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HORIZONS

Grade 10
Learners Materials
Music and Arts Appreciation
for Young Filipinos
Raul M. Sunico, Ph.D.
Evelyn F. Cabanban
Melissa Y. Moran

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Department of Education
Republic of the Philippines
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HORIZONS Grade 10
Learners Materials
Music and Arts Appreciation for Young Filipinos

ISBN 978-971-793-023-7

Philippine Copyright 2015


by Tawid Publications
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
meanselectronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage
or retrieval system without prior written permission from the publisher.
Published by
Tawid Publications
102 B. Gonzales St., Xavierville II
Loyola Heights, Quezon City 1108
Metro Manila, Philippines
(+63-2) 453-7918
tawidcorp@yahoo.com; tawidpub@gmail.com

Editorial Board
Editors:
Evelyn F. Cabanban
Melissa Y. Moran
Milagros P. Valdez, language reader
Coordinator: Evelyn F. Cabanban
Cover Design: Rowena E. Cabanban
Cover Art and Divider Art: Joe Dureza

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
MUSIC

Quarter I

Quarter II

MUSIC OF THE 20th CENTURY ...............................................

Impressionism

.............................................................

Primitivism

............................................................. 10

Neo Classicism

............................................................. 14

Avant Garde Music

............................................................. 17

Modern Nationalism

............................................................. 22

Electronic Music

............................................................. 25

Chance Music

............................................................. 28

AFRO-LATIN AND POPULAR MUSIC ..................................... 37


Music of Africa

............................................................. 38

Music of Latin American ............................................................. 53


Jazz Music

............................................................. 65

Popular Music

............................................................. 68

Philippine Popular Music

............................................................. 76

Quarter III CONTEMPORARY PHILIPPINE MUSIC ................................. 88


Traditional Composers

............................................................. 89

New Music Composers

............................................................. 110

Song Composers

............................................................. 125

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Quarter IV 20th and 21st MULTIMEDIA FORMS ........................................ 141


Opera in the Philippines .................................................................... 142
Ballet in the Philippines .................................................................... 156
Musical Plays .................................................................................... 163
Musical Plays in the Philippines ....................................................... 167

ARTS

Quarter I

MODERN ART ............................................................................... 188


Impressionism: Origins of the Movement......................................... 190
Impressionism: A Break from Past Painting Traditions.................... 192
Impressionism: Works of Manet, Monet, and Renoir....................... 194
Post-Impressionism: Works of Cezanne and Van Gogh ................... 197
Expressionism: A Bold New Movement........................................... 203
Abstractionism .................................................................................. 208
Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Op Art ......................................... 214
Contemporary Art Forms: Installation Art, Performance Art ........... 223

Quarter II

TECHNOLOGY-BASED ART ................................................... 231


Computer / Digital Arts

................................................... 232

Mobile Phone Art / Computer-generated Images ............................. 239


Digital Photography

................................................... 246

Video Games / Digital Painting / Imaging Videos............................ 251

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Quarter III MEDIA-BASED ARTS AND DESIGN


IN THE PHILIPPINES
............................................................ 257
Photography ...................................................................................... 259
Film ................................................................................................... 265
Animation.......................................................................................... 274
Print Media: Advertising, Comics, Book Design and Illustration .... 278
Innovation in Product and Industrial Design..................................... 289

Quarter IV ORIGINAL PERFORMANCE


WITH THE USE OF MEDIA ................................................... 299
Philippine Theater and Performing Groups ...................................... 300
Roles in a Stage Production ............................................................. 308
Culminating Activity: Staging an Original Performance.................. 313

Music Glossary ........................................................................................................ 317


Music Pronunciation Guide ..................................................................................... 320
Arts Glossary .......................................................................................................... 321
Arts Pronunciation Guide ........................................................................................ 324
Music Bibliography ................................................................................................. 325
Arts Bibliography .................................................................................................... 326

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MUSIC

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MUSIC

Quarter I

Quarter I: MUSIC OF THE 20TH CENTURY


CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner demonstrates understanding of...
1.

The 20th century music styles and characteristic features.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
The learner...
1.

Creates musical pieces using a particular style of the 20th century.

LEARNING COMPETENCIES
The learner...
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Listens perceptively to selected 20th century music.


