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Measure of central tendency

When two or more different data sets are to be compared a data set can be
summarized in a single value. Such a value usually somewhere in the center and
representing the entire data. Set is a value at which the data have a tendency to
concentrate the tendency of the observation cluster in the central part of the data is called
central tendency.
Types of Average
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Arithmetic Mean
Geometric Mean
Harmonic Mean
Median
Mode

Arithmatic Mean
The sum of values by the number of the values is called arithmetic mean. It is
denoted by X and it is defined as

=Sum of the values


No. of the values

Grouped data

fx
f

X
n

ungrouped data

Example
Total annual incomes of eight families are Rs.3200 , Rs. 4000, Rs. 3500, Rs.
4500, Rs. 3800, Rs 4200, Rs 3600, and Rs.53200. find the arithmetic mean of the given
data.
X

=Sum of the values =


X
No. of the values
n
= 3200+4000+3500+4500+3800+4200+3600+53200
8
=
80000 =
10000
8

Example
Find the mean weight of 120 students at the Lahore University from the frequency
distribution .

Weight
(pounds)
110-119

Class Mark
(X)
114.5

114.5

120-129

124.5

498.5

130-139

17

134.5

2286.5

140-149

28

144.5

4046.0

150-159

25

154.5

3862.5

160-169

18

164.5

2961.0

170-179

13

174.5

2268.5

180-189

184.5

1107.0

190-199

194.5

972.5

200-209

204.5

409.0

210-219

214.5

214.5

fx

120

fx
f

18740

= 18740
120

156.17

Example
Find the arithmetic mean for the following distribution showing marks obtained
by 50 students in statistics at a certain examination.

Marks

Frequency

20-24

25-29

30-34

35-39

11

40-44

15

45-49

50-54

39 marks

Weighted Arithmetic Mean


Sometimes we want to find the average or certain values which are not of equal
importance. When the values are not of equal importance. We assign them certain values
to express the relative importance the numerical values are called weights. If x1, x2, x3,
xn and weights w1, w2,w3, ,wn then the weighted arithmetic mean
or the weighted mean denoted by (Xw) then it is defined as
Xw

Xw

w1x1 + w2x2 +w3x3 + .+ wnxn


w1 + w2 + w3 + + wn
wx
w

Example
Calculate the weighted mean from the following data.

Food

Expenditure
(X)
290

Weights
(W)
7.5

2175.0

Rent

54

2.0

108.0

Clothing

98

1.5

147.0

Fuel and light

75

1.0

75.0

Other items

75

0.5

37.5

12.5

2542.5

Item

Total

Xw

2542.5
12.5

XW

203.4

Combined Mean
If n1 values have mean X1, n2 values have mean X2, .., nk values
have mean Xk, the mean of all values is

Xc

n1X1 + n2X2 + n3X3 + ..+ nkXk


n1 + n2 + n3 + + nk

Example
The mean height and the number of students in three sections of a statistics class
are given below. Find the combined mean of the following data.

Section

Number of boys

Mean Height

40

62

37

58

43

61

n1 = 40

n2 = 37

n3 = 43

and

X1 = 62

X2 = 58

X3 = 61

Xc

n1X1 + n2X2 + n3X3


n1 + n2 + n3

(40 x 62) + (37 x 58) + (43 x 61)


40 + 37+ 43

= 60.4

The Geometric Mean


The geometric mean, G, of a set of n positive values x1, x2, x3, .,xn is the
nth root of the product of the values. Thus
G=

(x1.x2.x3.xn)1/n

Example
Find the geometric mean of the values
(i)
(ii)

3,5,6
3,5,6,6,7,10,12

G=

(3 x 5 x 6)1/3

Sol
(i)

4.48

(ii)

Log X

0.47712

0.69897

0.77815

0.77815

0.84510

10

1.00000

12

1.07918
5.65667

G = antilog [ logx ]=
n

antilog [ (5.65667) / 7 ]

= 6.42836

Example
Find geometric mean for the following frequency distribution
X

logx

f log x

0.0000

0.0000

0.3010

0.9030

0.4771

1.9084

0.6021

0.6021

Total

10

3.4135

G = antilog [ f log x ]
f
=

2.1946

Example

Weights (Ib)

