19] synthesized high strength AZ63/SiCp nano-composite
using FSP. In their study, 5 FSP passes is done to fabricate the 40nm SiC particles on AZ63 magnesium alloy.
Moreover, SiC particles were ultrasonically dispersed in ethanol before filling into groove to avoid clustering of
nanoparticles. Some of the conclusions were: Base metal containing irregular coarse second phase intermetallic
compound Al12Mg17 get dissolute after 5 pass FSP. Only two phases occurred in the in SiC-AZ63 composite
which clearly states that no interfacial reaction occurred between the base material and reinforced particles
during FSP. Vicker hardness was found to be increased from 80 Hv to 109 Hv. Further, UTS was found
increased from 160 Mpa to 312 MPa. The strengthening mechanism of composites was explained by the
pinning effect of particles at grain boundaries and the particles present inside the grain which prevent the
dislocation slipping as shown in fig.4. This was explained like, as the tensile stress is increasing, the dislocation
inside the grain began to slip. The existence of nanoparticles can stop the dislocation slipping. The dislocation
line would form a dislocation loop around the nanoparticles, which increase the dislocation density, so the
material would need more stress to deform.
FSP parameters like traverse speed, pin profile, rotational speed, tool tilt angle and Penetration Depth play role
in the modification of microstructure and defect formation. Parviz Asadi et al. [20] fabricated 5m SiC/AZ91
surface composite by FSP and studied the effect of process parameter, Penetration Depth (PD). There is an
optimum penetration depth which results in formation of defect free FSPed specimen. At high PD, sliding mode
of friction changes to sticking mode of friction which results in sticking of base metal to the tool. But at low PD,
a longitudinal crack develops in the processing zone which results in tunneling type of defects in the stirred
zone. Optimum PD depends on tool tilt angle and rotational speed like, increasing rotational speed and
decreasing tilt result in decrease of PD. Also, there is an opposite effect of traverse speed and rotational speed on
grain growth. Increase of traverse speed leads to decrease in grain size while increase of rotational speed leads
to an increase in grain size. Therefore, by adding SiC particles, grain structure is refined from 150 to 7.17 m
and microhardness is increased from 63 to 96 Hv.
M. Azizieh et al [21] investigated the effect of rotational speed, pin profile, no. of FSP passes and particle size on
the AZ31/Al2O3 nano-composite synthesized by FSP. Firstly, the authors concluded that the threaded probe tool
is best among the non threaded probe tool and three flute probe tool, since threaded profile fabricate the
composites without any development of cavity and with good particle distribution unlike the tunnelling defect
and tool jamming exhibited by three flute profile while poor particle dispersion exhibited by non threaded
probe. All further investigations were done on threaded profile produced MMCs. Secondly, the authors
investigated the combined effect of rotational speed and no. of FSP passes on the particle dispersion, grain size
and microhardness of the composite fabricated by threaded probe tool. It was revealed that with increase in
rotational speed from 800 to 1200, the average grain size of the composite was increased due to greater heat
input while with increase in no. of passes from 2 to 4; average grain size was reduced at a fixed rpm. Moreover,
with increase in rpm and no. of passes, the agglomeration of nanoparticles reduces i.e. good particle distribution
due to higher heat input and more material flow in the processed zone. One of major finding from this study was
that at higher rotational speed of 1200, even the finely distributed Al2O3 particles were not able to retard the
grain growth in the stir zone due to the combined effect of shattering or fragmentation of matrix grains and
alumina particles, and grain growth by heat generation. Due to these effects, composites fabricated at higher
rpm of 1200 shows less microhardness value (86 Hv at 4 passes) compared to the composites (92 Hv at 4 passes)
processed at lower rpm of 800. At last, authors studied the effect of particles size ranging from no particle
addition to micro particle (0.35 m and 1 m) and ultimately to nanoparticles (35 nm) on grain size and
microhardness of the composite. Results shows that grain size was effectively refined in case of nanocomposite
compared to composite with micro-particles, FSPed sample without particles addition and initial state of
matrix. Also, with decrease in particle size the hardness value increases i.e. the nanocomposite had the highest
hardness value of 90Hv in the stir zone compared to other studied particles. This is due to higher distribution of

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Fabrication of Magnesium Based Metal Matrix Composites.......


nanoparticles which ultimately lead to severe pinning effect at the grain boundary of the matrix.
Some studies also include the rotational speed and traverse speed ratio (/) as a FSP parameter. Faraji and
Asadi [22] synthesized AZ91 with Al2O3 nanoparticles (30 nm) through FSP and investigated the effect of
rotational speed/traverse speed ratio (/), FSP tool pin profile and no. of FSP passes on the microstructure and
microhardness of the developed nanocomposite. Initially, with the help of square and circular profile FSP
tool, investigaters fabricated the composite at a rotational speed of 900 rpm and traverse speed of 40 mm/min
and revealed that it was difficult to achieve uniform dispersion of particles even in low traverse speed in the case
of circular probe tool. This is due to the absence of pulsating stirring action in case of circular probe tool as this
action magnified the mixing of particles in the matrix. All further investigations were carried out using square
probe tool. It was revealed that higher / ratio results in good distribution of Al2O3 nanoparticles i.e. less
clustering of alumina particles and consequently smaller grain size of the composite layer. Thus, optimum
conditions for developing the sound surface layer was achieved by square tool and rotational speed of 900 rpm
and traverse speed of 40 mm/min. Moreover, microhardness was also accelerated at higher / ratio due to the
small grain size which was justified by Hall-Petch relationship. It was also reported that increase in number of
passes results in increase of microhardness; since more passes homogenizes the particles dispersion, decreases
the alumina clustering and consequently decreases the grain size.
3. Conclusion
The FSP technique is an effective method to fabricate metal matrix composites. The findings are as below:
w
Mostly AZ series based Mg alloys surface composite are developed with the help of FSP. Important
machine parameters considered during FSP which have considerable effect were tool traverse speed,
rotational speed, and penetration depth.
w
It was observed that in the fabrication of MMCs, tool traverse speed and rotational speed have both
positive and negative effects. Increase in tool rotational speed results in increase of grain size which
decreased the microhardness due to the more heat input but higher rotational speed results in
homogeneous distribution and breaking up of clusters. Moreover, greater rotational speed accelerates the
pinning effect of particles at the grain boundary which deaccelerates the grain growth and thus increasing
strength and hardness. But another investigation revealed that even the finely distributed Al2O3 particles
were not able to retard the grain growth due to the combined effect of shattering of matrix grains and
alumina particles, and grain growth by heat input. While increase in traverse speed exhibited decrease in
grain size and grain refinement which results in increase of hardness due to less local heat input.
w
Number of FSP passes also affect the fabrication of MMCs by reducing the clustering of particles. Multipass FSP results in reduction of size of cluster and uniform distribution of reinforcement particles and thus
decreases the grain size of matrix.
References
[1] B.L. Mordike and T. Ebert, Magnesium Properties applications potential, Materials Science and
Engineering A302 (2001) 3745.
[2] Ma Qian and A. Das, Grain refinement of magnesium alloys by zirconium: Formation of equiaxed grains,
Scripta Materialia 54 (2006) 881-886.
[3] J. Cai, G.C. Ma, Z. Liu, H.F. Zhang, Z.Q. Hu, Influence of rapid solidification on the microstructure of
AZ91HP alloy, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 422 (2006) 9296.
[4] K. Mathis, J. Gubicza, N.H. Nam, Microstructure and mechanical behavior of AZ91 Mg alloy processed
by equal channel angular pressing, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 394 (2005) 194-199.
[5] R.S. Mishra and Z.Y. Ma, Friction Stir Welding and Processing, Materials Science and Engineering R 50
(2005) 1 78.
[6] R.S. Mishra, Z.Y. Ma, I. Charit, Friction stir processing: a novel technique for fabrication of surface
composite, Materials Science and Engineering A341 (2003) 307310.
[7] Vipin Sharma, Ujjwal Prakash, B.V. Manoj Kumar, Surface composites by friction stir processing: A
review, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 224 (2015) 117134.
[8] Y. Morisada, H. Fujii, T. Nagaoka, M. Fukusumi, MWCNTs/AZ31 surface composites fabricated by

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friction stir processing, Materials Science and Engineering A 419 (2006) 344348
[9] Y. Morisada, H. Fujii, T. Nagaoka, M. Fukusumi, Effect of friction stir processing with SiC particles on
microstructure and hardness of AZ31 Y, Materials Science and Engineering A 433 (2006) 5054.
[10] C.J. Lee, J.C. Huang, P.J. Hsieh, Mg based nano-composites fabricated by friction stir processing,
Scripta Materialia 54 (2006) 14151420.
[11] M. Dadashpour, A.Mostafapour, R.Yesildal, S.Rouhi, Effect of process parameter on mechanical
properties and fracture behavior of AZ91C/SiO2 composite fabricated by FSP, Materials Science &
Engineering A655 (2016) 379387.
[12] Mohammad Navazania and Kamran Dehghani, Fabrication of Mg-ZrO2surface layer composites by
friction stir processing, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 229 (2016) 439449.
[13] Mohammad Navazania and Kamran Dehghani, Investigation of microstructure and hardness of Mg/TiC
Surface Composite Fabricated by Friction Stir Processing (FSP), Procedia Materials Science 11 (2015)
509-514.
[14] M. Balakrishnan, I. Dinaharan, R. Palanivel, R. Sivaprakasam, Synthesize of AZ31/TiC magnesium matrix
composites using friction stir processing, Journal of Magnesium and Alloys 3 (2015) 76-78.
[15] Yupei Jiang, XuyueYang, Hiromi Miura, Taku Sakai, Nano-SiO2 particles reinforced Mg Alloy Produced
FSP, Reviews on Advanced Materials Science 33 (2013) 29-32.
[16] P. Asadi, M.K. Besharati Givi, G. Faraji, Producing Ultrafine-Grained AZ91 from As-Cast AZ91 by FSP,
Mater. Manuf. Process. 25 (2010) 12191226.
[17] D. Khayyamin, A. Mostafapour, R. Keshmiri, The effect of process parameters on microstructural
characteristics of AZ91/SiO2 composite fabricated by FSP, Materials Science & Engineering A559 (2013)
217221.
[18] Y. Erfan and S.F. Kashani-Bozorg, Fabrication of Mg/SiC nanocomposite surface composite layer using
FSP technique, International Journal of Nano science 10 (2011) 1073.
[19] K. Sun, Q.Y. Shi, Y.J. Sun, G.Q. Chen, Microstructure and mechanical property of nano-SiCp reinforced
high strength Mg bulk composites produced by friction stir processing, Materials Science and Engineering
A 547 (2012) 32 37.
[20] Parviz Asadi, Ghader Faraji, Mohammad K. Besharati, Producing of AZ91/SiC composite by friction stir
processing (FSP), International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 51 (2010) 247260.
[21] M. Azizieh, A.H. Kokabi, P. Abachi, Effect of rotational speed and probe profile on microstructure and
hardness of AZ31/Al2O3 nano composites fabricated by friction stir processing, Materials and Design 32
(2011) 20342041.
[22] Ghader Faraji and Parviz Asadi, Characterization of AZ91/alumina nanocomposite produced by FSP,
Materials Science and Engineering A528 (2011) 24312440.

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Energy Analysis and Parametric Study of Flat


Pate Collector Area of a Solar Driven
Water-Lithium Bromide Half Effect
Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System
for a Given Cooling Load
Abhishek Verma, Akhilesh Arora, and R.S. Mishra

Abstract - In the modern times,Solar Cooling systems are becoming popular to reduce the carbon footprint of
air conditioning. The need and importance of solar based cooling system can play a very prominent role in
attenuating energy crisis by the use of solar energy. This paper presents the thermodynamic analysis and
calculation of flat plate collector area of vapour absorption half effect cooling system using sun as source of
energy.The cooling load is assumed to be 25 kW. The evaporator temperature is maintained constant at 7C and
condenser temperature is varied from 30C and 46C and generators temperatures are varied from 65 to 85 C.
For a given condenser temperature (say 38C) there is an optimum generator temperature for which the total
area flat plate collector is minimum. This optimum generator temperature comes out to be 80C. This generator
temperature gives the maximum COP which is obtained as 0.4158. For these values the Area of flat plate
collector on High Pressure side (Ah) is 130 m2.Area of flat plate collector on Low Pressure side (Al) is 154 m2.
Total Area of flat plate collector (A) is 284 m2.
Keywords- Half Effect, Energy Analysis, Vapour Absorption Refrigeration, Water-Lithium bromide, Flat plate
Collector. Solar Driven.
Introduction At present, the conventional resources of energy are being reduced every day, led to the
researchers to identify the systems which use renewable sources of energy. The depletion of conventional
sources of energy not only increasing the cost of energy production but also polluting the environment in a
severe manner.The refrigeration and air conditioning systems have a major demand of the total energy
consumption of the world. The harmful emissions of fossil fuels and chlorine based refrigerants used are
responsible for the global warming and the ozone layer depletion. All these problems have led the scientists to
develop a refrigeration system which uses renewable sources of energy. The energy of the sun may be harnessed
to produce the refrigerating effect which reduces the dependency on high-grade energy and do not pollute the
environment.

Abhishek Verma
P.G. Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road Delhi110042
e-mail- abhishek.ret@gmail.com
Akhilesh Arora and R.S. Mishra
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road Delhi-110042
e-mail- akhilesharora@dce.ac.in, e-mail- rsmishra1651956@yahoo.co.in
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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The primitive characteristic of the half-effect absorption cycle is the running capableness at lower temperatures
compared to others. The name half-effect rising from the COP, which is almost half that of the single-effect
cycle. It must be eminent that COP of the half-effect vapour absorption system is comparatively less as it
discard more heat than the absorption cycle working on single-effect, it is approx..50%. However, it can be
work with the relatively low temperature heat origin.[1].
Gomri [2] simulated the operation of a half-effect absorption refrigeration system of 10 kW. The energy from
the sun is utilized to run the flat plate collector, which are used as the source of heat generation for the vapour
absorption refrigeration system. The system has two units, one unit is for the generation of heat which would be
utilized to run the second unit i.e. the absorption cooling unit.
Adhikari et al. [3] examined and evaluated the practicability of a vapour absorption refrigeration unit work on
solar Energy. The system was designed with the postulate of vapour absorption refrigeration cycle with Lithium
Bromide as an absorbing medium and water as a refrigerant.5 kW cooling load for the office building is
considered. The designed absorption refrigeration system has COP equitable to 0.77. It proved that the best
performance in terms of COP would be succeeded when operated at low generator temperature and the low
generator heat. Solar collector area to conduct system is 8 m2. On the increase of mass flow rate of the
refrigerant, the overall cooling effect increases, but the COP decreases. The absorption cooling system is an
alternative to the conventional vapour compression system.
Arora et al. [4] carried out the analysis of exergy and energy of half effect lithium bromide water vapor
absorption refrigeration system. The optimum intermediate pressure is evaluated to maximize the exergetic
efficiency and COP under different conditions. The optimum pressure for both maximum COP and exergy is
same. The calculation of optimum pressure involves the effect of high and low pressure temperatures of
generator, evaporator, difference of high and low pressure of generator and evaporator, effectiveness of heat
exchangers carrying strong and weak solution of Lithium bromide and water. The maximum COP obtained in
the range of 0.415 to 0.438,and the value of maximum efficiency is varied from 6.96 to 13.74%.
This paper presents the thermodynamic analysis and calculation of flat plate collector area of vapour absorption
half effect cooling system using sun as source of energy.
2. Thermodynamic Analysis of Half Effect System
The half-effect water-lithium (H2O-LiBr2) bromide vapour absorption refrigeration system, consists of an
condenser, evaporator, LP & HP generators, LP & HP absorbers, LP and HP solution heat exchangers, , solution
pumps and solution and refrigerant throttle valves. The condenser and HP generator work at same pressure
which is the maximum pressure of the system. The LP generator and HP absorber work at the same intermediate
pressure whereas the evaporator and the LP absorber work at same lowermost pressure of the system.
The refrigerant (i.e., water) is circulated through the condenser, evaporator, LP absorber, LP generator, HP
absorber, HP generator. When the water vapour has condensed in the condenser, it revert to the evaporator
through an expansion valve.
However, the absorbent that is the lithium bromide aqueous solution is circulated within two distinct stages i.e.
the LP stage between the LP generator and the LP absorber, and the HP stage between the HP generator and the
HP absorber. Compared to a single-stage vapour absorption refrigeration system, there are two additional
components namely LP generator and HP absorber, in a half effect system. These are utilized to concentrate the
lithium bromide aqueous solution in the LP stage cycle.

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Figure 1 -Block diagram of Half Effect Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System

Table 1: p-t-x data for Half effect vapour absorption system

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2.1 Assumptions :
In direction to simulate these absorption refrigeration systems, several assumptions are made, comprehend the
succeeding. [5]:
The analysis of the system is prevailed under steady state conditions.
The refrigerant (i.e., water) at the exit of the condenser is assumed to be the saturated liquid.
The refrigerant (i.e., water) at the exit of the evaporator is assumed to be the saturated vapour.
The Lithium bromide solution at the exit of the absorber is a strong solution and it is at the absorber
temperature.
The exit temperatures from the generator and the absorber from corresponding to equilibrium
conditions of the separation and mixing particularly.
The pressure losses in the pipelines and all the heat exchangers are assumed to be negligible.
Heat exchange between the surroundings and the system, other than in that is prescribed by heat
transfer at the absorber, generator, condenser, evaporator, do not appear.
The reference state for the system is assumed water at an environment temperature To25C and 1
atmospheric pressure (Po).
The system exhibit chilled water.
The half effect system rejects heat to cooling water at the absorber and the condenser.
2.2 Mass Conservation:
The mass conservation law applied for each component is written as:
mi=me

(1)

This law applied for each component of the cycle is written as:
.m1 = m2 = m3
(2)
m4 = m5 = m6
(3)
m7 = m8 = m9
(4)
m10 = m11 = m12
(5)
m13 = m14 = m15 = m16 = m17 (6)
LP generator or LP absorber
.
m3 = m4 + m17
(7)
HP generator or HP absorber
.
m9 = m10 + m13
(8)
2.3 Conservation of concentration:
The law justifying the concentration conservation for each component is written as:

miXi = emeX

(9)

Where m is the mass flow rate in the system and X the is mass concentration of lithium bromide in the solution.
The law is applied for each component of the cycle is written as:
LP generator or LP absorber
m3X3 = m4X4
(10)
HP generator or HP absorber
m9X9 = m10X10
(11)
X1 = X2 = X3,
(12)
X4 = X5 = X6,
(13)
X7 = X8 = X9,
(14)
X10 = X11 = X12,
(15)
X13 = X14 = X15 = X16 = X17 = 0.
(16)

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Energy Analysis and Parametric Study of Flat Pate Collector ......


3. Calculation For The Half-effect System (HVARS):
The computer program is coded in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) for the thermodynamic analysis of
HVARS.
In the analysis of this cycle the following assumption is considered
1. The pumping is isentropic
2. Across Solution expansion valve entropy change is neglected and temperature is also constant.
3.1 Input Parameters:
The following are the input parameters to half effect system:
Condenser Temperature
TC = 38oC
Evaporator Temperature
TE = 7oC
High Pressure side Generator Temperature Tgh = 80oC
Low Pressure side Generator Temperature
High Pressure side Absorber Temperature
High Pressure side Absorber Temperature
Refrigeration Capacity
Qe = 25 kW
Intermediate Pressure
Pi = 4.953 kPa
Effectiveness of high pressure side solution heat exchanger EHXh = 0.7
Effectiveness of low pressure side solution heat exchanger EHXl = 0.7

Tgl = 80oC
Tah = 38oC
Tah = 38oC

4. Calculation of Flat Plate Collector Area:


The area of the flat collector is calculated on the basis of the requirement of heat in the two generators. The heat
required in the two generators is calculated by the computer based EES program with input parameters given
above.
4.1 Flat Plate Collector Specifications:
Dimensions = 2.005mm x 1.505mm
Gross Area (AF) = 3 m2
Efficiency (K) = 0.85
Cost = Rs. 6000
The Energy absorbed by the flat plate collector is given as [8] :
Q = K x S xA
(17)
Where,
K = efficiency of collector plate (K = 0.85)
S = average solar heat falling on earth's surface = 6 kwhr/ m2/day = 250 W/m2
A=Area of Flat Plate collector .
4.2 Calculation Of Area Of Flat Plate Collector For High Pressure Generator :
Heat required in the high pressure generator of the system,
Qgh = 27.48 kW = 27480 W
Hence, the approx. area of the flat plate collector necessary for providing this much amount of energy is given
by
= 27480 / (250 K)= 27480 / (250 0.85)
= 129.32 m2(i.e.,130 m2)
Area of Flat Plate collector used in high pressure side (Ah) = 130 m2

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4.3 Calculation Of Area Of Flat Plate Collector For Low Pressure Generator :
Heat required in the low pressure generator of the system,
Qgl = 32.65 kW (i.e, 32650 W)
Hence, the approx. area of the flat plate collector necessary for providing this much amount of energy is given
by
= 32650 / (250 K)= 32650 / (250 .85)
= 153.6 m2(i.e.,154 m2)
Area of Flat Plate collector used in Low pressure side (Al)= 154 m2
4.4 Total Area Of Flat Plate Collector (A) :
A = Ah + Al
A = 130 + 145
A = 284 m2
4.5 Number Of Flat Plate Collectors Required :
Number of Flat Plate Collectors required in High Pressure Side (N1)
N1 = Ah/ AF = 130/3 = 43.33
N1 = 44 Plates
Number of Flat Plate Collectors required in Low Pressure Side (N2)
N2 = Al/ AF = 154/3 = 51.33
N2 = 52 Plates
5. Results :
The variation of various parameter with respect to generator temperature (TG in C) at different temperature of
condenser (TC ) is shown as :
5.1 COP:
The variation of COP with generator temperature is shown in Figure 2. The high values of COP are hold at high
generator temperature and low condenser temperature. For a assumed condenser and evaporator temperature,
there is a minimum temperature of generator, which address to the maximum COP. It should be noticed that the
COP initially show the significant increase with an increase of generator temperature, and then the slope of the
COP curves gets almost flat. In other words, increasing the generator temperature higher than a fixed value does
not contribute to much improvement for the COP.

Figure 2 -Coefficient of performance (COP) versus generator temperature (TG in C) and condenser temperature

106

Energy Analysis and Parametric Study of Flat Pate Collector ......


(TC) at (TE = 7C)
5.2 Area of flat plate collector on High Pressure side (Ah) :
The variation of Area of flat plate collector on high pressure side is shown in Figure 3. As the generator
temperature increases the Ahincreases linearly. When the condenser temperature is increased the value of Ah
also increases. In the present study, where the evaporator temperature is maintained fixed at 7C and condenser
temperature is 38C, generators temperature is 80C the value of Ah is 130 m2.

Figure 3 Area of flat plate collector on High Pressure side (Ah in m2) versus generator temperature (TG in C)
and condenser temperature (TC) at (TE = 7C)
5.3 Area of flat plate collector on Low Pressure side (Al) :
The variation of Area of flat plate collector on low pressure side is shown in Figure 4. The Al of the absorption
cooling system drops keenly to a minimum value with an increase in temperature of generator and then further it
approximately remains constant. In the present study, where the evaporator temperature is maintained fixed at
7C and condenser temperature is 38C, generators temperature is 80C the value of Al is 154 m2.

Figure 4 Area of flat plate collector on Low Pressure side (Al in m2) versus generator temperature (TG in C)
and condenser temperature (TC) at (TE = 7C)
5.4 Total Area of flat plate collector (A) :
The variation of Total Area of flat plate collector is shown in Figure 5. The A of the absorption cooling system
drops keenly to a minimum value with an increase in temperature of generator and then further it approximately
remains constant. In the present study, where the evaporator temperature is maintained fixed at 7C and
condenser temperature is 38C, generators temperature is 80C the value of A is 284 m2.

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Figure 5 Total Area of flat plate collector (A in m2 ) versus generator temperature (TG in C) and condenser
temperature (TC) at (TE = 7C)
6. Conclusions:
The main results obtained are concluded below:
Higher temperature of evaporator and generator, results in higher COP of the system due to the fact that as
generator temperature increases, the heat transfer to the solution available in the generator increases, which
results in the increase of mass flow rate and so does the COP.
For the given temperature of condenser there is an optimum temperature of generator for which the total
area flat plate collector is minimum. This optimum generator temperature comes out to be 80C. This
generator temperature gives the maximum COP.
There exists a specific generator temperature below which a half effect system ceases to work. In the
present work, this value is found to be 67.51C, corresponding to an intermediate pressure of 4.953 kPa (for
TC = Tal =Tah = 38C, TE = 7C and Tgh = Tgl = 80C).
For these values the Area of flat plate collector on High Pressure side (Ah) is 130 m2.Area of flat plate
collector on Low Pressure side (Al) is 154 m2. Total Area of flat plate collector (A) is 284 m2.
References :
[1] Abdulateef, J.M., 2008, Review on solar-driven ejector refrigeration technologies. Renew SustainEnergy
Rev.
[2] RabahGOMRI , (2010). Solar Energy to Drive Half-Effect Absorption Cooling System, Int. J. of Thermal
& Environmental Engineering, Volume 1, No. 1 , 1-8.
[3] Jhalak Raj Adhikari, BivekBaral, Ram Lama, BadriAryal, and Roshan Khadka , 2012, Design and analysis
of solar absorption air cooling system for an office building Design and analysis of solar absorption air
cooling system for an office building, Rentech Symposium Compendium, Volume 2, December.
[4] Akhilesh Arora, Manoj Dixit, and S.C. Kaushik, 2016, Computation Of Optimum Parameters Of A Half
Effect Water-Lithium Bromide Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System, Journal of Thermal Engineering,
Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 683-692, April.
[5] Saeed. Sedigh , Hamid. Saffari, 2011, Thermodynamic Analysis Of Single Effect And Half Effect
Absorption Refrigeration Systems, International Journal of Energy & Technology Vol. 3 pg 1-9.
[6] Absorption Chillers and Heat Pumps, Second Edition, By Keith E. Herold, ReinhardRadermacher,
Sanford A. Klein, 1994.
[7] Jianzhao Wang, Danxing Zheng ,2009, Performance of one and a half-effect absorption cooling cycle of
H2O/LiBr system, Energy Conversion and Management Vol. 50, pg 30873095.
[8] V.K.Bajpai, 2012, Design of Solar Powered Vapour AbsorptionSystem Proceedings of the World Congress
on Engineering 2012 Vol IIIWCE 2012, July 4 6, London, U.K.
[9] Refrigeration And Air Conditioning, Third Edition, published by Tata McGraw-Hill Education private
Limited, 2012 By C.P. Arora.
[10] Z.F. Li, K. Sumathy, 2000, Technology development in the solarabsorption air-conditioning systems,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 4 pg 267293.

108

Energy Analysis and Parametric Study of Flat Pate Collector ......


[11] V Mittal, K S Kasana and N S Thakur, 2006, Modelling and simulation of a solar absorption coolingsystem
for India, Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Vol 17 No 3 August.
[12] K. Sumathy , Z. C. Huang And Z. F. Li , 2002, Solar Absorption Cooling With Low Grade Heat Source A
Strategy Of Development In South China, Solar Energy Vol. 72, No. 2, pp. 155165.

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Comparative Performance, Emissions and


Combustion Analysis of Single Cylinder CI
Engine Fuelled With Biodiesel Derived
From Castor Oil
Akash Deep, Sarbjot Singh Sandhu and Subhash Chander

Abstract- An experimental study was conducted to investigate the behaviour of castor biodiesel as an
alternative fuel for an existing compression ignition (CI) engine. The castor biodiesel was produced using the
transesterification process and the important physico-chemical properties of various blends was also being
evaluated. A series of experiments were carried out on a CI engine fuelled with various castor biodiesel and
diesel blends (B20, B40 and B100) turn by turn, over the entire range of engine loading conditions. The
comparative analysis of combustion parameters such as cylinder pressure, heat release rate, ignition delay,
cumulative heat release, rate of pressure rise and combustion duration; engine performance parameters, such as
brake thermal efficiency (BTE), specific fuel consumption (SFC) and exhaust gas temperature (EGT); exhaust
emissions such as CO, HC, NOx and smoke opacity, were carried out. Results were then compared with the base
line data for diesel. The comprehensive analysis of the data colleted from the experimentation revealed that the
20% blend of castor biodiesel with diesel (B20) improved the thermal efficiency of the engine and lower
exhaust emissions.
Keywords- Biodiesel; Castor oil; Combustion; engine performance; emissions; diesel engine.

ntroduction In the past few decades, Biodiesel diverted the attention of the research community from
conventional fuels for being originated from renewable resources. Approximately, 350 oil-bearing crops
are identified which are having potential to be used for producing biodiesel [1]. India is the major producer
of castor oil in the world [2]. Castor oil is characterized by the presence of its unique constituent i.e. Ricin oleic
acid (85-90%) due which it has the highest viscosity among all the other vegetable oils. In spite of being
available in abundance in India at a low cost as compared to other non-edible oils, its suitability as an alternative
fuel for CI engines needs to be explored.
Several studies have been reported, which explored the engine behaviour using biodiesel from various
feedstocks such as jatropha, karanja, mahua, waste cooking oil etc. [3-5]. The results from the various studies
shows that the performance and emissions depends upon the various properties of the fuel. The fuel properties
put significant influence on its combustion behaviour. Therefore, knowledge of the combustion process of a

Akash Deep
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Research Scholar, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Postal
address, G.T. Road, Amritsar Bye-Pass, Jalandhar (Punjab), India - 144011
akashgoelengg@gmail.com
Sarbjot Singh Sandhu and Subhash Chander
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assistant Professor, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Postal
address, G.T. Road, Amritsar Bye-Pass, Jalandhar (Punjab), India 144011
sandhuss@nitj.ac.in, chanders@nitj.ac.in

Corresponding Author; Tel: +91 9478371029, +91 9872873956

PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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fuel is also very important because it ultimately influence the performance and emissions of the engine [16]. The
parameters which indicate the effectiveness of the combustion process are: in-cylinder pressure, heat release
rate, cumulative heat release rate, rate of pressure rise, ignition delay and combustion duration [17]. The engine
performance and emissions are the results of combustion behaviour of fuel.
In the present work, the biodiesel was derived from castor oil using transesterification process. The important
physico-chemical properties of the resultant biodiesel were evaluated according to ASTM standards. The
biodiesel was blended with diesel in various proportions. The experimentation was carried out on a single
cylinder compression ignition engine test rig equipped with data acquisition system. Then, the comparative
analysis of performance, emission and combustion characteristics, using different fuel blends, was made with
respect to baseline data of diesel. On the basis of these analysis, the optimum fuel blend was found.
2. Experimental Methodology
Castor oil was converted into biodiesel by using transesterification reaction with 30C reaction temperature,
9:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 30 minutes of reaction time and 1.5 wt. % of KOH as catalyst.:
RCOOR' + R''OH

RCOOR'' + R'OH (1)

Table 1. Specifications of the engine.

Table 1 shows the detailed specifications of the engine. All the fuel blends were tested turn by turn for the engine
performance, emissions and combustion characteristics under varying load conditions (20%, 20%, 40%, 60%,
80% and 100%) at rated speed of 1500 rpm. Data was recorded after the engine attained stable conditions. AVL
4000 Di-Gas Analyser was used for measurement of HC, CO and NOx. Smoke opacity was measured using
AVL 437 smoke meter.
3. Results And Discussions
The various properties of castor biodiesel in comparison with raw castor oil, diesel and their various blends are
given in the Table 2.

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107

Table 2. Physical properties of castor oil and castor biodiesel and its various blends.

3.1.
Engine performance
Figure 1 (a c) shows the variation of engine performance parameters i.e. brake thermal efficiency (BTE),
brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust gas temperature at different engine loads.
The thermal efficiency generally increases with an increase in the engine load [18-22]. It can be observed that
the biodiesel blended fuels are having higher BTE as compared to diesel. The maximum BTE can be oberved at
80% of engine load for B20 which is 39.81%. The possible reason for this is the additional lubricity provided by
the biodiesel and the molecules of biodiesel contain some amount of oxygen, which takes active part in the
combustion process. The blends B40 and B100 showed comparitively lower BTE than B20. Higher kinematic
viscosity and density of higher seems to be dominating for the higher blends. High viscosity, density and
evaporation energy of biodiesel may cause formation of larger droplets during atomization fuel which results in
poor air-fuel mixture [23,24].
For all blends tested, BSFC is found to decrease with increase in load. This is due to the fact that the increase in
percentage fuel consumption in order to operate the engine is less than the increase in brake power percentage
and also relatively less proportion of heat losses at higher loads [13]. Overall, B20 showed the lowest BSFC,
whereas, B100 showed highest BSFC.
Almost linear increase in EGT was observed with the variation in engine load for all the fuels blends tested. This
increase in EGT is due to the additional fuel requirement to produce extra power for taking up the additional
loads. The higher value of EGT, at same engine loads, also gives the indication of higher heat loss which shows
the actual utilization of available heat energy to produce useful work or brake power [12,13,18,25]. This
statement is quite evident as BTE for B20 is highest and EGT is lowest at all engine loads.

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Figure 1. Variation of: (a) brake thermal efficiency (BTE) vs. engine load, (b) brake specific fuel consumption
(BSFC) vs. engine load and (c) exhaust gas temperature vs. engine load
3.1.

Engine emissions

Figure 2 (a d) shows the average exhaust emissions such as CO, HC, Nox and smoke opacity from the diesel
engine with different fuel blends tested and engine loads. engine loads.

Figure 2. Variation of: (a) CO vs. engine load, (b) HC vs. engine load, (c) Nox vs. engine load and (d) Smoke
opacity vs. engine load

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Comparative Performance, Emissions and Combustion......

109

It can be observed that both CO and HC follow the same trend because they occur because of incomplete
combustion. Overall, B20 fuel showed the lower CO and HC emissions. On the other hand B40 and B100
showed the higher CO and HC emission. The possible reason for that the higher values of kinematic viscosity
and density. The requirement of latent heat of vaorization give rise to incomplete combustion as compared to
diesel and B20. A slightly higher NOx can be observed for B20 from 20 80% of engine load. NOx emissions
are the function of in-cylinder tempeature and duration of burnt products remained in high temperature inside
the cylinder while power stroke. Higher BTE for B20 is the indication of better combustion and so the NOx
emissions. It can be observed that the smoke opacity get increased with the increase in engine load due to
increase in fuel consumption. A wide difference can be observed for the smoke opacity of diesel at 80% and
100% load as compared to all the other fuel blends. B20 and B40 showed the lower smoke opacity for 40
100% engine loads as compared to diesel. It can also be observed that the smoke opacity for B100 is lower than
that of diesel but higher than B20 and B40. It is well known that the smoke is mainly generated during diffusive
combustion phase. The biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, therefore, it improves the diffusive combustion and
hence less smoke [26].
3.1. 1 Combustion analysis
It has been observed that the maximum energy was obtained at 80% of engine load. Figure 2 (a c) shows the
various combustion characteristics i.e. cylinder pressure (CP), heat release rate (HRR) and rate of pressure rise
(ROPR) vs. crank angle (CA) respectively at 80% of full load. The 0 CA represents the position of TDC at the
end of compression stroke.

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Figure 3. Variation of: (a) cylinder pressure (CP), (b) heat release rate (HRR) and (c) rate of pressure rise
(ROPR) vs. crank angle (CA) at 80% of full load

t can be observed that the peak CP for B20, B40 and B100 fuel is the higher as compared to diesel which is also
reflected as higher BTE in Fig. 1(a). B20 fuel showed the maximum CP as compared to all fuels tested. The
ROPR plot showed the earlier rise in CP which is also closer to TDC as compared to all fuels tested. The HRR
plot also reflects that B20 released maximum of its heat energy near to TDC. Therefore, a greater force may be
experienced by the piston during the power stroke and hence increase the power output of the engine. Rest of the
fuels, i.e. diesel, B40 and B100, released their energy at the later stages of the power storke. the heat added after
the TDC, reduces the maximum pressure which further lowers the efficiency whereas, the heat added before the
TDC causes higher cylinder pressure but also increases the heat loss and resistance to piston movement till the
completion of compression stroke [27].
4.

Conclusions

Biodiesel from castor oil can be a promising alternative fuel to mineral diesel. n this experimental study, the
neat castor biodiesel and its blends showed relatively better permormance and reduced emissions. Due to
significantly high kinematic viscosity and density, the 100% castor biodiesel can not be recomended as injector
may get choked in the long run. The lubricity of castor oil and beign an oxygenated fuel appears to be
advantageous to its combustion process. The blend B20 exhibits better thermal efficiancy even if it has lower
calorific value than that of diesel. The trends of CO and HC emisions for B20 are on the lower side. The trends of
NOx emission for B20 are nearly same as that of diesel at lower loads and slighly higher at full loads. It has been
noticed that the biodiesel blended fuels showed the different combustion behaviour than that of diesel because
biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel whereas diesel consists of aromatics compounds.
Acknowledgements
This experimental study has been done in Biodiesel Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical
Engineering, Dr. B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology. The authors would like to acknowledge the
financial support extended by the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Technology Bhavan, New
Mehrauli Road, New Delhi - 110016.
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Lin B-F, Huang J-H, Huang D-Y. Experimental study of the effects of vegetable oil methyl ester on DI
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Lin C-Y, Lin H-A. Diesel engine performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel produced by the
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Muralidharan K, Vasudevan D. Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a


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Muralidharan K, Vasudevan D, Sheeba KN. Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of


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Panwar NLL, Shrirame HY, Rathore NSS, Jindal S, a.K. Kurchania, Kurchania a. K. Performance
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Raheman H, Phadatare AG. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl
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Dhar A, Agarwal AK. Performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of Karanja biodiesel in a
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Tesfa B, Mishra R, Zhang C, Gu F, Ball a. D. Combustion and performance characteristics of CI


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Gumus M. A comprehensive experimental investigation of combustion and heat release characteristics


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Sahoo PK, Das LM, Babu MKG, Naik SN. Biodiesel development from high acid value polanga seed
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Savariraj S, Ganapathy T, Saravanan CG. Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of


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Singh B, Kumar N, Muk H. A study on the performance and emission of a diesel engine fueled with
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118

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Process Optimization of Transesterification


for Biodiesel Production From Jatropha Oil
Kumar Gaurav, PB Sharma and Richa Srivastava

Abstract-In present study, transesterification of Jatropha oil was studied by homogenous catalyst system. The
optimal conditions of transesterification of oil with methanol and potassium hydroxide as catalyst were found
to be 9:1 methanol/oil ratio, catalyst loading 5% (wt) with 3 h reaction time and at a temperature of 65 C.
Jatropha biodiesel was examined for various fuel properties such as kinematic viscosity (5.2 mm2/s at 40 C),
density (0.86 Kg/L) , flash point (99 C), fire point (133 C), acid value (0.46 mg KOH/g) and calorific value
(40.3 MJ/Kg).

Keywords- Renewable energy; Biodiesel; Jatropha Oil; Transesterification; Homogenous catalyst; Fuel
properties.
Introduction At present time, energy crisis, shortage of fuel and emission of green houses gases aggravates
the global warming [1]. The world is looking for alternative sources of energy to meet the current demand of
fuel such as biofuel. Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, nontoxic, sulphur and aromatic-free in
comparison with petroleum- based fuel [2]. Chemically, biodiesel is a mixture of methyl esters with long-chain
fatty acids and is typically made from biological resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats or even used
cooking oils [3].
Several methods have been developed for the production of biodiesel such as microemulsion, pyrolysis and
transesterification. Out of these methods, transesterification is most common to produce biodiesel and
glycerol and it involves alcoholysis of vegetable oil [4,5]. Transesterification is catalyzed by homogenous
catalysts, e.g. NaOH, KOH , heterogeneous catalysts and enzymatic catalysts. The present study is focused to
produce biodiesel from Jatropha oil and its process optimization. The physicochemical properties were also
evaluated and they were compared to ASTM standards. .
2. Materials And Methods
2.1 Materials
Jatropha oil was purchased from local market. Analytical grade methanol (99.9%), was purchased from
Rankem, India and potassium hydroxide in pellet form was purchased from Fisher Scientific, India.
Kumar Gaurav
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Gurgoan Haryana,122413,
Kgaurav1@ggn.amity.edu
PB Sharma
Vice Chancellor , Amity University Gurgoan Haryana, 122413
vcauh@ggn.amity.edu
Richa Srivastava
Department of Applied Chemistry and Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological
University, Delhi- 110042
richa_srivastava@dce.ac.in
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2.1 Transesterification
Potassium hydroxide catalyzed transesterification process was adapted for conversion of oil into biodiesel.
In this study, 1 L of Jatropha oil was added to Biodiesel reactor. Oil was heated up to 60 C. The prepared alcohol
and catalyst mixture was then added to the reactor with constant stirring at 120 rpm. The reaction is allowed to
take place for 3-4 h. After the completion of reaction, the mixture is left to settle and separate into two phases for
24 h. The upper layer consists of biodiesel along with catalyst, whereas the bottom phase consists of impurities
and glycerol. The products were washed several times with distilled water to remove excess catalyst and by
products of saponified reaction. The different variables including methanol/oil molar ratio, temperature,
reaction time and catalyst loading would influence the transesterification. The main objective was this study to
optimize these physiochemical parameter to attain higher biodiesel yield.
3. Results And Discussion
3.1Optimization of physiochemical parameters
3.1.1 Effect of catalyst loading
Catalyst loading is the important parameter that requires to be optimized to get higher yield of biodiesel
(FAME). In present investigation, the optimum concentration of catalyst was determined by varying mass ratio
of catalyst from 1 wt% to 7 wt%. As shown in fig.1, it was found that the yield of biodiesel increased with
loading concentration was increased from 1 wt% to 5 wt%. Beyond the optimum concentration of catalyst 5
wt% did not give higher biodiesel yield because of the mass transfer limitations. Higher amount of catalyst also
increases the viscosity of the system to the point that the adequate mixing is not reached. Hence, the optimal
catalysts loading was 5 wt% for production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil.

Figure 1: Effect of catalyst loading


3.1.1 Effect of methanol to oil ratio
The molar ratio of methanol to oil is one of the most important parameter that directly affects the FAME yield.
The FAME yield % with respect to the different molar ratio of methanol to oil is shown in fig 2. The
stoichiometric ratio between alcohol and triglycerides is 3:1, but the transesterification is commonly carried out
with excess amount of alcohol in order to shift the equilibrium toward the forward direction and higher yield of
FAME. The effect of molar ratio of methanol to oil (in range of 3:1 to 15:1) on the transformation was examined
at 5 wt% catalyst. It was observed that when the ratio was 3:1 the yield of FAME was 22.35% and when the
molar ratio was increased from 3:1 to 9:1, biodiesel yield was increased upto 72.3%. The molar ratio 9:1 was
sufficient to complete the reaction, beyond 9:1, FAME yield did not change due to dilution effect. Thus the
maximum FAME yield was achieved at the to oil molar ratio of 9:1.

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Figure 2: Effect of methanol to oil molar ratio


3.1.1 Effect of reaction temperature
The effect of reaction temperature on FAME yield were investigated by varying the temperature from 35 C to
75 C with a constant reaction of time 3 h. FAME yield increases from 9.04% to 75.32% when the reaction
temperature from was increased from 35 C to 65 C as presented in fig 3. From the fig 3, it was clear that
reaction temperature directly affects the transesterification reaction. At higher temperature, faster reaction
equilibrium is reached as compared to lower temperature. Above the optimum temperature (70 C), the
reduction in FAME yield due to lack of methanol and vaporization of methanol

Figure 3: Effect of reaction temperature

3.1.1

Effect of reaction time

FAME yield using KOH catalyst estimated at a normal interval of 1 h and the yield against time is shown in fig4.
In first 1h, the reaction is slow (45% yield) and then increased gradually after 1 h of reaction. The maximum
yield was 78.23% after 3 h. After 3 h, yield is decreased due to backward reaction of transesterification.

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Figure 4: Effect of reaction time

3.2 Biodiesel fuel properties


The main fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel such as kinematic viscosity, density, flash point, fire point
and calorific value were determined and compared with ASTM biodiesel standard and listed in table
1. The obtained values are comparable to those reported by Xu et al [6].
Table 1: Fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel

4. Conclusion
Biodiesel, renewable source of energy and provides a greener and cost effective solution to the problem of
depleting fossil fuel. Under the optimum condition the yield was biodiesel 76% at 65 C.
Acknowledgements
The authors thanks AIB, AUH for their instrumental facilities for the carried out work.
References
[1] K. Gaurav, R. Srivastava, J.G. Sharma, R. Singh,V. Singh Molasses based growth and lipid production
by Chlorella pyrenoidosa: A potential feedstock for biodiesel, International Journal of Green Energy,
Taylor & Francis, DOI: 10.1080/15435075.2014.966268, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 320-327.
[2] K. Gaurav, R. Srivastava, R. Singh, Exploring biodiesel: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Microalgal
source, International Journal of Green Energy, Taylor &
F r a n c i s ,
D O I :
10.1080/15435075.2012.726673 Vol. 10, , pp.775-796.

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Process Optimization of Transesterification for Biodiesel......


[3]
[4]

[5]
[6]

A. Singh, S. Maji, K. Gaurav, Production of Biodiesel from the algae: State of the art review,
International Journal of Development Research, 2014. Vol. 13, No.3 , pp. 320-327.
O . Farobie, Y. Matsumura, A comparative study of biodiesel production using methanol, ethanol and
tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) under supercritical conditions, Bioresource Technology, 2015. Vol.
191, pp. 306-311.
M.R. Avhad, J.M. Marchetti, A review on recent advancement in catalytic materials for biodiesel
productionRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2015, Vol. 50, pp. 696-718.
H. Xu, X.L. Miao, Q.Y. Wu, High quality biodiesel production from a microalga Chlorella
protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters Journal of Biotechnology 2006, Vol. 126, , pp.
499-507.

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Analysis of the Merits of Hot Runner System


Over Cold Runner System in Moulding
Technology
Sandeep Mathur, V. K. Mittal, Nitin Upadhye,
Vipul Mathur and Kshitij Mathur

Abstract In the conventional moulding processes, the mould cavity is filled through the traditional cold runners
in which plastic therein gets solidified along with the moulding parts produced. This method although cheap in
terms of initial investment results in huge wastage of material, more operating cycle time and incurred
regrinding costs. Hot runner technology is advancement over this traditional technique viz. cold runner
technology and can be applied effectively to multi-cavity moulds in large scale and flexible production. The
extensive analysis of the advantages and limitations of the two methods in this study will help in taking prudent
industrial decisions regarding production, profit and infrastructure required.
Keywords- hot runner; cold runner; supply chain, injection moulding.

ntroduction In Injection molding, the thermoplastic resin is pushed into the mould cavity under pressure
to attain the configuration of the product to be formed. The process control is best established in injection
molding by using simulation models for improving observability through decoupled gating [1]. A runner is
employed which acts as a pathway for the resin to fill the mould. The runner plays a crucial role in the entire
process affecting the cooling time, maximum section thickness of the casting and coloration. The systems in
which the material in the runner and the gates are solidified along with that in mould cavity are termed as Cold
Runner systems and are widely used in all molding applications such as fast moving electrical goods (FMEG).
Cold runner systems, although cheap, suffer from some limitations namely-material wastage, degrading
complexity, regrind costs and increased molding cycle. For assembly line productions comprising two or more
moulding components in which the output may vary from few thousand to lakhs of pieces at a time, these losses
become substantial and result in additional burden on supply chain systems. Also, the runner thickness and
length is sometimes even greater than the maximum cross section of the product, making these losses even more
uneconomical for similar situations.

Sandeep Mathur and V. K. Mittal


1
Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University Noida,
sandeep_mathur66@yahoo.com, vkmittal@amity.edu
Nitin Upadhye
University of Modern Sciences, Dubai
nupadhye@gmail.com
Vipul Mathur
Mechanical Engineering Department, NIT Kurukshetra, Haryana,
vipul95mathur@gmail.com
Kshitij Mathur
Mechanical Engineering Department, BITS, Pilani Goa,
k.mathur68@gmail.com
Corresponding Author; Tel: +91 8800405556, Fax: +97142646713

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The runner-less systems i.e. hot runner systems were evolved to tackle these issues in injection molding. The
advantage of having the plastic in the runner, gates and nozzles continuously heated via electric heating coils
leaves no extraneous material. Although design and analysis of nozzles and pressure valves are critical in hot
runner system, present study does not deal with these aspects and only focusses on the complete hot runner
system vis a vis cold runner system [2, 3]. In hot runner system, cycle time is reduced and less injection
pressure/force is required. The structure of hot runner systems consists of a heated manifold which houses the
runner, gating section and nozzles and is quite complex as compared to cold runner technology. The large
investment for hot runners is not justified for small scale production and it is an important aspect while
considering the installation of hot runner systems. In this work, an electrical assembly comprising of two
functionally dependent parts is manufactured with both cold and hot runner processes to generate a comparative
study of both systems to provide options for improving productivity and efficiency of a supply chain.
2. Description
While there are several case studies related to quality and productivity improvements in the injection molding

processes [4], the present study deals with manufacturing of two parts using two distinctive mould making
Fig. 1 Part 1
technology which are modeled as shown in the Fig. 1 and 2 with the respective CAD orthographic views
alongside it.

Fig. 2 Part 2

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2.1 Part Properties for Cold Runner Mould:


The part properties are provided in the Table 1 with the shot weight as it would be required for a cold runner
mould. Thus, it includes the runner weight and also the shrinkage and draft allowances. This data is projected
from the mass properties in the 3D model. The material for the parts is PBT-20% which stands for Poly Butylene

Terephthalate (density=1.38 g/cc). Since the type of polymer is critical in melt flow characteristics, the
simulation model for visualization of hot runner design could not be employed as it was unrelated to this work
[5].
2.2 Machine Specifications:
For Hot runner experiment, the valve type hot runner automated injection mould is used whereas, for the Cold
runner experiment, a 200 ton 580 mm x 580 mm semi-automatic injection mould is used for both the parts. Fig.
3 shows the cold runner machine with the injection mechanism and Fig. 4 shows the Valve Gate (VG) hot runner
machine with the mould open for injection. The machines are pneumatically actuated and are capable of
producing 16 pieces at a time. The parts are produced at the rate of 16 and 8 pieces per shot respectively. The
thermoplastic is fed from an overhead hopper which is injected into the mould cavity at the preset pressure. The
temperatures inside the mould are recorded through sensors.