Describes distinctive musical elements of given pieces in 20th
century styles.
Relates 20th century music to its historical and cultural
background.
Explains the performance practice (setting, composition, role of
composers/performers, and audience) of 20th century music.
Sings melodic fragments of given Impressionism period pieces.
Explores other arts and media that portray 20th century elements
through video films or live performances.
Creates short electronic and chance music pieces using knowledge
of 20th century styles.

From the Department of Education curriculum for MUSIC Grade 10 (2014)

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Music of the 20th Century

Quarter I: MUSIC OF THE 20TH CENTURY

he start of the 20th century saw the rise of distinct musical styles that reflected a
move away from the conventions of earlier classical music. These new styles were:
impressionism, expressionism, neo-classicism, avant garde music, and modern
nationalism.
The distinct musical styles of the 20th century would not have developed if not for the
musical genius of individual composers such as Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, Arnold
Schoenberg, Bela Bartok, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofieff, and George Gershwin stand
out as the moving forces behind the innovative and experimental styles mentioned above.
Coming from different nationsFrance, Austria, Hungary, Russia, and the United States
these composers clearly reflected the growing globalization of musical styles in the 20th
century.
IMPRESSIONISM

ne of the earlier but concrete forms declaring the entry of 20th century music was
known as impressionism. It is a French movement in the late 19th and early 20th
century. The sentimental melodies and dramatic emotionalism of the preceding Romantic
Period (their themes and melody are easy to recognize and enjoy) were being replaced in
favor of moods and impressions. There is an extensive use of colors and effects, vague
melodies, and innovative chords and progressions leading to mild dissonances.
Sublime moods and melodic suggestions replaced highly expressive and program music,
or music that contained visual imagery. With this trend came new combinations of extended
chords, harmonies, whole tone, chromatic scales, and pentatonic scales. Impressionism
was an attempt not to depict reality, but merely to suggest it. It was meant to create an
emotional mood rather than a specific picture. In terms of imagery, impressionistic forms
were translucent and hazy, as if trying to see through a rain-drenched window.
In impressionism, the sounds of different chords overlapped lightly with each other to
produce new subtle musical colors. Chords did not have a definite order and a sense of
clear resolution. Other features include the lack of a tonic-dominant relationship which
normally gives the feeling of finality to a piece, moods and textures, harmonic vagueness
about the structure of certain chords, and use of the whole-tone scale. Most of the
impressionist works centered on nature and its beauty, lightness, and brilliance. A number
of outstanding impressionists created works on this subject.

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MUSIC

Quarter I

The impressionistic movement in music had its foremost proponents in the French
composers Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel. Both had developed a particular style of
composing adopted by many 20th century composers. Among the most famous luminaries
in other countries were Ottorino Respighi (Italy), Manuel de Falla and Isaac Albeniz
(Spain), and Ralph Vaughan Williams (England).

CLAUDE DEBUSSY (18621918)


One of the most important and influential of the 20th century
composers was Claude Debussy. He was the primary exponent
of the impressionist movement and the focal point for other
impressionist composers. He changed the course of musical
development by dissolving traditional rules and conventions into
a new language of possibilities in harmony, rhythm, form,
texture, and color.
Debussy was born in St. Germain-en-Laye in France on August
22, 1862. His early musical talents were channeled into piano
lessons. He entered the Paris Conservatory in 1873. He gained
a reputation as an erratic pianist and a rebel in theory and
harmony. He added other systems of musical composition because of his musical training.
In 1884, he won the top prize at the Prix de Rome competition with his composition L
Enfant Prodigue (The Prodigal Son). This enabled him to study for two years in Rome,
where he got exposed to the music of Richard Wagner, specifically his opera Tristan und
Isolde, although he did not share the latters grandiose style.
Debussys mature creative period was represented by the following works:

Ariettes Oubliees

Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun

String Quartet

Pelleas et Melisande (1895)his famous operatic work that drew mixed


extreme reactions for its innovative harmonies and textural treatments.

La Mer (1905)a highly imaginative and atmospheric symphonic work


for orchestra about the sea

Images, Suite Bergamasque, and Estampeshis most popular piano


compositions; a set of lightly textured pieces containing his signature work
Claire de Lune (Moonlight)
His musical compositions total more or less 227 which include orchestral music, chamber
music, piano music, operas, ballets, songs, and other vocal music.