Log X

f log X

110-119

114.5

2.05881

2.05881

120-129

124.5

2.09517

8.38068

130-139

17

134.5

2.12872

36.18824

140-149

28

144.5

2.15987

60.47636

150-159

25

154.5

2.18893

54.72325

160-169

18

164.5

2.21617

39.89106

170-179

13

174.5

2.24180

29.14340

180-189

184.5

2.26600

13.59600

190-199

194.5

2.28892

11.44460

200-209

204.5

2.31069

4.62138

210-219

214.5

2.33143

2.33142

120
G = antilog [ f log x ]

262.85521

f
G = antilog [262.85521]

155.046

120
The Harmonic Mean
The harmonic mean, H , of a set on n values x1, x2,x3,.xn is the reciprocal of
the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of the values. The mean of the reciprocals.
H.M. =

n
(1 / x)

for ungrouped data

H.M. =

for grouped data

f (1/x )
Example
Find the harmonic mean of the values
X

1/x

0.3333

0.2000

0.1667

0.1667

0.1429

10

0.1000

12

0.0833
1.1929

H.M. =

n
(1 / x)

7
1.1929

= 5.87

Example
A man travels from A to B at an average speed of 30 km per hours and returns
from B to A along the same route at an average speed of 60 km per hour. Find the average
speed for the entire trip.
H=

40 km per hour

1/ 30 + 1/ 60
Example
Find the harmonic mean of the distribution of weights of 120 students at the
lahore university

Weights (Ib)

1/x

f (1/x)

110-119

114.5

0.00873

0.00873

120-129

124.5

0.00803

0.03212

130-139

17

134.5

0.00743

0.12631

140-149

28

144.5

0.00692

0.19377

150-159

25

154.5

0.00647

0.16175

160-169

18

164.5

0.00608

0.10944

170-179

13

174.5

0.00573

0.07449

180-189

184.5

0.00542

0.03252

190-199

194.5

0.00514

0.02570

200-209

204.5

0.00489

0.00978

210-219

214.5

0.00466

0.00466

120

H = 120 / 0.77927

0.77927

153.99

Relation between the Arithmetic mean, the Geometric mean, the Harmonic mean

X >= G >= H

or

X > G >H

The equality sign holds when all the values are equal

Example
The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and harmonic mean of the
distribution of a continuous variable were calculated and recorded as 26.37, 29.84 and
25.83 by the some person. Identify the mean, geometric mean and harmonic mean.

Sol
Since X > G > H we have
X = 29.84,

G = 26.37,

H = 25.83

Median
We arrange the data in ascending or descending order then the middle value is
called median and it is defined as
Median =

(n+1)
2

th item

Median =

L + h/f (n/2 c)

for ungrouped data


for grouped data

L = lower class boundary of the class


n = Total number of observations
c = Cumulative frequency preceding the median class
f = Frequency of the median class
h = Class interval of the median class
Example
(i)

Find the median of the values 5,7,4,6,3


Median = 5
(iii)

Find the median of the values 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 13


Median =

7+9
2

2
6

3
7

4
9

or
sr.no
item

1
4

Median =

5
11

(n+1) / 2

th item

(6+1) / 2

3.5 th item

3rd

+ 0.5 ( 4th 3rd)

+ 0.5 ( 9 - 7)

6
13

Median from continuous data


Example
Find the median for the following continuous frequency distribution

Class

Frequency

C.F.

0-1

1-2

2-3

13

3-4

20

4-5

23

5-6

25

25

Median =
=

L + h/f (n/2 c)
2 + 1/8 (12.5 5)

n /2 = 25/2 = 12.5 th item


=

2.9375

Median from Discrete Data


Example
Find the median of the following distribution
Number of
Children
(X)
0

Number of
Families
(f)
4

25

29

53

82

18

100

14

114

121

123 = n

C.F.
4

Median =
=

(n+1) / 2
th item
(123+1) / 2 = 62 th item

Median =

Quartiles
We arrange the data in ascending or descending order then we dividethe data in to
four equal parts is called quartiles. It is denoted by Q1 , Q2 and it is defined as
Q1 =

(n+1)
4

Q3 = 3 (n+1)
4

th item
th item

for ungrouped data


for ungrouped data

Q1 = L + h/f (n / 4 c)

for grouped data

Q3 = L + h/f (3n / 4 c)

for grouped data

L = lower class boundary of the class


n = Total number of observations
c = Cummulative frequency preceding the class
f = Frequency of the class
h = Class interval of the class