Fig. 3 Cold Runner injection Mould

Fig. 4 Hot Runner injection Mould

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The typical stages in a molding cycle are explained in Fig. 5 as a block diagram:

Fig.5.Stages in molding cycle


In the beginning of the cycle, the mould opens (1) and the solidified part is ejected from the cavities by the help
of several ejector pins (2). The mould then closes (3) to prepare for the next shot and is clamped up (4) by
applying high hydraulic or pneumatic pressure specified usually as tonnage of the machine. Then the molten
thermoplastic is injected into the mould cavity (5) and the mould is retained in this configuration till the resin
fills it completely. Subsequently, the cooling begins (6) and the resin starts to solidify. During this time, the
screw or plunger moves, create a new shot, and returns to its original position. This is termed as Recovery period
(7) and as soon as recovery is completed, the mould unclamps (8) and opens again. This entire process is then
repeated.
In this work, the Hot and Cold runner designs are compared on the following criteria:
1) Machine Performance and maintenance: The thermoplastic resin must flow through the profiles, curves
and sections for each cavity in the mould so as to ensure that it enters at same pressure and thermal distribution
[6].To achieve this, the machines performance is checked by identifying the intermittent maintenance
operations which facilitates the production of consistent parts.
2) Part quality: The parts are checked for flaws and shortcomings and tested in their field of application. The
two designs are checked for defects such as-Short Shot, Sink marks, Voids and flashes.
3) Cycle time and maximum capacity of production: Cycle time is the total time in which all the operations
from injection of resin to ejection of part are satisfactorily completed. From Fig. 5
Cycle time= total time of operations (1+2+3+4+5+ 6+7+8)
In hot runner system injection time (5) is reduced as the plastic is already available in molten form in gates and
runners.
4) Return of Investments in batch production: For this study, the efficiency of production is estimated by
comparing the initial investment in the infrastructure of systems with the savings per day.
Certain precautions are to be kept in mind in the manufacturing process:
The injection pressure is carefully monitored so that it is within the optimum range. Too low pressure will
not fill the cavity completely while a higher pressure will result in degradation of material for the next shot and
may cause ceasing of the machinery.
Regular maintenance of hot runner machinery and its components like the electric heating arrangement and
nozzles is essential. In cold runner setup, the waste solidified in runners need to be disposed off efficiently.
The gating mechanism and runner design plays a pivotal role in deciding the properties of the part
produced. Gate selection should be made considering molded product shape, number, looks, economic
efficiency, and moldability [7].
3.

Experimental Study

The criteria of comparing the two systems are elaborated in this experimental study carried for one month.
Machine Performance and maintenance: For this test, the machine performance is evaluated on the basis of
the maintenance operations which are required to ensure the similarity or consistency of parts. In cold runner
systems, it is observed that for both part 1 and part 2, the mould life was around 5 lakh shots after which, the
parts showed deviations from the others in terms of quality, thermal history and defects. Whereas in Hot runner

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systems, the discrepancies and quality degradation arrived only after 10 lakhs shots which is significantly more
than those in the cold runner system. Fig. 6-9 shows the runner arrangements in the mould and the resin flow
pathway:

Fig. 6 Cold runner gating (Part 1)

G- 7 Hot runner gating (Part 1)

Fig. 8 Cold runner gating (Part 2)

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Fig. 9 Hot runner gating (Part 2)


Table 2 shows the operations which are required to keep the mould in running condition alongside their
frequency.
Table 2. Maintenance data of one month on hot and cold runner

1)

Part quality: The quality of the parts is analyzed by checking for the following defects:
Short Shot- Failure to completely fill the mold or cavities of the mold is called short shot. Edges may
appear melted in this defect [8].
Sink marks- An indentation on the surface of the part as a result of significant local change in wall
section is a sink mark. The mark will occur in the thicker area.
Voids- These are the unfilled spaces within a solid material.
Flash- Flash refers to any excess material that is formed with and attached to the component along a
seam or mold parting line.

In this experiment, the total rejections in a month were recorded and they were classified into various defects.
Table 3 shows the respective rejections. Care was taken to use fresh raw material to prevent any aging effect on
polymer to interfere in the findings [9].

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Analysis of the Merits of Hot Runner System Over......


Table 3. Rejection status

The relative proportions of the different defects are shown by the graphs (Fig. 10 and 11).
6

5
4
3
2

2
1

2
1

22

cold runner
hot runner

1
0
Short Sink Voids Flash
Shot marks

Fig. 10 Part Quality chart (Part 1)

Fig. 11 Part Quality chart (Part 2)


3)
Cycle time and speed of production: In calculation of cycle time, the time (in seconds) for the molding
operation and the production of 22 hours per day is calculated and the results are tabulated. Table 4 shows the
time taken by the machines for both components and Table 5 gives the respective production per day.

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Table 4.Cycle time

Table 5. Max. Production Capacity

1)
Return of Investments in batch production: The production study is carried out for a time period of 22
hours with the actual cost per piece calculated by using raw material cost, machine running cost, mould
maintenance cost and the special hot runner maintenance cost. This is given as in table 6.
Results
Table 6.Cost analysis

From each criteria considered, the results are collected which depict the performance of the two molding
machines.
In Machine Performance and maintenance test, it is found that there are many maintenance operations of
replacing and cleaning in hot runner moulds which are not required in the simple construction of cold runner
moulds. However, the expected working life of hot runner moulds is nearly double as compared to the old
runner moulds which accounts for their high productivity and endurance.
In part quality test, the production of one month duration was taken to account for all types of variations in the
moulding processes. It is clearly established from the process data that the rejection rate is approximately one
third of the rate evidenced in the case of cold runner systems.
Under the Cycle time criteria, it took 18 sec and 20 sec to produce part 1 and part 2 respectively in the hot runner
machine. For the cold runner machine, the cycle time is 40 sec for both parts. This, it is clear that hot runner
technology is almost twice as fast as its counterpart.
For the purpose of return on investment calculations, the additional investment is calculated as given in table 7
and divided by the total savings with hot runner worked out in table 6. The resultant number shows the ROI in
days which in this case has come about 90 days that is 3 months.

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Analysis of the Merits of Hot Runner System Over......

Table 7. Actual cost

These four criteria put together make hot runner a resource efficient injection moulding with low environmental
impact [10].
5. Conclusions
In this work, a four criteria analysis is used to study the hot runner and cold runner injection molding systems to
facilitate sound supply chain management decisions. Two functionally interdependent parts of an electrical
assembly are manufactured using the two types of molding systems and the data on their performance and their
properties is collected. This was done in an industrial environment and setting to simulate real life and dynamic
conditions during production. The study has achieved its prime objective of highlighting the various
advantages and limitations of hot runner and cold runner technologies and comes to the conclusion that for the
considered part and parts of similar dimensions, hot runner moulds are more effective in mass production.
While there is no appreciable difference in the quality of parts produced by the two systems, lower injection
pressures, rapid production and no material wastage in hot runner moulds make them ideal for such situations.
The material and time savings can amount to over 50 to 100 percent. The study also suggests from experimental
observations that the product formed through hot runner systems shows enhanced properties than its
counterpart in melt flow and coloration. But the cold runner moulds are very cheap as compared to hot runner
ones and for supply chains involving small scale industries, the hot runner technology is not feasible due to their

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large initial costs.


References
[1]
S. Johnson, D. O. Kazmer, Decoupled Gating and Simulation for Injection Molding, PolymerPlastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 45:4, pp. 575-584, 1999.
[2]
P. S. Rao, D. V. S. Rao, Design and Analysis of Hot Runner Nozzle Using Fem, International Journal
of Mechanical and Industrial Technology, vol. 3, iss. 1, pp. 228-241, September 2015.
[3]
D. Kazmer, V. Kudchadkar, R. Nageri, Validation of Moulding Productivity with Two Self
Regulating Melt Presuure Valves, Plastics, Rubbers and Composites, vol. 33, pp. 446-451, 2004.
[4]
T. Lin, B. Chananda, Quality Improvement of an Injection-Molded Product Using Quality
engineering, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 99104, 200304
[5]
T. Chan, C. Huang et al. Material Saving and Product Quality Improvement with the Visualization of
Hot Runner Design in Injection Molding, International Journal of Precision Engineering and
Manufacturing, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1109-1112, June 2013.
[6]
Autronic Plastics Inc, Additional Resources, Glossary of Plastic Injection Molding Terms, available
a t :
h t t p : / / w w w . a p i s o l u t i o n . c o m
downloads/glossary_plastic_injection_molding_engineering_manufacturing, pp.17
[7]
J. Thirlwell, Seven Key Advantage of HRS, Mold Making Technology, pp.1-2, 2002.
[8]
Mitsubishi Engineering Plastics Corporation, Technical Service, available at http://www.mep.co.jp/en/pdf/product/novaduran/molding.pdf
[9]
T. Jachowicz, T. Garbacz et al. Investigation of Selected Properties of Injection-Molded Parts
Subjected to Natural aging, International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characteristics, 20:4, pp.
307315, 2015.
[10]
G. Gantar, A. Glojek, M. Mori et al. , Resource Efficient Injecction Moulding with Low
Environmental Impacts, Journal of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 59, pp. 193-200, 2013.

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Numerical Analysis of Forced Convection In


A Lid Driven Cavity With Different Heat
Source Locations Along the Bottom Wall
Divyaj Shah, Ketaki Godbole and C. M Sewatkar

Abstract-The lid driven cavity problem is a standard tool for investigations of heat and fluid flow problems.
Many researchers have studied the effects on heat transfer in a shear driven cavity with mixed convection. In the
present work an in-house code is developed to carry out the simulations for a lid driven cavity which is under
forced heat convection. The bottom wall is heated with various positions of heat location such as extreme left,
left middle, middle, right middle and extreme right. Remaining part of the bottom wall and all other walls are
thermally insulated. The vertical walls and the bottom wall have a no slip boundary condition. The top boundary
is moving at a constant velocity. A Finite Volume semi explicit method is employed to study the effects of
Prandtl number (Pr 0.71, 9.47 and 56) and Reynolds number 10 Re 400. It is observed that an increase in
Prandtl number greatly affects the heat transfer by decreasing the boundary layer thickness and thus increasing
the temperature gradient. An increase in Reynolds number changes the flow field by creating a secondary
vortex in the bottom rightcorner of the cavity. By moving the heat source from left to right the effect of
temperature on the flow is studied and it is observed that a single isothermal cell is formed near the right wall
and as the heat source is moved towards the right, the flow field influences the formation of the isothermal cell.
Keywords-Finite volume method, semi explicit method, Lid driven cavity, forced convection
1. NOMENCLATURE
A Surface area (m2)
K Thermal Conductivity (W/mK)
L Cavity side lengthPrPrandtl number
Re Reynolds number
T Temperature (K)
U,V Dimensionless velocities in x and y direction
Q Heat flux (W/m2)
x, y Cartesian coordinates (m)
X, Y
Dimensionless Cartesian coordinates

Divyaj Shah
Mechanical Department, College of Engineering, Pune, 232/3 Armamnet Estate, Necklace area, Pashan, Pune 411021, divyajshah28@gmail.com
Ketaki Godbole
Mechanical Department, College of Engineering, Pune, 79, Saikripa society, Dhankawadi, Pune -411043,
ktkgodbole.kg@gmail.com
C.M Sewatkar
Mechanical Department, College Engineering, Pune,
cms.mech@coep.ac.in Divyaj Shah; Tel: +91 99753 12842
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Greek Symbols
Step size
Dimensionless temperature
Kinematic viscosity (m2/s)
2. Introduction
Lid-driven cavity flow of Newtonian fluids is one of the most well-known problems in the Computational Fluid
Dynamics.
Many applications involving heat transfer have been studied with the help of the lid driven cavity flow problem.
This finds its use in the applications such as geothermal systems, lubrication technologies, turbine nozzles,
chemical processes, solar energy system, nuclear reactors [1-4]. Mixed convection heat transfer in a cavity with
thermal sources were studied in a series of papers by Papanicolaou and Jaluria [5]. These papers aimed at
analyzing effect of Richardson and Reynolds number in the range 0-10 and 50-2000 respectively. It was
observed that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase in Richardson number at fixed Reynolds
number. Hsu and Wang [6] carried out a numerical study on mixed convection in a cavity with discrete heat
sources placed along the bottom wall. It was observed that highest temperature gradients were located near the
heat sources. An increase in Reynolds number at fixed Richardson number showed an increase in heat transfer
rate. Przemyslaw and Piotr [7] observed that Prandtl number does not have an impact on flow field patterns but
strongly influences temperature field and heat transfer.
Previous researchers have focused at the solution of this problem with uniform heat flux throughout the bottom
wall. The present study focuses on the solution of forced convection with heat flux at different sections along
the bottom wall.
3. The Problem Description
Figure 1 shows the computational domain for two-dimensional flow in a lid driven cavity with forced
convection heat transfer. Fluid is treated as Newtonian and incompressible. The radiation heat transfer effects
are neglected.
The transient governing equations for the fluid flow and heat transfer are the continuity, momentum and energy
equation. These equations in the non-dimensional form are presented below.

Where U and V are the dimensionless velocities in the X and Y directions respectively. P is the dimensionless
pressure and is the dimensionless temperature. The non-dimensional variables and non-dimensional
parameters are as described below:

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Numerical Analysis of Forced Convection in A Lid......


Where L is the characteristic length and Ut is the characteristic velocity. The thermo-physical properties in the
above equation are kinematic viscosity ( ) and thermal diffusivity ().
These equations are solved using the boundary conditions such that the top lid moves with a constant velocity U
from left to right and is thermally insulated. The other walls are assigned no slip boundary conditions and are
thermally insulted as well. The fluid is constantly heated through bottom wall which is divided into 5 sections
such as Extreme Left (EL), Left Middle (LM), Middle (M), Right Middle (RM) and Extreme Right (ER) with
heat flux (Q) acting through one section each time in different cases. The remaining part of the wall is insulated.
The simulations are carried out for Pr = 0.71, 9.54, 56 and Re = 10, 100, 400. The Pr values considered
correspond to air, water and industrial aniline.
Top wall:

4. Numerical Details
The set of governing equations were discretized and solved by a finite volume semi explicit method [8]. A
MATLAB code is developed to solve the momentum and energy equations. The momentum equation is solved
in a two-step process in which an internal pressure correction loop is implemented to satisfy the continuity
equation. The converged values of pressure are further used to calculate the correction velocities. These
velocities are then added to the predicted velocities which are run to a specific convergence criterion.
The gird size used for the simulation is 101 x 101. The corresponding time step is in the range of 0.001<<0.004
as satisfied by the CourantFriedrichsLewy (CFL) criterion. The convected variable at the center of each

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control volume face is calculated by using QUICK (Quadratic Upwind Interpolation for convective
kinematics) scheme.
The code is validated against the results reported by Przemysaw Basiak1 and Piotr Kolasinski1 [7]. The case
considered was a uniformly heated bottom wall with the upper lid moving. Excellent agreement is noticed and
the comparison of plots for streamlines and isotherms showed one to one correspondence. The results for Re =
100 and Pr = 0.71 are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Comparison of results for Re = 100 and Pr = 0.71


5. Results And Discussion
In the present study, streamlines and isotherms are presented to understand the effect of Reynolds and Prandtl
numbers on fluid flow and hear transfer for each of the five sections of the bottom wall.
5.1 Effect of fixed Prandtl number
The results for fixed Prandtl number (Pr=9.47) and 10 Re 400 for the heat source acting through EL are
shown in Figures 3 & 4. It is observed that an increase in Reynolds number affects the flow field such that the
primary vortex is observed to move towards the right with an increase in Reynolds number. The nature of
streamlines and isotherms is different at low Reynolds number. However, the contours show similar patterns at
higher values of Reynolds number as shown in Figure 4.
5.2 Effect of fixed Reynolds number
The streamlines and isotherms for Re=100 and 0.71 Pr 56 are shown in Figures 5 and 6 for the heat flux
acting through EL. The streamlines are observed to follow the same pattern for different values of Prandtl
number as seen in Figure 5. The isotherms, on the other hand are observed to be influenced by the change in
Prandtl number. It is thus clear that Prandtl number does not affect the flow field much but affects the heat
transfer. For Prandtl number 0.71, the temperature contours occupy the domain of the grid space evenly but this
occupied space reduces as the Prandtl number increases. With an increase in Prandtl number, the thickness of
the boundary layer is observed to decrease. Consequently, the temperature gradient near the boundary increases
with a decrease in thermal boundary layer.

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Numerical Analysis of Forced Convection in A Lid......

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Figure 3: Comparison of streamlines for Reynolds


number 10, 100 and 400 and Prandtl number 9.47

Figure 4: Comparison of Isotherms for Reynolds number


10, 100 and 400 and Prandtl number 9.47

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Figure 5: Comparison of streamlines for


Prandtl number 0.71, 9.47 and 56 and Reynolds
number 100

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Figure 6: Comparison of isotherms for Prandtl


number 0.71, 9.47 and 56 and Reynolds number 100

Numerical Analysis of Forced Convection in A Lid......


5.3 Effect of change in location of heat source
The streamlines and isotherms are also studied for a fixed value of Reynolds and Prandtl number by varying the
position of heat source along the bottom wall. From Figure 8 it is observed that the streamlines are independent
of the application of the heat source for fixed Reynolds and Prandtl number in forced convection. Figure 7
shows the comparison for isotherms for the same case. When the heat source is placed at the left most section
(EL), the fluid which flows in the clockwise direction experiences colder fluid first and then interacts with the
hot fluid. As the heat source is moved towards the right side, the fluid flowing carries hot fluid to the left
uniformly. A small isothermal cell is seen to be formed near the right wall when the heat source is moved
towards the right. This formation is influenced by the flow field moving in the clockwise direction.

Figure 7: Comparison of isotherms for different locations of heat source for Re = 100 and Pr = 0.71

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Figure 8: Comparison of streamlines for different locations of heat source with Re = 100 and Pr = 0.71

6. Conclusion:
The results for the numerical simulations are presented and studied for fluid flow and heat transfer in an
insulated lid driven cavity with the heat source placed at different locations along the bottom wall. It is noticed

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that with an increase in Prandtl number the boundary layer thickness decreases and the temperature gradient
increases at the boundaries. An increase in Reynold number causes the streamline patterns to change and move
the primary vortex toward the right. A secondary vortex is seen to be formed at the right bottom corner with an
increase in Reynolds number. Further, by moving heat source along the bottom wall, the streamlines show the
similar pattern; however, single isothermal cell is seen to be formed near the right wall as the heat source is
moved from left to right. As the heat source moves towards the right, the flow field influences the formation of
the isothermal cell.
References
1.
J.R. Koseff, A.K. Prasad, The lid-driven cavityflow: a synthesis of quantitative and qualitative
observations, ASME J. Fluids Eng. 106 (1984) 390398.
2.
M. Morzinski, C.O. Popiel, Laminar heat transfer in a two-dimensional cavity covered by a moving
wall, Numer. Heat Transfer 12 (1988) 265273.
3.
Shankar P, Despande DE (2000) Fluid mechanics in the driven cavity. Annu Rev Fluid Mech
32:93136 4.
4.
Bruneau CH, Saad M (2006) The 2d lid-driven cavity problem revisited. Comput Fluids 35:326348
5.
Papanicolaou E, Jaluria Y (1991) Mixed convection from an isolated heat source in a rectangular
enclosure. Numer Heat Transf Part A 18:427461
6.
Hsu TH, Wang SG (2000) Mixed convection in a rectangular enclosure with discrete heat sources.
Numer Heat Transf Part A 38:627652
7.
Przemysaw Basiak1 Piotr Kolasinski1(2015) Modelling of the mixed convection in a lid-driven
cavity with a constant heat flux boundary condition
8.
Atul Sharma and V. Eswaran, A Finite Volume Method, Chapter12, pp. 445-482: Computational Fluid
Flow and Heat Transfer, Edited by K. Muralidhar and T. Sundararajan, Narosa Publishing House, New
Delhi, India and Alpha Science, UK, 2nd Revised Edition, 2003.

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Application of Design of Experiment Technique


For Optimization of Machining Process
Parameters: A Review
Lalit Kumar Sharma

Abstract- Turning is an important machining operation which is widely used in industrial applications. It is
important to study turning process at different cutting parameters in order to find out the optimum solution for any
particular material. Various studies have been carried out on the same for different materials at various parameters in
the past. Machining parameters which affects the output parameters are cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, work
material, temperature conditions, etc. that has a great impact and same can be adopted as input parameters for the
study. Surface finish, material removal rate, cutting time, etc can be selected as the output parameters. If surface
finish and material removal rate is to be selected then material removal rate must be high and surface finish to be
minimum possible so 'Large the best' and 'Small the best' is chosen respectively for best results. In order to optimize
the output response design of experiment techniques such as S/N ratio, ANOVA, Taguchi methodology, fuzzy logic,
etc. can be used. Outcomes of study will help user to identify the best and worst results from the set of data available.
Keywords- CNC Turning, Design of experiment, Optimization, Input parameters, Output parameters

ntroduction The turning operation is one of the most basic machining processes in which a single point cutting
tool is moved parallel to the axis of rotation. It is a machining process in which a non rotary cutting tool removes
the materials from a work piece by moving and work piece rotates. The axes tool movement may be literally a
straight line along some set of curves or angles but they are essentially linear. Some essential cutting action when
applied to internal surfaces like holes is called boring. The cutting of the faces on the work piece whether with a
turning or boring tool is called facing.There are three primary factors in any basic turning operation are speed, feed
rate and depth of cut. The other factors like types of materials and types of tools have a large influence but these three
are those in which operator can change by adjusting the control at the machine tools. All the parameter is shown in fig.

Figure 1. Turning Operation


The turning is one of the metal cutting operations which is widely used manufacturing technique in the
industries and there are various studies done to investigate the complex process in industrial field as well as
academic field. The metal cutting process represent the large class of manufacturing operation where turning
Lalit Kumar Sharma
Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mechanical and Automation Engg, Northern India Engg. College, New Delhi
Email: lalitsharma_89@yahoo.com,
Corresponding Author; Tel: +91 9625218135
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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process is the most commonly used in material removal process. Turning can be done in a traditional form of
lathe which frequently requires continuous supervision by using an automated lathe. Today the most common
type of such automation is computer numerical control. The turning processes are carried out on a lathe
machine that is considered to be the oldest machine tools. There are various types of turning process like
straight turning, taper turning, profiling and external grooving. These types of turning process produces various
shapes of materials like straight, conical, curved and grooved work piece. Generally turning process uses single
point cutting tools and each group of work piece materials has an optimum set of tools angles.
2. Design of Experiment
An experiment is a systematic approach carried out in order to find out unknown effects under controlled
environment to establish relation and for illustration of the known effect. For the analysis of a process
experiments are carried out which have significant inputs and have impact on output of process. Finally best
results can be found. Many different ways are there for experiment design in order to collect information.
Design of experiment techniques are used for the same. DOE are also referred as designed experiment or
experiment design.
Design of experiment reduce the design of costs by speeding up the process of design, reduces engineering
design changes, reduces product material and complexity of labor. It is a powerful tool of cost saving by
minimizing variation of process, reduces rework, scrap and need of inspection
3. Literature Review
Biswajit Das et al. [1] used artificial neural network and Taguchi technique to find out cutting parameters
effects on surface finish. Study was carried out on Al- Cu-TiC MMCs. Experiments were performed on
'FLEXTURN SIEMENS 802D' CNC Lathe machine. Input cutting parameters were cutting speed, feed rate
and depth of cut. Experiments were carried out in dry mode and for the measurement of surface finish 3D
profilometer was used. It was concluded from the analysis that ANN helps in finding the surface finish for non
linear relationship between input and output parameters. It was observed that surface roughness prediction
established successfully.
A.Srithar et al. [2] studied the impact of process parameter variations on surface roughness. Study was
performed on AISI D2 steel with coated carbide insert. Machining parameters selected were cutting speed, feed
and depth of cut. Roughness was measured by Surtronic 3+ stylus-type instrument. It was concluded that feed
rate is the main factor responsible for the surface roughness. Also surface roughness decreases with the gradual
increase in cutting speed and gradual increase in feed rate & depth of cut increases surface roughness.
Arshad Noor Siddiquee et al. [3] optimized deep drilling process parameters by Taguchi technique. The
objective of the experiment was to minimize surface finish of AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel. Experiments
were performed on CNC lathe machine (Make: Jyoti; Model: DX 150) with solid carbide cutting tool. Cutting
fluid, speed, feed and hole-depth were cutting parameters. Taguchi L18 orthogonal array was used for
experiments. For measuring machining parameters significance signal to noise ratio and ANOVA analysis was
carried out. Hocut 795-H which is water soluble mineral oil was used as cutting fluid. Taylor-Hobson SurfCom
instrument was used to measure surface finish. It was concluded from the experiments that cutting speed had
maximum contribution followed by cutting fluid, feed and hole depth for surface roughness.
C.J.Rao et al. [4] analyzed tool life and found optimized process parameters for turning operation. Experiments
were performed on several aluminium workpieces with the help of CNC MTAB CNC with Fanuc controller.
Tungsten carbide cutting tool was used for the cutting operation. Process parameters selected were Speed, Feed
& Depth of cut and output response was tool life. MATLAB was also used for finding optimum results. From
experiments it was concluded that as the cutting force, cutting speed and material removal rate increases tool
life decreases.
D.V. Srikanth et al. [5] investigated the effects on material removal rate in Abrasive jet drilling of Glass Sheets.
Process parameters selected were Pressure, Stand of Distance, Nozzle diameter, and abrasive flow rate.
Tungsten carbide was used for jet nozzle. Taguchi and ANOVA analysis were used for optimization and
optimized responses were tabulated.
Hari Vasudevan et al. [6] investigated the effect of hybrid multi objective optimization algorithm involving
grey and fuzzy coupled with Taguchi methodology on process parameters. Process parameters selected were

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Application of Design of Experiment Technique.........


cutting tool nose radius, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Output parameters were Surface roughness,
tangential cutting force and material removal rate. Experiments were performed on GFRP/Epoxy composites
by using PCD cutting tool. Machine used was Ace Jobber XL CNC lathe machine. For roughness, tangential
cutting force & MRR measurement Taylor Hobson Talysurf-5 surface roughness tester, Kistler piezo electric
dynamometer and by measuring weight before and after the operation & machining time respectively were
used. By Taguchi technique multi-response optimization problem was converted into an equivalent single
objective optimization problem. It was concluded that the used approach was robust finish turning process for
GFRP/Epoxy composites.
Hitesh Patel et al. [7] studied various research papers and the effect of process parameters on the surface
roughness. Now they have chosen AISI D2 tool steel material and gray relational analysis technique for
optimization. They want to study the variation of process parameters on surface roughness and material
removal rate. For experimental work process parameters selected were speed, feed and depth of cut.
Ivana eskov et al. [8] investigated the importance of cutting tool geometry. They studied the radius of the
cutting edge, K factor and roughness. Cutting edge was evaluated by IFM G4 device. It was concluded that
cutting edge has great influence on tool life, forces and temperature load.
A Mahamani [9] studied the influence of process parameters on surface roughness and cutting force in turning.
Experiments were carried out on AA2219-TiB2/ZrB2 in-situ metal composites. Turn master-35 lathe machine
was used for experimental work with uncoated tungsten carbide insert in dry working condition. Machining
parameters selected were cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Taguchi method and dynoware software was
used for optimization and cutting force measurement respectively. Response graph and analysis of variance
techniques were used for effects measurement. Response analysis results showed that feed rate had great
impact on surface finish and cutting force. Also ANOVA showed percentage contribution of parameters. Depth
of cut had little influence as compared to cutting speed.
P. Jayaraman et al. [10] studied the effects of machining parameters on the surface response and optimized
multi response parameters in turning operation. Experiments were performed on AA 6063 T6 aluminium alloy.
Uncoated carbide insert was used for the turning operation and operation was carried out in dry condition. Input
parameters selected were cutting speed, feed rate & depth of cut and output parameters were surface roughness,
roundness & material removal rate. Machining was done on CNC lathe. Grey relational grade, ANOVA and
Taguchi parameter design techniques were used for optimized result determination. Surfcorder SE 1200,
Surface profilometer was used for the measurement of surface roughness. From analysis it was concluded that
feed rate influenced the output to a great extent followed by depth of cut and cutting speed.
R.Ramanujam et al. [11] analyzed and optimized machining parameters in dry turning operation. Inconel 625
was used as a work material. Principal component function which is based on fuzzy along with Taguchi
technique was used for the optimization of process parameters. Cutting speed, feed rate & depth of cut were the
input parameters and surface roughness, power consumption & material removal rate were the output
parameters. Analysis was done on Minitab software and feed rate was identified as the most influencing factor.
Satish Chinchanikar et al. [12] studied temperature of chip tool interface. PVD and CVD coated tool were used
for the study. Experiments were performed on HMT centre lathe in dry condition. Input parameters selected
were cutting speed, feed rate & depth of cut and output response was interface temperature. Tool-work
thermocouple principle was used for interface temperature measurement. For experiment hardened AISI 4340
steel was used as work material. It was concluded that interface temperature of CVD coated tool was higher.
PVD cutting tools are more sensitive for cutting conditions and cutting speed is main influencing factor
followed by feed rate. Depth of cut had minor impact in the study.
Sayak Mukherjee et al. [13] studied the effects of cutting parameters on material removal rate and optimized
the results by Taguchi technique. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were selected process parameters for
the experiments. Experiments were performed on EMCO Concept Turn 105 CNC lathe and carbide tool was
used. Mild steel SAE 1020 was workpiece material. To maximize MRR was the objective of the experiments.
Total 25 experiments were carried out and calculations were carried out on Minitab software. It was concluded
from the analysis that most significant factor of MRR was depth of cut followed by feed. Within the studied
range it was observed as depth of cut increases, MRR also increases. Also cutting speed had very little effect.
Surendra Kumar Saini et al. [14] optimized the multi objective response by using Taguchi-Fuzzy Application.
Experiments were carried out on Aluminum alloy 8011 with carbide insert. Cutting Speed, Feed & Depth of Cut

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and material removal rate & surface roughness were selected as process input parameters and output
parameters respectively. CNC Turn 250 CNC machine was used for the turning operations. Digital surface
tester (Taylor-Hobson, Surtronic 3plus instrument) and digital weighing machine was used for surface
roughness and MRR measurement respectively. Full factorial design of experiment technique was used for
input parameters and levels. It was concluded that feed was the most significant parameter followed by depth of
cut and spindle speed for surface roughness while depth of cut effects material removal rate followed by feed
and spindle speed.
Varaprasad.Bh et al. [15] studied impact of various process parameters on tool wear. AISI D3 hardened steel
was used as work material for experimental work. Operations were performed on Turn Master-35 lathe
machine and Al2O3/TiC mixed ceramic cutting tool was used. Cutting speed, feed rate & depth of cut were
input parameters and tool wear was the output response. Response Surface Methodology helped to develop
different models and Analysis of Variance technique was used for the analysis of developed models. Tool flank
wear was measured by a tool maker's microscope and surface response analysis was carried out with the help of
Minitab software. Analysis resulted depth of cut as most significant factor for tool wear. Also feed and cutting
speed had little impact.
Doriana M. D'Addona et al. [16] optimized machining cutting parameters to obtain the desired results. Genetic
algorithm was used to find out the optimum solution. Study was carried out to get the best production time by
considering factors tool life, number of passes, cutting forces, power consumption, stable cutting region,
surface finish, finishing and roughing relationship and temperature of chip tool interface. Experiments were
performed on NC lathe machine with HSS cutting tool. Cast steel blank was used as a work piece material. All
readings were taken within allowable limits due to machining limitations. Matlab's GA toolbox was used for
genetic algorithm generation. From the experiments it was concluded that GA methodology given optimized
results by considering various material and machining constraints. It also helps in finding suitable solution
taking less time.
E. Garca-Plaza et al. [17] performed experiments and used Artificial Neural Network & Multiple Regression
Methods for online monitoring of surface roughness. The workpieces were machined on a numerical control
lathe Goratu GCRONO 4S with Sandvik insert. Total 64 workpieces were machined on the CNC in order to
carry out the study. Cutting speed, feed and cutting depth were the machining parameters. Standard stainless
steel AISI 1045 was used as a workpiece material. Three sensors: a triaxial dynamometer, a triaxial
accelerometer and a piezotron were used to monitor cutting forces, machine vibration, and acoustic emission
respectively for surface finish monitoring. Surface roughness profilometer Hommel Tester T-500 was used for
measurement of surface finish. Results showed that Cutting force signals were the most significant for surface
roughness. Machine vibration and acoustic emission signals had not much influence on surface roughness.
Regression models involve less economic and computational cost in comparison to ANN but ANN provides
precise prediction for data validation.
Senthilkumar N et al. [18] studied the effects of cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, material hardness, cutting
insert shape, relief angle & nose radius on flank wear and surface finish. Taguchi DOE, ANN techniques were
used. Uncoated cemented carbide inserts having different included angle were used for machining the work
piece. Flank wear was measured by Mitutoyo digital tool maker's microscope and surface Surface roughness by
Surfcorder SE1200. The results obtained by the analysis shows that ANN the predicted values are closer to the
experimental observed values showing the supremacy of the system.
A. J. Makadia et al. [19] studied design of experiment methods which is helpful to find relation between factor
and generated responses for turning process of engineering products. Four process parameters were selected
for this study which is cutting speed (v), feed rate (f), depth of cut (d), and tool nose radius (r). Surface response
methodology was used to develop experiments for this study. Total 81 experiments were solved for study. CNC
lathe machine was used for carrying out the experiments. Main response for current study is surface roughness,
which was measured by Surf test model No. SJ-400 (Mitutoyo make). Quadratic regression equation shows
that the feed rate is the main factor followed by tool nose radius influences the surface roughness. The surface
roughness was found to increase with the increase in the feed and it decreased with increase in the tool nose
radius. Effect of surface roughness was studied by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). This test confirms that
feed rate is most critical factor for this study. Quadratic model is also developed using ANOVA modeling.
Parveen Kamboj et al. [20] studied the Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis for the optimization of

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Application of Design of Experiment Technique.........


machining process parameters. They reviewed many research papers and came to the conclusion that both the
methods are effective in order to solve any complex problem having multi performance characteristics.
R.A. Mahdavinejad et al. [21] investigated the effect on surface finish of turning using artificial neural
networks and fuzzy logic methods. Experiments were carried out on WEILER T07/LZ330 turning machine and
work piece material was steel. SN MGO 90204, SNMGO 90208 and SNMGO 90212 inserts were used and
surface roughness was measured with the help of Perthometer. It was concluded that surface finish improves by
increasing cutting speed. Surface finish value decreases with the depth of cut and feed rate.
Chen Lu [22] studied the effect of cutting parameters on the surface profile by RBF Neural network.
Experiments were carried out on CNC Lathe using carbide coated inserts in dry environment. Total 27
experiments were carried out on Stainless steel 304L in order to predict the surface response. Cutting speed,
feed and depth of cut were machining parameters with three levels. It was concluded that RBF Neural network
predict surface profile with accuracy, low cost and high speed.
Mr. John L. Yang et al. [23] studied the effect of process parameters on surface roughness. Experiments were
performed on VMC-40 vertical milling machine. Material used was 6061 Aluminium. Process parameters
selected for the study were depth of cur, cutting speed, feed rate and tool diameter. HSS end mill cutting tool
was used. Surface finish was measured by pocket Surf stylus type instrument. By using Taguchi and ANOVA
techniques it was concluded that these methods provides effective and efficient response for finding the
optimum surface finish. In addition to this reduction in defective parts and process variation can also be
achieved.
4. Conclusion
Based on the literature review following conclusions are made:
Input parameters which have major effects on output response can be identified. As seen in most of the cases
cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are chosen as input parameters.
Output responses can be selected as per requirement such as surface finish, material removal rate, machining
time, etc.
To optimize results suitable design of experiment technique can be employed such as Taguchi methodology,
Analysis of variance, Response surface methodology, etc.
Experiments can be performed on suitable material.
In addition to this graphical representation can be made to easily understand the variation of different
parameters.
References
[1]
Biswajit Das, Susmita Roy, R.N.Rai, S.C. Saha. Studies on effect of cutting parameters on surface
roughness of Al-. International Conference on Advanced Computing Technologies and Applications
(2015): 45 (2015) 745752.
[2]
A.Srithar, K.Palanikumar, B.Durgaprasad. Experimental Investigation and Surface roughness
Analysis on Hard turning of AISI D2 Steel using Coated Carbide Insert. Global Congress On
Manufacturing and Management (2014): 97(2014) 72 77.
[3]
Arshad Noor Siddiquee, Zahid A. Khan, Pankul Goel, Mukesh Kumar, Gaurav Agarwal, Noor Zaman
Khan. Optimization of Deep Drilling Process Parameters of AISI 321 Steel using Taguchi Method.
3rd International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterisation (2014): 6 (2014)
12171225.
[4]
C.J.Rao, D.Sreeamulu, Arun Tom Mathew. Analysis of Tool Life during Turning Operation by
Determining. Global Congress On Manufacturing and Management (2014): 97 (2014) 241250.
[5]
D.V. Srikanth, Dr. M. Sreenivasa Rao. Metal Removal and Kerf Analysis in Abrasive jet drilling of
Glass Sheets. International Conference on Materials Processing and Characterization (2014): 6
(2014) 1303 1311.
[6]
Hari Vasudevan, Naresh C.Deshpande, Ramesh R. Rajguru. Grey Fuzzy Multiobjective
Optimization of Process Parameters for CNC Turning of GFRP/Epoxy Composites. Global Congress
On Manufacturing and Management (2014): 97 (2014) 8594.

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[7]

[8]
[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]
[17]

[18]

[19]
[20]

[21]

[22]
[23]

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Lalit Kumar Sharma

Hitesh Patel, Jigar Patel, Chandresh Patel. A Review on Parametric Optimization of Surface
Roughness & Material Remove Rate of AISI D2 Steel Using Turning. Int. Journal of Engineering
Research and Applications (2014): Vol.4; 135-138.
Ivana eskov, Miroslav Zetek, Vojtch varc. Evaluation of Cutting Tool Parameters. DAAAM
International Symposium on Intelligent Manufacturing and Automation (2013): 69(2014) 11051114.
Mahamani, A. Influence of Process Parameters on Cutting Force and Surface Roughness During
Turning of AA2219-TiB2/ZrB2 In-situ Metal Matrix Composites. 3rd International Conference on
Materials Processing and Characterisation (2014): 6 (2014) 11781186.
P. Jayaraman, L. Mahesh kumar. Multi-response Optimization of Machining Parameters of Turning
AA6063 T6 Aluminium Alloy using Grey Relational Analysis in Taguchi Method. Global Congress
On Manufacturing and Management (2014): 97 (2014) 197204.
R.Ramanujam, K. Venkatesan, Vimal Saxena, Rachit Pandey, T. Harsha, Gurusharan Kumar.
Optimization of Machining Parameters Using Fuzzy Based Principal Component Analysis during dry
turning operation of Inconel 625 A hybrid approach. Global Congress On Manufacturing and
Management (2014): 97 (2014) 668676.
SatishChinchanikar, S.K. Choudhury. Evaluation of Chip-Tool Interface Temperature: Effect of Tool
Coating and Cutting Parameters during Turning Hardened AISI 4340 Steel. International Conference
on Materials Processing and Characterisation (2014): 6 (2014) 9961005.
Sayak Mukherjee, Anurag Kamal, Kaushik Kumar. Optimization of Material Removal Rate During
Turning of SAE 1020 Material in CNC Lathe using Taguchi Technique. Global Congress On
Manufacturing and Management (2014): 97 (2014) 2935.
Surendra Kumar Saini, Sharad Kumar Pradhan. Optimization of Multi-Objective Response during
CNC Turning using Taguchi-Fuzzy Application. Global Congress On Manufacturing and
Management (2014): 97 (2014) 141149.
Varaprasad.Bh, Srinivasa Rao.Ch, P.V. Vinay. Effect of Machining Parameters on Tool Wear in Hard
Turning of AISI D3 Steel. Global Congress On Manufacturing and Management (2014): 97 (2014)
338345.
Doriana M. D'Addona, Roberto Teti. Genetic algorithm-based optimization of cutting parameters.
Forty Sixth CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems (2013): 7 (2013) 323328.
E. Garca-Plaza, P.J. Nez, D.R. Salgado, I. Cambero, J.M. Herrera Olivenza, J. Garca SanzCalcedo. Surface Finish Monitoring in Taper Turning CNC Using Artificial Neural Network and
Multiple Regression Methods. The Manufacturing Engineering Society International Conference
(2013): 63 (2013) 599607.
Senthilkumar N, Tamizharasan T, Anandakrishnan, V. An ANN approach for predicting the cutting
inserts performances of different geometries in hard turning. Advances in Production Engineering &
Management Journal (2013): Volume 8; 231241.
Ashvin J. Makadia, J.I. Nanavati. Optimisation of machining parameters for turning operations based
on response surface methodology. Measurement (2012): 46 (2013) 15211529.
Parveen Kamboj, Sunil Kumar and Kamal Jangra. Application of Taguchi Method and Grey
Relational Analysis in Optimization of Machining Processes: a Review. Proceedings of the National
Conference on Trends and Advances in Mechanical Engineering (2012) 471-475.
R.A. Mahdavinejad, H. Sharifi Bidgoli. Optimization of surface roughness parameters in dry
turning. Journal of achievements in materials and manufacturing engineering (2009): 37/2 (2009)
571-577.
Lu, Chen. Study on prediction of surface quality. Journal of materials processing technology
(2007): 205 (2008) 439450.
Mr. John L. Yang, Dr. Joseph C. Chen. A Systematic Approach for Identifying Optimum Surface
Roughness Performance in End-Milling Operations. Journal of Industrial Technology (2001):
Volume 17, Number 2 1-8.

RAME-2016
Oct. 14 & 15.

An Empirical Study on application of


Information and Communication Tools
(ICT) in Indian SMEs
Ravinder Kumar, Udit Kukreja and Sahil Joshi

Abstract-The purpose of this research paper is to study the application of Information & Communication tools
(ICT) in Indian SMEs of different sectors. Paper aims to analyze the areas where such technologies are used
and the problems faced by the SMEs. For collecting data, a question-based survey was conducted. 148 valid
responses were received in total. Data received from survey has been analyzed using statistical tools like T-test
and reliability test . Emails, Websites, Electronic fund transfer (EFT) and Social Messaging Software are the
main IC tools used in SMEs. Customer care and services, internal communication, Material handling and
procurement and Enhancing manufacturing capability are the most effective areas where ICT are currently
being used. Scale of operation, Top management unwillingness and Lack of professionals are the main
problems occurring in ICT implementation & usage.
Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises, Information and Communication Tools, India

ntroduction Indian Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) have emerged as a highly vibrant and dynamic
sector of the Indian economy over the last five decades. SMEs not only play crucial role in providing large
employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital cost than large industries but also help in
industrialization of Indian rural areas. SMEs are complementary to large industries as ancillary units and this
sector contributes enormously to the socio-economic development of the country. The Sector consists of 36
million units, as of today, provides employment to over 80 million persons. The Sector through more than 6,000
products contributes about 8% to GDP besides 45% to the total manufacturing output and 40% to the exports
from the country. They contribute about 42 million in employment, create one million jobs every year and
produces more than 8000 quality products for the Indian and international markets [15].
However, despite their high enthusiasm and inherent capabilities to grow, SMEs in India are also facing a
number of problems. To survive with such issues and compete with large and global enterprises, Indian SMEs
need to adopt innovative approaches in their operations and ICT tools are certainly the way forward. [8]
Observed that supplier selection and evaluation, involvement of customers in decision making and use of IT for
different tools has significant impact on business performance of Indian SMEs.
The remaining part of the paper is organized as follow. Section 2 discusses the literature review. Section 3
discusses the research methodology. Section 4 discusses the observations & finding from the questionnaire
based survey on Indian SMEs. Finally the concluding remarks & implications are presented in Section 5.

Ravinder Kumar
Associate Professor, Amity University, Noida-201313

Udit Kukreja
Student, IIM, Shillong, India; E-mail: udit6310@gmail.com,
Sahil Joshi
Student, MAIT, Delhi-86; Email: sahiljoshi93@gmail.com
Corresponding Author; Tel:+91 9869387251, E-mail: ravinderkumar.ap@gmail.com
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
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2. Literature Review
Information technology (IT) and information system (IS) adoption has been defined in many different ways
depending on the research model being used. [7] Observed that the characteristics of the firm and industry
sector have an effect on the adoption and use of ICTs to support business processes. There have been research
studies for identifying the inhibitors and promoters for implementation of ICTs in SMEs.
As SMEs are strategic allies of large companies, they are supposed to be efficiently using electronic data
interchange [2]. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Supply Chain Management (SCM) software have
been used by large corporations for a long time. However, SMEs have been shown to use these applications
independently and not in an integrated manner which makes the entire process of acquiring and creating
explicit knowledge to be more complex for them [12]. [10] Observed that Indian SMEs faces problems in
supply chain like uncertainty of customer order/demand, insufficient knowledge of SCM and involvement of
middlemen. Most of these problems can be solved by using ICT tools and timely availability of information in
SC. [14] observed that, IT for management information and decision support had low priority and SCM/ERP
software had been used rarely in SMEs. [5] Observed that in Iranian SMEs, intranet and EDI are used more
intensely. SMEs adopting intranet, EDI, web sites, other SCM practices have significantly improved in terms of
annual sale. For Indian SMEs of auto sector, top management commitment, long-term vision for survival and
growth, devoted resources for supply chain and development of effective SCM strategy are the main critical
success factors of SC [9]. [1] Observed that, Iranian SMEs using ICTs like intranet, extranet, E-mails, intranet
and extranet, manages communication in better way both within and outside the company. Impact of ICT
application can be greatly observed in three and five years after ICT adoption. E-Procurement functionalities
especially those that rely on commonly available technologies, are used in New Zealand SMEs [6]. [8] Have
observed that interacting with customers, product design and development and interacting with suppliers are
the preferred area of IT implementation for Indian SMEs. Most of the organizations used e-procurement to
purchase goods than services. The use of complex e-procurement technologies such as e-auctions and e-tenders
was uncommon. [11] Observed that various type of IT tools such as bar-coding, EDI, intranet/extranet,
electronic payment, ASNs, own web sites, ERP/SCM software, automatic replenishment of basic goods, radio
frequency identification (RFID) technologies and E-commerce are required for making supply chain more
flexible.
3. Research Objectives and Methodology
The present study being an empirical study of Indian SMEs has its own importance for academia and industry
sector. To analyze the issues related with ICT practices, a survey instrument was developed. Survey has been
done among Indian SMEs (From October 2015 to March 2016) of different sector. All of SMEs were having
investment in plant and machinery as per guidelines in Indian context. Authors conducted a pilot survey of
about 20 organizations from different sectors for finalizing the questionnaire.
The methodology was based on a questionnaire survey done across various sectors using hard as well as soft
copy of the questionnaire. A structured, well-rehearsed questionnaire was designed via the feedback received
against an intermediate questionnaire. Two forms of the questionnaire were prepared- hard copy and soft copy
using Google Docs. The questionnaire contained three Parts A, B and C. Part A contained nine questions
pertaining to SMEs organization profile. This contains name of company, year of establishment, number of
Employees, number of professionals, total investment in plant & machinery, sector, main type of products
manufactured (Raw/Semi finished Etc.), level of use of products (Exports/End user etc.) and e-mail addresses;
Part B contained six questions related to ICT tools used, problems and advantages of their usage;
Part C contained six questions concerning to respondent's profile. This included their name, designation,
education, years of Experience and area of work but it was optional. It was then forwarded to 250 SMEs
operational in the area with at least three years for their feedbacks. The area chosen were four critical industrial
states and union territory of central India-Delhi, Haryana. Uttarakhand and Punjab. This ensured a wide
geographical and industrial pool of data ensuring more profound acceptability of the results. In this study,
executives were asked to rate the intensity of each attribute for their respective organisation on a five-point
Likert scale (1 lowest, 5 highest).
Out of 250 SMEs, 148 SMEs responded, thus the response rate is 59.2%. The SMEs participated in survey were
from different sectors such as plastic, auto, electronics, light Engg. Components, consumer durables,

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An Empirical Study on Application of Information......