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Music of the 20th Century

The creative style of Debussy was characterized by his unique approach to the various
musical elements. Debussys compositions deviated from the Romantic Period and is
clearly seen by the way he avoided metric pulses and preferred free form and developed
his themes. Debussys western influences came from composers Franz Liszt and Giuseppe
Verdi. From the East, he was fascinated by the Javanese gamelan that he had heard at the
1889 Paris Exposition. The gamelan is an ensemble with bells, gongs, xylophone, and
occasional vocal parts which he later used in his works to achieve a new sound.
From the visual arts, Debussy was influenced by Monet, Pissarro, Manet, Degas, and
Renoir; and from the literary arts, by Mallarme, Verlaine, and Rimbaud. Most of his close
friends were painters and poets who significantly influenced his compositions. His role as
the Father of the Modern School of Composition made its mark in the styles of the
later 20th century composers like Igor Stravinsky, Edgar Varese, and Olivier Messiaen.
Debussy spent the remaining years of his life as a critic, composer, and performer. He
died in Paris on March 25, 1918 of cancer at the height of the First World War.
CLAIRE DE LUNE
(MOONLIGHT)
Suite Bergamasque (Excerpt)
Claude Debussy

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MUSIC

Quarter I

MAURICE RAVEL (18751937)


Joseph Maurice Ravel was born in Ciboure,
France to a Basque mother and a Swiss father.
He entered the Paris Conservatory at the age of
14 where he studied with the eminent French
composer Gabriel Faure. During his stint with
the school where he stayed until his early 20s,
he had composed a number of masterpieces.
The compositional style of Ravel is mainly
characterized by its uniquely innovative but not
atonal style of harmonic treatment. It is defined
with intricate and sometimes modal melodies
and extended chordal components. It demands
considerable technical virtuosity from the
performer which is the character, ability, or skill of a virtuosoa person who excels in
musical technique or execution.
The harmonic progressions and modulations are not only musically satisfying but also
pleasantly dissonant and elegantly sophisticated. His refined delicacy and color, contrasts
and effects add to the difficulty in the proper execution of the musical passages. These
are extensively used in his works of a programmatic nature, wherein visual imagery is
either suggested or portrayed. Many of his works deal with water in its flowing or stormy
moods as well as with human characterizations.
Ravels works include the following:

Pavane for a Dead Princess (1899), a slow but lyrical requiem


Jeux dEau or Water Fountains (1901)
String Quartet (1903)
Sonatine for Piano (c.1904)
Miroirs (Mirrors), 1905, a work for piano known for its harmonic evolution
and imagination,
Gaspard de la Nuit (1908), a set of demonic-inspired pieces based on the
poems of Aloysius Bertrand which is arguably the most difficult piece in the
piano repertoire.
These were followed by a number of his other significant works, including
Valses Nobles et Sentimentales (1911)
Le Tombeau de Couperin (c.1917), a commemoration of the musical
advocacies of the early 18th century French composer Francois Couperin,
Rhapsodie Espagnole
Bolero

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Music of the 20th Century

Daphnis et Chloe (1912), a ballet commissioned by master choreographer


Sergei Diaghilev that contained rhythmic diversity, evocation of nature,
and choral ensemble
La Valse (1920), a waltz with a frightening undertone that had been
composed for ballet and arranged as well as for solo and duo piano.
The two piano concerti composed in 1929 as well as the violin virtuosic
piece Tzigane (1922) total the relatively meager compositional output of
Ravel, approximating 60 pieces for piano, chamber music, song cycles,
ballet, and opera.

Ravel was a perfectionist and every bit a musical craftsman. He strongly adhered to the
classical form, specifically its ternary structure. A strong advocate of Russian music, he
also admired the music of Chopin, Liszt, Schubert, and Mendelssohn. He died in Paris in
1937.
BOLERO
Transcriptions for Two Pianos (Excerpt)
Maurice Ravel

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MUSIC

Quarter I

Comparative Styles of Debussy and Ravel


As the two major exponents of French Impressionism in music, Debussy and Ravel had
crossed paths during their lifetime although Debussy was thirteen years older than Ravel.
While their musical works sound quite similar in terms of their harmonic and textural
characteristics, the two differed greatly in their personalities and approach to music.
Whereas Debussy was more spontaneous and liberal in form, Ravel was very attentive to
the classical norms of musical structure and the compositional craftsmanship. Whereas
Debussy was more casual in his portrayal of visual imagery, Ravel was more formal and
exacting in the development of his motive ideas.