Deciles
We arrange the data in ascending or descending order then we dividethe data in to
ten equal parts is called deciles. It is denoted by D1 , D2,.., D9 and it is defined as
D1 =

(n+1)
10

th item

for ungrouped data

D2 = 2(n+1)
10

th item

for ungrouped data

D3 = 3(n+1)
10
.
.
.
.
D9 = 9(n+1)
10

th item

for ungrouped data

th item

for ungrouped data

D1 = L + h/f (n / 10 c)

for grouped data

D2 = L + h/f (2n / 10 c)

for grouped data

D3 = L + h/f (3n / 10 c)
.
.
.
.
D9 = L + h/f (9n / 10 c)

for grouped data

for grouped data

L = lower class boundary of the class


n = Total number of observations
c = Cummulative frequency preceding the class
f = Frequency of the class
h = Class interval of the class

Percentiles
We arrange the data in ascending or descending order then we dividethe data in to
hundred equal parts is called percentiles. It is denoted by P1 , P2,.., P99 and it is
defined as
P1 =

(n+1) th item
100

for ungrouped data

P2 =

2(n+1)
100

th item

for ungrouped data

P3 =

3(n+1)
100

th item

for ungrouped data

.
.
.
P99 = 99(n+1)
100

th item

for ungrouped data

P1 =

L + h/f (n / 100 c)

for grouped data

P2 =

L + h/f (2n / 100 c) for grouped data

P3 = L + h/f (3n / 100 c) for grouped data


.
.
.
.
P99 = L + h/f (9n / 100 c) for grouped data
L = lower class boundary of the class
n = Total number of observations
c = Cummulative frequency preceding the class
f = Frequency of the class
h = Class interval of the class
Example
Find all the quartiles,second,third and seventh deciles and the fifteenth,thirty
seventh and sixty fourth percentiles from the following marks obtained by 20 students on
a test in statistics.
53, 74, 82, 42, 39, 20, 81, 68, 58, 28, 67, 54, 93, 70, 30, 55, 36, 37, 29, 61
Sr.no. 1

10

Item. 20

28

29

30

36

37

39

42

53

54

Sr.no. 11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Item. 55

58

61

67

68

70

74

81

82

93

Q1 =

(n+1) th item
4
= (20+1) th item
4
= 5.25 th item

Q1 = 5th

0.25 ( 6th - 5th )

= 36

0.25 ( 37

- 36 )

= 36.25

D3 = (n+1)
10

P15

th item

3 (20+1)
10

th item

6.3

th item

6th

0.3 ( 7th - 6th )

37

0.3 ( 39 - 37 )

37.6

(n+1) th item
100

15 (20+1)
100

3.15

th item

3rd

0.15 ( 4th - 3rd )

29

0.15 ( 30 - 29 )

29.15

th item

Example

( For continuous data )

Find the median ,the quartiles and the 8th decile for for the distribution of the
examination marks given below:

30-39

No.of
students
8

Class
boundaries
29.5-39.5

Cummulative
frequency
8

40-49

87

39.5-49.5

95

50-59

190

49.5-59.5

285

60-69

304

59.5-69.5

589

70-79

211

69.5-79.5

800

80-89

85

79.5-89.5

885

90-99

20

89.5-99.5

905

Marks

905

Q1

D8

P2

L + h/f (n/4 c)

n /4 = 905 / 4 = 226.25 th item

49.5 + 10 / 190 ( 226.25 95 )

56.4 marks

L + h/f (8n/10 c)

69.5 + 10 / 211 (724 589 )

76

L + h/f (2n/100 c)

39.5 + 10 / 87 (18.10 8 )

40.66

8n /10 = ( 8 x 905) /10 = 724 th item

2n /100 = ( 2 x 905) /100 = 18.10 th item

Example

( For discrete data )

The following distribution relates to the number of assistants in 50 retail


establishments.

Q1 =
=

No. of assistants

c.f.

13

20

10

30

36

41

46

49

50 =n

Total

50

(n+1)
4

th item

(50+1)
4
12.75

2 assistant

D7 =
=

7(n+1)
10

th item
th item

th item

7(50+1)
10
35.7

5 assistant

th item
th item

P17 =

17(n+1)
100

th item

17(50+1)
100
8.67

2 assistant

th item
th item

The Mode
The mode is defined as a value which occurs most frequently in a set of data, that
is it indicates the most common result. A set of data may have more than one mode or no
mode at all when each observationoccurs the same number of times.