Textile/Apparels, Agro- products and Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) sectors. The questionnaire
sought responses covering company profile, ICT practices and facilities, its inhibitors as well as promoters and
general view of SMEs towards ICT. The findings, therefore, should be considered exhaustive and as a
substantive proof of the current scenario and practices in Indian SMEs. SPSS 17 software has been used to
analyze the collected responses.
4. Observations & Findings
Inter-item analysis is used to check the scales for internal reliability of the study so conducted. Cronbach's
coefficient is calculated for each scale, as recommended for empirical research in operations management [4].
The coefficients of Cronbach's for all constructs were in range from 0.672 to 0.968. These values exceed the
minimum requirements of 0.5 for an exploratory study [13]. Data acquired from survey of Indian SMEs are
analyzed statistically in the following sections.
4.1 ICT Tools
On the basis of the extensive literature review and pilot survey, 15 ICT tools have been identified. These are
electronic fund transfer (EFT), social messaging software like Whats-App, bar coding, E-commerce, e-mails,
biometrics, websites, social media platforms, electronic data interchange (EDI), cloud computing, intranet,
enterprise resource planning(ERP), extranet, e-procurement and radio frequency identification (RFID).
Respondents were asked to indicate the degree of application of these tools on a Likert Scale of 5(1-lowest and
5-highest).
It is observed that E-mails (4.0317) is the most applicable ICT tool followed by EFT (3.619), Websites
(3.5556), Social Messaging Services (3.4286), Intranet (3.2857) and E-commerce (3.1746). With the increased
reach of mobile networks and broadband facilities in India, internet driven technologies are becoming the
obvious choice by SMEs. Social Messaging Services especially Whats-app and Ecommerce have allowed
SMEs to reach out to the buyers and suppliers across the globe. There are effective tools for customer service.
As observed by [14], Intranet is a popular IS technology among the Indian SMEs.
Tools of medium priorities are ERP/SCM (2.8095), Cloud Computing (2.6190), EDI (2.3968), Social Media
network like Face-book, Twitter Etc. (2.2381), and Biometrics (2.1111). ERP/SCM require high budget for
implementations and training. Cloud Computing is popular among SMEs which require data security and have
large volume of data. Tools of low priority are E-procurement (1.8889), RFID (1.6825), Extranet (1.5397) and
Bar coding (1.5079). These technologies require trained personnel or investment for its implementation and
thus are used rarely by Indian SMEs.
4.2 Use of ICT
SMEs were asked to rate the purpose of using ICT in different activities. Today SMEs in India, is facing
competitions not only from domestic markets but also from global competitors. The new competition is in
terms of reduced costs, improved quality, products with high performance, a wider range of products and better
service, all delivered simultaneously to enhance value to customer [3]. Thus, Customer Care and Service
(3.9655) is the most frequent usage of ICT followed by Internal Communication (3.9079), Enhancing
Manufacturing Capability (3.8965), Procurement and Purchasing (3.7462), Inventory handling and
Maintenance (3.5086), Quality and warranty management (3.4839) and Market Competition (3.1968).
However, Marketing and Promotion (2.7097), Forecasting and Planning (2.5806) and Cost Reduction (2.4839)
do not have significant usage of ICT tools.
4.3 Advantages of Information and Communication Tools
Based on the findings of literature review and conducted pilot survey, 15 ICT tools were identified. On the basis
of the literature review and pilot survey, 11 advantages were identified and the SMEs were required to scale
them on the Likert scale. Better capacity utilization (4.2839) has been found to be the biggest advantage of ICT
usage which is closely followed by Innovativeness (4.1903), Better communication with suppliers (4.0716)
and Stringent Quality Control (4.0586). These results are similar to the findings of [14] where the mentioned
advantages except innovativeness have got high priority. Advantages of medium priority are Competitive
Advantage (3.9023), Improved Customer Service (3.8174), Reduction in Product cycle time (3.4194) and

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Reduction in unit cost of the product (2.7964). However, increase in turnover and profits (2.251) and
Forecasting accuracy (1.6284) have the lowest priority since their usage according to the study was also very
low.
4.4 Problems Faced by SMEs using ICT
On the basis of the extensive literature review and pilot survey, 8 major problems were identified. These are
time requirement for implementation and personnel training, Resistance to change traditional practices, fear of
supply chain breakdown, scale of operation, top management unwillingness, lack of data security, lack of
qualified employees and lack of financial capacity. Respondents were asked to indicate the degree of
application of these tools on a Likert Scale of 5(1-lowest: 5- highest). It is observed that scale of operation of the
SMEs (4.1452) is the biggest obstruction to implementation of ICT tools in Indian SMEs. It is followed by lack
of qualified professionals (3.5645), top management unwillingness (3.4194), lack of data security (3.2258) and
resistance to change traditional practices (3.1452). Indian SMEs are conventionally run by families through
various generations and there is a complacency to modernize the working practices unless there is competitive
pressure. Time for training and implementation (2.8710) and Fear of supply chain breakdown (2.4677) cause
least problems towards ICTs usage.
5. Concluding Remarks & Implications
The objective of this study is find the application of Information & Communication tools (ICT), advantages of
using ICT and factors promoting and inhibiting the usage of ICT in Indian SMEs. The results show that SMEs
management is aware about the modern tools and their advantages. However, the Indian SMEs have a
traditional tendency to resist changes in existing systems which cause a hindrance to their overall growth. The
study shows that the IS systems used in large corporations do not suite the working of SMEs. Tools like RFID,
Extranet and SCM/ERP software are not very popular in SMEs. From the study some of the concluding
observations are as follows:

Preferred IT tools used by Indian SMEs are e-mail, website, intranet and ERP.

Preferred areas of IT applications are internal communication, material procurement & handling,
customer care and services, market competition.

Advantages of ICT application observed by Indian SMEs are stringent quality control, reduction in
product cycle time, improved customer services and better communication with suppliers.

Problem faced by SMEs in using ICT are resistance to change traditional practices, fear of supply chain
break down, knowledge among staff and scale of operation.
However, there is a common tendency to use tools that are using E-platforms. The government of India has been
focusing on rollout of internet services across regions which promote more internet backed ICT tools. As
evident from various comments by the respondents, the government should initiate action in collaboration with
the industrial chambers to promote use of other new technologies as well. They also require assistance in
training the employees to use the technologies and the government should focus on rollout of programs that
focus on skill training and updating workers about new technologies available in the market. In a highly
globalized era, the SMEs need to manufacture products with highest standards of quality and proper customer
service if they want an advantage of their competitors. SMEs need to invest more in research and development
to improve their product and services and it is evident from the research which points to the high advantage of
using ICT for innovation and stringent quality control measures.
This research aims to cover all the factors concerning the use of ICT tools with respect to Indian SMEs. Authors
have used holistic approach to the study and thus, the findings of the study have many crucial implications for
SMEs and academia. However, this research is limited to India and thus, other regions can be explored on
similar lines.
References
[1]
Bayo-Moriones, A., Billn, M. & Lera-Lpez, F., (2013), Perceived performance effects of ICT in
manufacturing SMEs, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol.113 No.1, pp. 117 - 135.
[2]
Blili, S. & Raymonds, L., (1993), Information technology: opportunities and threats for small and
medium sized enterprises, International Journal of Information Management,, Volume 13, pp. 439-

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An Empirical Study on Application of Information......


[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]

48.
Dangayach, G. & Deshmukh, S., (2000), Manufacturing strategy: experiences from select Indian
organizations, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Vol.19 No.2, pp. 134-148.
Flynn, B.B., Sakakibara, S., Schroeder, R.G., Bates, K.A. and Flynn, J.B. (1990), Empirical research
methods in operations management, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 250-284.
Ghobakhloo, M., Arias-Aranda, D. & Benitez-Amado, J., (2011), Adoption of e-commerce
applications in SMEs, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol.111 No.8, pp. 1238 - 1269.
Hassana, H., Tretiakovb, A., Whiddettb, D. & Adona, I., (2014), Extent of e-procurement use in
SMEs: A descriptive study, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol.164, pp.264 270.
Helen, S., Ronan, M. & O'Reilly, D., (2003), Understanding the implications of ICT adoption:
insights from SMEs, Logistics Information Management, Vol.16 No.5, pp. 312 - 326.
Kumar, R., Singh, R.K. and Shankar, R. (2016), Study on collaboration and information sharing
practices for SCM in Indian SMEs, International Journal of Business Information Systems, Vol.22
No.4, pp.455-475.
Kumar, R., Singh, R.K. and Shankar, R. (2015), Critical success factors for implementation of
Supply Chain Management in Indian SMEs and their impact on performance, IIMB Management
Review, Vol. 27 No.2, pp.92-104.
Kumar, R., Singh, R.K. and Shankar, R. (2014), Strategy development by Indian SMEs for improving
coordination in Supply chain: An Empirical study, Competitiveness Review, Vol. 24 No.5, pp. 414432.
Kumar, R., Singh, R. K., & Shankar, R. (2013), Study on coordination issues for flexibility in Supply
chain of SMEs: a case study, Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, Vol.14 No.2, pp. 8192.
Maguire, S., Koh, S. & Magrys, A., (2007), The adoption of e-business and knowledge management
in SMEs, Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol.14 No.1, pp. 37-58.
Nunnally, J., 1978. Psychometric Methods. New York, NY, McGraw-Hill.
Sharma, M. K. & Bhagwat, R., (2006), Practice of information systems, Journal of Manufacturing
Technology Management, Vol.17 No.2, pp. 199 - 223.
Small and Medium Development chamber of India, N.D. Small and Medium Development chamber of
India. [Online] Available at: http://www.smechamberofindia.com/ [Accessed 22 12 2015].

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Thermoeconomic Insulation for


Environmental Sustainability
Radhey Shyam Mishra

Abstract-In this paper, simple economic analysis has been carried out for several insulating materials (such as
cellular plastic, pearlite, corrugated asbestos, polyurethane rubber, styro-foam and rock-wool) with the
objective in terms of most economic thickness. The various costs of insulations have been computed using
explicit expressions & effect of various parameters i.e. thickness, heat transfer coefficients, temperature
difference, payback period , interest rate for cylindrical geometry of pipes on the costs have been explained. It
was observed that the most efficient and economic material comes to be cellular plastic of 0.031(W/m C)
thermal conductivity.
Keywords: Thermal Insulations Environmental Sustainability, Thermo-Economic Analysis

ntroduction For environmental sustainability, three main threats have been observed today in terms of the
climate change driven by man-made emissions of gases which is referred as Global warming and also
including the depletion of non-renewable resources along-with damage of the renewable resources and
ecosystems is known as the resource depletion & also the largely dealt with under the Montreal Protocol known
as the ozone depletion.
The ozone is also beneficial and harmful for mankind near the ground. The ozone forming is a result of
chemical reactions involving due to traffic pollution & solar light, which may cause a number of respiratory
problems. Although, in the stratosphere region, ozone is filtered out from incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation
from the Sun.
Without this ozone layer, life on earth would not have evolved in the way it has like an infection that grows more
and more, Due to man made mad activities , the ozone destruction is increasing along with area of the ozone
layer every day. The area of the ozone layer is also seasonally depleted of ozone is known as ozone hole
Resource depletion is also defined in economic term relating to the exhaustion of raw materials within the
region.
If these resources can be used of their beyond rate of replacement termed as considered as the resource
depletion. The most important resources among others resources is a fossil fuel. If these fossil fuels were to run
out now, there would not be a suitable replacement for them that are equally as efficient at producing the same
amount of energy.
Energy conservation is a cost-effective ways for reducing the energy consumption through existing and
improved technologies as well as through sound energy use practices is defined largely in terms of energy
efficiency technologies and practices which can therefore be playing a significant role in the reducing the
threat of global climate change. Therefore the judicious and effective use of renewable and non renewable
Radhey Shyam Mishra
Department Mechanical , Production & Industrial and Automobile Engineering
Delhi Technological University Delhi-110042 (INDIA)
Email :e-professor_rsmishra@yahoo.co.in,
Tel: +91-9891079311
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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energy for the optimizing (maximizing) the profits (minimize costs) for enhancing competitive positions.
Insulations are very important in the industrial & domestic applications.
because it is reducing the heat energy losses from the atmosphere or heat gain in the cryogenic applications for
conserving energy in terms of money saving through reducing the burden on energy resources & environment.
Mathematical modelling of thermal insulation has been carried to find the effect of various parameters such as
payback period, rate of interest, heat transfer co-efficient and temperature differences in the cost of insulation,
cost of heat losses and the total cost for a cylindrical surfaces and flat surfaces, it was observes that cellular
plastic gives better properties of insulation than other materials. Insulations are very important in industrial
applications & domestic use because it reduces heat losses to atmosphere or heat gain in cryogenic applications
for conserving Energy in terms of money saving by reducing burden on energy resources & environment. The
popular use of insulation is governed by economic considerations in terms of critical economic thickness. The
method for finding the economic thickness of insulation is progressed significantly. Many researchers have laid
down different methods of tackling thickness of insulation... M. Mc Chesney (1983) has calculated heat losses
and developed thermal models which can be used for determining thickness of insulation. They have not
considered if economic factors are not known so that heat losses considered without the fact that actual variable
market conditions. Rubin (1982) has calculated thickness of insulation as a function of pipe size, fuel costs,
pipe temperature based on wind speed of 12 km/hr with 15.5 degC ambient temperatures. Mishra (1984) has
studied the effect of insulating materials on solar cooker thermal performance experimentally and calculated
economic thickness theoretically by modifying running and inertial cost equations. In this paper, simple
economic analysis has been carried out for five insulating materials such as cellular plastic, pearlite, corrugated
asbestos, polyurethane rubber, styrofoam and rock-wool with the objective in terms of most economic
thickness. The various costs of insulations are also computed in terms of explicit expressions & effect of
various parameters i.e. thickness, heat transfer coefficients, temperature difference, payback period , interest
rate for cylindrical geometry of pipes on the costs have been explained. Insulations are very important in
industrial applications & domestic use because it reduces heat losses to atmosphere or heat gain in cryogenic
applications for conserving Energy in terms of money saving by reducing burden on energy resources &
environment. The popular use of insulation is governed by economic considerations in terms of critical
economic thickness .The various terms and quantities involved are as follows. . Length of pipe L, m, Outer
radius of the insulation= ro , m, Inner radius of the insulation ( this is the same as the outer radius of the pipe) ri
Thermal conductivity of insulation = Kc kcal/h m2oC). Film coefficient at the outer surface on the insulation = h0
(kcal/hrm2oC). Pipe wall temperature (which is equal to the temperature of the inner surface of the
insulation)=Ti (oC)
Ambient temperature = To (oC)
Cost of insulation = C' (Rs/m3)
Life of insulation = n years
Number of working day in year=300 days
(i.e. 7200 hours)
Cost of heat energy =CH (Rs/kcal)
Interest rate = I (Rs/year) (Rupees)
The inside heat transfer coefficient hi is assumed to be large.
If (ro-ri) is the insulation thickness and ho the outer surface heat transfer coefficient, the overall heat transfer
based on the inner radius of insulation can be expressed by following eq.(
) Ui= 1/((ri/Kc)*ln(ro/ri) +(ri/(ro*ho)))
The rate of heat losses per year
Q=2*(3.14)*ri*L Ui* (Ti-To) *24*300
=2*3.14*ri*L Ui*(Ti-To)*(7.2 X1000) Kcal
Cost of heat loss = Q CH )Rs/year)
If i is the fractional annual compound interest rate (compounded annually), the total present value of heat loss
P1 over the service life of the insulation ( n years) is given by
Pi= Q CH / (1+i) + Q CH / (1+i)2 +

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Thermoeconomic Insulation For Environmental Sustainability


Q CH / (1+i)3 +Q CH / (1+i)n
Volume of insulation applied 3.14( ro2-ri2) L (m3)
Present value of the insulation P2= 3.14*(ro2-ri2) L C' (Rs)
The total present value or cost from Eqs( ) and ( ) is
PT= Q CH / (1+i) + Q CH / (1+i)2 +
Q CH / (1+i)3 +Q CH / (1+i)n
3.14*(ro2-ri2) L C' (Rs)
The optimum insulation thickness is obtained by putting dCT/dRo = 0.
The development of a general expression for ro and therefore for the optimum insulation thickness (ro-ri) based
on the expression for PT given by Eq.( ) is cumbersome.
.In this paper, simple economic analysis has been carried out for sixteen insulating materials such as Paper
wood, cellotex, wood felt, Cork ,Mineral Fibre, Kapok Magnesia, Styrofoam Rook-wool Cement Polystyrene
foam Silica aero-gel Rubber Fibre glass Plywood with the objective in terms of most economic thickness. The
various costs of insulations have been computed using explicit expressions & effect of various parameters i.e.
thickness, heat transfer coefficients, temperature difference, payback period , interest rate for cylindrical
geometry of pipes on the costs have been explained. It was observed that the most efficient and economic
material comes to be cellular plastic of 0.031(W/m C) thermal conductivity. For increasing the thermal
conductivity, the total cost also increases as same value of temperature difference. For increase in payback
period, the total cost also increases linearly. Increase in the heat transfer co-efficient the total cost of insulation
first increases rapidly and stabiles for higher value of heat transfer co-efficient. Numerical computations was
carried out for sixteen different insulation materials for a given pipe internal radius of 0.05m to find out most
economic insulating materials.
2.

Results And Discussions

The most efficient economic material comes out to be cellular plastics. With increase in thermal conductivity
the cost of insulation decreases and cost of heat losses increases and hence total cost also increases. Increases in
interest rate leads to increases in total cost. For increase in heat transfer co-efficient , the total cost first increases
rapidly and stabilizes for higher values of heat transfer co-efficient. For increases in temperature differences the
total cost increase linearly. For increase in thermal conductivity the total cost also increases for same value of

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Radhey Shyam Mishra

temperature differences. For increase in payback period the total cost of insulation also increases linearly

160

Thermoeconomic Insulation For Environmental Sustainability

Fig-1(h) : Variation of various cost of


Insulation with thickness of Insulation
of paper-wood

Fig-1(k) : Variation of various cost


of Insulation with thickness of
Insulation of polystyrene

Fig-1(i) : Variation of various


cost of Insulation with thickness
of Insulation of cork

Fig-1(l) : Variation of various cost of


Insulation with thickness of Insulation
of pvc

Fig-1(j) : Variation of various cost


of Insulation with thickness of
Insulation of roockwool

Fig-1(m) : Variation of various cost of


Insulation with thickness of Insulation of pvc

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Fig-1(n) : Variation of various cost


of Insulation with thickness of
Insulation of Styrofoam

Fig-1 ( q): Variation of cost with


inner heat transfer coefficient
of Insulation for fibre glass

Fig-1(o) : Variation of various cost


of Insulation with thickness of
Insulation of silica aeroge

Fig-2 (a ): Variation of cost with


inner heat transfer coefficient of
kook Megnesia

Fig-1(p) : Variation of various cost of


Insulation with thickness of Insulation
of wood felt

162

Radhey Shyam Mishra

Fig-2 (b ): Variation of cost with inner


heat transfer coefficient of insulation
of plywood

Thermoeconomic Insulation For Environmental Sustainability

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Fig-2 (h ): Variation of cost with


inner heat transfer coefficient silic
a aeroge

Radhey Shyam Mishra

Fig-2 (i ): Variation of cost with


inner heat transfer coefficient of brick

3. Conclusions
The thermal analysis was done for the materials for sixteen different insulation materials for a given pipe
internal radius of 0.05m and numerical computation was carried out to find out most economics materials. The
following conclusions have been drawn:
1) The most efficient economic material comes out to be cellular plastic.
2) With increase in thermal conductivity the cost of insulation decreases and cost of heat losses increases and
hence total cost also increases.
3) Increases in interest rate leads to increases in total cost.
4) For increase in heat transfer co-efficient the total cost first increases rapidly and stabilizes for higher values
of heat transfer co-efficient.
5) For increases in temperature differences the total cost increase linearly.
6) For increase in thermal conductivity the total cost also increases for same value of temperature differences.
7) For increase in payback period the total cost of insulation also increases linearly

References:
[1]
Harrison MR (1977) Journal of chemical engineering . Vol. 84, page 61-63
[2]
Malloy, JF(1969); Thermal insulation, Van Nostrand - Rainhold, Newyork.
[3]
Mc Chesney, M (1981), Journal of chemical engineering Vol. 88,page 58-60
[4]
Mishra, RS (1983); Effect of rural insulation on solar cooker, proc. International conference on
renewable energy sources at Lahore (Pakistan) Page 391-399.
[5]
Mishra, RS (1984); Evaluation of solar cooker thermal performance using different rural low cost
insulating materials. International journal of Energy Research , John Wiley & Sons , NY, Vol 8 No.4,
page 393-397

164

RAME-2016
Oct. 14 & 15.

Thermo Economic Analysis and Optimization


of Thermal Insulations
R.S. Mishra

Abstract-In this paper, techno-economic analysis has been carried out for six insulating materials such as
cellular plastic, pearlite, corrugated asbestos, polyurethane rubber, styro-foam and rock-wool with the
objective in terms of most economic thickness. The various costs of insulations have been computed using
explicit expressions & effect of various parameters i.e. thickness, heat transfer coefficients, temperature
difference, payback period , interest rate for cylindrical geometry of pipes on the costs have been explained. The
numerical computation has been carried out for six insulating materials and It was observed that the most
efficient and economic material comes to be cellular plastic of 0.031(W/m C) thermal conductivity for
increasing the thermal conductivity, the total cost also increases as same value of temperature difference. For
increase in payback period, the total cost also increases linearly. Increase in the heat transfer co-efficient the
total cost of insulation first increases rapidly and stabiles for higher value of heat transfer co-efficient
Key Words: Critical Thickness, Thermo-economic analysis, Thermal insulation

ntroduction Insulations are very important in industrial applications & domestic use because it reduces
heat losses to atmosphere or heat gain in cryogenic applications for conserving Energy in terms of money
saving by reducing burden on energy resources & environment. The popular use of insulation is governed
by economic considerations in terms of critical economic thickness. The methods to find thickness of insulation
have progressed significantly. Many researchers have laid down different methods of tackling thickness of
insulation. M. Mc Chesney (1983) has calculated heat losses and developed economic models which can be
used for determining thickness of insulation. They have not considered if economic factors are not known so
that heat losses considered without the fact that actual variable market conditions. Rubin (1982) has calculated
thickness of insulation as a function of pipe size, fuel costs, and pipe temperature based on wind speed of 12
km/hr with 15.5oC ambient temperature. Mishra (1984) has studied the effect of insulating materials on solar
cooker thermal performance experimentally and calculated economic thickness theoretically by modifying
running and inertial cost equations.
In this paper, simple economic analysis has been carried out for six insulating materials such as cellular plastic,
pearlite, corrugated asbestos, polyurethane rubber, styrofoam and rock-wool with the objective in terms of most
economic thickness. The various costs of insulations have been computed using explicit expressions & effect of
various parameters i.e. thickness, heat transfer coefficients, temperature difference, payback period , interest
rate for cylindrical geometry of pipes on the costs have been explained.

R.S. Mishra
Department of Mechanical &Production & Industrial and Automobiles Engineering
Delhi Technological University (Delhi College of Engineering) Delhi-110042
Email: hod.mechanical.rsm@dtu.ac.in, Tel: +91-9891079311
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2. Analysis and Optimization of Thermal Insulation


Considering flat surfaces, the heat losses per square meter per year is given by the following expression:
Q = (T1-Ta) *Y / ((L/K)+R) watt/year .
Where
T1 = Temperature of surface without insulation(0C),
Ta =Ambient Temperature (0C),
L =Thickness of insulation(m,cm),
K = Thermal conductivity of insulation material (W/mK),
R =Thermal resistance of outer surface
of insulation (m2 K/W),
h0 =Heat Transfer coefficient of outer surface of insulation(W/m2 K),
Y = Hours of operation per year
Assuming M is the cost of heat losses (rupees per million watts), therefore, the cost of heat losses per year
per meter is expressed by the following equation:
M = Q*M/106 (Rs).
Substituting equation (1) in equation (2), one gets following equation:m=(T1-Ta) & Y*M / (106)(R+(L/K)) (Rs)...
(3)
The cost of insulation can be expressed as
n = 100B*L+C ...
(4).
Where,
C =Installation Cost which is fixed (in Rs) and
B =Cost of installed insulation per square m per cm length of insulation per year.
Therefore, the cost of insulation can be given by adding Eq(3) and Eq.(4) respectively i.e.:
Ct = P1+P2 = (T1-Ta)*Y*M/(106)(R+(L/K)) + 100*B*L + C
(6).
Assuming
A=y*(T1-Ta)*M/106.
Therefore, total cost of insulation can be expressed as
Ct = A*K/(L+(K*R)) + 100*B*L + C.. (7)
To get minimum value of above expression, one can differentiate equation (7) with respect to thickness.
i.e. dCt/dL = 0
and solving, one can get following expression:
dCt/dL = AK/((L+RK)(L+RK)) + 100B = 0.
One gets, AK=100B((L+RK)(L+RK) ..(8).
Rearranging (8), one can get quadratic equation in terms of L as follows
L2=2LRK+R2K2K AK/100B = 0. (9)
Solving equation 9, the economic thickness of insulation for flat surface becomes
L = (AK)1/2 / (100B)1/2 RK..
(10).
Similarly, heat losses per meter length of insulating cylinder can be expressed as
Q= 2*3.14(T1-Ta)/((1/K)*(ln (r2/r1)) +
(1/h0r2)) Watt/m ..(11).
Where
r1=Radius of inner surface of insulation (m),
r2=radius of outer surface of insulation (m).
The cost of heat losses per year per meter can be expressed by the following
P1 = [2*3.14(T1-Ta)/((1/K)*(ln (r2/r1)) + (1/h0r2))] *Y*M/106 (Rs/year)]
Where
R=1/h0
and

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P2= 2*3.14(r2*A*K)/(r2ln(r2/r1) + RK)
and A= y*(T1-Ta)*M/1000000.
The cost of insulation per liner metre per year can be expressed as
P2= 2*3.14*(r22-r1r2)*B + C
and
P2=2*3.14*r2*1] (r2-r1)*B + C.
Therefore, total cost per metre per year can be expressed as
Ct =P1+ P2
Ct = [*3.14*AK / ((r2 ln(r2/r1) + RK) + 2*3.14(r22-r1r2)*B + C] .
(13).
To get optimum value of r2, we differentiate eq. 13 with respect to r2 because inner dia of a cylinder is constant.
Differentiating eq. 13 one gets following expression:
dCt/dr2 = [2*3.14*(r2 ln(r2/r1)+RK)AK
r2AK* (1+ln(r2/r1))]/(r2ln(r2/r1)+RK)2
+2*3.14* (2r2-r1)B= 0
(14).
Rearranging equation (14), one gets following expression
[(2*3.14*(r2 ln(r2/r1) +RK)AK))/B]
[(r2AK(1+ln(r2/r1)))/B] + (2r2-r1)*(r2ln(r2/r1)) + RK)2 = 0
(15)
Solving Eq(15) and rearranging, one can get following transcendial Eq which was solved by trial and error
method.
(r2 ln(r2/r1) +RK)*(2r2-(r1/r2)-RK)1/2
= (Y(T1-Ta)BMK/106)1/2
(16).
The economic thickness of insulation is obtained by (r2_opt r1) in this paper by considering following 6
insulating materials such as Cellular plastic (K=0.031 W/m K), Perlite (K=0.06 W/m K), Corrugated Asbestos
(K=0.1 W/m K), Polyurethane rubber (k=0.15 W/m K), Polystyrene Styrofoam (K=0.263 W/m K), Rock Wool
(K=0.4 W/m K). Length of pipe = 1m, Temperature of inner surface = (172+273) K, Ambient temperature = 293
K. Heat transfer Coefficient 10.32 (W/m2 K), Cost of insulation 5540(Rs/m2), Payback period = 5 Years
(variable), cost of heat generation 0.001437 (Rs/kJ). The variation of total cost of insulations with rate of
interest has been presented in the tables. It was observed that increasing the rate of interest, the total cost of
insulation decreases significantly. For all insulating materials increasing heat transfer coefficient, the cost also
increases. Similarly, payback period also increases with the total cost. Similarly, by decreasing temperature
differences, the total cost of insulation also decreases significantly for a insulating materials. The thickness of
insulation increases, the total cost of insulation decreases, and optimum value of thickness of insulation has
been obtained.
3. Result And Discussions
Insulations are very important in industrial applications & domestic use because it reduces heat losses to
atmosphere or heat gain in cryogenic applications for conserving Energy in terms of money saving by reducing
burden on energy resources & environment. Numerical computation is carried out for six thermal insulation
materials for finding the effect of various parameters (such as payback period, rate of interest, heat transfer coefficient and temperature differences) in the cost of insulation, cost of heat losses and the total cost for a
cylindrical surfaces, it was observes that cellular plastic gives better properties of insulation than other
materials. It was observed that the most efficient and economic material comes to be cellular plastic of
0.031(W/m K) thermal conductivity.. For increasing the thermal conductivity, the total cost also increases as
same value of temperature difference. For increase in payback period, the total cost also increases linearly. The
Increase in the heat transfer co-efficient the total cost of insulation first increases rapidly and stabiles for higher
value of heat transfer co-efficient . The table-7 gives economic thickness of insulation with total economic
costs

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Table 1: Variation of cost with thickness of Pearlite insulation (K=0.06 W/mK)

Table 2: Variation of cost with thickness of Corrugated Asbestos insulation (K=0.10)W/mK)

Table 3: Variation of cost with thickness of Rockwool (K=0.04W/mK) insulation

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Thermo Economic Analysis and Optimization of Thermal Insulations

Table 4: Variation of cost with thickness of Polyurethane Rubber insulation ( K=0.015W/mK)

Table 5: Variation of cost with thickness of Cellular Plastic insulation ( K=0.031 W/mK)

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Table 6: Variation of cost with thickness of Styrofoam insulation ( K=0.263 W/mK)

Table-7: Optimum cost with optimum economic thickness of insulation materials

4. Conclusions And Recommendation


The thermal analysis was done for the materials for 6 different insulation materials for a given pipe internal
radius of 0.05m and numerical computation was carried out to find out most economics materials. The
following conclusions have been drawn:
1. The most efficient economic material comes out to be cellular plastic.
2. With increase in thermal conductivity the cost of insulation decreases and cost of heat losses
increases and hence total cost also increases.
3. Increases in interest rate leads to increases in total cost.
4. for increase in heat transfer co-efficient , the total cost first increases rapidly and stabilizes for higher
values of heat transfer co-efficient.
5. For increases in temperature differences the total cost increase linearly.
6. For increase in thermal conductivity the total cost also increases for same value of temperature
differences.
7. For increase in payback period the total cost of insulation also increases linearly.

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Thermo Economic Analysis and Optimization of Thermal Insulations

References:
[1] Harrison MR (1977) Journal of chemical engineering . Vol. 84, page 61-63
[2] Malloy, JF(1969); Thermal insulation, Van Nostrand - Rainhold, Newyork.
[3] Mc Chesney, M (1981), Journal of chemical engineering Vol. 88,page 58-60
[4] Mishra, RS (1983); Effect of rural insulation on solar cooker, proc. International conference on
renewable energy sources at Lahore (Pakistan) Page 391-399.
[5] Mishra, RS (1984); Evaluation of solar cooker thermal performance using different rural low cost
insulating materials. International journal of energy research ,Vol 8 No.4, page 393-397

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Performance Analysis of Biogas Run


Dual- Fueled Diesel Engine
S. Lalhriatpuia, Kunal Kumar Bose and Diwakar Gurung

Abstract
In this work a systematic experimental investigation is carried out for the performance of the biogas run
compression ignition diesel engine in dual fuel mode. Many Experiments were conducted in a modified engine
test unit to run biogas under dual fuel operations. For an equal power output from each of the diesel and dual
fuel engine operation, the performance results were evaluated. This type of comparison approach can decide
the feasibility of a dual fuel engine usage in place of a conventional diesel engine.
Keywords: Biogas, dual fuel engine

ntroduction One of the most serious problems that the world is being confronted is the use of limited
fossil fuel like petrol, diesel etc. which has severely harm the environment. So these days' alternatives to
this fossil fuel so-called renewable source of energy has been a topic of investigation for researchers.
Among the many different available energy sources Biogas from anaerobic digestion of animal manure waste
can be used and has proved to meet the demand of environment concern [1]. Biogas may be characterized based
on its chemical composition and physical characteristics, which result from it. It is primarily mixture of
methane (CH4) and inert carbonic gas (CO2). However, the name biogas gathers large variety of gasses
resulting from specific treatment processes, starting from different organic wastes like industries, animal or
domestic origin waste etc. Earlier Biogas was used for cooking in the rural household but it can be also used for
generating shaft power and electricity. Biogas has variety of combustion and compositional characteristics
compared to natural gas, so it needs a different system of preconditions compared to the combustion of natural
gas [2]. One way of using this biogas can be duel fueled compression ignition diesel engine. The basic concept
behind this type of engine is the use of primary fuel also known as gaseous fuel and pilot fuel. The duel fuel
engines are classified into two categories depending on the utilization of pilot and gaseous fuel.one category
includes the injection of small amounts of liquid fuel to provide ignition to a lean mixture of gas and air. Here
the bulk of energy comes from the gaseous fuel (also called primary fuel). And another one is associated with
the addition of some gaseous fuel to air in a fully operational diesel engine. The interest of this paper lies within
the second category of the dual fueled engine. Earlier there was obscurity about the feasibility of the engine to
S. Lalhriatpuia
ME Dept., Delhi Technological University, sactrix777@gmail.com
Kunal Kumar Bose
ME Dept., IIT Madras , kunalbose07@gmail.com
Diwakar Gurung
ME Dept., NIT Rourkela , diwakargurung007@gmail.com
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be run by biogas but the compression of biogas is possible and the application of biogas as a fuel for dual fuel
diesel-biogas engines is feasible and economical (Cheng-qiu et al.,1989). An investigation on small
biogas/diesel dual-fuel engine for on-farm electricity generation and it was found that the, dueled fuel operation
in diesel engine showed superior efficiency compared to normal diesel operation (N. Tippayawong et
al.,2007).The gas engine tests for the energy utilization was concluded for the development of experimental
variants useful for improvement of biogas produced from pig manure and plant additives and establish the
satisfied condition for running the heat engine properly (Attila Meggyes et al.,2012). It was found that found
that a small addition of O2 to intake combustion air improve combustion stability in a biogas-diesel engine. The
additional O2 helps to attenuate negative effects of CO2 in combustion such as decreases in overall gas-air
mixture temperature and low burning velocities of biogas regarding methane (Cacua et al.,2009).
Considering the above literature review it is found that the researchers have done marvelous development in the
context of combustion characteristics, improvement of energy utilization, quality improvement of biogas and
designing of engine parameter for power output. The present study deals with the study of the performance of
dual fuel compression ignition diesel engine which is run by biogas. Here the biogas will be added to the air in a
fully operational diesel engine. Initially, baseline performance tests are carried out with the engine operating on
diesel fuel only and then with biogas. The main objective is to compare the performance of dual fuel
compression ignition diesel engine with a normal diesel engine in terms of brake power, brake power
efficiency, volumetric efficiency, exhaust temperature and air consumption.
2. Experimental
2.1 Biogas and pilot Fuel
Biogas which has been employed as the gaseous fuel mixed with the air for the dual fuel operation. biogas was
collected from the Gobar gas plant, Yupia, Naharlagun, Arunachal Pradesh, India. It was produced by the
anaerobic digestion of cow manure. In our investigation, the standard diesel is used as the pilot fuel for the
experimental work for both baseline and dual fuel mode. This diesel is supplied through the injection pump
from the fuel tank under the gravity fed.
2.2 Engine test rig set-up and procedure
The engine used for the investigation is the Petter AA1 Diesel Engine. It is a single cylinder constant-speed,
four-stroke, direct injection, water-cooled diesel engine. The rated power is 2.6kW at 3600 min-1 and it has a
bore of 70mm and stroke of 57mm. It is designed conventional fuel injection system and loaded with a
hydraulic dynamometer. The injection nozzle has three holes of 0.3mm diameter with a spray angle of 120.
The liquid fuels are supplied to the engine injection pump from a fuel tank under gravity feed. Type K
thermocouples are installed on different locations of engine setup and connected to a data logger for measuring
various temperatures. The airflow to the engine was monitored by passing the intake air through an air box with
orifice meter and manometer. The pressure drop was measured by an inclined tube manometer, calibrated in
millimeters of diluted ethyl alcohol. The air flow was calculated from the viscous Flowmeter calibration.
During the dual fuel operation, Biogas was supplied through a plastic pipe and mixed with inlet air in simple
mixing chamber consists of a T-junction of a tube or flow channel(fig.1) with an inlet for air and for gasses each
and an outlet for the mixture of both. The outlet is connected to the intake channel or manifold of the engine. the
flow rate of Biogas was measured in the Biogas Flowmeter. figure.2 shows the schematic view of dual fuel
engine and the connection between various components.
Table 1. Characteristics of Diesel, Biogas, Manometry fluid and Air used

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Performance Analysis of Biogas Run Dual- Fueled ....

Fig 1. - T-joint tube type mixer

Fig2. - Schematic Diagram of Dual Fuel Diesel Engine

Initially, the engine was run idly at 1500 rpm without any load to reach stable operating
conditions for 20 minutes. To establish a basis for comparison of results baseline performance
tests was carried out with the engine operating on diesel fuel only. The load was varied in steps
from 1.5N to 4N in the hydraulic dynamometer. For each load all the required parameters like
rpm, exhaust temperature, the difference in the liquid level of the manometer, Volume of diesel
fuel consumption by the engine in one minute etc. are noted. For the biogas dual fuel mode
operation, biogas flow was opened up slowly from the gas balloon and allowed biogas to reach the
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gas carburetor. The homogeneous air-gas mixture from carburetor was hence sucked into the cylinder to take
part in the dual fuel combustion via engine manifold. During the process, engine speed was increased due to
addition extra chemical energy from biogas. To maintain a constant speed for both diesel and dual fuel modes,
the quantity of diesel was varied by adjusting the liquid fuel cut-off valve. The data acquisition was undertaken
similar to baseline tests for each step load.
To present the air consumption measured in kghr-1 and volumetric efficiency the following expression is
adopted

Air flow rate, F=Cd

where Cd is discharged coefficient, d is the diameter of orifice meter in millimeter, h is the height of manometry
fluid (diluted ethyl alcohol) in millimeter,
Volumetric efficiency,

Where D is the diameter of cylinder in millimeter, L is the stroke length of cylinder in millimeter, N is the speed
in revolution per minute, K is the number of cylinder andn=1(for Two stroke engine), =2(for four stroke engine)
The brake power and brake thermal efficiency are calculated according to
2x3.142xNxWxR
B r a k e
P o w e r ,
60x1000

B P

Mass flow rate of diesel in kghr-1, md=(X60Lf/106)


Where, X is the cc liquid fuel consumption of engine in cc/min) and Lf is the liquid fuel density in kg.m-3
Thermal brake efficiency,
for normal diesel operation,
for dual fuel operationWhere, LHVd Low heating value of diesel and LHVg is
Low heating value of biogas in MJ.kg-1
All these performance parameters were obtained from the above relation and compared the performance of the
dual fuel compression ignition diesel engine and normal compression diesel engine. During the process, the
serious attention was given for the proper functioning of each component during the experiments.
3. Results And Discussion
The results of the experiments conducted for the comparison of dual fuel compression ignition diesel engine
with normal compression diesel engine are shown in figs 3,4,5 and 6. The patterns of variation for each
parameter are found to be almost same. Fig.3 shows the greater air consumption for diesel mode than dual mode
at equal loading conditions. more substitution of air takes place by fuel at higher load.Fig.4 shows lower
volumetric efficiencies for dual fuel operations than diesel mode. The higher temperature of the retained
exhaust gas preheats the incoming fresh air and lowers the volumetric efficiency and at higher power outputs
higher biogas substitution displaces a greater proportion of air. The brake power and the brake thermal
efficiency obtained for diesel were more than that for dual fuel mode as shown in figure 5 and 6. A considerable
reduction in thermal efficiency (about 19% to 40%) was observed under dual fuel modes as
compared to diesel mode for the entire load range. This is mainly due to the lower heating value of biogas and by
increasing the quality of biogas giving the higher heating value may increase the efficiency to greater extend.
Lastly, fig.7 shows the Variation of Exhaust

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Performance Analysis of Biogas Run Dual- Fueled ....


Table 2. Experimental observations and performance parameters for diesel

Table 3. Experimental observations and performance parameters for dual

Temperature in which the temperature for dual mode was less than diesel mode.

Fig3. Variation of air consumption rate with load from diesel and duel fuel operation

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Fig 4. Variation of volumetric efficiency with load from diesel and duel fuel operation

Fig5. Variation of brake power with load from diesel and duel fuel operation

Fig6. Variation of brake thermal efficiency with load from diesel and duel fuel operation

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Performance Analysis of Biogas Run Dual- Fueled ....

Fig7.Variation of exhaust temperature with load from diesel and duel fuel operation
4. Conclusion
Diesel engines are established as a unique combination of energy efficiency, power, reliability, and durability.
They play a vital role in transport sectors, farm and construction purpose, power generation, etc. But these
engines adopt fossil diesel fuel-based technology which contributes to the production of greenhouse gasses by
CO and CO2 emissions. In order to reduce these carbon emissions, there are possible and available clean diesel
technologies viz., alternative fuels, hybrid-electric power and fuel cell etc. Use of clean gaseous fuel like
biogas, alternative to diesel, is one of the techniques which have the potential for reducing greenhouse gas
emissions. dual fuel compression ignition diesel engine can be used for obtaining power from biogas. In the
present work, an experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the various performance
parameters of dual fuel compression ignition diesel engine compared it with the normal diesel engine. There
was an increase in brake power and brake thermal efficiency with a load for both diesel and dual fuel mode. The
brake power for diesel mode was greater than dual fuel mode. The maximum brake power obtained for diesel
mode was 0.50kW at 4N load, for dual fuel mode was 0.41kW at 4N load. thermal efficiency obtained for diesel
mode was 12% at 4N load and for dual mode was 2.82% at 4N load. Use of biogas having higher heating valve
can increase the brake power and the brake thermal efficiency of the dual fuel engine. This indicates the
adoption of this biogas may reduce the diesel fuel cost which causes higher CO and CO2 emissions. Although
the power obtained through the dual fuel compression ignition diesel engine was found to be less in the
experiment conducted but this dual-fuel engine appeared to perform well and have great potential for producing
power and also meet the criteria of environment concern.
References
[1]
Tippayawong N., Promwungkwa A. and Rerkkriangkrai P. (2007), Long-term operation of a small
biogas/diesel dual-fuel engine for on-farm electricity generation. Biosystems Engineering, Vol. 98,
No. 1, pp. 2632
[2]
Bari S. 1996, Effect of carbon dioxide on the performance of biogas/diesel dual-fuel Engine.
Renewable Energy, Vol. 9, No. (14), pp. 10071010
[3]
Seung H.Y., Chang S.L., 2011, Experimental investigation on the combustion and exhaust emission
characteristics of biogasbiodiesel dual-fuel combustion in a CI engine. Original Research Article:
Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 92, pp. 992-1000
[4]
Attila M. and Valria N. (2012), Biogas and Energy Production by Utilization of Different Agricultural
Wastes. Vol. 9, No. 6
[5]
Sahoo B.B., Sahoo N. and Saha U.K.(2009), Effect of engine parameters and type of gaseous fuel on the
performance of dual-fuel gas diesel enginesA critical review'. Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews, Vol. 13, pp. 11511184
[6]
AbdAlla G.H., Soliman H.A., Badr O.A. and AbdRabbo M.F.(2000), Effect of pilot fuel quantity on the
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[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]

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performance of a dual fuel engine. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 559572
Jiang, C., J, Liu, T., and Zhong, J. 1989, A study on compressed biogas and its application to the
compression ignition dual-fuel engine. Biomass, Vol. 20, pp. 5359
Sahoo BB. Clean development mechanism potential of compression ignition diesel engines using
gaseous fuels in dual fuel mode. Ph.D. thesis. India: Centre for Energy, IIT Guwahati; 2011.
Yoon SH, Lee CS. Experimental investigation on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics
of biogas biodiesel dual-fuel combustion in a CI Engine. Fuel Process Technol 2011;92(5):9921000.
Henham A, Makkar M. Combustion of simulated biogas in a dual-fuel diesel Engine.Energy Convers
Manage 1998;39(1618):20019.

RAME-2016
Oct. 14 & 15.

An Empirical Study on Problems & Risks Faced


by Indian Small & Medium-Sized Enterprises
Ravinder Kumar, Shikhar Saxena, and
Ashish Kumar Aggarwal

Abstract- Purpose of this research paper is to study and analyze the problems faced by Indian Small &
Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) while working in global market. SMEs form the backbone of industrial
development in a growing economy like India. A rigorous literature review has been done to identify the
problems faced by Indian SMEs. According to their nature, the problems have been classified into different
sections like market problems, technological problems, production problems etc. A questionnaire based
survey has been done to collect the data on problems faced by Indian SMEs. Collected data has been analysed
by using different statistical techniques. Authors have observed that increased production cost and tough
competition were among the biggest problems faced by the SMEs while union strikes and lack of loans were the
least bothering one. Finding of the current research can help the India SMEs in identifying the problems and
make strategies to removes these problems.
Keywords- Small and medium enterprises, production problems, training problems, market problems, supply
chain problems.

ntroduction SMEs serve as integral institutions in the development of an economy. A majority of them are
covered under the secondary sector of an economy & assist various large firms in their production. The
definition of SMEs significantly varies from country to country. Indian SME sector has emerged out to be
highly vibrant, dynamic sector of the economy over the last five decades. They have been providing large
employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital cost than large industries alongside the
industrialization of rural areas. Being complementary to large industries as ancillary units, this sector
contributes enormously to the socio-economic development of the country. Comprising of 36 million units, as
of today SMEs, provides employment to over 80 million persons. The Sector through more than 6,000 products
contributes about 8% to GDP besides 45% to the total manufacturing output and 40% to the exports from the
country [17].
Uncertainty of customer order/demand, insufficient knowledge of SCM and involvement of middlemen in
supply chain are the main problems faced by Indian SMEs and fluctuating prices of raw materials, sharing of
sensitive information and seasonality of demand are main risks which Indian SMEs feel while working in
supply chain [11]. To survive in global competitive atmosphere and to compete with large and global
enterprises, SMEs need to cope up with the risks & problems coming to their path. The remaining part of the
paper is organized as follow. Section 2 discusses the literature review. Section 3 discusses the research
methodology. Section 4 discusses the observation and finding from the questionnaire based survey on Indian
Ravinder Kumar,
Associate Professor, Amity University, Noida-201313
E-mail: ravinderkumar.ap@gmail.com; Ph.No.9868387251
Shikhar Saxena
Student, MAIT, India; E-mail: shikhar.sxn93@gmail.com
Ashish Kumar Aggarwal
Student, MAIT, India; Email: ashaggarwal94@gmail.com
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SMEs. Finally the concluding remarks & implications are presented in Section 5.
2. Literature Review
An extensive literature review has been done to find out different problems faced by the Indian SMEs. Indian
SMEs faces different problems like limited resources, lack of skilled human capital, reduced volume of
production, increased production cost, insufficient knowledge; IT related issues etc. [4]. Supply chain
management capability of small and medium sized family businesses in India mostly faces low implementation
of software, supply chain issues and reduction in entrepreneurship etc. [9]. Indian Manufacturing SMEs faces
problems like lack of cross functional training programs, limited utilisation of social media and communication
channel and language acting as a communication hurdle etc. [19]. Lack of technological innovations by SME's
in India is the source root of multiple obstacles such as limited resources, increased production cost, poor
technological advancement & adoption along with strict governmental regulations etc. [16]. Mediocre
innovation incentives & poor R&D infrastructure affects patenting culture along with reduced knowledge
sharing [18].
Inefficient training system for employees though might reduce the cost to the SME, yet long term gains are
severely impacted [5]. To run a business, finance acts as a significant pillar for SMEs. However lack of loans
from banks & other monetary sources gravely impacts SMEs sustainability [1]. At times, lack of monetary fund
affects the payments or bonus of skilled human capital. Thus, retaining this capital for long run seems to be
harder [13]. Tough government policies & regulations beside complex taxations rules hamper SME operations
[8]. Demanding labour laws also pose as glitches, failing which labour adopts protest and agitation [15].
Ineffective competitive and proactiveness nature among SME officials affects them in long run. Thus, being
avid of taking risks by such officials seems to a rare act [2].
At times crisis namely natural ones like earthquake, drought or man-made ones like wars, political instability in
the region plays detrimental to the SMEs. However such crisis is affecting areas either with similar
geographical or social infrastructure of their governments [7]. Recognizing the market needs as well as
understanding the constraints active in the market seems to be highly complex in nature. Low partnership and
information interchange culture affects in terms of competitiveness. Insufficient knowledge sharing,
knowledge management & in related infrastructure also risks SMEs in the present age. Lower interaction with
other pioneers from the same field & conferences among officials of SMEs leaves less space for collective
development for SMEs [3]. High competition especially from China is very challenging due to its deeper
penetration into the market, with greater affordability [10]. Low penetration of the outsourcing phenomena in
SMEs sector will prove detrimental for their survival, as it opens up new ways of improving efficiency, cost &
effectiveness [12]. Overall, SMEs would have to sort out all such diversified set of issues with adaptiveness so
as to gain strong with effective & efficient system.
3. Research Methodology
The present study being an empirical study of Indian SMEs has its own importance for academia and industry
sector. To analyze the issues related with problems & risks faced by SMEs, a survey instrument was developed.
Survey has been done among Indian SMEs (From January 2016 to April 2016) of different sector. All of SMEs
were having investment in plant and machinery as per guidelines in Indian context. The methodology was based
on a questionnaire survey done across various sectors using hard as well as soft copy of the questionnaire. A
structured, well-rehearsed questionnaire was designed via the feedback received against an intermediate
questionnaire. Majority of them were located in urban areas. Pilot survey had been conducted on 20 SMEs
from varied sectors so as to give final touch to the questionnaire. Questionnaires were sent through via email or
by taking appointment from the SMEs. In this study, associates of SMEs were given questionnaire to mark the
intensity of each variable for their respective firm on a five-point Likert scale (1very low, 5 very high).
Respondents participated in survey were at the level of managers, engineers or top management in the SMEs. A
total of 250 SMEs were approached for survey out of which 140 replied with a response rate of 56%. SPSS 20
software had been used to do the analysis of collected responses.
4. Observation & findings
Observations from questionnaire based survey of different sector's SMEs are discussed in following sections.
Inter-item analysis is used to check the scales for internal reliability of the study so conducted. Cronbach's
coefficient is calculated for each scale, as recommended for empirical research in operations management [6].
The coefficients of Cronbach's for all constructs were in range from 0.672 to 0.968. These values exceed the
minimum requirements of 0.5 for an exploratory study [14]. Data acquired from survey of Indian SMEs are
analyzed statistically in the following sections. The problems faced by the Small and Medium Enterprises are as
follows.