ARNOLD SCHOENBERG (18741951)


Arnold Schoenberg was born in a working-class suburb of Vienna, Austria on September
13, 1874. He taught himself music theory, but took lessons in counterpoint. German
composer Richard Wagner influenced his work as evidenced by his symphonic poem
Pelleas et Melisande, Op 5 (1903), a counterpoint of Debussys opera of the same title.
Schoenbergs style was constantly undergoing
development. From the early influences of Wagner,
his tonal preference gradually turned to the dissonant
and atonal, as he explored the use of chromatic
harmonies.
Although full of melodic and lyrical interest, his music
is also extremely complex, creating heavy demands
on the listener. His works were met with extreme
reactions, either strong hostility from the general public or enthusiastic acclaim from his
supporters.
Schoenberg is credited with the establishment of the twelve-tone system. His works
include the following:

Verklarte Nacht, Three Pieces for Piano, op. 11

Pierrot Lunaire,

Gurreleider

Verklarte Nacht (Transfigured Night, 1899), one of his earliest successful


pieces, blends the lyricism, instrumentation, and melodic beauty of Brahms
with the chromaticism and construction of Wagner.
His musical compositions total more or less 213 which include concerti, orchestral music,
piano music, operas, choral music, songs, and other instrumental music. Schoenberg
died on July 13, 1951 in Los Angeles, California, USA where he had settled since 1934.

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Music of the 20th Century

THREE PIANO PIECES, OP. 11, NO. 1


(Excerpt)
Arnold Schoenberg

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MUSIC

Quarter I

IGOR STRAVINSKY (18821971)


Igor Stravinsky stands alongside fellow-composer Schoenberg, painter Pablo Picasso,
and literary figure James Joyce as one of the great trendsetters of the 20th century.
He was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), Russia on June
17, 1882. Stravinskys early music reflected the influence of his
teacher, the Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. But
in his first successful masterpiece, The Firebird Suite (1910),
composed for Diaghilevs Russian Ballet, his skillful handling of
material and rhythmic inventiveness went beyond anything
composed by his Russian predecessors. He added a new
ingredient to his nationalistic musical style. The Rite of Spring
(1913) was another outstanding work. A new level of dissonance
was reached and the sense of tonality was practically abandoned.
Asymmetrical rhythms successfully portrayed the character of a
solemn pagan rite. When he left the country for the United States in 1939, Stravinsky
slowly turned his back on Russian nationalism and cultivated his neo-classical style.
Stravinsky adapted the forms of the 18th century with his contemporary style of writing.
Despite its shocking modernity, his music is also very structured, precise, controlled,
full of artifice, and theatricality. Other outstanding works include the ballet Petrouchka
(1911), featuring shifting rhythms and polytonality, a signature device of the composer.
The Rakes Progress (1951), a full-length opera, alludes heavily to the Baroque and
Classical styles of Bach and Mozart through the use of the harpsichord, small orchestra,
solo and ensemble numbers with recitatives stringing together the different songs.
Stravinskys musical output approximates 127 works, including concerti, orchestral music,
instrumental music, operas, ballets, solo vocal, and choral music. He died in New York
City on April 6, 1971.

OTHER MUSICAL STYLES


Primitivism

rimitivistic music is tonal through the asserting of one note as more important than
the others. New sounds are synthesized from old ones by juxtaposing two simple
events to create a more complex new event.
Primitivism has links to Exoticism through the use of materials from other cultures,
Nationalism through the use of materials indigenous to specific countries, and Ethnicism
through the use of materials from European ethnic groups. Two well-known proponents
of this style were Stravinsky and Bela Bartok. It eventually evolved into Neo-classicism.
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Music of the 20th Century

RUSSIAN DANCE FROM PETROUCHKA


(Excerpt)
Igor Stravinsky

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11

MUSIC

Quarter I

BELA BARTOK (18811945)