Mode = L +

(fm -f1 )

(fm - f1) + ( fm f2 )
L = lower class boundary of the modal class
fm = frequency of the modal class
f1 = frequency associated with the class preceding the modal class
f2 = frequency associated with the class following the modal class
h = width of the class interval
Example

(for continuous data )

30-39

No.of
students
8

Class
boundaries
29.5-39.5

40-49

87

39.5-49.5

50-59

190=f1

49.5-59.5

60-69

304 =fm

59.5-69.5

70-79

211=f2

69.5-79.5

80-89

85

79.5-89.5

90-99

20

89.5-99.5

Marks

905

Mode = L +

(fm -f1 )

(fm - f1) + ( fm f2 )
= 59.5 +

(304 190 )

10

(304 190 ) + ( 304 211)


=
Example

65 marks
(for discrete data )

The following distribution relates to the number of assistants in 50 retail


establishments.

Mode =

No. of assistants

10

Total

50

EMPERICAL RELATION BETWEEN MEAN, MEDIAN AND MODE


(i)

Mean = Median = Mode

(when distribution is symmetrical)

(ii)

Mode = 3 Median - 2 Mean (when distribution is skewed)

Practice Questions
1. National Tire Company holds reserve funds in short term marketable
securities. The ending daily balance (in millions) of the marketable securities
account for 2 weeks is shown below:
Week1
Week 2

1.973, 1.970, 1.972, 1.975, 1.976


1.969, 1.892, 1.893, 1.887, 1.895

What was the average (mean) amount invested in marketable securities during
i.
ii.

The first week?


The second week?

2. M.T. Smith travels the eastern united states as a sales representative for a
textbook publisher. She is paid on a commission basis related to volume. Her
quarterly earnings over the last 3 years are given below.
Ist quarter
Year1
Year2
Year3
(a):
(b):

10000
20000
30000

2nd quarter

3rd quarter

4th quarter

5000
10000
15000

25000
20000
45000

15000
10000
50000

Calculate separately M.T.s average earning in each of the four


quarters.
Calculate separated M.T.s average quarterly earnings in the each
of the 3 years.

3. Lillian Tyson has been the chairperson of the county library committee for
10 year. She contends that during her tenure she has managed the book mobile
repair budget better than her predecessor did. Here are data for bookmobile
repair for 15 years:
Year
1992
1991
1990
1989
1988

Town budget
30000
28000
25000
27000
26000

Year
1987
1986
1985
1984
1983

Town budget
24000
19000
21000
22000
24000

Year
1982
1981
1980
1979
1978

(a) Calculate the average annual budget for the last 5 years (1988-1992).
(b) Calculate the average annual budget for the first 5 years in office
1987).

Town budget
30000
20000
15000
10000
9000
(1983-

(c) Calculate the average annual budget for the 5 years before she was elected (19781982).

Q4

Hayes Textiles has shown the following percentage increase in net worth over the
last 5 years:
1992
5%

1993
10.5%

1994
9.0%

1995
6.0%

1996
7.5%

What is the average percentage increase in net worth over the 5-year period?
Q5

The Birch Company, a manufacturing of electrical circuit boards, has


manufactured the following number of units over the past 5 years:
1992
12500

1993
13250

1994
14310

1995
15741

1996
17630

Calculate the average percentage increase in units produced over this time period,

Q6.

Swifty Markets compares prices charged for identical items in all of its food
stores. Here are the prices charged by each store for a pound of bacon last week:
$1.08 0.98

1.09

1.24

1.33

1.14

1.55

1.08

1.22

1.05

(a) Calculate the median price per pound.


(b) Calculate the mean price per pound.
Q7 A librarian polled 20 different people as they left the library and asked them how
many books they checked out. Here are the responses:
1,02,2,3,4,2,1,2,0,2,2,3,1,0,7,3,5,4,2

Q8
The ages of residents of twin lakes Retirement village have this frequency
distribution:

Class
frequency
47-51.9
4
52-56.9
9
57-61.9
13
62-66.9
42
67-71.9
39
72-76.9
20
77-81.9
9
Estimate the model value of the distribution .