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4.1 Human Resource Training problems
The results of this study for various problems being faced by Indian SMEs on a Likert scale of five (1 very low,
5 very high) are shown in the Figure 1. Mean of these responses has been plotted on bar graph.

Figure 1 Human resource Training problems


It has been observed that lack of providing appropriate training to the human resource is a major shortcoming in
the development of the Small and Medium Enterprises (2.516). Generally the SMEs have workforce which is
not trained up to the mark and hence hampers the productivity. Mostly, these firms demand for already trained
labour so as to save time & money. But due to lack of availability of such facility, it leads to higher inaccuracies
in industrial operations. Poor human capability is also a prominent factor which deeply affects SMEs
performance (2.419). Lack of recreation facility & guidance are the main causes of this problem. Skilled human
labour is also a constraint for these companies (2.323). Skilled labour demands high labour rates which these
companies are unable to provide and so human resource is a major shortcoming of such SMEs. Another issue is
the limited devoted resources for HRT in SMEs (2.323). This variable critically depends on affordability &
competitiveness of SME. The management of these human resources is also an issue that bothers companies on
a considerable scale (2.226). Limited professional employed in HR is the cause for it. A manager might
sometimes be averse to taking calculated risks (2.194). This might lead to saturation in the development of the
SME. The lack of interactive atmosphere proves to be a bottleneck in the all round development of the Small
and Medium Enterprises (2.194). This is because the employees can't catch up with new SME practices and
trends & meet experts from the same sector of varied fields, whose knowledge might come handy.It is also
found that sometimes the manager or the official selected for a particular job role is not educationally qualified
for that position and so is not able to contribute enough to the growth of the company (2.129). Sometimes the
manager's attitude causes problems in such enterprises (2.032). There is incompetency of the manager in
maintaining the much required harmony at the workplace & he might be concerned only with desirable
production, without paying any heed to working atmosphere. Lastly the lack of loans and other monetary
investments from the banks and similar financing institutions is another persistent risk (1.871). The banks are
reluctant in providing loans due to lack of trust on the business prospects of these enterprises.
4.2 Production Related Problems
Production is the converting of the raw materials into the finished goods. Survey opinion of various production
problems being faced by Indian SMEs has been collected on a Likert scale of five (1 very low, 5 very high)
are shown in the Figure 2 . The foremost and most important issue faced by the companies in this category is the
increase in cost of production due to various reasons also adds to the problems faced by the Small and Medium
Enterprises as growing cost of production but same sale value leads to decrease in the return on investment and
so the development is hampered (3.613). Absenteeism of workers is a considerable issue as it severely affects
the working hours & thus leads to reduced or inefficient production process (2.935). Also the decrease in the

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rate of production due to various tangible and intangible issues (2.871). This directly affects the revenue of the
company. Time constraint plays a major part here (2.742). The lack of ample time to meet the production
demand leads to the loss of the sales and so the development of the company is hampered. Machine Breakdown
has also been also found to affect SMEs (2.581).There is also sometimes no reservation on the items that can be
produced by patents etc (2.548). In this case, SME can't share & learn about different industrial products or
procedure which again hampers the growth prospects of the SME and so is a considerable problem. Union
Strike isn't a significant risk (1.581). It may happen occasionally along with disturbing coordination within the
firm.

Figure 2 Production related problems


4.3 Market related problems
Market is the place where the exchange of the commodity takes place. Survey opinion of various problems
being faced by Indian SMEs have been collected on a Likert scale of five (1 very low, 5 very high) are shown
in the Figure 3.The main problem that the SMEs face is the inability to extend to the new markets (2.516).

Figure 3 Market related problems

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These enterprises have a very limited market geographically as well as functionally and the extension is
generally not that comprehensible due to the presence of tough competition and market regulations. Another
big problem faced by these enterprises is the lack of a perfect strategy for marketing and managing market
information (2.419). In today's cut-throat competition, the inability to reach out to the existing market also
causes a leak in the development process of the company. The available market information may also not be
managed sometimes due to the incompetency of the marketing managers. Recognition of the newer markets
may even be absent sometimes (2.226). It can be followed up by low demand for their product & thus
questioning on SME's survival. It is also found that lack of distribution channels are far below the required
amount (2.194). Due to this the expansion in the marketplace becomes highly difficult and so these issues pose
big problems in the path of progress of a Small and Medium Enterprise. Difficulty in getting feedback about
new launches might also pose to be problematic (2.129). It doesn't rectify the future roadmap of that product
towards a better direction. Lastly lack of awareness about the product is also a critical issue (2.129). Supplying a
product without understanding its demand in the market wastes resources time, energy & money. Effective
planning to understand that product's demand & forecast is must.
4.4 Trade Related Problems
Exports and Imports form a driver in the path of accelerated growth of any company at any level. Details are
shown in the Figure 4. But they have their own pros and cons. Tough competition has been considered as a major
problem by the SMEs (3.419). Trends like globalisation and liberalisation, which is the trend today, pose a great
threat for the domestic SMEs as the imported products are generally cheaper and also more qualitatively
superior. SMEs also face costlier import due to falling rupee value (2.968). Thus import quantity falls due to this
apparent inflation & production is affected. Increased competition from China is another major problem
(2.871). It provides cheap substitute to SMEs & taps their market. Then there is ineffective competitive
aggressiveness (2.645) & proactive nature (2.387) in SMEs which increases their concerns. If they acquire the
thinking of a salary substitute firm without inculcating new practices, they tend to become sedentary.
Ineffective risk taking nature of SMEs has also come in light (2.548). Not exploring new incentives & lack of
flair for learning new trends somewhere leads to outdated stage which slowly but surely causes damage &
hurdles which won't be visible in the short term. Lastly low partnership & information interchange in SME also
proves to be a hurdle (2.258). It tends to make SME more vulnerable with the sole proprietor bearing the entire
risk & low information sharing proceeds towards incoherence eventually the hampering of the uplifting of the
Small and Medium Enterprises. The lack of proper communicating medium as a language leads to insignificant
loss in the trade (1.935).

Figure 4 Trade related problems

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4.5 Supply Chain Management Issues


The results of this study for various problems being faced by Indian SMEs have been observed on a Likert scale
of five (1 very low, 5 very high) as shown in figure 5.. The foremost problem faced by the SMEs here is the
lower level of the supply chain management capability (2.226). The various stages are not effectively managed
which leads to a reduction in the efficiency of the enterprise. It has also been found that there is lack of trust
among the members of the supply chain and so coordination is limited in such a scenario (2.097). Certifications
from concerned authorities might provide a standard & help develop trust. Lastly the lack of vendors also
bothers the SMEs as without proper raw materials the company cannot function (2.097). So the supply chain
issues form an important part of the discussion of the problems faced by the Small and Medium Enterprises.

Figure 5 Supply chain management issues


4.6 Standards & Regulation Problems
Regulation means the standards set by any regulating authority for any particular product to be produced.
Where on one hand these regulations ensure transparent production of standard goods, some of these
regulations are unnecessary and create problems for the SMEs operating in that domain. The results of this
study for various problems being faced by Indian SMEs has been recorded on a Likert scale of five (1 very
low, 5 very high) as shown in figure 6. Tough/Non cooperative policies, tax rules & regulations of government
agencies & bureau create difficulty for the SME (2.806). They are always expected to provide different
facilities in their industries so as to achieve license of permit. Multiplicity & complexity in such policies also
create concerns. Apart from this the SMEs face problems in complying with the strict labour laws set by the
unions (2.548). Unions may sometime act stubborn and so the company faces troubles regarding this.

Figure 6. Standards & Regulation Problems

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4.7 Research & Innovation Related Problems
Knowledge forms the basis of development of any company. Insufficient knowledge creates difficulty in all
aspects of the SME (2.613). Details are shown in figure 7. In manufacturing & engineering sector, only
knowledge can help firms to move by leaps & bounds. Another problem is that Time taken for innovation's
effect (convert knowledge into economic performance) is longer than expected (2.548). This proves to be very
harmful in this age of competition. The major issue relating to knowledge is the research and development in the
SME (2.516). Without innovative research ideas, the SME stagnates in the growth process and finally declines.
So having excellent R&D is of utmost importance for any SME. One problem worth mentioning which relates
to the knowledge domain is insufficiency in knowledge sharing and management inside the company (2.452).
This issue may not be sought after a lot but it bothers the company in the long run. Lastly there is lack of
Absorptive Capacity (ability to gather and implement new knowledge of various fields) in the companies
(2.323). A company reluctant to absorb knowledge by any means possible has a really difficult path towards
progress. So this knowledge related problems cannot be overlooked while looking at the development of a
Small and Medium Enterprise.

Figure 7 Research & Innovation Related Problems


5. Concluding Remarks
SMEs face different problems, as discussed under different sections in the section 4.In this sections authors are
going to conclude the finding of this paper:
-Observing section-wise distribution of issues, production based issues (2.696) regulation issues (2.677) &
trade issues (2.629) were among the three major risks area identified by the authors.
-Production cost, production time constraint, production volume & absenteeism of workers proved significant
factors.
-Higher number of rules, licensing conditions regulations, policies, diversified taxes with, multiple stages &
complex understanding are definitely chaotic. Failing any if these standards impacts the SMEs in the long term.
-Trade issues indicated us a diversified picture that how SMEs actually face problems when it comes to the
domain of business. Higher competition, aggressive competitors, better substitutes, tough existence, expansion
constraints in this present scenario of globalization & liberalization tends to make survival of SMEs very
difficult.
-From all sections of problems & risks , Authors observed that: Increased production cost (3.613), tough
competition (3.419), costlier import due to falling rupee value (2.968), absenteeism of workers (2.935),

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reduced volume of production (2.871), increased competition especially from china (2.871), tough & complex
policies taxes rules regulations of govt (2.806), problems created by time constraint (2.742), problems due to
clients changed preferences (2.742) are top nine problems for Indian SMEs.
This research aims to cover all the factors concerning the problems & risks faced by Indian SMEs. Authors have
used holistic approach to the study and thus, the findings of the study have many crucial implications for SMEs
and academia. However, this research is limited to only India and thus, other regions can be explored on similar
lines.
References
1.
Anand, B. and Chaudhary, S. (2015). Reverse Globalization by Internationalization of SME's:
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Arshad, A.S., Rasli, A., Arshad, A.A., Zain, Z.M. (2013).The Impact of Entrepreneurial Orientation on
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Brazinskas, S. and Beinoraviius, J.(2014). SMEs and integration driving factors to regional and
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Flynn, B.B., Sakakibara, S., Schroeder, R.G., Bates, K.A. and Flynn, J.B. (1990), Empirical research
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Giannacourou, M., Kantaraki, M., Christopoulou, V. (2015).The Perception of Crisis by Greek SMEs
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Hasnan, N.Z.N. , Aziz, N.A., Zulkifli, N., Taip, F.S. a Department of Process and Food Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, (2014). Food Factory
Design: Reality and Challenges Faced by Malaysian SMEs. Agriculture and Agricultural Science
Procedia 2(2014) 328 336.
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Jayaram, J., Dixit, M., Motwani, J. (2014). Supply chain management capability of small and medium
sized family businesses in India: A multiple case study approach. Int.J. Production Economics147
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Kemayel, L. and Emanuel, C. (2015). Success Factors of Lebanese SMEs: an Empirical Study.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 195 (2015) 1123 1128.
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Kumar, R., Singh, R.K. and Shankar, R. (2014), Strategy development by Indian SMEs for improving
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Kumari S., Singh, A, Mishra, N., Garza Reyes, J.A. (2015). A multi-agent architecture for outsourcing
SMEs Manufacturing supply chain. Robotics and Computer- Integrated Manufacturing 36
(2015)3644.
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Mrva, M. and Stachov, P. (2014). Regional development and support of SMEs how university
project can help. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 110 (2014) 617 626.
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Nunnally, J., 1978. Psychometric Methods. New York, NY, McGraw-Hill.
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Saini, D.S. and Budhwar, P.S. (2008). Managing the human resource in Indian SMEs: The role of
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Sikka, P. and Sen, K. (1999). Technological innovations by SME's in India. Technovation 19
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18.

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Subrahmanya, M.H.B. and Mani, P. (2015). Innovation and growth of engineering SMEs in
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Manufacturing SMEs. Procedia Engineering 97 (2014) 1724 1734.

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Vibration Response of Finite Element Modeled


FGM Plate in Thermal Environment
Sanjay Singh Tomar and Mohammad Talha

Abstract- This paper presents a linear vibration response of square ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V functionally graded plate
in the thermal environment. The formulation was done using the First order and higher order shear
deformation theory. The governing equation for vibration analysis of FGMs plate is derived using Variational
principle, which is the generalization of the principle of virtual displacement. The gradation of material
properties in the thickness direction of functionally graded plate is assumed according to a power law
distribution. Convergence and comparison studies with numerical techniques reported in literature are carried
out to establish the accuracy and reliability of the solutions. Parametric studies have been conducted to
investigate the effect of various boundary conditions, thickness ratio and volume fraction index. It is concluded
that the gradient of material properties as well as the temperature has a significant effect on the natural
frequency of the plate.
Keywords- Functionally graded plate; first order shear deformation theory; Higher order shear deformation
theory,boundary conditions.

ntroduction Material, energy and methods are the three constituents which makes the foundation of the
modern technological world. So the development of new materials is the need of this fast developing
world. The Functionally graded materials (FGM's) are one of those materials which can match the need of
present fast growing industries. FGM's type of hybrid composite material which is able to seek the attention of
the various researchers now a days. This is due to their high temperature application in the aerospace
industry[1].
FGM's are microscopically inhomogeneous materials which can be tailored as per the application. The
constituent materials in FGM are metal and ceramics. And these materials are graded in some particular fashion
to give the desired properties[2]. This gradation is based upon the smooth variation in the of the volume fraction
index from one end to the other. These material provide some advantage over the conventional material. Now a
days the coatings of these materials are used to eliminate stresses at the surface, reduce the crack driving forces
and can used to increase the bond strength of the two incompatible materials[3]. Due to this a tremendous
amount a tremendous amount of research has been done in in this this field in the past few decades. Since 1980's,
the concept of FGM [4] many research studies has been done in this field. Among them vibration is one of the
important factor which need to be considered in the structural analysis of the component. Cheng et al. [5]
performed the buckling and vibration analysis of the functionally graded composite plate using the classical and
first order shear deformation theory while comparing with the membrane vibration. Yang and Shen [6] studied
the dynamic response of the functionally graded plate which was initially stressed. In the continuation same
author [7] extended this work for the thermal environment while considering the material properties as a
Sanjay Singh Tomar,
School of Engineering, IIT Mandi, Himachal Pradesh-175005,
sanjay_singh_tomar@students.iitmandi.ac.in
Mohammad Talha
School of Engineering, IIT Mandi, Himachal Pradesh-175005,
talha@iitmandi.ac.in
Corresponding Author; Tel: +91 8236045411
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)
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function of temperature. Sundararajan et al. [8] made out an investigation on the dynamic characteristic of FGM
plate considering the effects of parameters such as gradient index, temperature, skew angle etc. under the
thermal environment. Kim [9] gave a theoretical method taking the basis of TSDT to calculate the dynamic
characteristics of FGM plater in thermal environment. Talha and Singh [10] incorporated a special modification
in the displacement field of the HSDT to calculate the free vibration and static behavior of the FGM plate using
the finite element method. Zhu and Liew [11] developed a kringing meshless method to calculate the free
vibration response of metal ceramic FGM plate. Jha et al. [12] used HSDT to investigate the free vibration
response of FGM plate considering the shear and normal deformation. Akavci et al.[13] presented two and three
dimensional shear deformation theories to calculate the static and free vibration response of the functionally
graded plate considering the Mori-Tanaka homogenization technique.
In this present investigation the vibration response of FGM plate is calculated using various shear deformation
theories. The effect of temperature, aspect ratio, boundary conditions on the non-dimensional frequency
parameter is calculated.
2. Theoretical formulation
2.1. Definition of the material properties
Let us consider a FGM plate with length a, width b and uniform thickness h. As explained before the plate is
made up of a mixture of two materials for example metals and ceramic. The material properties of plate is
assumed to vary from one face of the plate to the other in the thickness direction (Fig 1). This variation is
described with the help of power law distribution eq (1) in which the behavior is varied with volume fraction
index. Due to this behavior one layer becomes ceramic rich while the other metal rich [14].

Here P denotes the specific material properties of the plate while Pc and Pm denotes the properties of ceramic and
material respectively and Vc denotes the volume fraction of the ceramic, n is the volume fraction index.

Figure 1: Geometry and dimension of FGM plate


FGM's are commonly used for the high temperature application, and the material properties of the material
varies with the changes in the temperature so it is mandatory to assume the properties to be temperature
dependent in order to predict the behavior of the structure accurately. In this paper we have considered Young's
modulus E, Poisson's ratiou, coefficient of thermal expansion to be temperature dependent while the other
properties such as mass density rand thermal conductivity k are independent of temperature. For the
temperature dependent properties corresponding material the corresponding properties are given by Eq.
(2).[15]
3
P(t ) = P0 ( P- 1T - 1 + 1 + PT
+ P2T 2 + PT
),
1
3

(2)

Where P0, P-1, P1, P2, P3 ate the coefficient to the temperature T, and their values (see Table-1) depend upon the
type of the material being used.

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2.2. Temperature field
It is assumed that the temperature variation in the plate is across its thickness direction. This variation is
considered to be linear. Temperature field remains constant in the plane of the plate. Temperature field across
thickness can be expressed as

Where
respectively.

Tt and Tb are the uniform temperature at the top and bottom face of the plate

Table 1: Temperature dependent Material coefficients for metal and ceramic

2.3. Displacement Field


In this case the governing equations of the ceramic-metal FGM plate in the thermal environment using the
first and higher order shear deformation theory. The displacement field for the shear deformation case is written
as,[16]

Where u, v, w are displacement of a point along x, y and z directions respectively,v0 , and w0 , u0 are the
inplane displacement component along x, y, z directions respectively and fx , fy are the rotation along x and y
axis respectively
2.4. Stress-Strain relationship
In this study only linear strains associated with the vibration response has been considered. The stress strain
relationship for the FGM plate in thermal environment can be written as:[12]

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Where

Here sij and eijare the stress and strain vectors for the FGM plate.
3. Soluton methodology
This section includes the finite element formulation of the plate and the calculation of the strain energy, the
governing equation for the plate vibration problem.
3.1. FEM Model
Here a nine noded isoparametric element (Fig. 2) is employed to discretize the domain. The displacement
vector and the geometry elements can be written as:

Where, Ni and {Li}are the shape function matrix and displacement vector at ith node.
For FSDT,
For HSDT
3.2. Strain energy of plate
The strain energy of FGM plate is given by

(7)
This strain energy will be the summation of stain energy of all the elements which is given by

Where 'nl' is the number of element in the plate mesh and S(e) elemental strain energy, [K] is the elemental
stiffness matrix.

Figure 2. 9 noded isoparametric element

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Vibration Response of Finite Element Modeled......


3.3. Kinetic energy of plate
(8)

Where .Land are the global velocity vector and mass density of the plate. Using equation (6) in eq (8) the
equation can be written as

Where m is the overall mass matrix of the system.


3.4. Governing Differential equation
Governing equation for the undamped free vibration plate problem is given by:

Where [M],[K],{q} are the global mass matrix, global stiffness matrix and global displacement vector
respectively.
The natural frequency of the system can be calculated by converting this equation into an eigenvalue
problem:

_
_
2
Where [ K], [M] are the global mass and stiffness matrix after applying the constraints and l= , is the
natural frequency of the plate.
4. Numercal Results And Dscusson
The natural frequency of the FGM plate under thermal environment is calculated under three type of boundary
condition (i.e. CCCC, SSSS, SCSC) (Fig(3)). Three shear deformation theories are compared on the basis of the
different aspect ratio, boundary condition and the effect on non-dimensional frequency parameter is observed.
First two shear deformation theories are first order theories with shear correction factor (SCF) 5/6 and 2/12
(named as FSDT1 and FSDT2). The other theory which is considered is third order shear deformation theory
with 7dof (named as HSDT).

Figure 3. Boundary condition used in the study

4.1. Convergence and validation studies


In order to verify the accuracy of the current results it is necessary to perform the convergence and validation
study with the open literature. Figure 1 shows the convergence plot of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V FGM plate with
CCCC boundary condition for all the three theories. The non-dimensional parameter used is
. It shows that the results are getting converged as we increase the
mesh size and the convergence of FSDT and HSDT are different. Table 2, 3, 4 shows the validation of the results
with the literature. The variation of temperature is also shown in order to measure the effect of thermal

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environment on the non-dimensional frequency parameter

The

current results are getting converged at mesh size 6x6. Due to this further results will be
shown on the same mesh size. Material properties of two materials are as follows:
3
Ti-6Al-4V: Mass density (m)=3000 kg/m , Poisson ratio()=0.3;Thermal cond.(km)=1.80
W/mK
ZrO2 : Mass density(c)=4429 kg/m3 , Poisson ratio()=0.3; Thermal conductivity(kc)=7.82
W/mK

Figure 4. Convergence plot


Table 2: variation of non-dimensional frequency
parameter using FSDT1(SCF=5/6)

Table 3: variation of non-dimensional frequency


parameter using FSDT2(SCF=pi^2/12)

Table 4: variation of non-dimensional frequency parameter using HSDT(7DOF)

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4.2. Parametric Studies


It is shown in the previous section that our results shoes a good agreement with the results in the literature.
The following section will cover the parametric studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of
thickness ratios (a/h), volume fraction index (n), boundary conditions along with all three theories explained
above. FGM plate maintained at a temperature of T= 100.
Table 5 shows the frequency parameter for square FGM plate under CCCC boundary conditions. Variation
is noted down with respect to various volume fraction index, thickness ratios and results are presented with
various theories. It has been observed that by increasing a/h ratio frequency parameter increases. And it is also
noted that value of frequency parameter decrease with the increase in volume fraction index. The core reason
for this is the reduction in the stiffness of the plate with increase in volume fraction index.
Table 6 and 7 shows the variation of frequency parameter under SSSS and SCSC boundary conditions
respectively. It has been noted that in both the tables the value of frequency parameter increases with the
increase in thickness ratio and decrease with the increase in volume fraction index. It is also noticed that the
values are slightly greater in case of HSDT as compared to FSDT. But this variation fluctuates with the increase
in volume fraction index (.8%-1.2%).
Table 5: Comparison of frequency parameter
with volume fraction
index (n) of ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V square plate under CCCC boundary condition at T= 100

Table 6: Comparison of frequency parameter =


(n) of ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V square plate under SSSS boundary condition at T= 100

with volume fraction index

Table 7: Comparison of frequency parameter

with volume fraction

index (n) of ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V square plate under SCSC boundary condition T= 100

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Tomar and Talha

5. Concluson
In this paper the vibration response of functionally graded square plate is presented. Convergence and
validation studies has been conducted to show the agreement of our result with the literature. Various
parametric studies has been performed to account the effect of thickness ratio, volume fraction index and the
boundary condition. Two shear deformation theories has been considered to calculate the effect of various plate
theories on the natural frequency calculation. These are the following conclusion's which can be drawn from the
following study:
1. With the increase in volume fraction index the frequency parameter decreases.
2. With the increase in the thickness ratio the frequency parameter decreases.
3. Results obtained by HSDT is higher than that of FSDT1 and FSDT2.
4. There is a slight difference in the results on changing the shear correction factor and this difference
increases on increasing the temperature.
5. The value of frequency parameter is more in case of CCCC boundary condition as compared to the
SSSS and SCSC.
References
1.
D.K. Jha, T. Kant, R.K. Singh, A critical review of recent research on functionally graded plates;
Composite Structures 96 (2013) 833849.
2.
A. Gupta, M. Talha M. Recent development in modeling and analysis of functionally graded materials
and structures. Prog Aerosp Sci 2015;79:114.Doi:10.1016/j.paerosci.2015.07.001.
3.
SS Vel, RC. Batra Three-dimensional exact solution for the vibration of functionally graded
rectangular plates. J Sound Vib 2004;272:703 30.
4.
M. Koizumi, FGM activities in Japan, Composites B 28 (1997) 14.
5.
ZQ Cheng, RC Batra, Exact correspondence between eigenvalues of membranes and functionally
graded simply supported polygonal plates. J Sound Vib 2000;229:87995.
6.
J. Yang, H-S. Shen Dynamic response of functionally graded rectangular thin plates. Compos Struct
2001;54:497508.
7.
J. Yang, H-S Shen, Vibration characteristics and transient response of shear deformable functionally
graded plates in thermal environments. J Sound Vib 2002;255(3):579602.
8.
N. Sundararajan, T. Prakash, M. Ganapathi, Nonlinear free flexural vibrations of functionally graded
rectangular and skew plates under thermal environments, Finite Elem. Anal. Des. 42 (2005) 152168.
9.
Y.-W. Kim, Temperature dependent vibration analysis of functionally graded rectangular platesJ
Sound Vib, 284 (2005), pp. 531549.
10.
M. Talha, BN Singh. Static response and freevibrationanalysis of FGMplates using higher order shear
deformation theory. Appl Math Model 2010;34:39914011.
11.
P. Zhu, K.M. Liew Free vibration analysis of moderately thick functionally graded plates by local
Kriging meshless method Compos Struct, 93 (11) (2011), pp. 29252944.
12.
DK Jha, T Kant, Singh RK. Free vibration response of functionally graded thickplates with shear and
normal deformations effects. Compos Struct 2013;96:799e823.
13.
S.S. Akavci, A.H. Tanrikulu, Static and free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates based on a
new quasi-3D and 2D shear deformation theories Compos Part B Eng, 83 (2015), pp. 203215.
14.
P. Pai, F., Highly flexible structures: modelling, computation, and experimentation. AIAA Educational
Series, 2007.
15.
M. Talha, B.N. Singh, Thermo-mechanical induced vibration characteristics of shear deformable
functionally graded ceramic-metal plates usingfinite element method, Proc. IMech Eng. C: J. Mech.
Eng. Sci. 25 (2011) 5065.
16.
C.M. Wang, J.N. Reddy, K.H. Lee, Shear Deformable Beams and Plates, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000.
17.
X. L. Huang, Shen, H. S., Nonlinear vibration and dynamic response of functionally graded plates in
thermal environments. Int. J. Solids Struct., 2004, 41, 24032427.

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Offshore Wind Resource Evaluation of Four


Locations in Indian Ocean
Garlapati Nagababu, Surendra Singh Kachhwaha
and Vimal Savsani

Abstract- This paper presents an assessment of wind resource of four offshore locations (coded as AD04,
BD11, CALVAL, and CB02) in Indian Ocean near southern India, by using four years (2011-2014) wind speed
data and was subjected to two-parameter Weibull analysis. The results showed that maximum annual mean
wind speed of 7.66 m/s is obtained at BD11 while the minimum value of 5.09 m/s is obtained at CB02 amongst
all the locations considered. At the hub height of 80 m, the annual wind power density and energy variation
ranges from 146.36 W/m2 and 1287.25 kWh/m2/year respectively at CB02 to 443.34 W/m2 and 3908.24
kWh/m2/year at BD11. The annual mean wind speed and wind power density were found to be equal to or more
than 5.09 m/s and 146.36 W/m2 respectively, at the hub height of 80 m, suggesting the suitability of all the sites
for offshore wind power development.
Keywords- offshore wind energy; moored buoy; Indian Ocean; two-parameter Weibull distribution, wind
turbine.

ntroduction The environmental risks due to climate change caused by the greenhouse gases[1]. In view of
this and also to achieve energy security, robust steps are being taken by the concerned governments to
encourage the utilization of renewable energy sources as an alternative to the fossil fuels [2], [3].
Involvement of multiple stakeholders in the development of commercial onshore wind power plants has led to
various challenges including the Not-In-My-Back-Yard (NIMBY) attitude and other environmental impacts
like deforestation, land acquisition, bird hits, adverse effects on marine and wildlife, noise and flicker generated
by the wind turbines, etc. [4], [5]. Offshore wind resources are abundant compared to onshore ones. Factors like
stronger and more consistent offshore winds, relatively easier offshore land access, ease in transportation of
wind turbines to the offshore locations, etc. draw interest towards the development of offshore wind power [1].
Table 1. Targeted and achieved capacity of grid interactive power in India through renewable sources of
energy [7].

Garlapati Nagababu, Surendra Singh Kachhwaha and Vimal Savsani


Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University,
Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India,
garlapatinagu@gmail.com, Surendra.Singh@sot.pdpu.ac.in, vimal.savsani@gmail.com

Corresponding Author; Tel: +91 9724013948


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Table 1. Targeted and achieved capacity of grid interactive power in India through renewable
sources of energy [7].

The total installed wind power capacity across the globe is around 369.6 GW, and indicates a cumulative annual
market growth of more than 16% at the end of year 2014 [6]. At present, India has emerged as the second largest
wind market in Asia, thus opening a wide range of opportunities for both the national as well as the international
investors. For the financial year 2015 2016, the government of India has set the target to achieve total grid
interactive power of 4460 MW capacity by developing it's renewable sources, as shown in Table 1 [7], which
indicates the dominance of wind power sector over other renewable sources in India.
Unlike onshore applications, direct measurement of wind data for the offshore locations is relatively difficult
and involves heavy expenditure. In most of the cases, assessment of the available offshore wind resources
depends on the long term measurements recorded at the nearby land sites rather than the on-site moored buoy or
ship data. However, the marine meteorological stations or moored buoys directly measures real time wind data
with high time resolution [8]. Wind speed frequency distributions can be modelled by using various probability
density functions (pdf) [9], [10]. According to the studies [11][14] available in literature,the Weibull function
has been frequently used to model the wind speed distribution due to its ability to fit a wide variety of measured
wind speed data with relatively better accuracy.
Main objective of present study is to perform the statistical analysis of the available measured wind data
obtained from four offshore locations in Indian Ocean near the southern coast of India. Here, measured wind
data has been subjected to the best fit of 2-parameter Weibull distribution to study the wind speed frequency
distribution. Wind characteristics has been estimated for each offshore location along with the seasonal
variation.
2. Methodology And Mathematical Model
The present study deals with wind speed calculation at turbine hub height; which usually ranges between 70 m
and 120 m for most of the wind turbines commercially available in the market. The variants with hub height of
80 meter above the sea level (asl) are common for most of the wind turbine original equipment manufacturers
(OEM) in India. Hence, in this study, the hub height of 80 m asl has been selected and log-law has been used to
extrapolate wind speed data measured at 3 m height. The atmosphere was assumed to be neutrally stable and a
surface roughness factor of zo = 2.0mm was used [8], [14]. As per the log-law, at any given height z the wind
velocity V is given by

V = Vref

ln (z / zo )
ln( z ref / zo )

(1)

Where zref is the height at which the wind speed Vref has been measured by the moored buoys.
The wind power density indicates the amount of power generated at a particular wind speed, per unit area swept
by the wind turbine rotor (W/m2) and calculated by

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Offshore Wind Resource Evaluation of Four Locations....


(2)
Where a constant value 1.225 kg/m3 has been assumed for wind density ( ) [8], [14].
Weibull function has been used in order to study the wind speed frequency distribution at each location [13]. In
terms of Weibull distribution, the probability density function is given by

where k and c are the Weibull shape and scale parameters respectively. The corresponding cumulative
distribution function is given by

Various analytical or empirical methods are available to evaluate Weibull parameters which provide quite
similar results. Some of the commonly used methods are the graphical method, moment estimation and
quartiles, maximum likelihood method, standard deviation method, modified maximum likelihood and energy
pattern factor method amongst others. The maximum likelihood method has been adopted in this study, where
Weibull parameters k and c can be evaluated by the following approximations

Fig. 1. Variation of monthly mean wind speed

Based on the wind power density (WPD), annual energy (Ea) indicates the maximum (i.e. ideal amount of) of
electricity that can be extracted from each location has been calculated using the following expression [13], [14]

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where
is the mean monthly extractible energy, d is the number of days in the month
and Pavg is the monthly mean WPD (W/m2).

Fig. 2. Variation of monthly average wind power density


Table 2. Monthly variations of average wind speed, power densities and energies for the four locations

3. Results & Discussion


3..1.
Wind resource analysis
Monthly variations of average wind speed, power densities and energies of four moored buoys at 80 m height
are tabulated in Table 2. It can be inferred from table, the mean annual wind speed for all locations are greater
than 5 m/s which is fairly higher than the cut-in speed of 3 m/s specified for most of the commercially available
wind turbines. Figs 1 and 2 depicts the monthly variations of mean wind speeds and average power densities of
four moored buoys and it further corroborated the fact that CALVAL and BD11 locations are very windy. The
monthly mean wind speed is maximum (11.6 m/s) in July at CALVAL having a corresponding mean WPD of

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Offshore Wind Resource Evaluation of Four Locations....


1019.9 W/m2. However, the maximum annual mean wind speed and corresponding annual mean WPD is 7.6
m/s and 443.3 W/m2 respectively, at the moored buoy BD11. The minimum monthly mean wind speed and the
corresponding WPD is 3.3 m/s and 38.2 W/m2 respectively in the month of November at moored buoy AD04.
The minimum annual mean wind speed and annual mean WPD are found to be 5.0 m/s and 146.3 W/m2 at the
moored buoy Cb02.
Table 3. Variation in seasonal mean wind speed and seasonal average wind power
density at the extrapolated hub height of 80m for the four locations

Moreover, the minimum and maximum monthly energy values are 27.51 and 758.86 kWh/m2/year respectively,
at AD04 (in November) and CALVAL (in July), while the minimum and maximum annual values are 1287.25
and 3908.24 kWh/m2/year respectively at CB02 and Bd11.
3.2.
Seasonal variability
The span from January to December in India is generally classified into following four seasons
1.
Winter: January to February (59 days)
2.
Pre-Monsoon: March to May (92 days)
3.
Monsoon: June to September (122 days)
4.
Post-Monsoon: October to December (92 days)
Variation of seasonal mean wind speed and corresponding WPD are given in Table 3. From table it can be
inferred that seasonal mean wind speed and WPD are highest during the monsoon season. The mean wind speed
and WPD for monsoon season are 8.5, 9.6, 8.9, 6.9 m/s and 482.9, 662.4, 608.8, 269.6 W/m2 respectively for the
locations of AD04, BD11, CALVAL and CB02. A second peak in wind speed and WPD is encountered during
the post-monsoon period for moored buoy BD11. The WPD during post monsoon is more than two times
greater for BD11 as compared to other locations.
For the remaining three sites at the locations of moored buoys AD04, CALVAL and CB02; apart from monsoon,
the seasonal mean wind speed and WPD in the remaining three seasons are between 3.8 to 5.1 m/s and 70.1 to

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113.1 W/m2 respectively. These three sites exhibit similar variations in the seasonal mean wind speed and WPD
because all three are located in the Arabian Sea, off the south-western coast of India, unlike the moored buoy
BD11 which is located in the Bay of Bengal, off the south-eastern coasts of India. As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the
wind speeds at all the four locations follow a similar pattern for the duration of January to October, however
from October to December, the wind speed pattern observed at the location of BD11 is different because, in the
north Bay of Bengal a continental high-pressure system produces north-eastern winds (the north-eastern
monsoon) from November to April; and also during the months of April-May and October-November, intense
tropical storms having high wind speeds occur accompanied with torrential rains.
Table 4. Monthly variation of Weibull parameters (k and c) at the selected sites

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Offshore Wind Resource Evaluation of Four Locations....

Fig. 3.Weibull probability density function and Cumulative distribution function of monthly wind
speeds at 80m, averaged on Daily basis, for (a) Buoy AD04 (b) Buoy B11 (c) Buoy CALVAL (d) Buoy CB02

3.3. Wind speed probability distributions


The monthly variation of the Weibull shape and scale parameters (k and c) has been listed in Table 4. It has been
observed that the Weibull parameter k varies between 1.5 at CB02 (October) to 8.4 at CALVAL in July. Hence,
amongst the four sites the wind speed is most uniform at CALVAL in July while least uniform in October at
CB02. However, the scale parameter c ranges from a minimum value of 3.7 m/s in October at CB02 to 12.4 m/s
in July at CALVAL which indicates that amongst the four locations, the plot of the Weibull probability density
function (pdf) has maximum span at CALVAL and minimum at CB02. This means that the pdf spreads over a
wide range of velocities at CALVAL and a relatively narrow range of velocities at CB02, thereby indicating the
possibility of encountering highest and lowest wind speeds at CALVAL and CB02, respectively. However, it
should be noted that the location with the possibility of the highest wind speed need not be the one having
highest annual mean wind speed (Table 2). Weibull pdf and Cumulative distribution function (cdf) of monthly
wind speeds determined at 80 m height for the four sites are shown in Fig 3.
The plots of pdf, provide information about the possibility or chances of obtaining wind speeds equal to or
greater than a particular value. However, plots of cdf provie information about the percentage of time for which
the winds can be expected to blow at speeds greater than a specific value. Fig. 3 shows that most of the peaks are
skewed towards the higher values of mean wind speeds along-with indicating that how the respective sites are
expected to behave within the speed limits of turbine operation. Wind speeds equal to or above 6.5 m/s are
observed for certain fraction of all the months at all the locations under consideration. Further, the wind turbines
are expected to run at or above the cut-in speed of 3 m/s for at least 45% of the time during every month for all
the sites. For the rated speed of 11 m/s and above the wind turbines are expected to run for an average 7%,
20.54%, 12.95% and 2.95% of the time per month at AD04, BD11, CALVAL and CB02 respectively.
Monthly peak frequencies indicate wind speed with highest probability of occurrence. For all the sites, the
monthly peak frequencies range from 23.5% to 26 % (i.e. 23.5% for BD11, 24.5% for AD04, and 26% for both
CALVAL and CB02). Moreover, around 10% of the time duration in every month, the wind turbines are
expected to run for the wind speed greater than or equal to 5 m/s for all the sites. Fig. 3 further shows that the
turbines having lowest possible cut-in speeds and rated speeds should be selected to increase the total duration
of turbine operation and rated power generation respectively, across the year.

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4. Conclusions
From the statistical data and computations, the following facts can be drawn from present study:

All the locations under consideration have mean annual wind speeds above 5 m/s. The maximum and
minimum monthly mean wind speeds and WPDs are 11.7 m/s and 1019.9 W/m2, and 3.3 m/s and 38.2 W/m2,
respectively at CALVAL (in July) and AD04 (in November). However, the maximum and minimum annual
mean wind speeds and WPDs are 7.7 m/s and 443.3 W/m2, and 5.1 m/s and 146.4 W/m2 respectively at
BD11 and Cb02.

Weibull parameter k varies between 1.5 in October at CB02 to 8.4 in July at CALVAL. Moreover, the scale
parameter c ranges from a minimum 3.7 m/s in October at CB02 to a maximum of 12.4 m/s in July at
CALVAL.

Amongst the four locations, classification based on WPD, AD04 and CB02 are of class 1, CALVAL is of
class 2 and BD11 is of class 3. The maximum and minimum values of extractable energy are 3908.2
kWh/m2/year at BD11 and 1287.2 kWh/m2/year at CB02 respectively.

Acknowledgement
We are thankful to the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) for providing the
measured moored buoy data for the present research study.
References
[1]

A. Tabassum, M. Premalatha, T. Abbasi, and S. A. Abbasi, Wind energy: Increasing deployment,


rising environmental concerns, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 31, pp. 270288, 2014.

[2]

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Strategic Plan for New and Renewable Energy Sector
Government of India, 2011.

[3]

United Nations, Kyoto Protocol To the United Nations Framework Kyoto Protocol To the United
Nations Framework, 1998.

[4]

K.-Y. Oh, J.-Y. Kim, J.-S. Lee, and K.-W. Ryu, Wind resource assessment around Korean Peninsula
for feasibility study on 100MW class offshore wind farm, Renew. Energy, vol. 42, pp. 217226, 2012.

[5]

D. Y. C. Leung and Y. Yang, Wind energy development and its environmental impact: A review,
Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 10311039, Jan. 2012.

[6]

Global Wind Energy Council, Global Wind Report: 2014 Annual market update, 2015.

[7]

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Physical progress: Tentative State-wise break-up of
Renewable Power target to be achieved by the year 2022, 2015. [Online]. Available:
http://mnre.gov.in/mission-and-vision-2/achievements/. [Accessed: 31-Jul-2016].

[8]

F. Pimenta, W. Kempton, and R. Garvine, Combining meteorological stations and satellite data to
evaluate the offshore wind power resource of Southeastern Brazil, Renew. Energy, vol. 33, no. 11, pp.
23752387, 2008.

[9]

N. Salvao, M. Bernardino, and C. G. Soares, Assessing the offshore wind energy potential along the
coasts of Portugal and Galicia, no. 2006, pp. 9951002, 2014.

[10]

W. G. Frh, Long-term wind resource and uncertainty estimation using wind records from Scotland
as example, Renew. Energy, vol. 50, pp. 10141026, 2013.

[11]

P. Beaucage, G. Lafrance, J. Lafrance, J. Choisnard, and M. Bernier, Synthetic aperture radar satellite
data for offshore wind assessment A strategic sampling approach, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., vol. 99,
pp. 2736, 2011.

[12]

F. Onea and E. Rusu, An Evaluation of the Wind Energy in the North-West of the Black Sea, Int. J.
Green Energy, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 465487, 2014.

[13]

O. S. Ohunakin, Wind resource evaluation in six selected high altitude locations in Nigeria, Renew.
Energy, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 32733281, 2011.[14]G. Nagababu, B. Dharmil, K. Surendra Singh, and S.
Vimal, Evaluation of Wind Resource in Selected Locations in Gujarat, Energy Procedia, vol. 79, pp.
212219, 2015.

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Job Shop Scheduling Optimization Using


Genetic Algorithm
Rohitash Singh and Ajai Jain

Abstract- Production scheduling is generally considered to be one of the most significant issue in the planning
and operation of a manufacturing system. Better scheduling system has significant impact on cost reduction,
increased productivity, customer satisfaction and overall competitive advantage. Job Shop Scheduling problem
is one of the challenging combinatorial optimization problems that has drawn the attention of researchers. In
job shop scheduling, there are 'n' jobs to be processed at 'm' machines with the objective of minimizing the
makespan, total tardiness or any other objective.
In the present work an attempt is made to optimize the job shop scheduling problem using simulation based
Genetic Algorithm Approach in the presence of multiple process plans with the objective of minimizing the
makespan. Four case studies are considered to optimize the JSS problem. Sequence Oriented representation is
used to encode the chromosome for Genetic Algorithm. GA operators such as Two-Point Crossover, Linear
rank Selection with Stochastic Universal Sampling Method, Exchange Mutation and Elitism are applied on the
chromosome and new offsprings are created. Evaluation of fitness value is done through simulation as it yields
better performance than mathematical functions. A restart scheme, as suggested in literature, is also taken into
consideration to avoid premature convergence. These four case studies reveal that there are more than one
process plan combinations that yield the same optimized makespan.
Keywords- Job Shop Scheduling; Genetic Algorithm; Simulation; Optimization; Multiple Process Plans.

ntroduction Scheduling is broadly defined as the process of assigning a set of tasks to resources over a
period of time [1]. Scheduling has considerable significance in manufacturing domain. The environment
of scheduling problem is called the job shop. Several types of manufacturing shop configurations exist in
real world such as single machine, job shops, flow shops, etc. In industries job shop problems arises because of
the diverse characters of the jobs and order sizes are relatively small. Job shop problems have a set of 'n' jobs to
be processed on a set of 'm' machines. Each job has a set of operations to be performed on set of machines in a
particular order and each machine can process at most one operation at a time. Job shop scheduling (JSS) deals
with the allocation of jobs to various machines with the objective of minimizing the makespan, the time to
complete all jobs, or minimizing the tardiness (not meeting the due date) in jobs or any other required
objectives. Job shop scheduling problems are one of the most challenging Non Polynomial hard problems [2].
Thus it has drawn the attention of researchers because of its theoretical, computational and empirical
significance since it was introduced. Optimization is the act of obtaining the best result under given
circumstances. There are various optimization algorithms that have been developed to implement the various
optimization techniques. An optimization algorithm is a procedure, which is executed iteratively by comparing
various solutions till the optimum or a satisfactory solution, is found. There are two categories of optimization
Rohitash Singh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, Ph.D. Scholar
rohitashsingh2703@gmail.com
Ajai Jain
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Professor, N.I.T, Kurukshetra (Haryana),
ajayjainfme@nitkkr.ac.in

Corresponding Author; Tel: +91 9412557868


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algorithms. One category includes those algorithms that are deterministic with specific rules for moving from
one solution to another (for example Lagrangian, Branch and Bound, etc.). Another category includes those
algorithms that are stochastic in nature and with probabilistic transition rules (for example, Genetic Algorithm,
Simulation Annealing, Tabu Search, etc.). These algorithms are called Metaheuristics.
In this work, a simulation based GA is used for optimization of makespan performance measure as GA is well
suited for hard combinatorial problems. Genetic Algorithm uses basic Darwinian mechanism of survival of the
fittest and repeatedly utilizes the information contained in the solution to generate new solutions with better
performance. Simulation is used in this work as it yields better results than mathematical calculations [3].
2. Litrature Revew
GA has been applied to scheduling problem since Davis (1985) [4] first suggested and demonstrated the
feasibility by using a GA on a simple JSS Problem [5]. Kumar and Srinivasan (1996) [6] solved the JSS
problems faced by an organization using GA and a combination of dispatching rules. The proposed algorithm
showed an improvement of about 30% in makespan over the present system. Bierwirth and Mattfeld (1998) [7]
proposed a general model for JSS which can be applied to static, dynamic and nondeterministic production
environment. The algorithm was tested in a dynamic environment under different workload condition. Werner
et al. (2000) [8] solved JSS problem using genetic programming. Results for a set of benchmark problems with
both conventional and evolved GA were obtained. Gupta (2002) [9] discussed an excursion into various
scheduling problems arising in the manufacturing environment and possible approaches that could be taken to
solve them. Ombuki and Ventresca (2004) [10] proposed a hybrid GA for JSS on local search strategy. This
proposed algorithm is based on scheduling scheme that is deadlock free. Omar et al. (2006) [11] used GA to
solve JSS, the initial populations were randomly including the results obtained from some well known priority
rules such as the Shortest Processing Time (SPT) and the Longest Processing Time (LPT). From there the
population would go through the process of reproduction, crossover and mutation to create a new population for
new generation. A 5 job 5 machine problem was solved. The number of generation which in this case was 200
generations was used as stopping criteria.
Mendes (2010) [12] presented an optimization approach for the JSS problem based on GA. The algorithm
produced good results in comparison to other approaches. Bagheri A. and Zandieh M. (2011) [13] consider
Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP) with sequence-dependent setup times to minimize makespan
and mean tardiness.
Phanden et al. (2012) [14] used GA for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling. The authers introduced a simulationbased GA approach to solve flexible job shop scheduling problem. Tsung-Che Chiang et al. (2013) [15]
proposed A Simple and Effective Evolutionary Algorithm for Multi-Objective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling
(MOFJSP) regarding minimizing the makespan, total workload, and minimum workload.
2.1 Research Gaps & Problem Formulation
Literature review reveals that few researchers focused on JSS optimization problem with the consideration of
flexible process plan. Therefore, there is a need to carry out further study in this area using GA and simulation.
Thus, in the present work, an attempt will be made to optimize JSS with the consideration of flexible process
plans. A Genetic algorithm based approach is planned to be utilized where simulation will be used to evaluate
the fitness function as simulation yields better results than mathematical functions. Thus, the problem statement
is described below:
There is a job shop consisting of 15 machines. It can process a production order consisting of 'n' part types.
Each part type can be processed with several multiple process plans. The objective is to select the process plan
of each part type in order to minimize makespan using simulation based Genetic Algorithm approach. The
various assumptions that will be taken into consideration are given below:
w
w
w
w
w
w

Production quantity of each part type is unity


Infinite buffer capacities are assumed in front of individual machine and each part enters buffer location
before the processing at machine.
All parts are available at the start of processing.
A part may return to an earlier visited machine. However, two consecutive operations are not allowed in the
same machine.
Shortest Processing Time (SPT) is used as dispatching rule with First Come First Serve rule as tie breaker to
process the part.
All machines are available at zero time.

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Job Shop Scheduling Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm


3. Methodology
Following are the parameters and their values taken for our case studies:
w Number of Machines (m) = 15
w Number of Parts (n) = 12
w Crossover Probability (pc) = 0.8w
w Mutation Probability (pm) = 0.2
w Elitism Rate (e_rate) = 0.9
w Population Size (pop_size) = 10

3.1 Representation/ Encoding


In this work, sequence oriented encoding is used for representation of chromosome. Here, a bit (gene) of
chromosome is formed by a process plan number (i.e. alphabets) of a job type. Each bit of the chromosome is in
fixed order to represent associate process plan of a job type. For example, there are twelve job types 1, 2, 4, 6, 7,
8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17 and 18 having one, two, four, three, nine, ten, two, two, four, four, sixteen and eight process
plans respectively and each job type can be processed through any of its given Multiple Process Plan (MPP). A
chromosome following sequence oriented encoding for the above parts can be coded as [11 11 13 11 16 15
11 12 11 14 112 18]. Here the first gene i.e. 11 represents processing of job type 1 by following its 1st Process
Plan of sequence 1st and the second gene i.e. 11 represents processing of job type 2 by following its 1st Process
Plan of sequence 1st. Similarly third gene i.e. 13 represents processing of job type 4 using its 3rd Process Plan of
sequence 1st and so on. These numbering of process plans for the particular job type as well as the job sequence
are already known. In a chromosome the number in the ith position represents the selected process plan of the
job type j.
3.2 Initialization
For the initialization, population is generated randomly as performance of Genetic Algorithm is found better
with a random start than from a reselected starting population [16]. The population is generated randomly,
covering the entire range of possible solutions.
3.3 Evaluation Of Fitness Function
After the generation of new population, fitness value of each chromosome is calculated. Fitness is the
performance evaluation of chromosomes [17]. Higher the fitness value, better the performance of the
chromosome. Hence, parents with higher fitness values have more chances to survive. Genetic Algorithm is
naturally suitable for solving maximization problems [18]. The objective function in this research work is the
minimization of makespan f(x). This minimization problem is transformed into maximization problem by using
the following relation:
F(x) = 1/ (1+f(x))
Where f(x) = makespan of a chromosome
F(x) = fitness function of GA
For finding out the makespan of each chromosome i.e. job mix f(x) simulation is used. Simulation is preferred
to mathematical functions as it results in good performance close to actual system performance. Mathematical
calculations are time consuming and sometimes tedious to solve. Moreover, the results obtained from
mathematical functions may not reflect the performance of actual system. ProModel software is used for
simulation and to calculate the makespan for the part mix due to its adaptability and easy to use functions.
Modelling of job shop for each chromosome is carried out using ProModel and makespan is provided by
software after simulation. Further, this value of the makespan is converted into the fitness value as discussed
above.
3.4 Selection
Linear Ranking Selection is used for selection in the present study. In this method, individuals are sorted first
according to their fitness value and the rank N is assigned to the best individual and the rank 1 to the worst
individual. The individuals in the population are ranked according to their fitness and the expected value of each
individual depends on its rank rather than on its absolute fitness. Once the expected value has been assigned,
Stochastic Universal Sampling (SUS) method is applied to sample the population (i.e. choose parents). In this
manner, a mating pool consisting of selected individuals is created.

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3.5 Crossover
A two point crossover is used and applied on the individuals of mating pool. In order to carry out crossover two
strings are selected randomly from the mating pool to make a pair. Each pair is then assessed for the desirability
of crossover operation with the crossover probability of 0.8. During crossover, the crossover sites are selected
randomly from first to last position. Due to above crossover methodology, some illegal offspring may generate.
Then repairing is done to resolve the illegitimacy of the offspring.
3.6 Mutation
In the present study, exchange mutation is utilized. In this method, two genes of a chromosome are randomly
selected and their positions are swapped. The mutation probability (pm=0.2) is used and is applied on offspring
produced after crossover operation. Then process plans at randomly selected sites get interchanged due to this
process.
As discussed above during mutation, some illegal offsprings may generate. These illegal offsprings are
generated due to limited number of multiple process plans of each part type and it may happen that during
mutation one job type exceeds the limit of available multiple process plans. Thus, a repairing strategy is
necessary to sort out this illegitimacy. Initially, a check is performed to find out the job types that are exceeding
the limit of available multiple process plans. If there is no job type that exceeds the limit, the offspring is not
illegal and does not require repairing process. However, if there is/are job type(s) that exceed the limit of
available multiple process plans, then repairing process is activated. It repairs the genes of the illegal offspring
by replacing it with randomly selected multiple process plans of the part type.
3.7 Reproduction
Reproduction pertains to the further generating the new generation. Once offsprings are generated after
crossover and mutation operations, they along with parent population form the extended population. Elitism
method of reproduction is embedded with Linear Rank Selection method. It prevents losing the best found
solution. It transfers few good individuals from the previous population to the population of the next generation.
In the present study, an elitism rate of 0.9 is considered to transfer the best individual from the previous
population to the population of next generation.
3.8 Restart
As GA proceeds, population evolves over time. Sometimes, the population has a low diversity which may cause
it to be trapped in a local optimum. In order to avoid premature convergence, a restart scheme is embedded in
regular GA. If the best Makespan is not promoted for more than a pre-specified number of generations (i.e. does
not change), the restart phase commences to regenerate the population by the following process [19]:
Step 1: Sort the population in ascending order of fitness value
Step 2: Skip the first 10% of the individuals from the sorted list
Step 3: The remaining 90% of the strings in the sorted list are neglected and are reproduced in the following
way:
a.
From the first 10% best chromosome, first half (50%) of new population is produced by reciprocal
exchange mutation
b.
Another half (50%) of new population are produced randomly.
All newly generated genetic material will only replace 90% of the worst chromosome of the population if they
hold out fitness value better than the worst chromosome of the previous population. Also repetition of the
individuals in the newly generated 90% population is not permitted.
In the present work, restart scheme is applied if there is no improvement in the fitness value (makespan) for
more than 15 successive generation/iterations.
3.9 Termination Criterion
Termination criterion refers to the stopping criterion for further exploration in search space. In the present work,
maximum number of generation is considered as the termination criteria. The iteration procedure continue until
the generation number equals to product of the number of jobs (n) and number of machines (m). For example for
a 12 jobs 15 machines problem, the termination criteria is 180 (12 15) generations i.e. GA will stop after 180
generations and best fitness value obtained in last iteration is taken as optimal solution. Figure 1 shows the flow
chart of the adopted methodology.

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Figure 1: Flow Chart of the Adopted Methodology


4. Results And Dscusson
For Case Study-1, the optimized makespan is 511 Minutes. There are two process plans combinations of part
type of the production order that yield same optimized makespan. The convergence curve is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 3 shows the convergence curve for the Case Study-2. The optimized makespan is 506 Minutes and for
same optimized makespan, there are twenty one process plans combinations of the part type of the given
production order.
Comparison of optimized makespans of case study-I and case study-II reveals that by changing the MPP of part
type, optimized makespan is reduced from 511 to 506. For same optimized makespan, there are 21 process plan
combinations of part types. It clearly reveals that availability of different MPP of a part type in a production
order affects optimized makespan.
Figure 4 shows the convergence curve for Case Study-3. The optimized makespan is 497 Minutes. For same
optimized makespan, there are nine process plans combinations of part type of the production order.
Comparison of optimized makespans of case study-II and case study-III reveals that by changing the MPP of
part type 2, optimized makespan is further reduced from 506 to 497. For same optimized makespan, there are 9
process plan combinations of part types. It clearly reveals that availability of different MPP of a part type in a
production order affects optimized makespan.
For Case Study-4, the optimized makespan is 495 Minutes. Figure 5 shows the convergence curve. It clearly
shows that for same optimized makespan, there are nine process plans combinations of part type of the
production order.
All the results are tabulated in Table-1. It reveals that if we have a choice of MPP than there are more than one
process plan combinations that yield the same optimized makespan.

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4.1 Figures And Tables

Figure 2: Convergence Curve of case study I

Figure 3: Convergence Curve of case study II

Figure 4: Convergence Curve of case study III


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Figure 5: Convergence Curve of case study IV

5. Conclusion
In the present work, an attempt is made to optimize job shop scheduling using simulation based Genetic
Algorithm approach in the presence of multiple process plans. From the case studies considered, it is concluded
that for a given production order in which part type can be processed by multiple process plans, there are more
than one process plan combinations of the part types in a production order that yield the same optimized
makespan.
6. Scope For Future Work
The present work can be extended in several ways. It can be extended by incorporating the aspects of due dates,
tardiness, earliness, flow time, throughput, etc. Dispatching rules used in this work is Shortest Processing Time
(SPT). The problem can be extended by using other dispatching rules such as Longest Processing Time (LPT),
Earliest Due Date (EDD), Most Work Remaining (MWR), etc. and comparative analysis of the results obtained
could be done. Different combination of crossover and mutation probabilities can be implemented and results
obtained can be compared. The case studies considered in the present work can be solved by other MetaHeuristics techniques such as Simulated Annealing, Tabu Search, Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic Techniques,
etc. and comparison of the results can be done. Production Quantity used in the case study can be changed.
The jobs and processing time are manually fed to ProModel software. This is time consuming and likely to
cause errors particularly when scheduling larger problems. This can be upgraded by modifying the software by
incorporating some external files to capture data from any data files available on the computer. This can
considerably reduce the time consumed in entering the job details.
References
[1] Pinedo, M. L. (2005), Planning and Scheduling in Manufacturing and Services:, Springer Series in
Operations Research, New York.
[2] M. Mitchell, An introduction to genetic algorithms. Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 2002.
[3] Rakesh Kumar Phanden, Ajai Jain, and Rajiv Verma; (2013) An approach for integration of process
planning and scheduling, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Vol. 26, No. 4,
page 284302.
[4] Davis, L. (1985), Job-Shop Scheduling with Genetic Algorithm, Proceedings of the 1st International
Conference on Genetic Algorithms and their Applications, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
[5] Michalewicz Z, (1999), Genetic Algorithm+ Data Structures=Evolution Programs, Springer Series
Artificial Intelligence USA.
[6] Kumar, S. Hemant and Srinivasan, G. (1996), A Genetic Algorithm for Job Shop Scheduling - A Case

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Study, Computers in Industry, Vol. 31, pp.155-160.


[7] Bierwirth Christian and Mattfeld, Dirk. C., (1998) Production Scheduling and Rescheduling with Genetic
Algorithms, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolutionary Computation Vol.7, Issue 1, pp. 1-17.
[8] Werner, James. C.; Aydin, Mehmet E.; Fogarty, Terence. C. (2000), Evolving Genetic Algorithm for Job
Shop Scheduling Problems, Proceedings of ACDM 2000 PEDC, Unviersity of Plymouth, UK.
[9] Gupta, Jatinder N. D.(2002) 'An excursion in scheduling theory: An overview of scheduling research in the
twentieth century', Production Planning & Control, Vol: 2, pp. 105 -116.
[10]Ombuki, B. and Ventresca, M. (2004), Local Search Genetic Algorithm for Job Shop Scheduling
Problem, Journal of Applied Intelligence, Vol. 21, pp. 448-465.
[11]Omar, Mahanim; Baharum, Adam and Hasan, Yahya Abu (2006), A JSSP using Genetic Algorithm,
Proceedings of the 2nd IMT-GT regional conference on Mathematics, Statistics and Applications,
University Sains Malaysia.
[12]Mendes J, (2010), An Optimization Approach for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem, International
Journal of Recent Advances in Applied Mathematics, pp. 120-125.
[13]Bagheri, A.; Zandieh, M.; (2011) Bi-criteria flexible job shop scheduling with sequence-dependent setup
times-Variable neighborhood search approach Journal of manufacturing systems, Vol. 30, page 8-15.
[14]Rakesh Kumar Phanden et al. (2012); A Genetic Algorithm-based Approach for Flexible Job Shop
Scheduling. Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 110-116 (2012) pp 3930-3937.
[15]Chiang Tsung-Che, Lin Hsiao-Jou; (2013) A simple and effective evolutionary algorithm for
multiobjective flexible job shop scheduling, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 141,
page 87-98.
[16]Anderson and Ferris (1994), Genetic Algorithms for Combinatorial Optimization: The Assembly Line
Balancing Problem, ORSA Journal on Computing. Vol. 6, Issue 2, pp. 161-173.
[17]Zhou, Hong, Cheung, Waiman (2001), Using Genetic Algorithms and Heuristics for Job Shop Scheduling
with Sequence-Dependent Setup Times, Annals of Operations Research Vol. 107, pp. 6581.
[18]Deb K, (2006), Optimization for Engineering Design, Algorithm and Examples, PHI, New Delhi.
[19]Naderi, B.; Fatemi, S. M. T. Ghomi; Aminnayeri, M. (2009), Scheduling Job Shop Problems with
Sequence-Dependent Setup Times, International Journal of Production Research Vol. 47, No. 21, pp.
59595976.

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Optimisation of Ultrasound Assisted Enzymatic


Interesterification Biodiesel Production
by Taguchi Methods
Onkar and Amit Pal

Abstract Taguchi method is based on the statistical methods for the evaluation of the sensitivity of a set of
response variables or output to a set of independent variables (control parameters). The method is used to
analyze the ultrasonic assisted enzymatic interesterification of Linseed oil. In this work, for an optimum
combination of reaction temperature, catalyst loading, Methyl accetate to oil molar ratio (MAOMR, an L9
orthogonal array is selected in Taguchi methods using Minitab 17. The kinematic viscosity is chosen as the base
indication of ester conversion.
Keywords Biodiesel, enzyme, interesterification, ultrasonic, methyl acetate, Taguchi.
Introduction Biodiesel can be synthesised by transesterification based reaction from oils or fats.
Transesterification being primitive, is the most famed among all other techniques of biodiesel production. The
Pyrolysis is a thermochemical breaking of organic matter at high temperature in the absence of any halogen and
oxygen. The similar mechanism which converted the fossils buried underground to petroleum, but
performed artificially. The mechanism is least famous for being a very slow, energy intensive, low conversion
ratio and finally massive separation process of pyrolysis products [1]. Transesterification too faces some
disadvantages as energy intensive, requirement of highly purified feedstock, cost oriented separation of byproductsetc [2]. With the increase in the use of greener fuels in the wake of environment protection,the
increased production of biodiesel increases the glycerol production too. The cost inherited in the purification of
crude glycerol from transesterification is somehow higher than the convention glycerol and results in an
increased effective cost of biodiesel production [3].
Interesterification is the process of biodiesel synthesis from triglycerides by reaction with alkyl acetates
producing alkyl esters of fatty acids i.e. biodiesel along with a by-product triacetin instead of glycerol. The byproduct triacetin need not be separated out and it is indeed a fuel solvent for FAME unlike glycerol. Apart this
triacetin has other commercial applications too like pharmaceuticals formulations, cosmetic industry, food
industry etc [2].

Figure 1. Enzymatic interesterification reaction of triglyceride with methyl acetate


Onkar and Amit Pal
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University,
New Delhi, India
(onkarrathee@gmail.com, amitpal@dce.ac.in)

Corresponding Author;
Onkar,: 1065, Sector 3, Rohtak-124001, Haryana (India), Tel:+911262285856
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
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Like transesterification, interesterification too is a three stage reaction as depicted by the fig. 2. The reaction is a
catalytic process which can be catalysed by a chemical catalyst viz., PEG200, PEGK, CH3OK etc. or a lipase
enzyme. The process is performed near the boiling point of alkyl acetate used in the presence of a catalyst to
prevent the loss of alkyl acetate at higher temperatures. Methyl acetate and ethyl acetate are the most preferred
for their higher reactivity [4]. A catalyst free supercritical interesterification method is also used for biodiesel
production. The supercritical process needs a very high temperature and pressure of order 350oC and 12MPa
respectively for the commencement of
chemical
reaction.
The critical temperature and pressure
mentioned above are indicative only, the actual critical temperature and pressure depend on the type of alkyl
acceptor used.

Figure 2. Enzymatic interesterification reaction of triglyceride with methyl acetate [5]


Enzymatic interesterification is the other method to produce biodiesel at moderate process temperatures. Easy
catalyst separation, catalyst reusability, use of low quality feedstock, environmentally sound, simplified crude
biodiesel production etc. are the added advantages of enzymatic interesterification [6]. Also, the triacetin
produced during the process does not have any harmful effect on enzyme activity, unlike enzymatic
transesterification. The process can be used as continuous packed bed type as suggested by Silva et al. [7] or
batch production. The disadvantage of longer reaction time for higher yield conversion is significantly
denatured by the use of ultrasonic or hydrodynamic cavitation. The disturbance produced byultrasonic
waves on molecular level decrease the reaction time to 120 min to 180 min as compared to 25 h to 30 h in
conventional magnetic stirrer assisted enzymatic process. The main aim of the present work to investigate the
effect of variation in MAOMR, process temperature, catalyst loading and reaction temperature on the process
yield. Furthermore, the optimum process parameters have been perceived using Taguchi design methods. The
kinematic viscosity is considered as the base indication of ester conversion.

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1. Materials and methods
Materials
Linseed oil was obtained from the Biodiesel Research Lab., Delhi Technological University, New Delhi. The
analysis of oil revealed the main content viz., linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmatic acid and steric
acid as shown in Table 1. Composition of linseed oil. Methyl acetate was procured from Sigma-Aldrich.
Lipase enzyme, Lipoprotein from Pseudomonas sp., lyophilized powder, 0.1 M pH 7.5 phosphate buffer
solution are procured from Sisco Research Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.
Table 1. Composition of linseed oil

Experimental procedure
Ultrasonic horn obtained from Thoroughclean (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi was used for the work. The horn is
submerged 15mm 20mm in the reaction mixture and ultrasonic irradiation was set to 20 kHz. The maximum
rated power of the generator machine was 150W which can be regulated by a regulating knob. The fig. 3
represents the experimental setup used to perform a set of experiments. Minitab 17 software was used to
perform Taguchi design method. Al9 orthogonal array materix as shown in Table 3 .L experiment table was
selected form available list of arrays depending on process variables. There were 9 experiments were performed
using the process parameters as suggested by Taguchi method to complete the orthogonal array. As, the
kinematic viscosity is considered as base indication, smaller the better S/N ratio criteria is selected for
calculation. experiment table was selected form available list of arrays depending on process variables. There
were 9 experiments were performed using the process parameters as suggested by Taguchi method to complete
the orthogonal array. As, the kinematic viscosity is considered as base indication, smaller the better S/N ratio
criteria is selected for calculation.
Reaction temperature (oC), MAOMR, catalyst loading and reaction time (min.) were selected as the four
process control factors. The selected factor levels were as shown in Table2. Factors and their levels.

Figure 3. Experimental setup of ultrasonic assisted enzymatic interesterification


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A 50 gm. dried and pre-filtered Linseed oil sample at desired temperature is taken in the air tight glass reactor
equipped with a waterbath to maintain the constant process temperature. A condenser was used to
condense the vapour methyl acetate from the reaction and reintroduced to the reactor. The desired enzyme
amount is incubated with 0.1 M pH 7.5 phosphate buffer solution for 5 min. and added to the oil sample in the
reactor. After the predefined reaction time, the mixture is heated to 60o C in vacuum for 1h in kinematic
viscometer to remove the excess methyl acetate added.
Table 2. Factors and their levels

The kinematic viscosity of the resulting mixture after each experiment was measured by Petrotest Viscobath
manufactured by SCHOTT Instruments, Mainz.
2. Result And Discussion
Effect of methyl acetate to oil molar ratioM e a n o f S N ra tio s
Methyl acetate to oil molar ratio (MAOMR) is a major governing factor for the biodiesel yield. The MAOMR
was varied from 6:1 to 12:1 as 6:1, 9:1 and 12:1 and the corresponding kinematic viscosity has been
investigated. The viscosity gradually decreases with increase in MAOMR reason being the increased molar
ration increases the collision frequency among reactants. But after 12:1 MAOMR the increase in yield was
insignificant. The S/N ratio curve and mean viscosity for various molar ratios have been shown in fig. 4.

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Optimisation of Ultrasound Assisted Enzymatic Interesterification........

Effect of catalyst loading


The catalyst loading is meant by the weight of enzyme added per unit weight of vegetable oil. With the increase
in catalyst loading the viscosity significantly decreases but all this happened up to a catalyst loading of 1% after
that there was no increase in yield had been noticed. Fig. 5 depicts the variation in S/N ratio with enzyme

Figure 5. S/N ratios for different catalyst loadings


loading such that an increase in catalyst loading from 0.5% to 1.25% there has been a decrease in S/N ratio.
Therefor an increased catalyst loading of 1.25% will be uneconomic.
Effect of process temperature
Three different process temperatures viz. 30 o C, 40o C, 50o C have been investigated for the influence on
biodiesel viscosity. The viscosity got decreased significantly after increasing temperature from 30o C to 40o C. It
could be due to the fact that increased temperature increases the kinetic energy of molecules thus increases the
interaction among the reactants. But further increase in temperature decreases the extent of decrease in
viscosity after reaching the threshold temperature because at this temperature the enzyme works at its
maximum capacity beyond which its activity starts decaying and falls substantially. A slight increase in
viscosity has been observed over 50o C process temperature as shown in fig. 6.

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Figure 6. S/N ratios for different reaction temperature ( C)


Effect of reaction time
The reaction time is taken in three intervals of 60 min., 120 min and 180 min. The result obtained are shown in
the fig. 7. As depicted by S/N ratio curve there is a magnificent effect of reaction time on biodiesel viscosity
when it is increased from 60 min to 120 min. But the effect got diminished for further increase in process time to
180 min. If we look at the average viscosity curve too the decrease is very low for increasing reaction time from
120 min to 180 min.

Figure 7. S/N ratios for different reaction time


3. Conclusion
The ultrasonic assisted enzymatic interesterification of linseed oil with methyl acetate has been investigated
using Lipoprotein lipase as catalyst. Taguchi design method evaluates the reaction time as the most influencing
process parameter followed by MAOMR, reaction temperature and catalyst loading as shown in Table 4.
Taguchi L9 result table. Enzymes are verysensitive to the process parameters, unlike chemical catalysts which
show a proportionate behavior.

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References
[1]

F. Shafizadeh, Introduction to pyrolysis of biomass,


Pyrolysis, vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 283-305, 1982

Journal

of

Analytical

and

Applied

[2]

C. Komintarachat, R. Sawangkeaw and S. Ngamprasertsith; Continuous production of palm biofuel


under supercritical ethyl acetate; Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 95, pp. 332- 338, 2015

[3]

D.T. Johnson, K.A. Taconi,The glycerin glut: options for the value-added conversion of
crudeglycerol resulting from biodiesel production, Environ Prog and Sust En, vol. 26, No. 4,
pp. 338348, 2007

[4]

A. Casas, M.J. Ramos and A. Perez, New trends in biodiesel production: hemicalinteresterification
of sunflower oil with methyl acetate, Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35,No. 5, pp. 1702-1709, 2011

[5]

G.L. Maddikeri, A.B. Pandit and P.R. Gogate, Ultrasound assisted interesterification of waste
cooking oil and methylacetate for biodiesel and triacetin production, Fuel Processing Technology,
vol. 116, pp. 241-249, 2013

[6]

Preeti B. Subhedar and Parag R. Gogate, Ultrasound assisted intensification of biodiesel production
using enzymatic interesterification, UltrasonicsSonochemistry, vol. 29, pp. 6775, 2016

[7]

Roberta Claro da Silva, Fabiana Andreia Schaffer De Martini Soares, Thas Gonzaga Fernandes, Anna
Laura Donadi Castells, Kelly Caroline Guimaraes da Silva, Maria Ines Almeida Goncalves, Chiu Chih
Ming, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo Gonc alves and Luiz Antonio Gioielli, Inter-esterification of Lard and
Soybean Oil Blends Catalyzed by Immobilized Lipase in a Continuous Packed Bed Reactor, Journal of the
American Oil Chemists' Society, DOI 10.1007/s11746-011-1869-x, vol. 88, No. 12, pp. 1925-1923, 2011.

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Numerical Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade at


Different Angle of Attack and Reynold
Numbers Using Ansys
Mohammad Zunaid, Md. Gulam Mustafa
and Nausad Ahmad Ansari

Abstract- This paper work is on, how the lift force and drag force changes with different angles of attack and
Reynold numbers for wind turbine blade. Analysis of wind turbine blade is done by using the NACA0012 airfoil profile . The Lift and Drag forces are computed at different angles of attack by varying from 50 to 750 for
Reynold numbers ranging from 65,000 to 800,000 by ANSYS. The validations of the present work are done by
comparing the results obtain from computation with the refined the mesh obtain by increasing the number of
element. It is observed that results obtained by CFD analysis matches closely. Almost all CFD computation
utilizes NavierStokes equations for its computation. From this CFD analysis, it is thus concluded that, with the
increase of Reynold numbers, lift forces and drag forces increases. NACA0012 gives maximum lift and drag at
larger Reynolds number.
Keywords- CFD; Air-foil; Drag Force; Lift Force; Angle of Attack; Reynold number.

ntroduction Computational Fluid Dynamics has become an essential tool in almost every branch of fluid
dynamics, is used in the development of aircraft, submarine, surface ship,and recently wind turbine. CFD
utilises the numerical analysis and algorithm to solve and analyse the problem involving fluids, by
computational methods, calculation is mainly to model the effect of liquid and gases with surfaces defined by
boundary condition. The fundamental governing equations of CFD are the Navier-Stokes equations, which
define the single phase fluid flow. In the early days two-dimensional methods were used to solve linear potential
equations, like orthomorphic transformation of the flow over a cylinder to the flow about an air-foil. All CFD
analysis is first started by defining the geometry of the product. However, for CFD the geometry, is the
geometry where the fluid will flow [5], this means that it is important to define the boundaries for inlets, outlets,
far-field conditions etc.
Lift Force,
Lift Coeffienct,
Drag Force,
Drag Coeffienct,

Mohammad Zunaid, Md. Gulam Mustafa and Nausad Ahmad Ansari


Department of Mechanical Engineer, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi-110042.
mzunaid3k@gmail.com, gm09mes31@gmail.com, naushad.nsr@gmail.com

Corresponding Author- Tel: +91-9312045421

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Chris Kaminsky et al. [1] study is based on the VAWT with air-foil of NACA0012-34 aerofoil, with the help of
SolidWork model, and imported in the STAR-CCM software for the CFD analysis. Two-dimensional air flow
over the air-foil. 2D and 3D simulations of thre air-foil is done using the different angle of attack (00 to 150) and
speed (15 to 30 mph). This study gave the stall angle is 80 for 2D and 3D gave no stall angle.
David Hartwanger et al. [2] research to develop a system, to assess multiple turbine installation using CFD
analysis. They built NREL S809 air-foil wind turbine in two-dimensional and matched their results with 3D
CFD model. Created the cylindrical with geometry radius 2L and length 5L, for generation uses ANSYS, thus
founded that with higher-resolution mesh generation; at high turbulence gave better result and it matches with
experiment data of flow regime.
R S Amano et al. [3] research is based on the aerodynamic design of wind turbine rotor blade by CFD, and to
optimize it. They uses Straight edge blade and Swept edge blade. In their work, they reasarch the way of
increasing the efficiency of the blades at higher wind speeds, while maintaining the efficiency at the lower
speeds of wind. Thus founded in their research that the swept edge geometry gave maximum efficiency at low
wind speed, and power is increased by 20% with the increase of wind speed by over 10 m/s.
Franck Bertagnolio et.al[4] explain the experimental and 2D CFD simulation result of NACA six digit wing
section families, obtain the Ellipsys 2D provide better match result in both attache and stalled flow regime. The
Ellipsys 2D CFD code uses Mentor shear stress transition turbulence model to predict turbulence effect in the
laminar and turbulent regime.
S. Sarada et al. [5] worked on NACA 64618 air-foil, for the 2D and 3D CFD analysis, with the help of
FLUENT code. The result of 2D CFD simulations shows that K-epsilon model do not provided satisfactory
results in stalling regime and while the 3D CFD simulations shows satisfactory results in stalling regime.
Vance Dippold [6] has done series analyses to find performance of wall and different turbulence model,
available in WIND CFD code. Thus concluded that turbulence models, i.e SST and K-e model work well with
the neutral or favourable pressure gradient; however, in the SST model shows better result in the flow with
adverse pressure gradient.
H.Gao et al. [7] have done analysis and CFD simulations to investigate unsteady 2D flow about the streamlined
low speed GA(W)1 air-foil and corrugated dragonfly air-foil at Reynold numbers 55000 to 68000. 2D and 3D
CFD simulations is done using unsteady Navier-Stokes solver. The work found that 2D and 3D simulation
results is totally different at higher angles of attack and 3D CFD simulation results matches closely with the
experimental data.
2. Geometry and Mesh generation
In this CFD analysis, two-way velocity inlet method is used, in the C-type mesh. Figure 1 and Figure 2 shows
the geometry of air-foil with the boundary condition. This mesh generation is done using ANSYS. Two mesh
sizes having 100 and 40,000 elements are used for analysis. Mesh having 100 elements defined as unrefined
mesh and mesh size having 40,000 elements defined as refined mesh.

Figure 1. C- type Mesh


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Numerical Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade at Different Angle ....

Figue 2. Geometry of Airfoil

3. Result and Discussion


Initially, CFD analysis is carried out for Reynolds number 6.5x104, 1.5x105, 5.0x105 and 8.0x105 and angle of
attack of 50, 150, 250, 350,450, 550, 650, 750. The results are shown in Figure 3-10 and Tables 1-4.

Table 1. CD and CL at various angle of attack at Re=65,000

Table 2. CD and CL at various angle of attack at Re=150,000

Table 3. CD and CL at various angle of attack at Re=500,000

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Table 4. CD and CL at various angle of attack at Re=800,000

Figure 3. Graph of CD vs AoA at Re=65,000

Figure 4. Graph of CL vs AoA Re=65,000


From above graphs and tables we can conclude, that, for the lower angle of attack (50 to 250), results obtained in
CFD simulation is distinct compared to experimental values. However, for angle of attack between (350 to 750)
the value of CL matches closely with refined mesh iteration. However, CD values obtained by CFD simulation
matches. The sudden decrease in CL value occurs for Reynold Number=150,000.

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Numerical Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade at Different Angle ....

Figure 9. Graph of CD vs AoA Re=800,000

Figure 5. Graph of CD vs AoA Re=150,000

Figure 10. Graph of CL Vs AoA Re=800,000

Figure 6. Graph of CL vs AoA Re=150,000

Figure 7. Graph of CD vs AoA Re=500,000

Figure 8. Graph of CL vs AoA Re=500,000

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4. Conclusion
Validation of analysis is done by four Reynold number between 65,000 to 800,000 and eight different angles of
attack between 50 to 750. It has been observed that, close matching in CL and CD values are obtained by CFD
analysis in comparison to experimental values.
It is found during the analysis, that CL shows some deviation from experimental data at lower values of angles of
attack, however, for higher angle of attack it closely match with experimental results.
In general, it can be concluded that with the increase in Reynold numbers, lift forces and drag forces increases.
CFD simulation shows, NACA0012 provides highest lift force and drag force at higher Reynolds numbers.
Thus, it can be concluded from the above simulation that in turbulent zone, efficiency of wind turbine is better
than in laminar zone.
References
Kaminsky, Chris, et al. "A CFD Study of Wind Turbine Aerodynamics."Conference, a CFD study of
[1]
wind turbine aerodynamics, Ohio, USA. American Society for Engineering Education. 2012.
Hartwanger, David, and Andrej Horvat. "3D modelling of a wind turbine using CFD." NAFEMS
[2]
Conference, United Kingdom. 2008.
Amano, R. S., and R. J. Malloy. "CFD analysis on aerodynamic design optimization of wind turbine
[3]
rotor blades." World Academy of science, Engineering and technology 60 (2009): 71-75.
[4]
Bertagnolio, F., Srensen, N. N., Johansen, J., & Fuglsang, P. (2001). Wind turbine airfoil catalogue.
(Denmark.Forskningscenter Risoe. Risoe-R; No. 1280(EN)).
Sarada, S., M. Shivashankar, and G. Rudresh. "Numerical Simulation of Viscous, Incompressible
[5]
Flow around NACA 64618 Subsonic Airfoil Using Computational Fluid Dynamics." Advances n
Mechanical Engineering (2010): 256.
Dippold III, Vance. "Investigation of wall function and turbulence model performance within the wind
[6]
code." 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit-AIAA-2005-1002. 2005.[7]Gao, Haiyang,
Hui Hu, and Z. J. Wang. "Computational study of unsteady flows around dragonfly and smooth airfoils
at low Reynolds numbers." 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. 2008.
Rainbird, J. M., J. Peir, and J. M. R. Graham. "Blockage-tolerant wind tunnel measurements for a
[8]
NACA 0012 at high angles of attack." Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 145
(2015): 209-218.
Ferrer, E., and X. Munduate. "Wind turbine blade tip comparison using CFD."Journal of Physics:
[9]
Conference Series. Vol. 75. No. 1. IOP Publishing, 2007.
Menter, Florian R. "Two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for engineering applications."
[10]
AIAA journal 32.8 (1994): 1598-1605.
Abbott, Ira Herbert, and Albert Edward Von Doenhoff. Theory of wing sections, including a summary
[11]
of airfoil data. Courier Corporation, 1959.

228

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Performance Evaluation of Fouled Evaporator


Vapour Compression System
Naveen Solanki, Akhilesh Arora and Raj Kumar Singh

Abstract: - In this paper, effect of evaporator fouling is measured on the performance of a vapour compression
system with refrigerants HFO1234yf as a substitute to HFC134a. The condenser coolant temperature (Tin, cond)
has been varied between 35 - 400C to evaluate the effect of fouling, while keeping the evaporator air inlet
temperature (Tin, evap) and efficiency of compressor ( cp,isn) constant. The conductance of evaporator has been
reduced up to 50% for analyzing the effect of fouling on the system performance. A simulation program is
developed in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) for computing the results. The fouling decreases the
compressor power, cooling capacity and COP. The second law efficiency is also observed to decrease with
decrease in the evaporator conductance.
Key Words Vapour Compression; Compressor; Evaporator; Fouling; R1234yf; R134a

ntroduction Refrigeration involves heat transfer from a low-temperature region to a high-temperature


region. This process is typically utilized by means of a Vapour compression refrigeration cycle (VCRC)
involving a particular refrigerant. In recent past the most commonly used refrigerants are R11, R12, R500,
R22 and R123, but due to their high ODP these refrigerants have either been phased out or are to be phased out in
near future. In recent years, HFC134a is used in many refrigeration applications viz. automobile airconditioning, refrigerators. HFC134a has high GWP, and hence needs replacement by a low GWP refrigerant.
Calm [1] reported HFO1234yf is a low GWP refrigerant. Ding [2] and Cabello et al. [3] have modeled the
system components and computed the performance of the vapour compression system. Lee and Jung [4]
worked on mobile air-conditioning bench tester under summer and winter conditioning for HFO1234yf and
HFC134a. And their results showed that the COP, cooling capacity and discharge temperature (Compressor) for
HFO1234yf are 2.7%, 4.0%, and 6.5oC lower as compared to HFC134a. Jarall [5] compared the performance of
HFO1234yf with HFC134a at nominal output power (550W) in a refrigeration plant. Their results showed that
HFO1234yf gives less cooling capacity, COP, and compressor efficiency by 3.4-13.7%, 0.35-11.88% and 06.3% in comparison to HFC134a. Reasor et al. [6] studied that due to environmental concerns, refrigerants with

Naveen Solanki
Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, PSP Area
Sector-22, Rohini Delhi-110086, E-mail: naveensolanki1984@gmail.com
Akhilesh Arora and Raj Kumar Singh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulat Pur, Bawana Road,
Delhi-110042,
E-mail: akhilesharora@dce.ac.in, rajkumarsingh@dce.ac.in
2
Corresponding Author; Tel: 9310279932
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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a low global warming impact are gaining importance in the refrigeration industry. Refrigerant R1234yf has a
low GWP of 4, compared to 1430 for R134a, and has thermodynamic properties similar to R134a, making it a
desirable choice for future automotive refrigerants.
The literature survey shows that HFOs are next generation refrigerants. These are the alternative refrigerants
but their performance evaluation is must, before putting them into commercial use. Their performance should
be evaluated under ideal and actual working conditions.
During the operation of system, the performance under actual working condition is dependent on the fouling of
heat exchanger. The scale deposition on the surfaces of heat exchanger (evaporator) tubes increases thermal
resistance and hence affecting the system performance. The sensitivity of the heat exchanger to fouling is
strongly dependent on the type of fouling as well as the specifics of the heat exchanger geometry. Ahn et al. [7]
examined experimentally the air-side particulate fouling in fin-and-tube heat exchangers of air conditioners.
They observed that the important parameters influencing the fouling of heat exchangers are the concentration
and size of indoor pollutants, the filter efficiency, hydrophilicity of fin surfaces and fin spacing. The pressure
drop of heat exchangers increases due to the deposition of indoor pollutants larger than 1 m in size and
increases up to 44% in the samples used for 7 years. The air-side particulate fouling degrades the cooling
capacity by 10-15% in the samples. Yang et al. [8] discussed the impact of evaporator fouling on the
performance of R22 packaged air conditioners. In this study it was found that the equipment cooling capacity is
reduced with fouling primarily because of a decrease in airflow due to the increased pressure drop. Fouling
affects evaporator-side fan power which in turn affects the equipment EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio)
significantly. Comparing the fan power for fouled conditions to the fan power for clean conditions, the variation
ranged from approximately 7% to a value as high as 40%.
From the literature survey it clear that there does not exist any study on the effect of fouling when using low
GWP HFO refrigerants. Accordingly in this paper the system performance is computed on the basis of
combined first law (Energy analysis) and the second law (Exergy analysis) of thermodynamics under fouled
conditions for HFO1234yf and HFC134a. The effect of variation in evaporator conductance and condenser
coolant inlet temperatures has been examined on the performance of the system. The parameters computed are
COP, cooling capacity, compressor work and second law efficiency.
2. Model Descriptions
The schematic and T-S diagrams of vapour compression system/cycle are shown in figures 1 and 2 respectively.

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of a simple VCRS

230

Performance Evaluation of Fouled Evaporator Vapour.....

Figure 2: Temperature Entropy diagram of VCRC


The various processes occurring in vapour compression cycle
I) Process 4-5s: Isentropic compression of the vapour from state 4 to 5s. However the compression is never
isentropic and hence in actual compression process (4-5) the exit state from the compressor is 5.
ii) Process 5-6: Heat rejection at constant pressure to the surrounding from the discharge line.
iii) Process 6-1: Heat rejection in condenser at constant pressure.
iv) Process 1-2: An irreversible adiabatic expansion of vapour through the expansion valve or throttling device.
The pressure and temperature of the liquid are reduced. The process is accompanied by partial evaporation of
some liquid. The process is shown by dotted line because it is irreversible.
v) Process 2-3: Heat absorption in evaporator at constant pressure. The final state 3 the refrigerant is in the dry
saturated state at the exit from the evaporator.
vi) Process 3-4: The temperature at the exit is lower than the ambient temperature hence heat is transferred
from surroundings to the refrigerant in the suction line at constant pressure.
Considering the steady-state cyclic operation and applying the first law of thermodynamics to the system as
shown in Figure 2, the equation (1) can be obtained as under:

The heat-transfer rate in the evaporator is given by:


(2)
In terms of effectiveness (), minimum heat capacity (Cmin) and temperature difference Qevap can be written as
(3)
Where T2 is the temperature of refrigerant entering to evaporator and T7 is the outside air temperature entering to
evaporator.
Similarly, the heat-transfer rate in the condenser is given by

Where T1 is the temperature of saturated liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser and T9 is the outside air
temperature entering the condenser for cooling the refrigerant in the condenser.
The power required by the compressor is presented in terms of isentropic efficiency of the compressor, given by

Where point 5 shows the actual state of refrigerant vapour at the exit from compressor.
Work input to the compressor can also be expressed using steady flow energy equation as under:

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Solanki et al.
(6)

Where Qcp is the heat transfer from the compressor to the surrounding.
The heat leaking into the suction line is represented by
(7)
The heat leakage from the discharge line to surrounding can be expressed as
(8)
The COP is the ratio of refrigerating effect to compressor power, i.e.
(9)
The first law efficiency alone is not a realistic measure of performance of engineering device. To overcome this
deficiency, we define second-law efficiency (II) of a refrigeration system which is the ratio of the actual
coefficient of performance (COP) to the maximum possible coefficient of performance (COPrev) under the same
operating conditions.
(10)
(11)

The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is defined using equation (12) as under


(12)
The effectiveness of evaporator and condenser is given by equation 13 and 14
Incropera et al. [9] derived the expression for relation between effectiveness, heat capacity and overall
(13)

(14)
conductance (UA) which is expressed as
The fouling on air side of a heat exchanger is the reason for reduction of UA. The percentage reduction in
(15)
conductance is represented using the equation (16).
The above methodology is used to develop a program, for performance computation, in Engineering Equation
(16)
Solver (EES).
3.
Results And Discussion
The thermodynamic model given above is used to evaluate the performance of vapour compression system.

232

Performance Evaluation of Fouled Evaporator Vapour.....


The performance is evaluated with two refrigerants (R134a and R1234yf).
Input conditions
Table 1: Values of inputs at design point.

The values given in table 1 are used for computation of results in current work.
Effect of evaporator fouling (evaporator conductance for R134a) on percentage change in compressor
power, cooling capacity and COP
Figures 3, 4 and 5 represent the effect of evaporator fouling with variation in condenser coolant temperature for
the refrigerants R134a and R1234yf respectively. It is observed that with increase in evaporator fouling the
compressor power, cooling capacity and COP decreases.

-2

-4

-6

-8
o

R134a T in ,co nd=40 C


R134a T in ,co nd=37.5oC

-10

R134a T in ,co nd=35 C

Percentage change (%) in compressor work

Figure 3: Percentage change in cooling


capacity v/s percentage decrease in evaporator
conductance for R134a.

-12
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Percentage decrease in evaporator conductance


(1-UAev /UA ev, cl )*100

Figure 4: Percentage change in compressor


work v/s percentage decrease in evaporator
conductance for R134a.

The effect of evaporator fouling with variation in condenser coolant temperature decreases the COP, because
with percentage decrease in evaporator conductance ((1-UAev/UAev,cl)*100), cooling capacity and compressor
work both decrease. However the cooling capacity decreases at a higher rate as compared to compressor work.

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R 1234y f T in, con d=4 0 C

R134 a T in,co nd=40o C

0.0

R134 a T in,co nd=37.5 C

R 1234y f T in, con d=3 7.5 C


o

R 1234y f T in, con d=3 5 C

R134 a T in,co nd=35 C

- 0.5

-2

- 1.0

-4

- 1.5
-6

- 2.0
-8

- 2.5
-10

Percentage change (%) in COP

- 3.0

Pe rc ent age c han ge (% ) in coo ling c apac it y

- 3.5
0

10

20

30

40

50

-12
0

10

60

Percentage decrease in evaporator conductance


(1-UA ev/UA ev,cl)*100

Figure 5: Percentage change in


COP v/s percentage decrease in
evaporator conductance for R134a.

20

30

40

50

60

Percentag e decrease in evaporat or con ductance


(1-UA ev /UA ev, cl )*10 0

Figure 6: Percentage change in


cooling capacity v/s percentage
decrease in evaporator conductance
for R1234yf.

Figures 6, 7 and 8 show the variation of percentage changes (%) in Qevap, Wcp, and COP with percentage decrease
in evaporator conductance for R1234yf.

R1234yf Ti n,cond=40 C

R1 234yf T i n,cond =4 0 C

R1234yf Ti n,cond=37.5 C

R1 234yf T i n,cond =3 7.5 C

R1 234yf T i in,co nd=35 C

R1234yf Ti n,cond=35 C

-2

-1
-4

-2
-6

-3

Percentage change (%) in compressor work

-1 0
0

10

20

30

40

50

Percentage decrease in evaporator conductance


(1-UAe v/UAe v, cl )*100

Figure 7: Percentage change in


compressor work v/s percentage
decrease in evaporator conductance
for R1234yf

60

Percentage change (%) in COP

-8

-4
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Percentage decrease in evaporator conductance


(1-UAev /UAe v,cl )*100

Figure 8: Percentage change in COP v/s


percentage decrease in evaporator
conductance for R1234yf.

The trends are similar in figures 6 to 8 for R1234yf when compared with the results of R134a shown in figures 3
to 5; hence it does not require explanation. The percentage decrease in the values of cooling capacity and
compressor power is more in case of HFC134a as compared to HFO1234yf. However the percentage decrease
in COP for HFO1234yf is more than HFC134a. The decrease in value of COP for R1234yf is 3.59% and for
R134a is 2.99%.
Figures 9 and 10 show the variation of second-law efficiency (II) %, with evaporator fouling from 0% to 50%,
at Tin,cond = 40oC, 37.5 oC, 35 oC, for refrigerants R134a and R1234yf.

234

Performance Evaluation of Fouled Evaporator Vapour.....


25.0

21.5
o

R134a Ti n,cond =40 C


24.8

R134a Ti n,cond =37.5 C

21.0

R134a Ti n,cond =35o C


II

(%)

II

(%)

24.6

20.5

24.4
24.2

20.0

24.0

19.5
o
R1234yf Tin,cond=40 C

23.8

23.4
0

10

20

30

40

50

Percentage decrease in evaporator conductance


(1-UAev/UAev,cl)*100

Figure 9: Second-law efficiency (%)


v/s percentage decrease in evaporator
conductance for R134a.

60

Second - law efficiency, n

Second - law efficiency, n

23.6

19.0

o
R1234yf Tin,cond=37.5 C
o
R1234yf Tin,cond=35 C

18.5
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Percentage decrease in evaporator conductance


(1-UAev/UAev,cl)*100

Figure 10: Second-law efficiency (%)


v/s percentage decrease in evaporator
conductance for R1234yf.

The comparison of the result of second law efficiency at condenser inlet temperature of 40oC, 37.5 oC, & 35 oC
for unfouled condition & 50% reduction in evaporator conductance due to fouling are shown in Table 2.
Table 2 : Comparison of second-law efficiency (evaporator under fouled condition) for Refrigerant R1234yf
with R134a.

From the above table it is clear that, the second-law efficiency for R1234yf is about 5-6% lower than R134a
under clean as well as fouled condition.
4. Conclusions
On the basis of results obtained from thermodynamic model, following conclusions are drawnEffect of fouling on the performance of a simple vapour compression cycle has been evaluated by varying
condenser coolant inlet temperature Tin,cond (i.e. 35oC, 37.5 oC and 40 oC), and also by varying evaporator
conductances (i.e. 0% - 50%), for the refrigerant R134a and R1234yf.
In evaporator fouling it has been observed that:It is observed that the evaporator fouling has larger effect on cooling capacity (Qevap%) as it decreases by 12.08
for R134a and 11.19 for R1234yf. The compressor power (Wcp%) also decreases by 9.63 for R134a and 8.31
for R1234yf. The maximum percentage decrease in value of COP for R1234yf and R134a is 3.59 and 2.99
respectively. The second-law efficiency is also observed to decrease with decrease in the evaporator
conductance for both Refrigerants (R134a and R1234yf).
Refrences
[1]
Calm, J., 2008. The next generation of refrigerants Historical review, considerations, and outlook.
International Journal of Refrigeration 31: 1123-1133.
[2]
Ding, G., 2007. Recent development in simulation techniques for vapour-compression refrigeration
systems. International Journal of Refrigeration 1-15.

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[3]

[4]
[5]
[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

Cabello, R., J., Navarro and E., Torrella, 2005. Simplified steady-state modelling of a single stage
vapour compression plant Model development and validation. Applied Thermal Engineering 25,
17401752.
Lee, Y., and D. Jung, 2011. A brief performance comparison of R1234yf and R134a in a bench tester for
automobile application. Applied Thermal Engineering 35: 240-242.
Jarall, S. 2012. Study of refrigeration with HFO-1234yf as a working fluid. International Journal of
Refrigeration 35: 1668-1677.
Reasor, P., V., Aute, and R. Radermacher. 2010. Refrigerant R1234yf Performance Comparison
Investigation. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue University
Paper No.1085.
Ahn, Y., S., Cheong, Y., Jung, and J., Lee, 2006. An Experimental Study of the Air-Side Particulate
Fouling in Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchangers of Air Conditioners. International Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning conference at Purdue University Paper No. 818.
Yang, L., J., E., Braun, and E., A., Groll, 2004. The Impact of Evaporator Fouling on the Performance
of Packaged Air Conditioners. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at
Purdue University Paper No. 687.
Incropera, F.P., D.P. DeWitt, T., Bergman, and A. Lavine. 2006. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass
Transfer. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

NOMENCLATURE
Minimum value of the thermal
Capacitance rate (kWK-1)
CFCs- Chloro-fluoro-carbons
COP- Coefficient of performance
EES- Engineering equation solver
GWP- Global warming potential
HCFCs-Hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons
HFO- Hydro-Fluoro-Olefin
mRefrigerant mass flow rate (kg s-1)
Specific volume (m3 kg-1)
ODP- Ozone depletion potential
PPressure (MPa)
QRate of heat transfer (kW)
TTemperature (K)
UA - Overall conductance (kWK-1)
VCRC-Vapour compression refrigeration cycle
VCRS -Vapour compression refrigeration system
WPower requirement (kW)
C-

Greek
Efficiency (%)
- Heat exchanger effectiveness
Subscripts
Act-Actual
cl Clean condition
cd, cond- Condenser
ev, evap- Evaporator
cp - Compressor
dl - Discharge line
sl - Suction line
fFouled condition
isn- Isentropic
min- Minimum
ref - Refrigerant
IFirst-law
IISecond-law

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Effect of Diethyl Ether and Biodiesel Blend


on the Performance and Emissions
from a Diesel Engine
Mohit Kumar, Shashank Mohan and Amit Pal

Abstract The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine
using oxygenated fuels (blending agents). In view of this, experimental investigations were carried out on a
single cylinder four stroke direct injection water-cooled diesel engine using biodiesel(B) of waste cooking oil
and diethyl ether (DEE) blended fuels in different volume ratios with diesel fuel. The investigation was
performed with four different blends (B0DEE0D100, B10DEE10D80, B20DEE20D60&B0DEE20D80) to
assess the impact of using biodiesel and diethyl ether-diesel blends on diesel engine performance and
emissions. No emulsifier was needed for blend to retain homogeneity and prevent the interfacial tension
between two liquids in case of DEE. For the same rated speed and compression ratio, different blended fuels as
well as pure diesel, various engine parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy
consumption, brake specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature and exhaust emissions such as smoke
opacity, hydrocarbon, CO,CO2 and NOx, were measured. The results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency
was increased with an increase in biodiesel and DEE contents in the blended fuels and break specific fuel
consumption and break specific energy consumption being almost same for all fuel blends at overall operating
conditions. At higher loads, reduced CO emission levels were observed for blends of biodiesel and DEE at high
load. HC emissions increased for all blends of biodiesel and DEE compared with diesel and NOx emission
slightly reduced with biodiesel and DEE blends compared to diesel at lower loads.
Keywords: Renewable fuels, Diethyl Ether, waste cooking oil, brake thermal efficiency, nitrogen oxides and
emissions
Introduction Diesel engines are the most popular well known efficient prime mover among the internal
combustion engines because of their simple, robust construction coupled with high thermal efficiency and
specific power output with better fuel economy, much longer life span and reliability which results in their wide
spread use in transportation, thermal power generation and many more industrial and agricultural applications.
Inspite of many advantages, the diesel engine is inherently dirty and is the most significant contributor of
various air polluting exhaust gases such as particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide
(CO) and other harmful compounds which contribute to serious public health problems. Particulate matter
(PM) emissions from diesel combustion contribute to urban and regional hazes. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and
hydrocarbons (HC) are precursors for O3 and PM. NOx emissions from diesel vehicles play a major role in
ground-level ozone formation. Ozone is a lung and respiratory irritant causes a range of health problems related
to breathing, including chest pain, coughing and shortness of breath. Particulate matter has been linked to
premature death, and increased respiratory symptoms and disease. In addition, ozone, NO, and particulate
matter adversely affect the environment in various ways, including crop damage, acid rain and visibility

Mohit kumar, Shashank Mohan and Amit Pal


1
.Mechanical Engineering Department, Delhi Technological University,
Bawana Road, Delhi-110042,
mohitofficialid@gmail.com,
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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impairment.
In view of increased concerns regarding the effects of diesel engine particulate and NOx emissions on human
health and the environment and more stringent government regulation on exhaust emissions, reducing the NOx
and particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the most significant challenges. The rapid depletion,
uneven distribution of petroleum fuels, their ever increasing costs and great concern over pollution led to search
for an alternative fuel to replace conventional fuels. The most promising alternative possibility to clear this
critical issue is to use the oxygenated fuels either in pure form or blended with diesel to provide sufficient
oxygen and promote combustion and reducing PM emission and possibly decreasing NOx emission.
Oxygenated fuels are the attractive class of synthetic fuels in which Oxygen atoms are chemically bound within
the fuel structure. This Oxygen bond in the oxygenated fuel is energetic and provides a chemical energy that
result in no loss of efficiency during combustion. The optimization of oxygenated fuels, to be used either as,
neat fuel or as an additive, offers significant potential for reduction in particulate emission. In this study, two
oxygenates are tested with diesel in blended form to investigate the performance, combustion and emissions of
a diesel engine.

Table 1. Comparison of properties of potential CI engine fuel components[3,6,14]

ether, also known as ethoxy ethane, ethyl ether, sulfuric ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the
ether class with the formula (C2H5)2O. It is a colorless, highly volatile, flammable liquid produced as a
byproduct of the vapor-phase hydration of ethylene to make ethanol. Diethyl ether has a high cetane number of
85-96 and is used as a starting fluid, in combination with petroleum distillates for gasoline and diesel engines,
due to its high volatility and low flashpoint.
DEE has long been known as a cold-start aid for engines, but little is known about using DEE as a significant
component in a blend or as a complete replacement for diesel fuel or biodiesel. To identify the potential of DEE
as transportation fuel a comprehensive literature review was carried out by Baily et al. [7]
Many researchers have conducted experimental investigation on the diesel engines fuelled with diesel blended
fuels. Some of those are briefly highlighted in the following section.
Geo et al. [1] found that thermal efficiency of the engine was improved from 26.5% with neat Rubber Seed Oil
to a most of 28.5% with DEE injection rate of 200 g/h. Smoke was reduced from 6.1 to 4 BSU with DEE
injection at the maximum efficiency flow rate. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide gas emissions were also less
with DEE injection. Sivalakshmi and Balusamy [2] concluded that the addition of diethyl ether into biodiesel
improved the physicochemical properties of biodiesel. Smoke emissions were found lower and HC &NOx
emission was higher for BD5 compared to that of neat biodiesel. Hence, they reported that addition of diethyl
ether up to 5% (by vol.) would be a promising technique for using biodiesel efficiently in diesel engines with
none modifications in the engine. Sezer [3] investigated the use of dimethyl ether and diethyl ether in diesel
engines as alternative fuels. Engine performance for dimethyl ether and diethyl ether was extensively improved
for the same equivalence ratio condition, but a more amount of fuel was needed about 64% for dimethyl ether

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Effect of Diethyl Ether and Biodiesel Blend on the.......


and 32% for diethyl ether. In the experiments of Ashok and Saravanan [4] the oxygenated additive diethyl ether
was added on a 10th by volume basis along with the emulsified fuel 70D:30E. They found that Use of
emulsified fuel increases the brake thermal efficiency and reduces the specific fuel consumption, smoke
density, and particulate matter with much rising of NOx. But Addition of diethyl ether to the emulsified fuel
improved the performance and reduces the emissions, NOx and ignition delay. Phan and Phan [5]carried out
alkali-catalysed trans-esterification of waste cooking oils, collected within Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, with
methyl alcohol in a laboratory scale reactor and revealed that the biodiesel experienced a higher but much
narrower boiling range than conventional diesel& there was little variation in properties among the WCO
samples in terms of chemical and physical properties. Banapurmath et al. [6] did experiments using ethyl
alcohol and diethyl ether blended fuels in distinct volume ratios with diesel fuel. DEE-diesel blends showed
lower emissions compared to ethyl alcohol-diesel blends. Ali et al. [8] blended an oxygenated additive diethyl
ether (DEE) with palm oil biodiesel (POME) in the ratios of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% and tested for their properties
improvement to characterize how the key fuel properties changed when diethyl ether were blended with palm
oil methyl esters. Iranmanesh et al. [9] showed that the 5% DEE-Diesel fuel and 15% DEE-Biodiesel blend
were the optimal blend based on performance and emission characteristics. Lapuerta et al. [10] tested two
different alcohol-derived biodiesel fuels: methyl ester and ethyl ester, both obtained from waste cooking oil.
These biodiesel fuels were tested pure and blended (30% and 70% biodiesel content, volume basis) with a diesel
reference fuel, which was tested too, in a common-rail injection diesel engine and thus the type of alcohol used
in the production process was found to have a significant effect on the total hydrocarbon emissions and on the
particulate matter composition. Zhang et al. [11]revealed that Brake-specific fuel consumption of biodieseldiesel-DEE blends increases with the increase of oxygenated-fuel fraction in these blends. Brake thermal
efficiency exhibits minimal variation when operating on different biodiesel-diesel-DEE blends. NOx emission
increases with increasing biodiesel fraction in the diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends at medium load and at high load
but Particle mass and HC and CO emissions decrease with the increase of oxygenated fuel fraction in the
blends. Zhang et al. [12] developed four different continuous process flow-sheets for biodiesel production from
virgin vegetable oil or waste cooking oil under alkaline or acidic conditions on a commercial scale. Detailed
operating conditions and equipment designs for each process were obtained. The acid-catalyzed process using
waste cooking oil proved to be technically feasible with less complexity than the alkali-catalyzed process using
waste cooking oil, thereby making it a competitive alternative to commercial biodiesel production by the alkalicatalyzed process and The alkali-catalyzed process using virgin vegetable oil as the raw material required the
fewest and smallest process equipment units but at a higher raw material cost than the other processes.
Sivalakshmi and Balusamy [13] observed effects of diethyl ether and ethanol as additives to biodiesel (neem oil
methyl ester NOME) on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine at different loads and
constant engine speed. Compared with biodiesel, slightly lower brake specific energy consumption for diethyl
ether and ethanol blended biodiesel fuels was observed. At higher engine loads, CO and smoke emissions were
found significantly lower with all blends. Patil and Thipse [14] showed that DEE can be mixed in any
proportion in diesel and kerosene as it is completely miscible with diesel fuel. The density, kinematic viscosity
and calorific value of the blends decreased while the oxygen content and cetane number of the blends increased
with the concentration of DEE in the blends. Sachuthananthan and Jeyachandran[15] found that DEE when
added to water-biodiesel emulsion can significantly lower NOx and smoke levels without adverse effect on
brake thermal efficiency. High HC and high CO, which are problems with the water-biodiesel emulsions, can be
significantly lowered with the addition of DEE particularly at high outputs.
In the present work, the purpose of this investigation is to study the effect of DEE and biodiesel (WCO) as a
supplementary oxygenated fuel with high speed diesel fuel (HSD as baseline fuels on the simultaneous
reduction of NOx and smoke emissions. It is also desired to find out optimum blend with diesel fuel on the basis
of performance and emissions characteristics.
2. Experimental Setup
The setup consists of single cylinder, four strokes, Multi-fuel, research Engine connected to eddy current type
dynamometer for loading. Instruments are provided to interface airflow, fuel flow, temperatures and load
measurements. The setup has stand-alone panel box consisting of air box, two fuel tanks for duel fuel test,
manometer, fuel measuring unit, transmitters for air and fuel flow measurements, process indicator and
hardware interface. Rotameters are provided for cooling water and Calorimeter water flow measurement. The

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main engine specifications are: bore 80 mm, stroke 110 mm, compression ratio 17.5, maximum power 3.5 kW
at 1500 rev/min. Engine speed and load are controlled by varying excitation current to the eddy current
dynamometer using dynamometer controller. An AVL exhaust gas analyzer (Model: diGas 444) and AVL
Smoke meter (Model: 437) are used to measure emission parameters CO, HC, and NOx and smoke intensity
respectively.

1-Control Panel, 2-Computer system, 3-Diesel flow line, 4-Air flow line,5-Calorimeter, 6-Exhaust gas
analyzer, 7-Smoke meter, 8-Rota meter, 9,11-Inlet water temperature, 10-Calorimeter inlet water
temperature,12-Calorimeter outlet water temperature, 13-Dynamometer, 14-CI Engine, 15-Speed
measurement, 16-Burette for fuel measurement, 17-Exhaust gasoutlet, 18-Outlet water temperature, T1-Inlet
water temperature, T2-Outletwater temperature, T3-Exhaust gas temperature.
Fig. 1. Kirloskar diesel engine test set up
Loads are changed in five levels from no load to the maximum load. The engine is operated at the rated speed
i.e., 1500 rev/min for all the tests. For each load condition, the engine was run for at least 5 minutes after which
data was collected.
Fuel formulations were made with addition of diethyl ether and biodiesel (from Waste cooking oil) as
supplementary fuels to the high speed diesel fuel (HSD). DEE and WCO biodiesel were blended with HSD as
B10DEE10D80, B20DEE20D60 &B0DEE20D80.The observations made during the test for the determination
of various engine parameters included brake load, engine speed, time for fuel blends consumption, drop in air
pressure across the orifice of the air-stabilizing tank, exhaust gas temperature and exhaust emissions.

Fig. 2.Variation of BSFC with brake power

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Effect of Diethyl Ether and Biodiesel Blend on the.......


Table 2. Properties of test fuels

3. Result and discussions


Performance characteristics
Fig. 2 represents the variation of brake specific fuel consumption with brake power for different fuels. The
BSFC is high at low load for all the fuels and as we increase the load the BSFC start decreasing, this trend
follows approximately up to 50% to 70% load and if we further increases the load then the value of BSFC start
increase. And here it can be seen that the value of BSEC at higher load or even at moderate load is very close in
case of different fuels.
Brake specific energy consumption is the ratio of energy obtained by burning fuel for an hour to the actual
energy or Brake power obtained at the wheels. It is indicative of how effectively the energy obtained from the

Fig. 3.Variation of BSEC with brake power

Fig. 4.Brake Thermal Efficiency variations

fuel is reaching the wheels. In the following Fig. 3, throughout the brake power variation, change in BSEC
value with different fuel blends is not that much.
Even at full load, it is negligible with B20DEE20D60 having minimum BSEC, that shows fuel burnt per unit
brake power is minimum for this blend.
Here Fig. 4 represents the variation of brake thermal efficiency with brake power for different fuels. As the load
increases the BTE start rising. The value of BTE at any load show small variation from fuel to fuel.
Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) shows the amount of heat taken away with the flue gases, hence showing fuel's
inefficient utilization. Therefore its value should be minimum. In Fig. 5, it could be seen that at 50-100% load,
B20DEE20D60 is having minimum or equal value of T6 (exhaust gas temperature) as compared to other fuel
blends.

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Fig. 5.Variation in EGT with brake power

Kumar et al.

Fig. 6.Variation in CO with brake power

Emission characteristics:
Fig. 6 shows the variation of CO with brake power for different percentage of blends. It is formed as a result of
incomplete combustion. CO emissions are higher at lower loads. This due to fact that at low load condition,
although DEE has higher cetane number, its latent heat of evaporation is slightly higher than that of diesel; as
result there is not enough vaporization and hence very less time to burn fuel completely that results in
considerable increase in CO emissions.
At higher loads, enough time available for combustion to occur, better mixing and inbuilt fuel oxygen that
results in complete combustion and hence slightly reduces the CO emissions, for blends at high load. At full
load, there is no significant change between the fuels for CO emissions. The blends of DEE and diesel have
lower CO emissions at full load signifying the complete combustion whereas biodiesel addition to this blend
relatively increase the CO emission at 75% of full load, though the difference is negligible throughout all load
variations.

Fig. 8. NOx emissions variation with brake power


Fig. 7. HC emissions vs brake power

In Fig. 7 represent the emission of unburned hydrocarbons with respect to brake power. As we increases the load
the amount of unburned hydrocarbon emission varies without showing any consistent nature. Addition of
biodiesel to DEE-diesel blend is making the conditions better by providing better combustion and having

242

Effect of Diethyl Ether and Biodiesel Blend on the.......


minimum HC emissions at full load. The reduction of unburned hydrocarbon signifies the improvement in the
combustion properties of fuel.
10% biodiesel with 10% DEE in diesel is proven to be the best fuel with regards to HC emissions. The HC are
one of the major pollutants thus reduction of HC by addition of DEE-biodiesel is a very welcome outcome. It
can be seen that the HC emissions for all the fuel blends are higher with the increase being higher in the
percentage of diethyl ether in the blend. As known, the formation of unburned HC originates from various
sources and varies widely with operating conditions. The increase of HC may be due to the higher latent heat of
evaporation of diethyl ether causing lower combustion temperature, especially the temperature near the
cylinder walls during the mixture formation. In this case more HC will be produced from the cylinder boundary.
Fig. 8 represents the trends of emission of NOx with respect to brake power. The NO emissions are very harmful
and cause acid rain. As increased the load the NOx emission increased for all types of fuel.

Fig. 9. Carbon dioxide (CO2) variation with


brake power

Fig. 10. Smoke opacity variation with brake power

The Fig.9 represents the variation of emission of CO2 with respect to brake power. The percentage of CO2 in
total emission increased when load is increased, this is mainly due to incomplete combustion. When DEE is
blended with biodiesel and diesel there is increase in the percentage of the amount of CO2 in exhaust gases at full
load. Diesel is having minimum CO2 emissions at full load. The increase of CO2 is welcome because it signifies
complete combustion. And hence blending with DEE is a good option to reduce the demand of diesel.
The smoke meter readout displays the smoke density giving a measure of the efficiency of combustion. The
amount of smoke is shown in terms of Hart ridge Smoke Units (HSU). From the Fig. 10, we can easily conclude
that smoke opacity i.e. considered as an indicator of dry soot emissions, as well as particulate matter emissions,
which have soot as one of their main components, are both noticeably reduced with biodiesel blends. Value is
higher in case of combustion with diesel as compared to others.
Since the smoke is mainly produced in the diffusive combustion phase, the addition of oxygenated fuel can
overcome poor mixing of the fuel with air and leads to improvement in diffusive combustion .The reason for the
fluctuations may explained by the fact that the properties of DEE such as its oxygen content and its latent heat of
vaporization (LHV) are in competition. In the other words, its oxygen content leads to smoke reduction and its
high LHV decreases the combustion temperature.

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4. Conclusions
With thorough analysis of obtained result it can be concluded that the Biodiesel, diethyl ether and diesel blend is
very beneficial to use as a feedstock for CI engine. The heating value of the blends decreases with addition of
DEE.
w
From the various DEE-Biodiesel blends tested, the B20DEE20D60 blend is found to be the optimum
blend on the basis of emission and performance characteristics.
w
DEE and biodiesel blended fuel does not affect mechanical efficiency, BSEC and brake thermal
efficiency (BTE) negatively i.e. the above parameters are almost similar in case of all fuels.
w
Use of DEE addition to diesel fuel and biodiesel increases the BTE in a general trend. BTE rises 8.32%
with blend B20DEE20D60 with respect to neat diesel.
w
There is increase in the CO2 emission at peak load for B0DEE20D80 which indicates the complete
combustion i.e. combustion quality is improved when diesel is blended with diethyl ether.
w
Smoke opacity reduces with addition of DEE to the blends.
w
NOx emission of rich DEE blends i.e. B0DEE20D60 and B20DEE20D60is decreased drastically. The
effect of DEE on NOx reduction is more effective than the other emissions.
w
HC emissions produced were more and CO were almost same by DEE blends than baseline fuel.
Considering the advantages and obstacles of DEE, diesel fuel and biodiesel; and utilization of their
combinations in suitable ratio can amplify their advantages and overcome their shortcomings.
References
1. V. Edwin Geo, G. Nagarajan, B. Nagalingam, 2010, Studies on improving the performance of rubber seed
oil fuel for diesel engine with DEE port injection, Fuel 89,pp. 35593567
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016236110002619
2. S. Sivalakshmi, T. Balusamy, 2013, Effect of biodiesel and its blends with diethyl ether on the
combustion, performance and emissions from a diesel engine, Fuel 106, pp. 106110
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00162361/106
3. Ismet Sezer, 2011, Thermodynamic, performance and emission investigation of a diesel engine running
on dimethyl ether and diethyl ether, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 50, pp. 1594-1603
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232410179_Thermodynamic_performance_and_emission_in
vestigation_of_a_diesel_engine_running_on_dimethyl_ether_and_diethyl_ether
4. Brent, Bailey, Steve Guguen and Jimell Erwin, Diethyl Ether (DEE)as a Renewable fuel, 972978, SAE
5. Anh N. Phan, Tan M. Phan, 2008, Biodiesel production from waste cooking oils, Fuel 87, pp. 34903496
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222078826_Biodiesel_Production_from_Waste_Cooking_Oi
ls
6. Banapurmath NR, Khandal SV, RanganathaSwamy and Chandrashekar TK, 2015,Alcohol (Ethanol and
Diethyl Ethyl Ether)-Diesel Blended Fuels for Diesel Engine Applications-A Feasible Solution, Adv
Automob Eng, 4(1), pp. 100-117
http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/alcohol-ethanol-and-diethyl-ethyl-etherdiesel-blended-fuels-fordieselengine-applicationsa-feasible-solution-2167-7670-1000117.php?aid=59635
7. A.M. Ashraful, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Kalam, I.M. Rizwanul Fattah, S. Imtenan, S.A. Shahir, H.M.
Mobarak, 2014, Production and comparison of fuel properties, engine performance, and emission
characteristics of biodiesel from various non-edible vegetable oils: A review, Energy Conversion and
Management 80, pp. 202228
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260194211_Production_and_comparison_of_fuel_properties
_engine_performance_and_emission_characteristics_of_biodiesel_from_various_nonedible_vegetable_oils_A_review

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Effect of Diethyl Ether and Biodiesel Blend on the.......


8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

Obed M. Ali, Rizalman Mamat and Che Ku M. Faizal , 2013, Effects of Diethyl Ether Additives on Palm
Biodiesel Fuel Characteristics and Low Temperature Flow Properties, International Journal of Advanced
Science and Technology, Vol. 52, pp. 111-120
http://www.sersc.org/journals/IJAST/vol52/10.pdf
Masoud Iranmanesh , J.P.Subrahmanyam , M.K.G.Babu, 2008, Application of Diethyl Ether to reduce
smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously with Diesel and Biodiesel fuelled engines, ASME
International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, IMECE-69255, pp. 1-8
http://science.fire.ustc.edu.cn/download/download1/paper/proceedings/ASME2008/data/pdfs/trk3/IMECE2008-69255.pdf
Magn Lapuerta, Jos M. Herreros, Lisbeth L. Lyons, Reyes Garca-Contreras, Yolanda Briceo, 2008,
Effect of the alcohol type used in the production of waste cooking oil biodiesel on diesel performance and
emissions, Fuel 87, pp. 31613169
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222246723_Effect_of_the_alcohol_type_used_in_the_produ
ction_of_waste_cooking_oil_biodiesel_on_diesel_performance_and_emissions
Ni ZHANG, Zuohua HUANG, Xiangang WANG, Bin ZHENG, 2011,Combustion and emission
characteristics of a turbo-charged common rail diesel engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends,
Front. Energy, 5(1): pp. 104114
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226897631_Combustion_and_emission_characteristics_of_a
_turbo-charged_common_rail_diesel_engine_fuelled_with_diesel-biodiesel-DEE_blends
Y. Zhang, M.A. Dub, D.D. McLean, M. Kates, 2003,Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1.
Process design and technological assessment, Bio resource Technology, 89,pp. 116
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12676496
S Sivalakshmi and T Balusamy, 2011,Effect of biodiesel and its blends with oxygenated additives on
performance and emissions from a diesel engine, Journal of Scientific and industrial research, Vol. 70,
pp. 879-883
http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/12685
K.R. Patil, S S. Thipse, 2015,Experimental investigation of CI engine combustion, performance and
emissions in DEEkerosenediesel blends of high DEE concentration, Energy Conversion and
Management 89,pp. 396408
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890414009030
B. Sachuthananthan and K. Jeyachandran, 2007,combustion, performance and emission characteristics of
water-biodiesel emulsion as fuel with DEE as ignition improver in a DI diesel engine, Journal of
Environmental Research And Development Vol. 2(2), pp. 164-172
http://www.jerad.org/ppapers/dnload.php?vl=2&is=2&st=164

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Effect of Grain Size on Springback in V-Bending


of Interstitial Free Steel
Vijay Gautam, Rohit Shukla, Jitendra Singh
and D. Ravi Kumar

Abstract
In bending operation, geometrical inaccuracies occur due to springback. To predict the springback, various
bending parameters and material properties should be considered. In this paper effect of grain size on
springback in V-bending of interstitial free steel has been investigated. To achieve coarse and fine grain sizes,
vacuum annealing and oil quenching were adopted respectively. Microstructures of the heat treated specimens
were studied to reveal the grain size. The tensile properties of the specimens were tested as per the ASTM-E8M
standard. The bend specimens were prepared in the size of 25X150 mm to ensure plane strain bending. The
bending experiments were carried out with the help of a punch-die set with a punch profile radius of 12.5mm.
Springback results were predicted with FE software and are in close agreement with the experimental results.
Keywords: Microstructure, Grain size, Annealing, Plane strain bending, Springback.

ntroduction Bending of sheet metal is a major forming process. In analysis of bending operations,
springback is a major concern as it affects the geometrical dimensions of a formed component and leads to
lower productivity [1]. Springback is the elastic driven process that adjusts the internal stresses to attain
the zero moment and force through sheet thickness [2]. Some major factors such as mechanical properties,
tooling geometry & shape and process parameters have been extensively studied to characterize the springback
[3-4]. The grain refinement is one of the most effective strengthening mechanisms, improving mechanical
properties without loss in ductility [5]. The grain boundary acts as a source of dislocations and the resistance to
the dislocation motion from one grain to another. Strength increases with decrease in grain size or vice-versa as
discussed by Hall-Petch relationship [6]. In this research, major concern is towards the effect of grain size on
mechanical properties which influences the springback. The grain size has been varied successfully by
annealing and quenching and its effects on tensile properties of Interstitial Free (IF) Steel sheet have been
studied to design a material model following power law of strain hardening in FE analysis.
2. Microstructure Analysis
The IF Steel strips of dimensions 150mmx25mmx1.2mm were used for the heat treatment to vary the grain size.

Vijay Gautam, Rohit Shukla and Jitendra Singh


Department of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Delhi, India
vijay.dce@gmail.com,the.rohit.shukla@gmail.com, rajwat.jitendrasingh08@gmail.com
D. Ravi Kumar
Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Delhi, India
dravi@mech.iitd.ac.in
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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The two methods used for heat treatment were: Vacuum Annealing and Oil Quenching. Temperature selected
for both operations was 850C. Vacuum annealing was done in a vacuum furnace in a protective atmosphere
consisting of 90% of N2 and 10% of H2 to prevent oxidation of the samples. Temperature cycle for vacuum
annealing is shown in Fig. 1. One set of bend samples were quenched in oil bath to get finer grain size.
Microstructure analysis of parent, annealed and quenched specimens was done to reveal the grain sizes & is
shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 1 Temperature cycle for vacuum annealing


The changes in grain size were observed due to heat treatment of sheet metal and were calculated on the basis of
linear intercept method. In linear Intercept method, 20 intercepts were considered and then mean of grain size
was taken.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 2 Microstructure of Interstitial Free Steel: a) Parent, b) Annealed and c) Quenched


3. Tensile Properties
The tensile tests were carried out as per ASTM E8M-04 shown in Fig.3 on 50kN table top UTM machine in
metal forming laboratory at DTU Delhi. The representative tensile samples of Parent, annealed and quenched
IF steel were tested and each test was performed thrice to ensure good reproducibility of the experiments. All
the tensile tests were conducted at a cross head speed of 2.54 mm/min. The true stress - true strain curve is
plotted for all the specimens and is shown in Fig. 4.

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Effect of Grain Size on Springback in V-Bending.....

Fig. 3 Tensile Test Specimen according to ASTM E8M-04


The strain hardening exponent (n) and the strength coefficient (K) values were determined from the ln(true
stress) Vs ln(true strain) plot in the uniform elongation region.

Fig. 4 True Stress Strain curve obtained from tensile test of all Specimens.
4. Experimental Set-up For V-bending
The experimental set up as shown in Fig. 5, consists of a punch and die set of D2 steel with included bend angle
of 90 and a punch corner radius of 12.5mm. The punch and die set was designed for 50kN UTM. The punch
was gripped in the cross head and the die was held by the stationary wedge grip. The bend specimen of size
25X150X1.2mm was freely placed on the die and the punch displacement equal to the die depth was precisely
controlled with help of dedicated software.

Fig. 5. Complete Set-up of the bending experiment

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A clearance of 0.5 mm was provided between the Die and lower surface of blank to prevent any type of localized
excess punch force on blank to avoid squeezing action on the sheet thickness.
5. Measurement of Springback
In bending experiment, the specimens conforms to the shape of the die and therefore included bend angle of the
die was used to define the initial bend angle (0) and is equal to 45 for all the experiments. After the removal of
deforming load, springback occurs in bent specimens due to elastic recovery of elastic strain and hence angle
after springback is defined as final bend angle (f). Initial and final bend angles are determined by Eq. (2) and
Eq. (3) respectively. The final included bend angle of the specimens was measured with the help of a coordinate
measuring machine (CMM).
Therefore, Spring Back as shown in Fig. 6, can be calculated by subtracting equation (2) from equation (3), we
get = ( 0 - f )
0
f
where, b = Initial Bend Angle (90 for the die) and m = Measured Bend Angle after springback
6. Finite Element Analysis
Abaqus, an FE software was used for simulations for prediction of springback in V-bending process. The punch
and die were modeled as rigid bodies and the blank as deformable with quadrilateral elements. The elasticplastic Hill's material model obeying power law of strain hardening was adopted for the blank. The Coefficient
of friction between Blank and Punch is taken as 0.125 and coefficient of friction between Blank and Die is taken
as 0.05. The Modulus of Elasticity is taken as 210 GPa and Poisson's ratio as 0.3. The boundary and loading
conditions were imposed on the die and punch. FEA model for springback was solved with Abaqus implicit and
is shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6 Overlay plot of simulation of Spring Back


7. Results and Discussion
Parent material was cold rolled close annealed IF steel with a grain size of 31.33m. Different heat treatments
given to the IF steel successfully varied the grain size and the results for grain size are given in Table 1. Tensile
test results shown in Table 2 depicted that coarser grain size results in softer steel with lower tensile strength
while the specimens with finer grain size renders the steel comparatively harder and stronger. The percentage

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Effect of Grain Size on Springback in V-Bending.....


elongation is highest for annealed samples and minimum for quenched samples which is a well established fact.
The springback results shown in Table 3 depicts that springback is almost negligible in annealed specimens but
significantly highest in quenched samples.
FE simulation results are in good agreement to the experimental results.
Table 1 Grain Size of specimens subjected to heat treatment

Table 2 Mechanical Properties of parent material and heat treated samples of IF Steel

Table 3 Comparison of Experimental and numerical results of springback

Conclusions
Mechanical properties change due to reduction in grain size. It is observed that specimens with coarse grains
possess lower hardness, yield strength and higher ductility than that of specimens with finer grains. Annealed
samples show a grain size of 35.6m on an average, whereas quenched samples were observed with grain size
of 26.2m. There is a significant change in the springback value due to the grain size. Coarser grain size in
annealed specimens leads to negligible springback suggesting elimination of springback compensation.
Whereas, finer grain size depicted very high springback, necessitating significant springback compensation in
tooling.
References
[1]
W. Hosford, R. Caddell, Metal forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy, Prentice Hall, NJ, 1993.
[2]
H. Kim, N. Nargundkar, T. Altan, ASME Journal of Manufacturing in Science & Engineering 129
(2007) 342-51.
[3]
R. H. Wagoner, M. Li, International journal of Plasticity 23 (2007) 345-60.
[4]
M. G. Lee, D. Kin, R. H. Wagoner, K. Chung, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 74 (2007) 12641275
[5]
Krzysztof Muszaka, Jamusz Majta, Lukasz Bienias, Effect of grain refinement of mechanical
properties on steels, Journal of Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering Vol-32 (2006) 87-98.
[6]
Hossein Beladi, Gregory S. Rohrer, The Distribution of Grain Boundary of Interstitial Free Steel, The
Minerals, Metals and Materials Society and ASM International 2013, Volume 44A.

251

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Oct. 14 & 15.

CFD Analysis and Optimisation of Operational


Parameters for an F1 Racing Car's Front
Wing to Maximize Its Aerodynamic
Performance
Raj Kumar Singh, Mohammad Zunaid, Md. Gulam Mustafa
and Jasmeet Singh

Abstract- A great deal of research has been done on the aerodynamic characteristics of race cars competing in
major racing series throughout the world. The aerodynamic performance of a racing car is greatly influenced by
the front wing, producing the downforce which is responsible for overall car performance. The study focuses on
finding the efficiency of a front wing expressed in lift to drag ratio in the case of different operational parametric
combinations and selecting the combination corresponding to maximum efficiency. K-epsilon turbulence
model was used in computational fluid dynamics analysis using Gambit and Fluent software along with Solid
Works as the tool for designing the front wing. The parametric study was conducted to find the effect of change
in ground clearance, Reynolds number and angle of attack on wing's aerodynamic performance for the design
of high performance high-speed race cars the adjustable wings capable of altering the angles of attack and
ground clearance is the best design option for any race car for racing safely with variable speeds. The results
obtained can be used to develop a mathematical model that can predict the aerodynamic forces acting on the
front wing for any operational condition. Consequently, this model can be used for governing the front wing
through an automatic intelligent software based operating system.
Keywords- Computational fluid dynamics; Formula 1; Angle of attack; Coefficient of drag; Coefficient of lift;
NACA.
Introduction Aerodynamics of racing cars is very important in achieving the maximum operational
performance and to get the lowest lap times. The lift acting on the car is due to the reduction in normal reaction
forces at the inner wheels ground interphase due to the gyroscopic and centrifugal couple acting on the car
body while taking a turn during racing. This results in an overturning tendency of the car thus reducing its lateral
stability during the race. The aerodynamic designer has two primary concerns: the creation of downforce, to
help push the car's tires onto the track and improve cornering ability; and minimizing the drag that gets caused
by turbulence and acts to slow the car down. The downforce allows the race car to withstand corners at high
speeds and to have better traction during acceleration.
According to Katz [10], there is a strong ground effect and analysing the aerodynamics of the open wheel race
car, the wings, and other vehicle components undergo strong interaction which explains why it is important to
take into account every single body part of the car. However, our study is limited to modelling the front wing
only and the future investigations with full car model can be used to support our results.

Raj Kumar Singh, Mohammad Zunaid, Md. Gulam Mustafa and Jasmeet Singh
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi-110042,
rajkumarsingh@dce.ac.in, mzunaid3k@gmail.com, gm09mes31@gmail.com,
asmeetsingh16593@gmail.com.
Corresponding Author: Tel: +91 9312045421
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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The front wing of the Formula One car directly influences the way in which the airflow takes place over the rest
of the car since the front wing is the first part of the car to come in contact with the air. It also influences the
diffuser, and also to the main engine intake. It directs air towards the under-body of the chassis, the intakes,
turbos and most importantly over and around the tires. The main factor influencing the down force generated
by the front wing is the ground effect, the angle of attack and Reynolds number. A typical lift to drag force ratio
for a front wing is usually 7-9 (Mehta 2006).
As shown by the research of Seljak [2], the front wing creates about 33% of the car's downforce and it has
experienced more modifications than the rear wing.
Sanal Kumar et al. [4], a substantial revision of the existing idea is required for the design of high performance
and high-speed race cars. Wings in ground effect possess many aerodynamic features of both practical and
fundamental importance. When an aerofoil moves near the ground, flow around the aerofoil is viscous and has
many viscous interactions with the ground. In the analysis of ground effect on the aerodynamic properties of the
aerofoil, the boundary layer on the aerofoil must be considered.
Von Doenhoff [5] investigated boundary layer around the symmetrical NACA aerofoil in zero lift condition.
His surveys were made considering different Reynolds number based on aerofoil's chord. In that work, drag on
aerofoil, distribution of skin friction over the surface of the aerofoil and onset of the transition point were found.
Lian and Shyy [7] investigated the performance of a rigid airfoil and a flexible airfoil by numerical method. All
the cited works were focused on the investigations of aerofoils at a distance far from the ground surface, but
limited work has been performed or reported for the aerofoil that moves near the ground. One such work is V. R.
Sanal Kumar [4] which dealt with the 3D analysis of an aerofoil wing in ground effect and studied the change in
aerodynamic behaviour of wings at different ground clearances. The ground clearance h/c (where h is the
distance between the lifting body and the ground, and c is the chord of the aerofoil (cross-section of the wing)
and the baseline values, are selected based on typical values from literature pertaining to a Formula Mazda car
[9]. Thus the study uses a chord length of 0.381254 m (15.01 inch), four ground clearances 0.2c, 0.36c, 0.5c, and
0.7c and four velocities 40, 50, 60, and 80 m/sec. The corresponding four Reynolds numbers modelled are
1044006, 1305007, 1566009, and 2088012 for velocities 40, 50, 60, and 80 m/sec respectively. Since the
Reynolds number values are greater than 5x105, the threshold value for the turbulent zone in case of flat body
flow, the study is conducted using k-epsilon turbulence modelling. Isothermal flow will be used so that type of
material used for the front wing will not affect the results.
2. Numerical Modelling Gambit and Fluent
The study uses 3D model of NACA 23012 aerofoil as the front wing operating at different ground clearances,
flow velocities and Angle of attack. The gambit software will be used for physically positioning the wing with
respect to the ground wall, defining boundary zones and meshing the flow domain whereas Fluent will be used
as a solver, providing comprehensive modelling capabilities for a wide range of incompressible and turbulent
fluid problems. Since the operating conditions of wings lie in turbulent zone and due to the presence of large
Reynolds numbers, streamlined curvatures, adverse pressure gradients, separated flow comprising of eddies
and vortices and higher accuracy desired, realizable k-epsilon is selected for turbulence modelling.
For experimentally validating the model, 2D aerofoil wing is modelled in different mesh sizes till grid
independency was reached. The experimental validation was carried out for 00 angle of attack (AOA) and the
chord length of 0.2286 meters and velocity of 22.86 m/sec [9] with no ground effect. Our computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) results are found to be in satisfactory accuracy with experimental data on section drag and
section lift coefficients recorded using wind tunnel testing [6].
Ranzenbach [4] suggested dimensions of a calculation grid, placing the leading edge 1.75 times the chord
length downstream from the inlet with the outlet located 3 times the chord length downstream from the trailing
edge. The suggested distance of the grid above the aerofoil is 2.56 times the chord. However the distance below
the leading edge has to be equal to the ground clearance. The grid extends 1.4 meters in the z direction. The grid
domain size is 2.192x1.052 x1.4 for a ground clearance of 0.2c. The 3D wing is then subtracted from the flow
domain after rotating at the required angle of attack.
The remaining volume is then meshes with an interval size of 0.02 mm and the element type is
Tetrahedral/hybrid. The number of nodes corresponding to 0.02 mm mesh interval size is 421487 which give

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the grid insensitive results and also save time as compared to 739093 nodes which help in only marginal
improvement in accuracy (4%). Figure 1 shows car front wing mesh.

Figure 1. Mesh generated in GAMBIT


A numerical is said to be converged if the solution of the discretized equations tend to exact the solution of the
differential as the grid spacing tends to zero. The convergence criterion of 10e-4 for all variables is taken for all
the iterations.
3. Results and Discussions
Figures 2 to 4 shows variation between angle of attack (AOA) and drag force, AOA and lift force, AOA and ratio
of lift force to drag force respectively for ground clearance 0.2c.

Figure 2. Variation in AOA Vs Drag Force at ground clearance 0.2c

Figure 3. Variation in AOA Vs Lift Force at ground clearance 0.2c

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Figure 4. Variation in AOA Vs Lift/Drag force ratio at ground clearance 0.2c


Figures 5 to 7 shows variation between AOA and drag force, AOA and lift force, AOA and ratio of lift force to
drag force respectively for ground clearance 0.36c.

Figure 5. Variation in AOA Vs Drag Force at ground clearance 0.36c

Figure 6. Variation in AOA Vs Lift Force at ground clearance 0.36c

Figure 7. Variation in AOA Vs Lift/Drag ratio at ground clearance 0.36c


Figures 8 to 10 shows variation between AOA and drag force, AOA and lift force, AOA and ratio of lift force to
drag force respectively for ground clearance 0.5c.

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CFD Analysis and Optimisation of Operational Parameters ...

Figure 8. Variation in AOA Vs Drag Force at ground clearance 0.5c

Figure 9. Variation in AOA Vs Lift Force at ground clearance 0.5c

Figure 10. Variation in AOA Vs Lift/Drag force ratio at ground clearance 0.5c

Figure 11. Variation in AOA Vs Drag Force at ground clearance 0.7c

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Figures 11 to 13 shows variation between AOA and drag force, AOA and lift force, AOA and ratio of lift force to
drag force respectively for ground clearance 0.7c.

Figure 12. Variation in AOA Vs Lift Force at ground clearance 0.7c

Figure 13. Variation in AOA Vs Lift/Drag force ratio at ground clearance 0.7c
From Figure 2-13, it shows with the increase in AOA, the drag force increase for a given velocity due to increase
in the wing area intercepted at high angle of attacks. Similar patterns can be observed in drag forces as well. The
increase in velocity result in decreasing drag coefficients for a given AOA, however, results in higher drag
forces for the same AOA due to the presence of 'v2' term in the drag expression. This effect is much more
significant at very high velocities near 80 m/sec. For the same, with the increase in AOA, lift force decreases,
and with increase in velocity lift coefficent decrease for same velocity. The peak value of negative lift
coefficient is observed at 80 for lower ground clearances and 100 for ground clearance greater than 0.5c. Thus the
critical AOA is 80 and 100 respectively. However, the negative ratio of lift to drag first increases till 40 and then
start decreasing for higher values of AOA for all operating velocities and ground clearances. Thus, the optimum
AOA or the AOA corresponding to maximum operational efficiency is 40.

Figure 14. CL Vs AOA for different ground clearances (V =60 m/s)


4. Comparative Study: Graph and Inferences
The curve in Figure 14 shows that the lift coefficient first increases and then subsequently decreases once the
critical angle of attack is reached. This is due to the flow separation over the lower surface of the wing. At lower

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CFD Analysis and Optimisation of Operational Parameters ...


AOA, the flow begins to separate over the wing's lower surface .With an increase in AOA, this separation point
shifts towards the leading edge and subsequently at critical AOA, the excessive separation results in formation
of eddies and vortices in the turbulent boundary layer. This detached flow (eddies and vortices) result in
destroying the suction pressure by slowing down the air flow at the lower wing surface thus resulting in less
pressure gradients and consequently lower downforce. The lift coefficient then continues to decrease beyond
the stall point. However, with increase in ground clearance, the critical AOA is shifting from 80 to 100. Thus, it
can be interpreted that the stalling behaviour for the front wing is dependent on the ground clearance of the wing
and thus gets delayed with increasing clearances. Moreover, the negative lift coefficients are found to be much
higher at ground clearance of 0.2c than at higher values of 0.36c, 0.5c and 0.7c for all corresponding AOA. It
can be seen that with on decreasing the ground clearance from 0.7c to 0.2c, an 80 % increase in maximum lift
coefficient can be realised. Thus for the given wing model, the downforce generated can almost double within a
19 cm change in ground clearance. This effect can be attributed to the fact that with decreasing ground
clearance, air velocity increases as the air flows under the lower surface of the wing and consequently the static
pressure gets converted to dynamic head as per the Bernoulli principle. Lower the gap between wing and
ground, greater the decrease in static pressure below the wing. However on the other hand, the static pressure
above the upper wing surface is higher due to lower dynamic head. It can also be suggested that the change in lift
coefficients on changing the AOA is much more significant for lower clearances than at higher ones. As the
ground clearance increases, sensitivity to critical AOA decreases resulting in a marginal change in values near
to the stall point.

Figure 15. Cd Vs Ground Clearance for different AOA (V = 60 m/s)


The figure 15 shows that with increasing ground clearance, the drag coefficient decreases for all AOA. Also at
the higher angle of attacks, the decrease in drag coefficient is much more significant. This means that drag is
actually intensified my reducing the clearance of the wing with respect to the road .

Figure 16. CL Vs Ground Clearance for diff. AOA (V = 60m/s)


The figure 16 shows that with increasing ground clearance, the downforce generated decreases for all angles of
attack. This can be attributed to the fact that decreasing ground clearance decreases the area of flow under the
wing and thus increases flow velocity and the dynamic head, this decrease in dynamic pressure results in
decrease in static pressure by Bernoulli principle. It can further decrease below atmospheric pressure.
5. Conclusion

The negative lift coefficients (downforce) follow an increasing trend till the critical angle of attack is
reached for a given ground clearance and Reynold numbers. Beyond the critical angle of attack, the lift
coefficient starts decreasing this corresponds to stalling condition in race car aerodynamics. Generally

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operating beyond this stall point results in poor car performance and should be avoided.

The critical AOA comes out to be 80 for 0.2c and 0.36c ground clearances but this point shifts to 100 for
higher ground clearances of 0.5c and 0.7c. Thus the stalling condition is dependent on the operating
ground clearance making this an important consideration in race car design.

The negative lift coefficient is found to increase with decreasing ground clearances for a given angle of
attack and flow velocity. However the drag coefficient tends to decrease with increasing ground
clearances.

The lift and drag coefficients are found to have dependence on flow Reynolds number as well. The drag
coefficients tend to decrease with increasing velocities (Reynolds number) for a given angle of attack and
ground clearance [6]. However, an opposite trend is observed for lift coefficients which tend to increase in
the negative direction with increasing velocities.

The most important parameter to evaluate the operational efficiency of a wing is the lift to drag ratio.
Higher this value on the negative side, higher is the ability of the front wing to generate maximum
downforce along with minimum drag force. The angle of attack corresponding to maximum efficiency is
found to be 40 for all ground clearances and Reynold numbers.

Thus for the front wing model considered in the present work, highest operational efficiency corresponding to
maximum aerodynamic performance of racing car is attained at following operating conditions :
AOA = 400
Ground Clearance = 0.2c = 0.076 meters
Velocity = 80 m/s
As a result, we can conclude that for the design of high performance high-speed race cars the adjustable wings
capable to alter the ground clearance and the angles of attack is the best design option for any race car for racing
safely with variable speeds.
References
[1]

Katz, Joseph. "Aerodynamics of race cars." Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 38 (2006): 27-63.

[2]

Seljak, Gregor. "Race Car Aerodynamics." University of Ljubljana Faculty of mathematics and
physics, Department of physics (2008-05) (2008).

[3]

Abbott, Ira H., Albert E. Von Doenhoff, and Louis Stivers Jr. "Summary of airfoil data." (1945).

[4]

Kumar, V. S., Shankar, S. G., Saravanan, A., Lenin, C., Kumar, N. S., & Sathyan, P. Phenomenological
Introduction of Propulsion Aspect of External Flow Choking at Wing in Ground Effect.

[5]

Von Doenhoff, Albert E. Investigation of the boundary layer about a symmetrical airfoil in a wind
tunnel of low turbulence. No. NACA-WR-L-507. 1940.

[6]

Abbott, Ira Herbert, and Albert Edward Von Doenhoff. Theory of wing sections, including a summary
of airfoil data. Courier Corporation, 1959.

[7]

Lian, Yongsheng, and Wei Shyy. "Laminar-turbulent transition of a low Reynolds number rigid or
flexible airfoil." AIAA journal 45.7 (2007): 1501-1513

[8]

Venkatesan, D. V., Sanjay, K. E., Sujith Kumar, H., Abhilash, N. A., Ashwin Ram, D., & Sanal Kumar,
V. R. (2014). Studies on race car aerodynamics at wing in ground effect. International Journal of
Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering, 8(7), 1169-1174.

[9]

Kieffer, W., S. Moujaes, and N. Armbya. "CFD study of section characteristics of Formula Mazda race
car wings." Mathematical and Computer Modelling 43.11 (2006): 1275-1287.

[10]

Anderson Jr, J. D. (2010). Fundamentals of aerodynamics. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Mechanical Characterization of Epoxy Based


Thermoses Polymer Composite With Sugar
Cane Trash Natural Filler
Naveen J and Veerendra Kumar A N

Abstract- Many researches are being carried out in the field of material science in order to develop new
materials which can provide better mechanical properties, low in cost and does not harm our eco-system. Much
attention of the scientists and engineers is towards reinforced polymer matrix composites in which a binder
material is taken and reinforcement is done in the forms of particles, fibers and flakes or lamina in order to
improve its mechanical properties. Reinforcement with the help of natural filler has many advantages like they
are easily available, renewable, bio-degradable and has less weight to strength ratio. In this paper an attempt has
been made to develop a composite material using epoxy as a binder material and sugarcane trash as
reinforcement in particle form using compression molding process in different wt % i.e. 10%,15%,20% & 25%.
Various tests like tensile test & bending test are performed on the prepared samples and analyzed in detail.
Keywords- Epoxy, Natural filler- Sugarcane Trash, Compression Molding Process, Tensile Test, Bending Test.
Introduction Nowadays composite materials are used in myriad applications in engineering structures that
includes automobiles, airplanes, spacecraft, bridges building, sports equipments etc. Composite materials are
used tremendously in industries. Application of composite material was started in aerospace industry in late
1970's but today it is booming inevitably. Also in automobile industries, due to progresses in technology
composites are replacing metallic automotive parts [1].
Natural filler has gained importance as a reinforcement material in the reinforced polymer matrix composite
due to increasing concern towards environment. Using natural fillers as additives for composite materials gives
a satisfactory result for improving their performance and applications due to biodegradability, abundance, low
cost and high specific strength. It is also beneficial due to low density, mass of composite is reduced by the use
of natural filler.[2]
Sugarcane trash is a abundantly available waste material which can be used as a natural filler material in the
reinforced polymer matrix composites. It is obtained from the agricultural waste and can be treated as filler
material [3].
Epoxy resins are one of the important class of thermosetting polymers which are widely used as a matrix for
reinforced polymer composite materials and also as structural adhesive. It improves resistance to fatigue and
micro-cracking and does not forms volatile products.[4]
According to latest studies on properties and preparation of reinforced polymer matrix composites using
natural filler like sugarcane, bamboo, jute, kenaf, pineapple were carried out.[4][5][6] In recent practice it is

Naveen J
Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering Delhi Technological University, Delhi
naveen.j.murthy@gmail.com,
Veerendra Kumar A N
Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida, INDIA
anvkumar38@gmail.com.
Corresponding author; Tel: +91 7503758119
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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seen that natural fiber composites are used in both interior and exterior parts in car manufacturing, this fulfills
two motives of companies i.e. to reduce the overall weight of vehicle which increases the fuel efficiency and
sustainability of manufacturing process is also increased. It is accomplished in many companies like Mercedes
benz, Daimler Chrysler and Toyota and also scoping to expand the use of natural fiber composites.
1.1. Objective
The main objective is to study and evaluate the mechanical and physical properties of sugarcane trash as a
reinforcement material in the epoxy resin matrix. A series of composite material will be developed by varying
the wt% of sugarcane trash i.e. 10%, 15%, 20% & 25%. and testing will be performed in order to analyze the
mechanical properties of the developed material. The various tests includes tensile test & bending test.
2. Material Used
2.1. Sugarcane
Sugarcane trash is an abundantly available waste material which can be used as a natural filler material in the
reinforced polymer matrix composites. It is obtained from the agricultural waste and can be treated as filler
material. It is obtained by crushing and extraction of juice from the sugarcane, the residue left out in the form of
fiber is converted into particle form which is generally grey-yellow to pale green in color. The two main
constituents of sugarcane trash are cellulose & hemi-cellulose and lignin. Cellulose and hemi-cellulose
contributes about 70% of total chemical constituent and lignin acts as a binder material for the cellulose
fibers[7]. Some other abundantly available natural fillers are jute, sisal, coir, ramie, bamboo, banana etc. These
fillers are used as reinforcement with a binder material to develop newer materials. The selection of the natural
filler should be such that it has excellent chemical bonding with the binder material i.e. the affinity of bonding
should be good between reinforcement material and binder material.[8]
2.2. Epoxy
Epoxy resins are one of the important class of thermosetting polymers which are widely used as a matrix for
reinforced polymer composite materials and also as structural adhesive. It is amorphous, highly cross-linked
polymer which possesses various desirable properties like high tensile strength and modulus, good thermal and
chemical resistance, dimensional stability, excellent adhesion to different materials and negligible
shrinkage.[4]
2.3. Hardener (Araldite HY 951)
Hardeners are used to enhance the physical properties of epoxy resins such as adhesion, impact strength and to
alter the viscosity of the polymer matrix. It also improves the life, lower exotherm and reduce shrinkage.
3. Mechanical, Physical Properties And Testings
3.1. Density and Particle size of sugarcane trash
Sugarcane is obtained by crushing and extraction of juice from the sugarcane, the residue left out in the form of
fiber is converted into particle form by spray dryer method. It is a method of producing a dry powder from liquid
or slurry by rapidly drying with a hot gas. All spray dryers are some type of atomizer to disperse the liquid or
slurry into a controlled drop size spray. The obtained particle size (in mm ) of the sugarcane trash was 2.224mm
in length and 0.479 mm in width with projection microscopic method. The density of sugarcane trash was 0.904
gm/cm3 which was obtained by in-house method.
3.2. Tensile Strength
Tensile strength of a material is obtained by tension test in which specimen is prepared as shown in Figure 1 and
subjected to uni-axial load until fracture in order to find out various mechanical properties of the specimen such
as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength etc on tensile testing machine, shown in Figure 3. The tension test
specimen has two shoulders and a gage in between, shoulders are made large so that it can be gripped firmly in

262

Mechanical Characterization of Epoxy Based Thermoses ......


the tension test machine and gage section has smaller area so that the deformation and failure can occur in this
area.[9]. The specimen has been prepared as per ASTM D 638

Figure 1. Tensile Test Specimen (Dog-Bone Type) line diagram

Figure 2. Tensile Testing Machine


3.3. Bending Test
A three point bending test is performed on the specimen as shown in Figure 3 as per ASTM D 790, to find out the
flexural stress of the material. The specimen is placed on two supporting pins and set distance apart and the third
pin is lowered from above at constant rate until the specimen gets fracture[10][14] the mounting of the
specimen is shown in the Figure 4. For rectangular sample under a load in three point bending set-up, the
formula for calculating the flexural stress is given by Eq (1):
Sf = 3PL / 2 bd2

(1)

Sf flexural stress
P Load at fracture point
L Length of support span
b Width of the spceimen
d Thickness of the specimen.
The span length is taken as 12.6 cm

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Figure : 3 Beam of Material Under Bending


Figure 4. Flexural Testing Machine
4. Experiment Procedure
4.1.

Design and preparation of mould

For mould preparation a ceramic plate was used over which (mould of dimension 25cm 20cm 0.4cm) was
made with overlapping twice the double sided tape of thickness 2mm. A thin sheet is placed in mould first and
then epoxy mixture is poured into mould [11] as shown in below Figure 5

Figure 5. Design of Mould


4.2. Preparation of pure epoxy resin
Epoxy resin and hardener were mixed in ratio of 10:1 after separately weighting them an electronic balance
[13].
4.3. Preparation of composite specimen
Epoxy mixture is taken in the bowl and thoroughly mixed and added sugarcane particle in mixture according to
volume fraction and then continue mixing till its solidification states as shown in Figure 6. Gradually poured the
mixture in the mould and spread it in the mould thoroughly. The mould was filled to brim and was placed on flat
surface. Sharp needle was used for punching to remove the excess bubble. Finally covered the mould with OHP
sheet and pressure exerted on it by putting weight [16]. Left the mould to cure for 24 hours under normal
atmospheric condition. Finally, composite was taken out from mould and stored safely for further test. [15]

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Mechanical Characterization of Epoxy Based Thermoses ......

Figure 6. Mixing of Epoxy resin and Sugarcane Trash

5. Result And Discussion


5.1.
Tensile Strength
Dimension of specimen = (18.3cm x 2cm x 0.4cm)
Parallel length= 1cm,
Gage length= 9cm,
Grip width= 3cm
The Table 1 below shows the average value of the tensile strength for three specimens for each wt % of filler
and corresponding graphical representation as shown in Figure 7. The tensile strength of the parent material
without filler is found to be 22.15MPa.
Table 1- Tensile Strength

Figure 7. Filler content (wt%) v/s Tensile Strength (MPa)

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5.2.

Percentage of Elongation

The Table 2 below shows the average value of the tensile strength for three specimens for each wt % of filler
and graphical representation for the same shown, in Figure 8.
Table-2 Percentage of Elongation obtained in tension test

Figure 8. Filler content (wt%) v/s Percentage of Elongation


5.3 Flexural Strength
Dimension of specimen = (12.6cm x 1.3cm x 0.4cm).
The flexural strength of the parent material without filler is fount to be 40.5MPa.
The Table 3 below shows the average value of flexural strength for three specimens for each wt% of filler and
corresponding graphical represntation shown, in Figure 9.
Table-3 Flexural Strength

Figure 9. Filler content (wt%) v/s Flexural


Strength (MPa)

6. Conclusion
(i)
As we get the density of sugarcane trash as 0.904 gm/cm3 so sugarcane trash can be used as filler material
because adding this will reduce the weight of the specimen.
(ii)
Developed composite having 15% filler is showing good results in tensile test.
(iii) Developed composite having 10% filler by weight is showing good results in elongation.
(iv) It is observed that when percentage sugarcane trash increases, tensile strength of the specimen increases

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Mechanical Characterization of Epoxy Based Thermoses ......

(v)

upto 15% and then it shows decline. The elongation% decreases as the percentage of sugarcane trash
increases.
The flexural strength comes out to be maximum at 10% filler content and then it start decreasing when
the percentage of filler content increases.

Reference
[1]
Fuchs, E. R., Field, F. R., Roth, R., & Kirchain, R. E. (2008). Strategic materials selection in the
automobile body: Economic opportunities for polymer composite design. Composites Science and
Technology, 68(9), 1989-2002.
[2]
Taj, Saira, Munawar Ali Munawar, and Shafiullah Khan. "Natural fiber-reinforced polymer
composites." Proceedings-Pakistan Academy of Sciences 44, no. 2 (2007): 129.
[3]
Begum, K., & Islam, M. (2013). Natural fiber as a substitute to synthetic fiber in polymer composites: a
review. Research Journal of Engineering Sciences.
[4]
Sapuan, S. M., M. Harimiand, and M. A. Maleque. "Mechanical properties of epoxy/coconut shell filler
particle composites." Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 28, no. 2 (2003): 171-182.
[5]
Raju, G. U., and S. Kumarappa. "Experimental study on mechanical properties of groundnut shell
particle-reinforced epoxy composites." Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 30, no. 12
(2011): 1029-1037.
[6]
Deka, Harekrishna, Manjusri Misra, and Amar Mohanty. "Renewable resource based all green
composites from kenaf biofiber and poly (furfuryl alcohol) bioresin." Industrial Crops and Products
41 (2013): 94-101.
[7]
Wirawan, Riza, S. M. Sapuan, Robiah Yunus, and Khalina Abdan. "Properties of sugarcane
bagasse/poly (vinyl chloride) composites after various treatments." Journal of Composite Materials 45,
no. 16 (2011): 1667-1674.
[8]
Luz, S. M., J. Del Tio, G. J. M. Rocha, A. R. Gonalves, and A. P. Del'Arco. "Cellulose and cellulignin
from sugarcane bagasse reinforced polypropylene composites: Effect of acetylation on mechanical and
thermal properties."Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 39, no. 9 (2008): 13621369
[9]
Yang, Han-Seung, Hyun-Joong Kim, Jungil Son, Hee-Jun Park, Bum-Jae Lee, and Taek-Sung Hwang.
"Rice-husk flour filled polypropylene composites; mechanical and morphological study." Composite
Structures63, no. 3 (2004): 305-312.
[10] Rao, K. Murali Mohan, K. Mohana Rao, and AV Ratna Prasad. "Fabrication and testing of natural fibre
composites: Vakka, sisal, bamboo and banana."Materials & Design 31, no. 1 (2010): 508-513.
[11] Shenoy, Srinivas, Suhas Y. Nayak, Ayush Prakash, Ankit Awasthi, and Rishabh Singh Kochhar.
"Interlaminar shear and flexural properties of E-glass/jute reinforced polymer matrix Composites."
(2015): 26-31.
[12] Sen, Tara, and HN Jagannatha Reddy. "Flexural strengthening of RC beams using natural sisal and
artificial carbon and glass fabric reinforced composite system." Sustainable Cities and Society 10
(2014): 195-206.
[13] Kranthi, Ganguluri, and Alok Satapathy. "Evaluation and prediction of wear response of pine wood dust
filled epoxy composites using neural computation." Computational Materials Science 49, no. 3 (2010):
609-614.
[14] Sapuan, S. M., A. Leenie, Mohamed Harimi, and Yeo Kiam Beng. "Mechanical properties of woven
banana fibre reinforced epoxy composites."Materials & Design 27, no. 8 (2006): 689-693.
[15] Yu, Long, Katherine Dean, and Lin Li. "Polymer blends and composites from renewable resources."
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[16] Tatara, R. A., S. Suraparaju, and K. A. Rosentrater. "Compression molding of phenolic resin and cornbased DDGS blends." Journal of Polymers and the Environment 15, no. 2 (2007): 89-95.

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Recent Research Development in Micro Forming


RAME-2016
Oct. 14 & 15.

Dhruv Anand and K R Patel

Abstract- In the recent years there has been a growing demand for micro technical products in various fields of
science and engineering such as electronics, micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS), telecommunication,
medicine, sensor-technology, optoelectronics and bio-technology. For some applications, metal forming
processes are best suited for producing miniaturized parts because of the advantage of the net shape or near net
shape processes, higher productivity, minimized material waste, excellent mechanical properties and accuracy
as well where high volumelow cost production is desired. Because of their growing importance, an overview
of important aspects of micro forming processes is presented in this paper. The current research trends on size
effects on forming behavior due to miniaturization, mechanics of micro forming processes, design and
development of equipment and tooling have been discussed.
Key words: MEMS, Micro forming, size effects

ntroduction The general trend towards miniaturization in the last decade resulted in an increasing
demand for metallic miniature components and an estimated rise in turnover from 15 to 30 billion US $ in
the last few years (Vollertsen, Hu et al. 2004) in automotive, electronics, medical sector, micro systems
technology (MST) and watch industries. There are important applications for micro-scale mechanical systems,
such as micro-resonators, micro-surgical tools and devices, micro springs, micro gears, micro lead frames,
micro-motors, micro-transmission components (Engel 2002; Vollertsen, 2004). All these parts need high
functionality, high reliability and accuracy.
In orer to obtain mass production of micro metallic parts with high precision, micro forming technology
becomes important to fabricate micro-parts. Micro forming is defined as the production of metallic parts by
forming processes with at least two part dimensions in the sub-millimeter range (Geiger et.al 2001). Typical
examples for such parts are shown in figure 1. An important observation is that it is not easy to directly apply the
knowledge from the Classical forming processes. Although at a first sight the process appears simple, being
nothing but geometrical matching of the die and work piece, in reality, micro forming is different from meso
forming and macro forming.

Figure 1 Micro parts for various application made by micro forming (Nguyen et.al. 2008)
Dhruv Anand and K R Patel
Vishwakarma government Engineering college, Mechanical Engineering Department
dhruv_30@rediffmail.com
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)
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2. The micro forming System


In order to understand the problems and difficulties associated with micro forming processes, important issues
and to find solutions, the analysis starts with the micro forming system. Micro forming system can be split-up,
similar with conventional forming processes, into four groups. The four groups are material, process, tools and
machines and e quipment. Figure 2.1 illustrates the variables that appear with miniaturization, related with the
four groups (Engel et al., 2002).
This systematic approach was and is the basis for investigating and identifying the so-called size effects, which
in some way directly or indirectly are present in all the four groups, and which are commonly accepted as the
reason why the knowledge of conventional (macro) forming technology cannot be simply transferred to microapplication. When a forming process is scaled down from conventional scale to the sub millimeter range, some
aspects of the work piece remain unchanged, such as the microstructure and the surface topology.
This causes the ratio between the dimensions of the part and parameters of the microstructure or surface to
change, and is commonly known as the size effect. The sources of the size effects that occur have been
subdivided by into physical (e.g. ratio of surface to volume) an d structural (e.g. surface structure scalability)
sources (Jeswiet, Geiger et al. 2008).conditions of orientation and size of every single grain are reflected in the
forming behavior as it is no longer averaged by huge number of grains. Additionally scatter of results also
increases.
3.Major issues in micro forminng
3.1. The general size effects
3.1.2 Effect of friction
For the investigation of the influence of miniaturization on friction, scaled double cup extrusion (DCE) tests
have been carried out. The diameters of the specimen were varied between 4 mm down to 0.5 mm. Figure 4
outlines the experimental setup: a cylindrical specimen is placed in a die between a stationary and a moving
punch of identical shape. The upper punch moves down and causes the material to form two cups with the cup
heights hu and hl. In the theoretical case of no friction (friction factor m=0) both these cups have the same
height, whereas the higher friction gets, the more the forming of the lower cup is prevented. Therefore, the ratio
hu/hl is quite a sensitive measure for friction.
The ratio of hu/hl increases with miniaturization. The amount of changes in friction conditions was determined
by a numerical identification with FE-simulation. It can be seen that the cup height ratio and thus, friction
increases distinctly with miniaturization, especially in microforming with lubrication. Higher friction causes

Figure 2 Variables that become important with miniaturization


non-uniform strain distribution and reduces formability (Ghobrial, Lee et al. 1993).

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3.2. Micro forming processes


3.2.1 Micro bulk forming processes
Various metal forming processes were scaled down and the effect of the miniaturization was studied. Bulk
micro forming processes like extrusion of micro parts and micro drawing of wires have been studied by Cao et
al.(2004), Rosochowski,et al. (2007) and Y. Saotome et al. (2001). A micro-scale extrusion experiment had
been conducted by Cao et al.(2004) to extrude micro pins of CuZn30 brass with grain sizes of 32, 87, and 211
m, respectively with 1.0 and 0.48 mm in diameter. Figure 5 shows an example of the deformed pin made
during extrusion and extrusion machine. The smallest part known from industrial applications that is produced
by a multi-stage forming operation is a forward rod and backward can extruded copper pin with a shaft diameter
of 0.8 mm and a wall thickness of 125 pm (Figure 6) (Geiger et.al. 2001). Micro-gear is an important actuating
component used widely in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. The isothermal micro forming
process of micro gears was performed with the developed micro forming apparatus (figure 7). The diameter of
the female micro die pitch circle is 1.0 mm with a module of 0.1 mm. The experimental material was 5A02
aluminum
alloy, and the dimensions of the specimens were 0.7 X 1.0 mm2 (Chunju WANG y 2007). The formed micro
gear was observed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The contour of the micro gear is very clear,

Figure 3 (a) Surface model


(Mahabunphachai and Ko 2008)

(b) Flow stress curve


(Engel and Eckstein 2002)

Figure 4 DCE test: (a) dependence of cup height on friction; (b)(d) FEM analysist.
(Eng el a nd Eckstein 2002).

Figure 5 Extruded pin and Micro extrusion


apparatus ( Cao et al.2004)

Figure 6 Extruded copper pin


(Geiger et.al. 2001)

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and there is no burr on the surface of the parts ( Figure 7).


3.2.2 Micro Sheet Metal Forming
3.2.2.1 Micro Deep Drawing
Some investigations were conducted regarding the effect of the miniaturization in deep drawing. Micro deep
drawing of very thin sheets below 0.2 mm thickness was investigated by Saotome et al.(2001). The punch
diameter to thickness ratio( Dp/t), was chosen as an important parameter which varies between 10 and 100. It is
found that when the ratio Dp/t increases, the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) decreases.
Micro deep drawing experiments of Al 99.5 foil with sheet thickness of 20m and mild steel foil with sheet
thickness of 25m were carried out using 1mm punch diameter. The final shapes of drawn cups obtained at
macro and micro scales were compared. Wrinkling was observed on the flange of micro cup Figure 8(a).
Friction force was found to decrease in both cases when lubricant was applied, however, the amount of the
decreased friction force was significantly higher in the micro cup than that in the macro cup (Vollersten et al.,
2004).K. Manabe et.al (2008) carried out FE simulations and experiments for two stage micro deep drawing
process considering tool/material surface roughness. A micro cup of 500m diameter was drawn (Figure 8 (b))
from SUS304-H of 23m thick foils to investigate the effect of tool surface asperity. A surface roughness was
noticed at the inner wall and cup corner, where there are no traces of sliding of the die. This is due to orange peel
texture.
Xiao et al. (2008) studied effect of grain size and orientation on the earing profile of the micro cup drawn from
copper blanks. The study revealed that the grain size and orientation has an important influence on forming
earing profile, but has little influence on punch force. Estimation of grain size and grain orientation which
influence the micro deep drawing processes was studied by H.Justinger et al. (2009). Brass foils of 300m to 40
m thickness with various annealed conditions were used to form micro cups of 8mm down to 1mm diameter as
shown in Figure 8(c). A decrease of geometrical accuracy, a decrease of flow stress and increase of scatter of
flow stress and part geometry are observed as a scaling effect.
Apart from micro deep drawing, a series of tests in sheet metal forming, such as bending, coining and punching
have been carried out in order to observe the effect of miniaturization on the flow stress. The coining process has
been studied using silicon die, Al 99.5 as material which embossed at room temperature. Based on this
experimental result, the feasibility of molding structures smaller than the grain size of the material without
demining the silicon die is verified. Micro-hole punching machine which meets the requirements of process
accuracy for 25m size holes has been developed by Byung et.al.(2005). All these investigations showed a
scale effect of the miniaturization. The embossing technology is often used to produce the small components in
micro chips. The small material region direct on surface will change the form depending on the form of punch
under high press force. Hydro forming processes have been employed successfully in industry for producing
products predominantly relating to lightweight automotive components. A machine system has been developed
for the forming of miniature tubes with diameters down to 0.8 mm and thickness down to 20 m (Hartl C
et.al.2007).
3.3 Machines for Micro Forming
The problems associated with machines or equipment grow with miniaturization. Suitable machines/presses
are required for carrying out micro forming operations. As forming components are small in size, forming
equipment and tooling must also be small in size. Most of the systems are laboratory-based prototypes, with the
exception of some micro-such as bench types of machinery) is available commercially and has been used in
industry. A typical micro press with data acquisition system is shown in Figure 9.
Micro-manufacturing demands micro-handling systems. Micro-handling is the manipulation of small parts
with high accuracy. The clearance between the machine parts that are negligible for conventional forming
processes may have a detrimental influence on the need to be developed to overcome these assembly systems
which may not be a micro-forming in full context. Some individual equipment difficulties in placing,
positioning and assembly of the parts. (Geiger et.al. 2001). Since the surfaces where they can be gripped are

272

Recent Research Development in Micro Forming


very small and the part weight is low compared with the adhesion forces; as a result, the parts do not separate

(a) (Vollersten et al., 2004)

(b)K. Manabe et.al (2008)

) H.Justinger et al. (2009)

from a gripper by themselves

Figure 8 Micro deep drawn cups

Figure 7 Micro forming apparatus and


SEM photograph of micro gear
(Chunju et.al 2007)

Figure 9. Micro Froming Press


(Presz, Andersen et al. 2006).

4 Tools for micro forming.


As mentioned earlier, researchers have used miniaturized tools with diameter in the range of 50m to 10 mm in
micro sheet metal forming applications. Manufacturing of these tools with high precision by conventional
manufacturing process is difficult. However, new manufacturing methods have been developed in order to
overcome these difficulties. Engel et al. (2002) presented a review of the various techniques used to machine
micro-dies, such as electric discharge machining (EDM) in which tungsten wire of 30m can cut steel and WC
with tolerance of 2m.Fabrication of the diamond micro- dies using chemical vapor deposition (CVD).
Uhlmann et al., (2005) discussed several existing variants of micro-electrical discharging machining: microwire EDM (-WEDM) [Chunju et .al. 2006], micro die sinking, electrical discharge drilling, micro-electrical
discharge grinding (-EDG), micro-electrical discharge milling, and micro-wire electrical discharge grinding
(-WEDG). Another method for the production of very accurate tooling is grinding by which a punch of 60 m
in diameter with tolerance of 1.5m and cavity of micro extrusion die (0.2 mm) has been produced (Geiger et
al.,1996).
Summary
An overview of micro forming technology presented in this paper highlights the importance of micro forming
processes and the efforts that have gone into investigations in to various aspects of micro forming processes. It
also presents the challenges in manufacturing of micro parts by this technique considering the effect of
miniaturization on material flow behavior, high precision required and complexity involved in design and
development of micro presses and tooling. These challenges provide an opportunity for further research in
micro forming technology.

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Effects of Cetane Improver on Diesel Engine


Performance and Emissions
Nitesh Bansal, Rajiv Choudhary and R. C. Singh

Abstract- Fossil fuels are diminishing with each and every passing day and there are a lot of emissions from the
internal combustion engines. Government in many countries have revised the restricted norms on the usage of
the fuel and most of the people also believe in being environment friendly. In India, the cetane number of diesel
fuel must be atleast 48 in order to be used in internal combustion engines. Cetane number improvers are added
to the fuel in order to enhance its cetane number and help reducing overall Emissions from the engine exhaust.
Cetane improver can increase the cetane number upto 12-16 and reduces nitrogen oxides, carbon mono-oxide
and unburnt hydrocarbon emissions. Oxygen class cetane improvers such as diethyl ether or 2-ethoxymethyl
ether, added in the diesel fuel in about 5~15% concentration can increase the oxygen content of the fuel for
better combustion process. And Nitrogen class improvers such as Ethylhexyl Nitrate or cyclohexyl nitrate are
used in comparatively smaller quantities ie. 0.1~0.3% in concentration to improve the cetane number of the
fuel. In this study review, the effects of cetane improver on the engine performance and emissions are discussed.
The study reveals that by using these additives, nitrogen oxides emissions can be reduced upto 20-25%, and
hydrocarbon and carbon mono-oxide emissions upto 20 and 25% respectively.
Keywords- Cetane number improver; Diesel Engine; Engine Performance; Engine Emissions; Pollutant; Fuel
Additive.

ntroduction Production of fossil fuels is expected to rise, approximately doubling the amount of use of
each fossil fuel. As world population continues to grow and the limited amount of fossil fuels begin to
diminish, it may not be possible to provide the amount of energy demanded by the world by only using
fossil fuels to convert energy. [1]
Burning of fossil fuels causes emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon mono-oxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and
some others. Nitrogen dioxide is an irritant gas, which at high concentrations causes inflammation of the
airways. When nitrogen is released during fuel combustion it combines with oxygen atoms to create nitric oxide
(NO). This further combines with oxygen to create nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Nitric oxide is not considered to be
hazardous to health at typical ambient concentrations, but nitrogen dioxide can be. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric
oxide are referred to together as oxides of nitrogen (NOx). NOx gases react to form smog and acid rain as well as
being central to the formation of fine particles (PM) and ground level ozone, both of which are associated with
adverse health effects.[2]
Generally, cetane additive is used in the diesel engine for controlling NOx emissions. There are certain cetane

Nitesh Bansal
Delhi Technological University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Student.
bnslboy@gmail.com
Rajiv Choudhary and R. C. Singh
Delhi Technological University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
rch_dce@rediffmail.com, rcsingh@dce.ac.in
Nitesh Bansal; Tel: +91 8950870033
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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additives used widely such as Ethyl hexyl nitrate, alkyl nitrate, peroxide compounds, methyl oleate.[3]
Cetane number is a measure of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel. It is often mistaken as a measure of fuel
quality. Cetane number is actually a measure of a fuel's ignition delay. This is the time period between the start
of injection and start of combustion (ignition) of the fuel. In a particular diesel engine, higher cetane fuels will
have shorter ignition delay periods than lower cetane fuels. Cetane number should not be considered alone
when evaluating diesel fuel quality. API gravity, BTU content, distillation range, sulfur content, stability and
flash point are all very important. In colder weather, cloud point and low temperature filter plugging point may
be critical factors.[4]
There is no benefit to using a higher cetane number fuel than required. The ASTN Standard Specification for
Diesel Fuel Oils (D-975) states, "The cetane number requirements depend on engine design, size, nature of
speed and load variations, and on starting and atmospheric conditions. Increase in cetane number over values
actually required does not materially improve engine performance. Accordingly, the cetane number specified
should be as low as possible to insure maximum fuel availability." This quote underscores the importance of
matching engine cetane requirements with fuel cetane number.
Diesel fuels with cetane number lower than minimum engine requirements can cause rough engine operation.
They are more difficult to start, especially in cold weather or at high altitudes. They accelerate lube oil sludge
formation. Many low cetane fuels increase engine deposits resulting in more smoke, increased exhaust
emissions and greater engine wear.
Using fuels which meet engine operating requirements will improve cold starting, reduce smoke during startup, improve fuel economy, reduce exhaust emissions, improve engine durability and reduce noise and
vibration. These engine fuel requirements are published in the operating manual for each specific engine or
vehicle.
Overall fuel quality and performance depend on the ratio of parafinic and aromatic hydrocarbons, the presence
of sulfur, water, bacteria and other contaminants, and the fuel's resistance to oxidation. The most important
measure of fuel quality included API gravity, heat value (BTU content), distillation range and viscosity.
Cleanliness and corrosion resistance are also important. For use in cold weather, cloud point and low
temperature filter plugging point must receive serious consideration. Cetane number does not measure any of
these characteristics.[4]
2. Diesel Emissions
Diesel engines convert the chemical energy contained in the fuel into mechanical power. Diesel fuel is injected
under pressure into the engine cylinder where it mixes with air and where the combustion occurs. The exhaust
gases which are discharged from the engine contain several constituents that are harmful to human health and to
the environment.
Table 1 lists typical output ranges of the basic toxic material in diesel fumes. The lower values can be found in
new, clean diesel engines, while the higher values are characteristic for older equipment.[5]

Table 1. emissions from Diesel engine

Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and aldehydes are generated in the exhaust as the result of
incomplete combustion of fuel. A significant portion of exhaust hydrocarbons is also derived from the engine
lube oil. When engines operate in enclosed spaces, such as underground mines, buildings under construction,
tunnels or warehouses, carbon monoxide can accumulate in the ambient atmosphere and cause headaches,
dizziness and lethargy. Under the same conditions, hydrocarbons and aldehydes cause eye irritation and
choking sensations. Hydrocarbons and aldehydes are major contributors to the characteristic diesel smell.
Hydrocarbons also have a negative environmental effect, being an important component of smog.
Exhaust gases of an engine can have upto 2000 ppm of oxides of nitrogen. Most of this will be nitrogen oxide
(NO), with a small amount of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). NOx is very undesirable. Regulations to reduce NOx
emissions continue to become more and more stringent year by year. Released NOx reacts in the atmosphere to

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form ozone and is one of the major causes of photochemical smog. We would be using different chemicals or
additives to improve the cetane number. Therefore, they are termed as Cetane improvers.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is generated from the sulfur present in diesel fuel. The concentration of SO2 in the exhaust
gas depends on the sulfur content of the fuel. Low sulfur fuels of less than 0.05% sulfur are being introduced for
most diesel engine applications throughout the USA and Canada. Sulfur dioxide is a colorless toxic gas with a
characteristic, irritating odor. Oxidation of sulfur dioxide produces sulfur trioxide which is the precursor of
sulfuric acid which, in turn, is responsible for the sulfate particulate matter emissions. Sulfur oxides have a
profound impact on environment being the major cause of acid rains.
Diesel particulate matter (DPM), as defined by the EPA regulations and sampling procedures, is a complex
aggregate of solid and liquid material. Its origin is carbonaceous particles generated in the engine cylinder
during combustion. The primary carbon particles form larger agglomerates and combine with several other,
both organic and inorganic, components of diesel exhaust. Generally, DPM is divided into three basic fractions:
Solids dry carbon particles, commonly known as soot,
SOF heavy hydrocarbons adsorbed and condensed on the carbon particles, called Soluble Organic
Fraction,
SO4 sulfate fraction, hydrated sulfuric acid.
The actual composition of DPM will depend on the particular engine and its load and speed conditions. Wet
particulates can contain up to 60% of the hydrocarbon fraction (SOF), while dry particulates are comprised
mostly of dry carbon. The amount of sulfates is directly related to the sulfur contents of the diesel fuel.[5]

3. Types of Additives
3.1 Oxygen Based Additives
Another group of fuel additives is oxygenated compounds. The idea of using oxygen to produce a cleaner
burning of diesel fuels is half a century old. Since that early work, numerous researchers have reported the
addition of a variety of oxygenated compounds to diesel fuel. Some oxygenate compounds used are ethanol,
acetoacetic esters and dicarboxylic acid esters, ethylene glycol monoacetate, 2-hydroxy Ethyl esters,
diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, sorbitan mono-oleate and poly-oxy-ethylene sorbitan mono-oleate, dibutyl
maleate and tripropylene glycol monomethyl ether, ethanol and dimethyl ether, 20 dimethyl ether (DME),
dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and dimethoxy methane, 1-octylamino-3-octyloxy-2-propanol and N-octyl
nitramine, dimethoxy pro-pane and dimethoxy ethane, and a mixture of methanol and ethanol.[6]
3.2 Nitrogen based additives
A common cetane improving additive, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (2-EHN, EHN), can used to improve diesel fuel
ignitability, it is widely used in industries. The chemical formula is C8H17NO3, with the basic structure an ethyl
hexane molecule with one of the hydrogen atoms replaced with an NO3 nitrate radical. EHN is stable at room
temperature conditions, and its decomposition reaction rates are even slower when in a fuel solution at high
pressure. EHN decomposes at temperatures in the range of 450-550K. Examination of the EHN decomposition
process described indicates that NO and NO2 are formed by the initial decomposition, and the final reaction
products include NO. This implies that introducing EHN into the combustion process results in an additional
(fuel-borne) NOx formation mechanism that would otherwise not be present.
Substantial prior research concludes that EHN addition does not increase NOx emissions but in many cases
actually decreases it. However, these studies were carried out with conventional diesel combustion. Relative to
the high levels of NOx produced by conventional diesel combustion, the amount of NOx resulting from EHN
decomposition would be insignificant. Increasing fuel cetane number, which occurs when EHN is added,
reduces the premixed burn fraction of conventional combustion, leading to lower peak combustion
temperatures and decreased thermal NOx formation. This reduction would overshadow any NOx directly
formed by EHN decomposition. For combustion processes resulting in low engine-out NOx levels, the amount
of NOx formed directly by EHN decomposition may be significant.[7]
4. Results and Discussions
4.1 Effect on BTE and BSFC
Amr Ibrahim analysed the effect on BTE with using diethyl ether as an additive and he found the diesel fuel
improved the engine performance significantly as the engine brake thermal efficiency increased and the engine

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bsfc decreased for the most of engine load conditions. The engine maximum thermal efficiency increased from
32% for the diesel fuel to 32.5%, 34.3%, and 34.3% when the DEE was blended with the diesel fuel with
proportions of 5%, 10%, and 15%; respectively. On the other hand, the lowest engine bsfc decreased from 0.252
kg/kW h to 0.247, 0.235, and 0.235 kg/kW h when the DEE was blended with the diesel fuel with proportions of
5%, 10%, and 15%; respectively.
Alpaslan Atmanly performed an experiment using diesel engine fueled with the blends of diesel, hazelnut oil
and he found, higher carbon alcohol and DnBH and DPnH showed slight power loss, attributable to the lower
heating values. Decrease in power for DnBH and DPnH was 2.91% and 4.69%, respectively when compared
with diesel. The lower heating values of DnBH and DPnH are 41.62 and 41.80 MJ/kg, which are 4.11% and
3.69% lower as compared to diesel. Thus, the average increase of BSFC for DnBH and DPnH was 28.64% and
20.87% as compared to diesel, which is in agreement but it reduced the HC and NOx emissions.
S Imtenan analysed the effect of n-butanol and diethylether on engine performance of a diesel engine fuelled
with diesel-jatropha biodiesel blend, J20 and its modified blends with n-butanol showed reasonably higher
BSFC than diesel on average. J20 showed on average 5.4% increment of BSFC than diesel. J15B5 and J10B10
showed better BSFC results than J20. They showed on average 2.3% and 3.9% decrement of BSFC than J20.
J15D5 and J10D10 showed even better results than n-butanol blends. They showed 5.5% and 6.8% decrement
of BSFC than J20 respectively. [8-10]
4.2 Effect on Fuel Properties
In diesel engine fuelled with blends of diesel, hazelnut oil and high carbon alcohol, Alpaslan atmanly concluded
the effect of EHN addition, the overall density of diesel fuel was increased. The densities of DnBH and DPnH
were 0.8360 and 0.8380 g/ml, which were 1.70% and 1.95% higher, respectively, compared to that of diesel.
The addition of EHN to DnBH and DPnH decreased density on a mean of 0.7% and 0.82%, respectively as
compared to DnBH and DPnH. Similar changes were observed in kinematic viscosity of the microemulsion
fuels.
The addition of EHN to DnBH for the concentrations of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm shows an increase in cetane
number of 4.65%, 13.62% and 21.09%, respectively. Increases of 4.52%, 12.69% and 19.57% were observed
for DPnH for the concentrations of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm, respectively.[9]
4.3 Effect on NOx Emissions
Nicos Ladommatos concluded that as the cetane number increases, the NOx level generally decreases. The
decline in the NOx level with increasing cetane number can be explained in terms of decreasing cylinder gas
temperature. An increase in the cetane number is accompanied by a reduction in the ignition delay. In turn, the
decreasing ignition delay results in less mixture being involved in premixed combustion, lower peak cylinder
gas temperatures and lower NOx formation rates. At low cetane numbers, the injection timing control method
has little effect on the NOx level. However, at higher cetane numbers the NOx level becomes dependent on the
method of timing control.[11]
Figure 1. shows NOx emissions comparison between pure diesel, B20 (20% biodiesel blend) and B20 with
additive.[12]
The BTHE for B20 was found to be 1.61% higher than fossil diesel when engine was operated at 50% of full

280

Fig 1. Variation of NOx emissions

Effects of Cetane Improver on Diesel Engine Performance....


load, and 10.79% at higher when operated at full load, the reason being the increase in cetane number by 5.49%
in B20 and when compared to fossil diesel.
4.4 Effect on CO Emissions
Carbon monoxide results from the incomplete combustion where the oxidation process does not occur
completely. This concentration is largely dependent on air/fuel mixture and it is highest where the excess-air
factor () is less than 1.0 that is classified as rich mixture. It can be caused especially at the time of starting and
instantaneous acceleration of engine where the rich mixtures are required. In the rich mixtures, due to air
deficiency and reactant concentration, all the carbon cannot convert to CO2 and be formed CO concentration.
Although CO is produced during operation in rich mixtures, a small portion of CO is also emitted under lean
conditions because of chemical kinetic effects[13]
It was concluded that in the hazelnut oil and n-butanol/1-pentanol blend CO emissions increased due to lower
oxidation of carbon atoms and oxygen molecules as a result of lower in-cylinder temperature, lower oxygen
concentration and fuel-rich zones inside the cylinder. DnBH and DPnH blends increased CO emissions with an
average of 17.64% and 11.43% as compared to diesel. The main reason for this increase is that n-butanol and 1pentanol have higher latent heats of evaporation than diesel.
A higher latent of evaporation causes higher evaporative cooling in the combustion chamber, which leads to
lower exhaust gas temperature. DnBH and DPnH blends have 19.67% and 17.69% lower cetane numbers than
that of diesel. A lower cetane number increases ignition delay and causes accumulation of n-butanol and 1pentanol in the combustion chamber which requires additional heat from the combustion chamber in order to
evaporate, creates a cooling effect in the combustion chamber and increases CO emissions.[9]
4.5 Effect on HC Emissions
Hydrocarbon emissions are composed of unburned fuels as a result of insufficient temperature which occurs
near the cylinder wall. At this point, the airfuel mixture temperature is significantly less than the center of the
cylinder. Hydrocarbons consist of thousands of species, such as alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics. They are
normally stated in terms of equivalent CH4 content.
Diesel engines normally emit low levels of hydrocarbons. Diesel hydrocarbon emissions occur principally at
light loads. The major source of light-load hydrocarbon emissions is lean airfuel mixing. In lean mixtures,
flame speeds may be too low for combustion to be completed during the power stroke, or combustion may not
occur, and these conditions cause high hydrocarbon emissions.[13]
In a diesel-Jatropha biodiesel blend, J20 gave significantly lower HC than diesel fuel all over the engine speed
range. It gave about 28% decreased emission than diesel on average. Such decrement can be attributed to the
higher oxygen content of biodiesel which influenced the amount of hydrocarbon oxidation. On the contrary,
J15B5 and J10B10 showed 28.4% and 48% increment of HC emission than J20 on average while J15D5 and
J10D10 showed 32% and 52% increment. HC emission was supposed to be reduced due to even higher oxygen
content of n-butanol and DEE.[10]
Table 2. Possible Emissions reduction due to the use of Cetane Improvers

5. Economic Implications
With the use of cetane improvers, the break thermal efficiency of the engine increases due to better combustion
process. Brake Power slightly decreases and so does BSFC but its acceptable because of better exhaust
composition of Nitrogen oxides, carbon mono-oxide and unburnt hydrocarbons. Also some widely used cetane
improvers like EHN are available easily at cheaper prices and give very good results.
6. Conclusion
In this study, this is concluded that a cetane improver really does improve the engine performance and help
reducing the emissions. The cetane number of the fuel can be increased 4.52 %, 12.69% and 19.57% by using

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DPnH in concentrations of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm respectively. There is a decrease in power for DnBH and
DPnH by 2.91% and 4.69%, respectively when compared with diesel but the combustion process gets better.
The NOx and HC emissions can be reduced and CO emissions slightly increases but while performing trade off
among the emissions, the overall emissions reduces.
Nitrogen Class additives causes wear to the engine but they are more effective as compared to oxygenative
additives. Nitrogen class additives such as EHN are used in small concentration ie 0.3~3% and give good
results. Oxygen class additives such as DEE are used in comparatively higher concentration ie 5~15% as they
do not cause engine wear and give good results. As biodiesel and hazelnut oils blends are used, the cetane
number of the fuel decreases and the use of cetane improver becomes necessary.
References
[1]

Towards Sustainable Energy- http://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/trade_environment/energy/hfossil.


html

[2]

Nitrogen Oxide Pollution - Health Effects- http://www.icopal-noxite.co.uk/nox-problem/noxpollution.aspx

[3]

K Velmurugan, S. Gowtham - Effect of Cetane number additives on Emissionshttps://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved


=0ahUKEwj4l9S11__OAhUHLo8KHZfNALUQFgggMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww .ijmer.co
m % 2 F p a p e r s % 2 F Vo l 2 _ I s s u e 5 % 2 F B L 2 5 3 3 7 2 3 3 7 5 . p d f & u s g = A F Q j C N G e 0 vTEpHPZoLAmFiteaLa0JvWzg&sig2=0GELvJhoLTNqY0HXRf47hw

[4]

Fuel-Magic-How does a cetane booster affects the engine performancehttp://www.fuelmagic.net/Cetane%20Booster.html

[5]

Nettinc - Different types of Diesel emissions- https://www.nettinc.com/information/emissionsfaq/what-are-diesel-emissions

[6]

Diesel Engine Performance Improvement by Using Cetane Improverhttps://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved


= 0 a h U K E w j n - s - a 6 v _ O A h X M u 4 8 K H T 7 AAUQFggdMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ijeit.com%2Fvol%25202%2FIssue%252010%2FI
JEIT1412201304_36.pdf&usg=AFQjCNFy45npAhn2vYoF2D3OdDdhsrLKgg&sig2=P4pJBqODsqJqY3R5WhKzQ

[7]

Andrew Ickes, Dennis N. Assanis, Stanislav V. Bohac - Effect of 2-Ethylhexyl nitrate on NOx
E m i s s i o n s - h t t p s : / / w w w. r e s e a r c h g a t e . n e t / p u b l i c a t i o n / 2 4 5 2 3 5 0 1 3 _ E ff e c t _ o f _ 2 Ethylhexyl_Nitrate_Cetane_Improver_on_NO_x_Emissions_from_Premixed_LowTemperature_Diesel_Combustion

[8]

Amr Ibrahim - Investigating the effect of using diethyl ether as a fuel additive on diesel engine
p e r f o r m a n c e
a n d
c o m b u s t i o n http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359431116311929

[9]

Alpaslan Atmanly - Effects of a cetane improver on fuel properties and engine characteristics of a
diesel engine fueled with the blends of diesel, hazelnut oil and higher carbon alcoholhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016236116000223

[10]

S Imtenan, HH Masjuki, M. Verman, H. Sajjad - Effect of n-butanol and diethyl ether as oxygenated
additives on combustionemission performance characteristics of a multiple cylinder diesel engine
f u e l l e d
w i t h
d i e s e l j a t r o p h a
b i o d i e s e l
b l e n d http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890415000515

[11]

Nicos Ladommatos, Mohammad Parsi, Angela Knowles - The effect of fuel cetane improver on diesel
pollutant emissions - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016236194002231

[12]

Syed Aatif Avase, Shivank Srivasta - Effect of Pyrogallol as an Antioxidant on the Performance and
E m i s s i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f B i o d i e s e l D e r i v e d f r o m Wa s t e C o o k i n g O i l https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279804774_Effect_of_Pyrogallol_as_an_Antioxidant_on
_the_Performance_and_Emission_Characteristics_of_Biodiesel_Derived_from_Waste_Cooking_O
il

[13]

Springer - Pollutants Emissions from diesel engine - http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10098014-0793-9

282

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Oct. 14 & 15.

Storage Stability of Biodiesel: A Review


Ashok Kumar Yadav, M. Emran Khan, Amit Pal
and Alok Manas Dubey

Abstract Global warming, a spurt in population growth and an increase in demand for transport fuels in
developing economies, all coupled together with limited reserves of fossil fuels, are realities that have
convinced many countries of the need to develop alternative and renewable energy sources such as biofuels.
Biodiesel is considered to be apromising alternative biofuel. Recently, biodiesel has received additional
attention and intense research has been performed in this field all over the world due to its lower environmental
impact compared to the conventional diesel fuels.The main problem of using biodiesel as fuel is its poor
stability characteristics. Poor stability leads to gum formation which further leads to a storage problem of these
fuels for a longer period of time. Oxidative degradation occurs in biodiesel on aerobic contact during storage as
well as with metal contaminants. Antioxidants are very effective for the eradication of those oxidation stability
problems. This article presents an overview of the factors affecting the oxidation stability of biodiesel and the
methods available for the prediction of oxidation stability.The effect of antioxidants in preventing the
oxidation of biodiesel is also discussed.
Key Words: Biodiesel; Oxidative stability; Stability parameters; Antioxidants

nroduction Stability is one of the important criteria concerning fuel properties. The stability of biodiesel
is lower than common diesel fuel. The formation of deposits and gum and the darkening of fuels as a result
of the formation of contaminants, such as alcohols,acids, aldehydes, peroxides, etc., occur during longterm storage of biodiesel fuel [1-2]. Various processes, including oxidation in aerobic conditions, hydrolysis in
the presence of moisture, thermal decomposition by excess heat, contamination of impurities, etc., account for
the instability of biodiesel that can change the fuel properties considerably [4-5]. Among these processes,
oxidation is one of the signicant stability concerns associated with bio diesel because it has a lower resistance
capacity to oxidation and can easily be affected by air oxidation during long-term storage [3]. The composition
of the fatty acid portion of the biodiesel ester molecule is the most important factor that affects its properties.
The composition varies based on the feedstock used for biodiesel production. When compared to diesel fuel, the
unsaturation in the molecule accounts for biodiesel instability. As the unsaturation in the fatty acid chain portion
Ashok Kumar Yadav
Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology,
Ghaziabad, 201003, India, Email: ashokme015@gmail.com
M. Emran Khan
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia,
New Delhi 110025, India, Email: mikhan@jmi.ac.in
Amit Pal
Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University,
Delhi 110042, India, Email: amitpal@dce.ac.in
Alok Manas Dubey
Professor,Department of Mechanical Engineering, Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, 201003,
India, Email:alokmanas28@rediffmail.com
Corresponding author ;Tel: 8285423046
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
283
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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increases, the biodiesel becomes more unstable. Oxidation starts at the allylic positions to double bonds.
Therefore, the fatty acid composition of the ester, especially the position of and the number of allylic and bisallylic methylene moieties adjacent to the double bond, determines the rate of oxidation. In Fig. 1, the positions
in the oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid (most common unsaturated acids present in the oils or fats and
thus in the biodiesel) that are vulnerable to oxidation are highlighted by a circle with dotted lines. The allylic and
bis-allylic methylene moieties are the most susceptible to oxidation as a result of the radical chain reaction
[3].The oxidative degradation during long-term storage occurs mainly in the presence of air, heat, light and prooxidants [1-3]. Biodiesel oxidation is of two typesauto-oxidation and photo- oxidation. Auto-oxidation is a
major cause of biodiesel oxidation. The auto-oxidative degradation of biodiesel is a radical chain reaction and
involves initiation, propagation, and termination steps. During the initial stages of biodiesel oxidation, the
methylene groups allylic and bis-allylic to the double bonds are more active and hydrogen radicals are
abstracted by radical initiatorsThe resultant radicals interact with oxygen, which results in peroxide formation
for the propagation step. The peroxides propagate the chain reaction by the further abstraction of hydro- gen
from the methylene moieties and form carbon radicals and hydro peroxides. Next, the newly formed carbon free
radicals will again combine with oxygen and continue the propagation process. This chain process continues
until the termination step, which provides the formation of stable products the hydro peroxide formation during
the auto-oxidative degradation of linoleic acid methyl ester. The ultimate decomposition of peroxides results in
the formation of aldehydes, such as hexenals [1,18]. At high temperatures, highly stable conjugated structures
are formed by the isomerization of methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated olen units. For the isomerisation
process, one of the conjugated diene groups in the chain can react with the olenic group from the nearby fatty
acid chain and can form a substituted cyclohexene ring from the Diels alder reaction. At high temperatures of
180 0C, thermal dimerization occurs for the fatty acid methyl ester due to the Diels Alder reaction and forms the
dimer. shows the cyclohexene ring formed from linoleic acid methyl ester and illustrates the formation of
dimers via the Diesel Alder reaction of linoleic acid methyl esters. The same reactions can also occur during the
frying process of oil or fat and can adversely affect the performance of biodiesel obtained from used cooking oil
or animal fat. The fatty acid compositions (mass%) of several biodiesel feed- stocks are given among the
different feedstock shown in, coconut oil has a small amount of unsaturated fatty acid (9%) and may be less
susceptible to oxidation. Addition- ally, feedstock with more unsaturated fatty acid part may have more bisallylic hydrogen and may generate less stable biodiesel. Among the different feedstock given in the table,
linseed oil (with 53% linolenic acid) may have the highest tendency for oxidation based on its fatty acid
composition. Most of the parameters affecting the oxidation stability also depend on the fatty acid composition
of the ester.
2. Parameters Indicating the Extent of Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel
An understanding of selected fuel parameters is highly important in evaluating the oxidation stability of
biodiesel. Most of those parameters are directly related to the fatty acid composition of the biodiesel ester
molecules. The important parameters that help to predict the oxidation stability of a biodiesel sample, their
determination and its effect on the oxidation of biodiesel are discussed below.
2.1 Iodine value (IV)
The estimation of the IV for biodiesel fuel, which is the measure of the total degree of unsaturation, provides
useful guidance for preventing various problems in engines. The IV is based on the reactivity of alkyl double
bonds, and an increased IV of biodiesel indicates the possibility for the formation of various degradation
products that can negatively affect engine operability and reduces the quality of lubrication [1]. The IV is
expressed as the gram of iodine consumed per 100 g of the substance, which is the most parameter employed for
determining the magnitude of unsaturation in the esters of fatty acids, fats, oils and their derivatives [1-4]. The
local and international standard organisations provided procedures for the determination of IV in biodiesel. The
IV indicates the tendency of biodiesel to oxidise or polymerise, which leads to the formation of insoluble
sediments. An increase in the degree of unsaturation causes an increase in the iodine used. The IV considers that

284

Storage Stability of Biodiesel: A Review


the nature, position in the chain and the amount of oleniccarbons in the fatty compounds are equal and thus
equally reactive, which makes the IV not able to distinguish the structural differences that are present in
different fatty compounds [3]. Therefore, the IV does not provide a measure to determine whether the
hydrogens are allylic or bis-allylic to the double bonds, which is an important factor for determining the
oxidisability of biodiesel. Biodiesel stability is not related to the total number of double bonds expressed by the
IV but is mainly related to the number and position of the bis-allylic methylene moieties adjacent to the double
bond.
2.2 Induction period (IP)
Biodiesel oxidation is mainly the result of a radical chain reaction that causes the formation of hydro peroxides.
During the initial period of storage, the formation of hydro per- oxides is very low. This dead time will vary
based on the nature of the FAME, the presence of additives, the conditions of storage, etc. This characteristic
time period is called the induction period (IP). The relative oxidation rate study of the methyl esters conformed
that biodiesel with more poly-un-saturations in the sample can easily experience oxidation [5]. The oxidation
rate of oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2), and linolenic (18:3) acids is noted as 1:12:25. Additionally, the stability
predicting parameter, called the oxidation stability index, is related to the IP. The minimum IP limits, which are
specified by the American (ASTM D6751-11b) [1] and European (EN 14214) [26] standards for biodiesel in the
resistance of oxidation, are 3 h and 6 h, respectively. The Indian speciation IS-15607 recommends a minimum
of 6 h as the induction time
2.3 Peroxide value (PV)
The PV is generally based on the primary oxidation products, such as the hydro peroxides of the biodiesel, and
is a measure of the peroxide units formed during the oxidation process. The PV is measured in mill equivalents
of peroxide units per kg of the biodiesel sample. The PV influences various parameters in the fuel standard, such
as the cetane number (CN), density, viscosity, etc. [13]. The increase in PV increases CN, which may reduce the
ignition delay time [12]. The increase in PV as well as the acidity after the IP can also cause the corrosion of the
fuel system components, the hardening of the rubber components, the fusion of the moving components and
engine operation problems Several studies exist for storage stability tests for biodiesel, which show that
oxidation can affect fuel quality with respect to the PV [15] report that a low PV is required for the high stability
of biodiesel against oxidation. [1] haveanalyzed the PV of karanja oil methyl ester (KOME). According to the
results obtained from the 180-day storage study, the PV increased as the storage time of biodiesel increased.
Therefore, oxidation stability decreases with an increase in storage time.
2.4 Viscosity
Lower atomization characteristics in the fuel injector are the result of higher viscosity and create many severe
effects on engine performance [7-8].The blending of biodiesel is an effective method for improving the
properties at low temperatures [9-12].Because the vaporization and atomization of the fuel is reduced as a result
of the high viscosity of the fuel, the fuel requires the viscosity of biodiesel increases with an increase in the
carbon chain length, the degree of saturation of the fatty acid and its ester and the presence of free fatty acids.
The viscosity of the biodiesel obtained from the used cooking oil is higher than the biodiesel obtained from neat
vegetable oils. Samples with cis double bond configurations have lower viscosity, whereas samples with trans
double bonds have higher viscosity. However, the position of the double bond has a minor effect on the viscosity
.Highly viscous samples also have a high tendency for oxidation. The main reason for the rapid oxidation
processes with a high viscosity is due to the isomerization of the double bond, usually cis to trans, along with the
formation of high molecular weight products. Viscosity is useful for the measurement of the oxidation
progression of biodiesel. The polymeric secondary oxidation products of biodiesel cause the formation of
soluble gums and insoluble sediments and will result in an increase in the viscosity.

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3. Methods Used to Predict the Stability of Biodiesel


A wide variety of techniques have been used for the stability determination of fatty acid esters. The type of test
method depends mainly upon the nature of the stability, including thermal stability, oxidation stability and
storage stability. For the determination of thermal stability, the Rancimat test, ASTM D6408-08 and TGA/DTA
are used. For the storage stability determination, a modified Rancimat test, ASTM D4625-04, and ASTM
D5304-06 are used. The Active Oxygen Method (AOM), ASTM D2274, ASTM D3241, EN 14112, and ASTM
D5483 are the methods used for the oxidation stability determination of biodiesel.
3.1 ASTM D4625-04
The ASTM D4625-04 method is the most widely established method for the estimation of storage stability for
the middle distillate petroleum fuels [1]. In this method, the fuel is stored at a temperature of 43 1C for a period
of time, such as 24 weeks. The sample is then filtered to evaluate the insoluble sediments of the sample, and the
remaining filtrate was investigated to deter- mine the total AV and kinematic viscosity. These tests must be
carried out weekly. For the precipitation of polar polymers present in the sample, isooctane is added. This
modification is necessary in cases where soluble products are formed by the oxidation [1-3]. Because the
temperature in the test conditions is slightly higher than room temperature, fuel oxidation and other degradative
reactions lead to the formation of sediment that is mildly accelerated in this method when compared with
typical storage conditions. In this method, the storage stability prediction is more reliable than the other more
accelerated tests. However, because the storage periods are lengthy (424 weeks), the test method is not
appropriate for quality control testing and only provides a tool for research on the storage properties of fuels.
The storage material is also an important aspect for this study.
3.2 ASTM D6468-08 Light Reectance Method
For the high temperature stability determination of the middle distillate fuels (including biodiesel), the ASTM
D6468-08 method is more prominent [1]. Here, the sample is aged at 15 0C in open tubes with air contact for
approximately 90 or 180 min. After the aging process, the sample is cooled and the insoluble sediments are
ltered and estimated by the light reectance method of the lter paper. For comparison purposes, a blank is
conducted without the sample using an unused lterpad [6]. The lter paper used for this ASTM method has a
nominal porosity of 11 m, and thus, it cannot capture all of the sediment formed during aging, although it
allows differentiation over a broad range of particle sizes for the sediments. The method of reectance
measurements can be affected by the colour of the lterable insoluble and may thus not be successfully
correlated to the mass of the material that is ltered. Thus, the accuracy of the method is not 100%. This method
can provide an estimate of the stability of fuel when exposed to high temperatures in situations, including a
recirculating engine or burner fuel delivery system, and under other high temperature conditions with limited
exposure to air. In addition, the test method is also helpful in the study of operational problems related to fuel
thermal stability. This method is not suitable for fuels whose ash point is less than 38 1C. This test method is
also not suitable for fuels containing residual oil and is thus only suitable in the estimation of the high
temperature stability of biodiesel with a very high FAME content.
3.3 ASTM D2274 Gravimetric Analysis
This method is based on the ltration, which is followed by the gravimetric analysis of the insoluble materials
that are formed by the oxidation in the presence of heat. Here, the sample is rst aged at 95 C for 16 h by the
bubbling of oxygen at a rate of 3 L/h. The insoluble sediments formed by the thermal oxidation stick on the
oxidation cell and are detached with the help of a tri-solvent containing equal parts of toluene, acetone, and
methanol. The solvent is then evaporated to recover the insoluble sediments (insoluble) formed. The total yield
of the insoluble, expressed as milligrams per 100 ml, is reported as total insoluble. An additional analysis exists
for the determination of biodiesel-soluble polymers. In this case, iso-octane is added to the sample so that the
soluble polymers will precipitate. This precipitate is ltered to acquire the measure of the soluble polymers
[1,3]. The use of an elevated temperature and a pure oxygen atmosphere for the test may cause differences in the

286

Storage Stability of Biodiesel: A Review


nature and amount of insoluble formed in real storage situations. This test method is also not applicable to fuels
containing residual oil. This test method has not been validated for the testing of biodiesel or blends of middle
distillates and biodiesel meeting ASTM specications. The test method D7462 is more suitable for testing B100
and all blends of middle distillates and biodiesel because samples containing biodiesel can cause a partial
dissolution or compromise of the membrane lter, providing erroneous results.
3.4. EN 14112, Rancimat Method-IP measurement
The Rancimat method is the usual and the ofcial method for determining the oxidative stability of oils and fats
by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS). In this method, the temperature range is usually limited to a
maximum of 130 C [1]. After that, air is bubbled through the sample so that the oxidation of the sample takes
place. As a result of the oxidation process, a release of some gases along with the air occurs, which is then passed
to deionized water in a ask. Theask has an electrode, which is connected to a device for a measurement of the
conductivity. The induction period (IP) is measured for this test method. Here, the IP is noted as the time at
which the conductivity starts to increase very quickly. The continuous measurement of this conductivity gives
an oxidation curve. The point of inection of this curve is known as the induction period. Volatile acidic gases,
such as formic acid, acetic acid and some other acids, are produced by the oxidation and are absorbed in the
water, which is the main reason for the increment in the conductivity and in the IP measurement [1,3].
3.5 Effect of Antioxidants on the Biodiesel Stability
It is evident from literature that higher concentration of antioxidants is more effective in radical trapping and
hence minimize the extent of oxidation of a biodiesel. The increase in viscosity of the biodiesel sample over a
period of time is an indicator of loss of stability i.e. this value provides an indication of the oxidative reactivity
of a biodiesel. Both synthetic and natural antioxidants showed that they were able to retard the oxidation
process and improve the storage stability.However, the synthetic antioxidant (BHT) showed better
performance when compared to natural antioxidant. These results have clearly showed that the type of
antioxidant and its dosage plays an important role in retarding auto oxidation of biodiesel during storage. The
results of these experiments (acid value vs. time and viscosity vs. time) contributed to the development of a
predictive model.[3]
3.6 Effect of Metal Contaminants and the Storage Container on the Stability of Biodiesel
The presence of metal contaminants is another reason for the deterioration of biodiesel during storage. Eduardo
Pereyra mentioned about the storage materials for biodiesel [3]. Biodiesel undergoes an interaction with the
metals, especially with Cu and its alloys, and as a result, insoluble sediments are formed in bulk quantities by
the oxidation process. Among the different metals, Cu has the strongest catalyzing effect on the oxidation
process. In addition, biodiesel is infused into plastic materials, such as ethyleneand polypropylene, during its
contact [1,3]. Therefore, these plastic materials and Cu-containing tanks are not suitable for the storage of
biodiesel. In the case of metals and alloys, the compatible ones include aluminium, carbon steel, stainless steel
and bre glass [26]. Storage materials made up of copper, bronze, tin, zinc, etc. may hasten the oxidation of
biodiesel and may result in the formation of insoluble sediments.
4. Conclusions
The biodiesel stabilitymay be affected by large number of parameters which can be categorized by oxidation,
thermal and storage stability parameters. The present review has covered the different types of the fuel
stabilities, mechanism of occurrence and correlations/equations developed to investigate the impact of various
stability parameters on the stability of the fuel. Main parameters related to stability are PV, AV, IP, BAPE, APE,
OSI and OX. And it was found that impact of APE is more on induction period than with that of BAPE. A review
of the use of different types of natural and synthetic antioxidants has also been presented which indicates that
natural antioxidants, being very sensitive to biodiesel production techniques and the distillation processes have
varying impacts on the fuel stability. The work on the use of synthetic antioxidants on the stability of biodiesel

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fromvarious resources have indicated that out of various synthetic antioxidants studied so far only 3
antioxidants have been found to increase the fuel stability significantly. However, effectiveness of these
antioxidants is if the order of TBHQ > PY >PG. The reviewreveals that, lot ofworkis requiredtobe done for
stability of non-edible oils. Apart from this, additional research is required tobe done to investigate the effect of
stability of biodiesel on engineperformance as well as effect on emissions.
References
[1] ZahiraYaakob, Binitha N. Narayanan , SilijaPadikkaparambil , Surya Unni K. , Mohammed Akbar P.A
review on the oxidation stability of biodiesel,Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews(2014)
[2] Siddharth Jain, M.P. Sharma, Study of oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blends,
energy and environment
[3] A. VenkatramKiran, J. Jayapriya&. Manoj Ravi (2015): Evaluation and Predictive Model Development
of Oxidative Stability of Biodiesel on Storage, Chemical Engineering Communications, DOI:
10.1080/00986445.2015.1085383
[4] M. Balat and H. Balat, "Progress in biodiesel processing," Appl. Energy, vol. 87, pp. 1815-1835, 6,
2010.
[5] A. Pal, A. Verma, S S. Kachhwaha, S. Maji, Biodiesel production through hydrodynamic cavitation and
performance testing. Renewable Energy, 35, 619(2010).
[6] Raheman, H., Phadatare, A.G. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl
ester and diesel. Biomass Bioenergy, 27, 393397, (2004).
[7] Shahidi F, Zhong Y. Lipid oxidation and improving the oxidative stability. ChemSoc Rev 2010;39:406779.
[8] Yadav, A.K..Khan, M.E. Dubey, A. M. Pal, A. Performance and emission characteristics of a
transportation diesel engine operated with non-edible vegetable oils biodiesel, Case Studiesin Thermal
Engineering 8(2016)236244
[9] Monyem A, Van Gerpen JH. The effect of biodiesel oxidation on engine
[10] A.K. Yadav et al., Kaner biodiesel production through hybrid reactor and its performance testing on a CI
engine at different compression ratios, Egypt. J. Petrol. (2016),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2016.07.006
[11] Ryu K. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with
antioxidants. Bioresource Tech. 2010; 101: 578582.
[12] Yadav, A.K., Khan, M.E., Pal, A., Sharma, D. Optimisation of biodiesel production from bitter groundnut
oil using Taguchi method and its performance and emissions characteristics on a 4-cylinder Tata Indica
engine', Int. J. Sustainable Agricultural Management and Informatics, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp.285300,2015
[13] Rao TV, G. Rao P, K. Reddy HC. Experimental investigation of 458 Pongamia, Jatropha and Neem
methyl esters as biodiesel on c.i. engine. Jordan J Mech. and Ind. Eng. 2008;460 2(2):117 22
[14] ChakrabortyM,BaruahDC.InvestigationofoxidationstabilityofTerminaliabelericabiodiesel and its
blends with petrodiesel. Fuel Process Technol 2012;98:518.
[15] Hiroaki Imahara, Eiji Minami, Shusaku Hari, Saka Shiro. Thermal stability of biodiesel in supercritical
methanol. Fuel 2008;87(1):16.
[16] B a n n i s t e r C D , C h u c k C J , B o u n d s M , H a w l e y J G . O x i d a t i v e s t a b i l i t y o f b i o d i e s e l f u e l .
ProcInstMechEngPartD:JAutomobEng2011;225:99114.
[17] Santos NA, Cordeiro AMTM, Damasceno SS, Aguiar RT, Rosenhaim R, Filho JRC, et al. Commercial
antioxidants and thermal stability evaluations. Fuel 2012;97:638-43.
[18] Xue, J., Grift, T.E.; Hansen, A.C. Effect of biodiesel on engine performances and emissions. Renew.
Sustain. Energy Rev., 15, 10981116. (2011)

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Catalysts used in Biodiesel Production


Balbir Singh and Amit Pal

Abstract- Biodiesel fuel has come up as one of the potential substitutes to petro-diesel fuel. Biodiesel
production is mainly carried out through transesterification reaction using homogeneous or heterogeneous
catalysts. The main distinguished catalyst used in production of biodiesel is the homogeneous alkaline catalyst
like Potassium hydroxide (KOH), Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Sodium Methoxide (CH3ONa) and Potassium
Methoxide CH3OK. These catalysts are preferred mainly due to their high kinetic reaction rates. In case of low
quality feedstock with high level of free fatty acids, various homogeneous acid catalysts are used. There are
various problem associated with homogeneous catalysts in biodiesel production which can be overcome by
developing heterogeneous catalyst such as solid and enzymes catalysts. Therefore this study analyzes the
effects of different catalysts used for biodiesel production using the results available in the literature available.
Also, this critical review could allow identification of research areas to explore and improve the catalysts
performance commonly employed in producing biodiesel fuel.
Keywords- Biodiesel; FFA; Transesterification; Homogeneous Catalyst; Heterogeneous Catalyst.

ntroduction The economic development of a nation depends upon its energy adequacy. In recent years,
there have been concerns over price rise of crude oil due to the depleting fossil fuel resources. In addition,
environmental pollution, through the emission of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbon and
hazardous particulates, and the threat of climatic change associated with green house effect are the most serious
problems across the world. Therefore, to increase energy security for economic development and to minimize
emission, the need to search for an alternative source of energy such as biodiesel is necessary. Biodiesel is
renewable, sustainable, biodegradable, and emits low greenhouse gases, consisting of mono alkyl esters of fatty
acids derived from sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats. Unlike fossil fuel, biodiesel contains oxygen
in its molecular structure help in speeding up the combustion of fuel in compression ignition engines resulting
in decrement in the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), soot etc.
Biodiesel can be produced through different methods like direct/blends, micro emulsion, thermal cracking
(pyrolysis) and transesterification. Among these methods alkali-catalyzed transesterification is the most
common method for producing biodiesel. In transesterification reaction, high viscosity of vegetable oil is
reduced to a value closer to that of diesel fuel while cetane number and heating value are saved and glycerin is
obtained as by-product in this reaction. The reaction necessitates alcohol to react with triglycerides (Vegetable
oils) in the presence of catalyst. Methanol is the commonly used due to its low cost and quick reaction with
triglycerides.
Balbir Singh
Mechanical Engineering Department, ABES Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India.
Email bsingh810@yahoo.co.in
Amit Pal
Mechanical Engineering Department, Delhi Technological University, Delhi -42
Email amitpal@dce.ac.in
Corresponding Author: Tel: +91 9958694744
PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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(Transesterification of triglycerides via alkaline catalyst)


2. Role of Catalyst In Production of Biodiesel
Catalyst can cause a change in the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed in the reaction. It
works by changing the activation energy for a reaction, i.e., the minimum energy required for the reaction to
occur. It provides a new mechanism or reaction path through which the reaction can proceed. When the new
reaction path has lower activation energy, the reaction rate is increased and the reaction is said to be catalyzed.
The catalysts usually employed to catalyze transesterification reaction are homogeneous catalysts and
heterogeneous catalysts.
Homogeneous Catalyst
Homogeneous catalyst and reactants remains in same phase. Homogeneous catalyst dissolves in a solvent with
the substrates. Homogeneous Base Catalysts (NaOH, KOH, CH3ONa, and CH3OK etc.) and Homogeneous
Acid Catalysts {H2SO4, HCl, Fe2(SO4)3 etc.} are used for transesterification reaction. Conventionally,
homogeneous alkaline catalysts are more often used in producing biodiesel due to its faster reaction rate almost
4000 times than that of acid catalyst [1].
Biodiesel Production Using Homogeneous Base-catalyzed Transesterification
NaOH and KOH are most commonly employed as catalyst in industrial biodiesel production process due to its
low price. These catalysts needs high-quality refined feedstocks for the reaction to take place. The high cost of
refined feedstocks results in high price of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. Biodiesel yield using alkaline
catalyzed transesterification is more when vegetable oil of high quality is used. However, low quality feedstock
like waste cooking oil and used frying oil contain significant amounts of water and FFAs, reduces the biodiesel
yield. Water reacts with triglyceride and produces FFA and these FFAs further reacts with the alkaline catalyst
to produce soaps. Soaps formation consumes the catalyst, deactivates it and makes biodiesel purification
process difficult and expensive.
Transesterification of triglycerides can be achieved in batches in the presence of alkaline catalyst at normal
atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of approximately 60C with the methanol. But the time taken to
complete alkali catalytic transesterification reaction is quite long. And removal of these catalysts from the
produce is technically difficult and it increases the cost of biodiesel production.
(a)
Vicente Et Al. used different catalysts (NaOH, KOH, CH3ONa and CH3OK using sunflower oil with
reaction temperature 65 C, methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 and catalyst 1% by weight of vegetable oil and
got a yield of 85.9%, 91.67%, 99.33% and 98.46% respectively) [2]
(b)
100 ml of Karanja oil was transesterified using KOH as catalyst dissolved in CH3OH in a molar ratio of

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(c)

(d)

8-10 at reaction temperature of 70 and maximum yield of 90% was obtained in 30-40 min of reaction
time [3].
Alkaline metal alkoxides (like CH3ONa) are very active catalysts as compared to alkaline metal
hydroxides (KOH and NaOH). Biodiesel yield is more than 98% for a short reaction time of 30 min.
Alkaline metal hydroxides (KOH and NaOH) are preferred due to their low cost. [4]
A. Demirbas reported that transesterification reaction of 100 g of vegetable oil in methanol (200 ml)
containing fresh sodium (0.8 g), was very fast. The triglycerides were completely transesterified in 25
min at room temperature through sodiummethoxide-catalyzed transesterification compared to 60360
min in acid and alkali-catalyzed processes at higher temperature of 303338 K [5].

Biodiesel production using Homogeneous Acid-catalyzed Transesterification


The acid catalysts commonly employed in transesterification are sulfuric acid, sulfonic acid, hydrochloric acid,
organic sulfonic acid, ferric sulfate, etc. Hydrochloric acid, sulfonic acid and sulfuric acid are usually favored
as catalysts for the production of biodiesel. The catalyst and the alcohol are mixed with a mechanical stirrer in a
small reactor. The oil is fed into the biodiesel reactor and then the mixture of alcohol and catalyst is fed into the
oil. Sulfuric acid or sulfonic acid is used to catalyze the reaction. The catalysts help in producing high yield of
biodiesel, whereas the reaction rate is slow. The molar ratio (alcohol to oil) is the main influencing factor in the
reaction. Therefore addition of excess alcohol fastens the reaction for the formation of biodiesel.
Leung found that esterification using acid-catalysts makes the best use of the FFAs in oils and converts it into
fatty acid alkyl esters. If the acid value of the oils is very high then one-step esterification may not reduce the
FFAs efficiently. This is because of the high content of water produced during the reaction [6].
Conventionally, commercial biodiesel is produced by using customary liquid base catalysts. However, there is a
significant motivation for the substitution of liquid bases by solid bases for the following reasons:
(a) Expensive catalyst separation from reaction mixture.
(b) High energy consumption.
(c) Corrosiveness.
(d) Formation of unwanted soap by-product due to presence of FFAs.
(e) The costs associated with the disposal of spent or neutralized caustics.
(f) Generation of large amounts of wastewater during products separation and cleaning.
In other words, the use of heterogeneous catalysts allows a more environmental friendly method to be used for
production of biodiesel. In addition, the use of heterogeneous catalysts could enable the design of an efficient,
continuous process and improve the economics of biodiesel production. Furthermore, the use of
heterogeneous catalysts does not produce soaps through free fatty acid neutralization, which simplifies the
post-treatment processes. Because of these advantages, research on the transesterification reaction using
heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production has increased over the past decade. So there is a need to find
novel heterogeneous catalysts that have desirable physical and chemical properties for biodiesel production.
Effect of Homogeneous Catalyst
(a)
Homogeneous alkaline catalysts initiate faster transesterification reaction than that of acid catalysts.
(b)
CH3ONa and CH3OK are better than NaOH and KOH in terms of biodiesel yield.
(c)
NaOH and KOH do not form water during reaction, so mostly preferred in biodiesel production.
Advantages of Using Homogeneous Base Catalyst
(a)
Mostly cheap like NaoH and KOH
(b)
Leung and Guo revealed that KOH is better than NaOH in terms of separation of biodiesel from
glycerol. As potassium soap is soft and does not sink in glycerol. [7]
(c)
Less corrosive.
(d)
High reaction rate.

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Disadvantages of Using Homogeneous Base Catalyst


(a)
Formation of soap.
(b)
Water washing is inevitable.
(c)
High energy consumption.
(d)
High waste water production.
(e)
High purification cost.
(f)
Catalysts are not recycled.
(g)
Use is limited to 0.5wt% FFA only.
(h)
Water in raw material interferes with reaction.
(i)
Recovery of glycerol is difficult.
Advantages of Using Homogeneous Acid Catalyst
(a)
No soap formation.
(b)
Single step esterication and transesterication can be achieved simultaneously.
(c)
Single step esterication and transesterication process decrease the cost of production.
(d)
Production cost of catalyst is lower.
Disadvantages of Using Homogeneous Acid Catalyst
(a)
Recycling difficulty.
(b)
High purification cost.
(c)
High Energy consumption.
(d)
Low reaction rate.
(e)
Recovery of glycerol is difficult
Heterogeneous Catalyst
Heterogeneous catalyst is in a different phase from the reactants. Most heterogeneous catalysts are solids that
act on substrates in a liquid or gaseous reaction mixture. A solid catalyst adsorbs reacting species onto its
surface where the reaction takes place. Heterogeneous Solid Alkaline catalysts (such as CaO, Al2O3 etc),
Heterogeneous Solid Acid catalysts (Zinc Stearate/SiO2, MoO3/ZrO2) and Heterogeneous Enzymes catalysts
(Candida antarctica lipase, Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas fluorescens) are used for biodiesel production
Biodiesel production using Heterogeneous solid alkaline catalyzed transesterification
(a) CaO catalyst derived from CaCO3 is a best know base catalyst used for transesterification of oil having low
FFA. Being non toxic and cheap it is best suited for transesterification.
(b) Granados produced CaO by calcinations of CaCO3 at 800C for 1 hour and used it for transesterification of
sunflower oil, using methanol and oil molar ratio 14:1 at a temperature of 60C for 5 hours and obtained
90% biodiesel yield. [8]
(c) Kouzu treated CaCO3 at 900C for 1 hour to obtain CaO and this catalyst used for transesterification of
Soybean oil with methanol and oil molar ratio 12:1 at a temperature of 65C for 2 hours and nearly complete
conversion obtained. This catalyst has high surface basicity due to increased calcinations temperature and
time. The same catalyst when used with Jatropha curcas oil (JCO), only 18% biodiesel was obtained due to
large quantity of soap formed due to presence of high level of FFA. But nearly complete conversion was
obtained form Rape seed oil (RSO) under similar conditions for a reaction time of 3 hours. [9]
(d) Watkins used catalyst CaO doped with Lithium (Li-CaO) for transesterification of vegetable oil with high
moisture content of 15 wt.% and high FFA content of 6% with methanol at a temperature of 60C for 2
hour and obtained complete conversion to biodiesel. Increasing of Lithium doping on CaO decreased the
surface area of CaO and increase the pore diameter. High pore diameter allows massive triglycerides to
diffuse easily to the catalytic sites. Li-CaO has better activity than CaO. A complete conversion was
achieved for RSO but only 66.4% conversion in case of JCO. The yield was better for Li-CaO than CaO in

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Catalysts used in Biodiesel Production


case of high FFA containing oil. However formation of soap was still a problem for JCO and RSO due to
presence of high FFA. [10] & [11]
(e) Transition metal oxide catalysts are used for transesterification and esterification of high FFA
simultaneously. These metal oxides are prepared by combining Lewis base metal oxides and Lewis acid
metal oxides leading to base and acid sites in a single catalyst for simultaneous transesterification and
esterification reaction. Ya prepared La2O3-ZnO catalyst using molar ratio of Zn and La as 3:1 and tested for
transesterification and esterification reaction at 200C esterifies up to 32% FFA using methanol to oil ratio
as 36:1. The very high methanol to oil ratio limits the use of these catalyst. [12]
(f)
Zeng attempted Mg-Al hydrotalcite catalysts for producing biodiesel from rape oil and achieved
90.5% conversion. The performance of the catalyst is dependent on the ratio of Mg and Al. The catalyst in
3:8 ratios of Mg and Al was considered most suitable. Di Serio investigated Mg-Al hydrotalcite for
transestrification of vegetable oil at reaction temperature 215-225C using methanol/oil weight ratio of
0.45 and catalyst of 1wt% to produce a biodiesel yield 94wt%. Wen used Li doped magnesium oxide
catalysts in range of 3-15wt%, methanol to oil molar ratio of 12 and reaction temperature of 65C for 2
hours. [13]
Biodiesel Production Using Heterogeneous Solid Acid Catalyzed Transesterification
(a)
Helwani investigated and found that solid acid catalysts are better than homogeneous acid, although
having poor catalytic activities. The authors assessed different solid catalysts for the production of
biodiesel from high FFAs feedstocks like waste cooking oil. The catalysts investigated are zinc
stearate/SiO2, MoO 3 , WO 3 /ZrO 2 , WO 3 /ZrO 2 Al 2 O 3 , MoO 3 /SiO 2 and zinc ethanoate/SiO 2 .
Zinc stearate with silica gel was most active catalyst. The catalyst reused many times at optimized
conditions of reaction temperature of 197C, oil to alcohol molar ratio 1:18, and 3 wt% catalyst loading
without being deactivated. 98 wt% biodiesel yields were recorded. Recycling of catalyst reduces the cost of
biodiesel production. [14]
(b)
Kitiyanan used solid acid catalysts such as KNO3/ZrO2, KNO3/KL zeolite, SO42-/SnO2 andSO4/ZrO
catalysts. SO42-/SnO2 andSO4/ZrO catalysts provided biodiesel yield 90.3wt%. [15]
Advantages of using heterogeneous base/acid catalyst
(a)
Environmental friendly.
(b)
Easily recycled.
(c)
Separation difficulty reduced.
(d)
High purity of glycerol.
(e)
Lower cost of separation.
Disadvantages of using heterogeneous base/acid catalyst
(a)
Leaching effect.
(b)
Catalyst preparation is difficult and expensive.
(c)
Relatively slow rate of reaction.
Biodiesel production using enzymes catalyzed transesterification
Various enzymes catalyst tested for transesterification of vegetable oil are Candida antarctica lipase, Candida
sp., Pseudomonas uorescens, Pseudomonas Cepacia, Rhizomucor miehei, Chromobacterium viscosum and
Rhizopus oryzae lipase. Author Casimir investigated that using enzymes lipases as catalyst for
transesterication reactions biodiesel can be produced. Casimir found that using lipase may reduce the cost of
biodiesel production downstream processing difficulties. This approach is also environment friendly.
Shah used lipase catalyst to prepare biodiesel from jatropha oil. He took 0.5 gm jatropha oil and ethanol in
molar ratio of 1:4 and 50 mg of immobilized enzyme in a screw capped bottle and kept it in 40C with a uniform
shaking of 200rpm for 8 hours.

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Advantages of Using Enzyme Catalysts


(a) No soap formation.
(b) Non polluting.
(c) Easy separation.
(d) High purity of glycerol.
(e) Lower cost of separation
Disadvantages of Using Enzyme Catalysts
(a) High cost of enzymes.
3. Conclusion
This study is done to identify the catalyst that is efficient in fast conversion of FFAs, environment friendly,
reusable and economical viable.
References
[1] F. Hideki, K. Akihiko, N. Hideo, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 92 (2001) 405.
[2] G.Vicente, M.Martinez, J.Aracil, Bioresource Technology 92 (2004) 297.
[3] Vivek and AK Gupta, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Vol 63 Jan 2004, pp 39-47
[4] Z. Helwani, M.R. Othman, N. Aziz, W.J.N. Fernando, J. Kim, Fuel Processing Technology 90(2009)1502.
[5] A. Demirbas, Comparison of transesterication methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils
and fats, Energy Conv. Mgmt. 49 (2008) 125130.
[6] D.Y.C. Leung, X. Wu, M.K.H. Leung, Applied Energy 87 (2010) 1083.
[7] D.Y.C. Leung, Y. Guo, Fuel Processing Technology 87 (2006) 883
[8] Granados ML, Alonso DM, Alba-Rubio AC, Mariscal R, Ojeda M, Brettes P. Transesterication of
triglycerides by CaO: increase of the reaction rate by biodiesel addition. Energy Fuels 2009;23:2259e63.
[9] Kouzu M, Kasuno T, Tajika M, Sugimoto Y, Yamanaka S, Hidaka J. Calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst
for transesterication of soybean oil and its application to biodiesel production. Fuel 2008;87:2798e806.
[10] Watkins RS, Lee AF, Wilson K. LieCaO catalysed tri-glyceride transesterication for biodiesel
applications. Green Chem 2004;6:335e40.
[11] Alonso DM, Mariscal R, Granados ML, Maireles-Torres P. Biodiesel preparation using Li/CaO catalysts:
activation process and homogeneous contribution. Catal Today 2009;143:167e71.
[12] Yan S, Salley SO, Simon Ng KY. Simultaneous transesterication and esterication of unrened or waste
oils over ZnOeLa2O catalysts. Appl Catal A 2009;353:203e12.
[13] D. Siano, M. Nastasi, E. Santacesaria, M. Di Serio, R. Tesser, G. Minutillo, M. Ledda, T. Tenore, WO
050925 A1 (2006).
[14] Z. Helwani, M.R. Othman, N. Aziz, W.J.N. Fernando, J. Kim, Fuel Processing Technology 90 (2009)
1502.
[15] J. Jitputti, B. Kitiyanan, P. Rangsunvigit, K. Bunyakiat, L. Attanatho, P. Jenvanit- panjakul, Chemical
Engineering Journal 116 (2006) 61.

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Biodiesel Production from WCO using


Heterogeneous Catalyst
Balbir Singh and Amit Pal

Abstract- Biodiesel can be prepared from vegetable oils, animal fats and waste lipids and it is a low emission,
clean renewable fuel and is one of the alternative of petro diesel. Transesterification is the most commonly used
method to produce biodiesel from raw oils. Other three methods of biodiesel production are: Direct use and
blending of raw oils, micro-emulsion and thermal cracking. The study deals with heterogeneous catalyst based
transesterification reaction for conversion of raw WCO into biodiesel. Calcium oxide used as heterogeneous
catalyst was prepared from easily available and cheap white chalk (CaCO3) by the process of calcinations. The
heterogeneous catalyst was easily separated from the crude biodiesel produced by transesterification reaction.
Further, catalyst separation did not require water washing process during purification process of biodiesel.
Biodiesel production was investigated for various factors such as molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction time
and wt% of catalyst to oil with the help of recycled heterogeneous catalyst. Sustainable yields were obtained
when the proposed catalyst was used in mechanical stirring, hydrodynamic cavitation and ultrasonic cavitation
methods. The present research has the potential to ease the process of biodiesel production without
environmental degradation from low quality feedstocks.
Keywords- Biodiesel, FFA, Heterogeneous Catalyst, Calcined Chalk, Waste Cooking Oil.

ntroduction Advancement in the global industrialization and transportation has led to a steep rise for the
demand of petroleum-based fuels. Petroleum-based fuels being limited are highly concentrated in certain
regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these resources are facing energy/foreign
exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude petroleum. In recent years, there is growing concerns over
increasing prices of crude oil due to the depleting fossil fuel resources. In addition, environmental pollution
through the emission of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbon and hazardous particulates, and the
threat of climatic change associated with green house effect are the most serious problems across the world.
Therefore, to increase energy security for economic development and to minimize emission, the need to search
for an alternative and environment friendly source of energy such as biodiesel is necessary [1]. Biodiesel is
biodegradable, non-toxic and essentially free from sulphur; it is renewable and can be produced from
agriculture and plant resources. Biodiesel is an acceptable alternative fuel, which has a correlation with
sustainable development, energy conservation, management, efficiency and environmental preservation .
Moreover biodiesel can be used with little or no modification in existing C.I engines. Unlike fossil fuel,
biodiesel contains oxygen in its molecular structure help in speeding up the combustion of fuel in compression
ignition engines resulting in decrement in the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), soot etc. [2].
Biodiesel can be produced through different methods like direct use and blending of raw oils, micro-emulsion,
thermal cracking (pyrolysis) and transesterification. Raw vegetable oils are the mixture of organic compounds
Balbir Singh
1
Mechanical Engineering Department, ABES Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India.
Email bsingh810@yahoo.co.in
Amit Pal
Mechanical Engineering Department, Delhi Technological University, Delhi -42
Email amitpal@dce.ac.in

Corresponding Author: Tel: +91 9958694744


PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RECENT ADVANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,
DTU DELHI , INDIA.
(ISBN: 987-194523970-0)

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ranging from simple straight chain compound to complex structure of proteins and fat-soluble vitamins
whereas the petroleum diesel fuel molecules are saturated non-branched molecules with carbon atoms ranging
between 12 and 18 [3]. The disadvantages of vegetable oil as diesel fuels are higher viscosity, higher flash point
attributing to its lower volatility and the reactivity of unsaturated hydrocarbons [4]. Short term problems like
cold weather starting; Plugging and gumming of filters, lines and injectors; engine knocking and long term
problems such as coking of injectors; excessive engine wear and failure of engine lubricating oil due to
polymerization takes place due to above mentioned properties of vegetable oil [5] when used in existing
unmodified direct and indirect diesel engine. When the vegetable oil are used in C.I engines directly or by
diluting it with petro diesel than that method is called direct use and blending of raw oils. [6]
Micro-emulsions are the colloidal equilibrium dispersion of optically isotropic fluid microstructures
with dimension generally in the 1-150nm range formed spontaneously from immiscible vegetable oil and
alcohol (Methanol, Ethanol and 1-Butanol). Micro-emulsions were found to have better spray patterns during
combustion and lower fuel viscosity. However the micro-emulsions have lower cetane number and lower
calorific value which makes it unsuitable for use in C.I engine for long time [7]
Transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another
alcohol. The reaction necessitates alcohol to react with triglycerides (vegetable oil) in the presence of catalyst.
Methanol is commonly used alcohol due to its low cost and quick reaction with triglycerides [8].
Transesterification is the most commonly used method of biodiesel production. Biodiesel produced by
transesterification reaction have higher cetane number, lower emissions and higher combustion efficiency.
However the main disadvantage associated with transesterification is safe disposal of by-products (glycerol
and waste water)[5]. The reactions are often catalyzed by an acid or a base.
Biodiesel Production Process with Catalyzed Reaction
The major shortcoming of alkali catalyst is its rapid reaction with free fatty acids to form soap. Equation 1
represents saponification reaction between FFA and alkali catalyst to form water and soap.

(1)
This reaction is undesirable because the soap lowers the yield of the biodiesel and inhibits the separation of the
esters from the glycerol. In addition, it binds with the catalyst meaning that more catalyst will be needed and
hence the process will involve a higher cost. The water already present in the oil along with water produced in
saponification reaction reacts with triglycerides to form diglyceride and free fatty acids. These undesirable
reactions can be avoided by employing acid catalyzed transesterification reaction. Acid catalyst directly
transforms free fatty acid in oil into biodiesel. Due to the slow reaction rate and the high methanol to oil molar
ratio that is required, acid-catalyzed esterification has not gained as much attention as the alkali-catalyzed
transesterification [9]. The oils with high value of FFA undergo a pre - treatment process (before being
converted into biodiesel) where the oil undergoes neutralization process in the presence of acidic catalyst.
Alkali catalyst based transesterification reaction requires neutralization and separation steps from the reaction
mixture. Recovery of glycerol is difficult, catalyst has to be removed from the product and alkaline waste water
requires treatment [10]. Enzymatic catalysts like lipases are able to effectively catalyze the reaction avoiding
soap formation and the purification process is simple to accomplish. However enzymes are not used
commercially because of longer reaction times and higher cost [11]. Another range of catalyst is heterogeneous
catalyst (alkaline or acidic) which shows easy regeneration from the product by filtration without water
washing and eliminating the need of pre-treatment of feedstocks with high FFA content.
Homogeneous Catalyst
Homogeneous catalyst is in the same phase (Liquid) as the reactants. Typically homogeneous catalysts are
dissolved in a solvent with the substrates. Homogeneous base catalysts (NaOH, KOH, CH3ONa, and CH3OK
etc.) and homogeneous acid catalysts (H2SO4, HCl, Fe2 (SO4)3 etc.) are used for transesterification reaction.
These catalysts have well defined, active sites, moderate activity level and reasonably well understood reaction
mechanism. The important factor in homogeneous base catalyzed reaction is to create nucleophilic alkoxide
from the alcohol to attack the electrophilic part of the carbonyl group of the triglycerides [12] while in acid
catalysis the carbonyl group in triglycerides is protonated and the alcohol attacks the protonated carbon to

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Biodiesel Production from WCO using Heterogeneous Catalyst


create a tetrahedral intermediate. The breakdown of triglyceride requires three steps. The first step is to produce
an intermediate tetrahedral and the second step is the breakdown of the unstable intermediate tetrahedral to
diglyceride ion and fatty acid ester. The last step is the recovery of the catalyst by proton transfer. These three
mechanisms are repeated for cleavage of each fatty acid ester and then finally three fatty acid esters and a
glycerol are formed [13]. After gravity separation of glycerol, the crude biodiesel is purified by water washing,
dry washing or membrane extraction process to remove residual catalyst, free glycerol, unreacted alcohol and
soap that were formed during transesterification reaction.
Heterogeneous Catalyst
These catalysts are of the form of supported metals or metal oxides in solid state. In heterogeneous catalysis
contrary to the homogenous system, adsorption of reactants and desorption of products have to take place on the
surface of the solid catalyst for the reaction to take place at increased rate. Heterogeneous catalysts can easily be
tuned to include desired catalyst properties so that the presence of FFAs or water does not adversely affect the
reaction steps during transesterification. Active sites are not well defined and the reaction mechanism is poorly
understood. Compared with the former one, solid acid-catalysts is cheaper, offer some advantages for
eliminating separation, corrosion, toxicity, and environmental problems, but the reaction rate is slower..
Materials
Many vegetable oils like Soybean, Groundnut, Rapeseed, Palm, Olive etc. are wildly used for frying a number
of food items. But after heating above a critical temperature for deep frying, they become unfit for further
cooking, as their further use may lead to cholesterol formation in human beings. Presently, the WCOs are still
lower cost feedstock making biodiesel production more competitive to the production of petroleum based
diesel fuel. WCO was brought from 5 star hotel ITC Maurya Sheraton, Delhi. Methanol was purchased from
nearby local market and white dustless chalk pieces (black board chalk) of Apsara Company containing high
quality calcium carbonate are used to produce calcium oxide (CaO). Table 1 presents the details of ingredients
used for biodiesel production. Experiments were carried out for molar ratio of 6:1, 9:1 and 12:1 for 3%, 4% &
5% catalyst by weight of oil.
Preparation of Heterogeneous Catalyst (CaO) from White Chalk (CaCO3)
Calcination is a thermal treatment process in presence of air or oxygen applied to ores and other solid materials
to bring about a thermal decomposition. The calcination process normally takes place at temperatures below the
melting point and at or above the thermal decomposition temperature. This temperature is usually defined as the
temperature at which the standard Gibbs free energy for a particular calcination reaction is equal to zero. For
Calcium carbonate decomposition process, the chemical reaction is shown in equation 2.
Table 1: Oil, alcohol and catalyst used for mechanical stirring and ultrasonic cavitation.

(2)
White chalk pieces were kept in muffle furnace at 850C for 2 hour. Thermal decomposition started at these
temperatures to drive out CO2 gas and residual is CaO. The chalk pieces (CaO) were allowed to cool in furnace
itself and stored in an airtight container to avoid exposure to air.

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Singh and Pal

Preparation of WCO, Catalyst and Methyl Alcohol Mixture


WCO is filtered to remove impurities. The raw oil is then heated up to 110C in order to remove any water
content in oil to avoid soap formation during reaction. This oil is then allowed to cool up to 60C temperature.
Catalyst (CaO) (crushed to powder form) in 3%, 4% & 5% by weight of oil and mixed with methyl alcohol
(CH3OH) with in a molar ratio of 6:1, 9:1 and 12:1.
Transesterication by Mechanical Stirring
WCO sample is introduced in the beaker containing mixture of CH3OH and recycled CaO after 1
transesterification process. The beaker is placed on the hot plate of mechanical stirrer functions as a heating
source to maintain the temperature of the solution. The transesterification reaction was carried by conventional
mechanical stirring method. A magnetic capsule is dipped in the mixture and rotated with the help of
mechanical stirrer. The solution is stirred with a speed of 300 rpm. During the reaction the temperature of
mixture is kept within 55-60C for the reaction time period of 3hr, 3 hr, 4hr & 4 hr. When reaction is
completed sample in the beaker is in poured in a separation flask for 2-3 hour for the separation. Catalyst CaO,
soap, Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and methanol settled down in order as per their specific weight (catalyst
at the bottom and methanol at the top).
The insoluble catalyst and glycerine recovered by filtration, dried in an oven at 250 C, sieved and catalyst
reused in subsequent reactions. The remaining solution was put into the beaker. Excess methanol present in
biodiesel has been removed by distillation process and left over is biodiesel.
Transesterification by Ultrasonic Cavitation
Cavitation is a process of formation of vapour cavities in a liquid i.e. formation of small bubbles or voids in the
mass of liquid [14]. It is the process in which a bubble in a fluid is forced to oscillate in size or shape due to some
form of energy input, as in a case of acoustic field. Such cavitation is often employed in ultrasonic cleaning
baths [15]. The transesterification reactions were carried out in an ultrasonic reactor. Ultrasonic horn type
processor is shown in Figure 1.
In horn type reactor, horn is attached with the transducer which produces ultrasonic irradiation in the mixture.
Horn type reactor has been used for this experiment. The ultrasonic cavitation generates ultrasonic processor
frequency of 25-28 kHz. The transducer horn is clamped in a separate stand having jack type table to support the
beaker and for its proper adjustment so that sufficient length of horn is dipped in the sample without touching
the boundaries of the beaker.

Figure 1: Ultrasonic Generator


The mixture of oil, methanol and catalyst is kept inside the ultrasonic processor transducer. Adjust the beaker
so that ultrasonic horn sufficiently dips in the solution. Reaction time was varied for different samples from
half an hour to 2 hour with an increment of half an hour. After the completion of reaction the biodiesel is

298

Biodiesel Production from WCO using Heterogeneous Catalyst


separated in the same way as in mechanical stirring method.
Experimental Results
Figure 2, figure 3 and figure 4 shows comparison of biodiesel yield for mechanical stirring transesterification
process at molar ratio 6:1, 9:1 and 12:1 of methanol to alcohol respectively for varying concentration of
recycled heterogeneous catalyst and reaction time. % yield of biodiesel produced was found to increase sharply
with increase in reaction time from 3 hr to 4 hr and then achieve almost constant yield with increased reaction
time.
Figure 2 shows percentage yield for 5 % catalyst by weight for 4 hr reaction time was 20% higher than that for
4% catalyst and 2.4% higher than for 3 % catalyst for 6:1 molar ratio. The maximum yield was around 85% for
5% CaO catalyst by weight.
Figure 3 shows percentage yield for 5 % catalyst by weight for 4 hr reaction time was 7% higher than that for 4%
catalyst and 2% higher than for 3 % catalyst for 9:1 molar ratio. The maximum yield was around 90% for 5 %
CaO catalyst by weight.

Figure 2: Effect of reaction time and catalyst


concentration on biodiesel yield using
MR 6:1 in Mechanical Stirring

Figure 4: Effect of reaction time and catalyst


concentration on biodiesel yield using
MR 12:1 in Mechanical Stirring

Figure 3: Effect of reaction time and catalyst


concentration on biodiesel yield using
MR 9:1 in Mechanical Stirring

Figure 5: Effect of reaction time and catalyst


concentration on biodiesel yield using
MR 6:1 in Ultrasonic Cavitation

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Singh and Pal


Figure 4 shows percentage yield for 5 % catalyst by weight for 4 hr reaction time was 6.5% higher than that for
4% catalyst and 2% higher than for 3 % catalyst for 12:1 molar ratio. The maximum yield was around 92% for 5
% CaO catalyst by weight.
Figure 5, figure 6 and figure 7 shows comparison of biodiesel yield for ultrasonic cavitation transesterification
process at molar ratio 6:1, 9:1 and 12:1 of methanol to alcohol respectively for varying concentration of
recycled heterogeneous catalyst and reaction time. % yield of biodiesel produced was found to increase sharply
with increase in reaction time from 0.5 hr to 1 hr and then increases gradually upto 1.5 hr and then achieve
almost constant yield for increased reaction time.

Figure 6: Effect of reaction time and catalyst


concentration on biodiesel yield using MR
9:1 in Ultrasonic Cavitation

Figure 7: Effect of reaction time and catalyst


concentration on biodiesel yield using
MR 12:1 in Ultrasonic Cavitation

Figure 2 shows percentage yield for 5 % catalyst by weight for 1.5 hr reaction time was 12% higher than that for
3% catalyst and almost equal to that for 4 % catalyst for 6:1 molar ratio. The maximum yield was around 87%
for 5 % CaO catalyst by weight.
Figure 4 shows percentage yield for 5 % catalyst by weight for 1.5 hr reaction time was 10.5% higher than that
for 3% catalyst and 3% higher than for 4 % catalyst for 9:1 molar ratio. The maximum yield was around 93.5%
for 5 % CaO catalyst by weight.
Figure 4 shows percentage yield for 5 % catalyst by weight for 1.5 hr reaction time was 8.5% higher than that for
3% catalyst and 2.5% higher than for 3 % catalyst for 12:1 molar ratio. The maximum yield was around 94% for
5 % CaO catalyst by weight.
Discussion
An increase in methanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1 has given maximum yield for every variation of catalyst
concentration. A further increase in molar ratio does not increase the yield in all the methods of production.
An increase in catalyst concentration has given maximum yield for every variation of different molar ratio of
methanol. A further increase in catalyst quantity does not increase the yield in all the methods of production.
Increase in catalyst quantity beyond 5% raised the viscosity of solution, so the hindrance in the mixing of
reactants.
Conclusion
Heterogeneous base catalyst has proved to be economical, environmental friendly, easily recyclable, ease in

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Biodiesel Production from WCO using Heterogeneous Catalyst


separation and low cost of separation in comparison with homogeneous catalyst, whereas the catalyst
preparation is difficult and expensive task. Heterogeneous catalyst transesterification reaction was slow when
comparing with homogeneous catalyst. It is probably due to inadequate mass transfer of reactants in the
solution, thus improper and inefficient contacts of reactants with the catalyst to complete the reaction. However
the rate of reaction increases in ultrasonic cavitation method of transesterification reaction. CaO catalyst leads
to sustainable yield even at molar ratio of 12:1 whereas most of the commonly used heterogeneous catalyst
requires high molar ratios upto 20:1.

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Oct. 14 & 15.

CFD Analysis of Wavy Edge Rectangular


Micro-Channel Heat Sink at Different
Reynolds Number
Mohammad Zunaid , Afzal Husain, Anant Jindal
and Avinash Gupchup

Abstract- In this work fluid flow, pressure drop and characteristics of heat transfer in two types of microchannel heat sinks have been analyzed using computational fluid dynamics. One of them is a straight
rectangular micro-channel heat sink on which validation is done by comparing experimental results with
numerical results while the other is a wavy edge type rectangular micro-channel heat sink for which simulation
results are obtained. Water is used as a coolant for the simulation. The material for heat sink is copper. Both the
micro-channels have a width of 0.23 mm and height of 0.71 mm. The aspect ratio () and the length of both the
channels is kept same as 0.32 and 44.7mm respectively. The analysis for both the micro-channels is done for
three sets of Reynolds number which are 400, 800 and 1200 respectively and the heat flux is 200W/cm2. After
constructing the geometry in Solidworks the simulation is done on ANSYS CFX. For both the straight microchannel and the wavy micro-channel investigated, it is found that the thermal performance of wavy edge microchannels is better in comparison to that of straight micro-channels. The temperature rise of water is more in
wavy edge type micro-channels in comparison to that of straight micro-channels of the same hydraulic diameter
for different sets of Reynolds number. Further the pressure drop is more in wavy type of channels which can be
compensated due to the high heat transfer characteristics of wavy micro-channels.
Keywords- CFD; microchanel; heat sink; rectangular; wavy.

ntroduction Large amount of heat from small areas can easily remove by help of micro-channel. The heat
sinks can be used for the next generation of cooling technology in various high performance
supercomputer chips and diodes of laser. The construction of a typical micro-cooler comprise of very large
number coolant channels. Heat sinks can be classified as single phase or two phase depending as to whether the
fluid or liquid boils inside the microchannels or not.
Various types of coolants can be employed in a micro-channel cooler for heat removal. A commonly used
coolant in a heat sink is water. However, for better cooling performance of the micro-channel nano-fluids can be
used. The material of the heat sink has high thermal conductivity such as silicon, copper and aluminum.
Peng and Peterson [1] practically analyses micro-channel and found that heat transfer is dependent upon
the aspect ratio. Fedorov and Viskanta [2] analyze 3-D micro-channel and found that the mean channel wall
temperature along the direction of flow was nearly same except in the region close to the micro-channel inlet
Mohammad Zunaid, Anant Jindal , Avinash Gupchup
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi-110042,
mzunaid3k@gmail.com, anantjindal@ho