Bela Bartok was born in Nagyszentmiklos, Hungary (now Romania) on March 25, 1881,
to musical parents. He started piano lessons with his mother and later entered Budapest
Royal Academy of Music in 1899. He was inspired by the performance of Richard Strausss
Also Sprach Zarathustra to write his first nationalistic poem, Kossuth in 1903. He was a
concert pianist as he travelled exploring the music of Hungarian peasants.
In 1906, with his fellow composer Kodaly, Bartok
published his first collection of 20 Hungarian folk songs.
For the next decade, although his music was being badly
received in his country, he continued to explore Magyar
folk songs. Later, he resumed his career as a concert
pianist, while composing several works for his own use.
As a neo-classicist, primitivist, and nationalist composer,
Bartok used Hungarian folk themes and rhythms. He also
utilized changing meters and strong syncopations. His
compositions were successful because of their rich
melodies and lively rhythms. He admired the musical styles
of Liszt, Strauss, Debussy, and Stravinsky.
He eventually shed their influences in favor of Hungarian folk and peasant themes. These
later became a major source of the themes of his works. Bartok is most famous for his
Six String Quartets (19081938). It represents the greatest achievement of his creative
life, spanning a full 30 years for their completion. The six works combine difficult and
dissonant music with mysterious sounds.
The Concerto for Orchestra (1943), a five-movement work composed late in Bartoks
life, features the exceptional talents of its various soloists in an intricately constructed
piece. The short and popular Allegro Barbaro (1911) for solo piano is punctuated with
swirling rhythms and percussive chords, while Mikrokosmos (19261939), a set of six
books containing progressive technical piano pieces, introduced and familiarized the
piano student with contemporary harmony and rhythm.
His musical compositions total more or less 695 which include concerti, orchestral music,
piano music, instrumental music, dramatic music, choral music, and songs. In 1940, the
political developments in Hungary led Bartok to migrate to the United States, where he
died on September 26, 1945 in New York City, USA.

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Music of the 20th Century

DUET FOR PIPES


(Excerpt)
Bela Bartok

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13

MUSIC

Quarter I

Neo-Classicism

eo-classicism was a moderating factor between the emotional excesses of the


Romantic period and the violent impulses of the soul in expressionism. It was, in
essence, a partial return to an earlier style of writing, particularly the tightly-knit form of
the Classical period, while combining tonal harmonies with slight dissonances. It also
adopted a modern, freer use of the seven-note diatonic scale. Examples of neo-classicism
are Bela Bartoks Song of the Bagpipe and Piano Sonata. In this latter piece, the classical
three-movement format is combined with ever-shifting time signatures, complex but
exciting rhythmic patterns, as well as harmonic dissonances that produce harsh chords.
The neo-classicist style was also used by composers such as Francis Poulenc, Bela Bartok,
Igor Stravinsky, Paul Hindemith, and Sergei Prokofieff.

SERGEI PROKOFIEFF (18911953)


Sergei Prokofieff is regarded today as a combination of neo-classicist, nationalist, and
avant garde composer. His style is uniquely recognizable for its progressive technique,
pulsating rhythms, melodic directness, and a resolving dissonance.
Born in the Ukraine in 1891, Prokofieff set out for the St.
Petersburg Conservatory equipped with his great talent as a
composer and pianist. His early compositions were branded
as avant garde and were not approved of by his elders, he
continued to follow his stylistic path as he fled to other places
for hopefully better acceptance of his creativity.
His contacts with Diaghilev and Stravinsky gave him the
chance to write music for the ballet and opera, notably the
ballet Romeo and Juliet and the opera War and Peace. Much
of Prokofieffs opera was left unfinished, due in part to
resistance by the performers themselves to the seemingly
offensive musical content. He became prolific in writing symphonies, chamber music,
concerti, and solo instrumental music. He also wrote Peter and the Wolf, a lighthearted
orchestral work intended for children, to appease the continuing government crackdown
on avant garde composers at the time.
He was highly successful in his piano music, as evidenced by the wide acceptance of his
piano concerti and sonatas, featuring toccata-like rhythms and biting harmonic dissonance
within a classical form and structure. Other significant compositions include the Symphony
no. 1 (also called Classical Symphony), his most accessible orchestral work linked to the
combined styles of classicists Haydn and Mozart and neo-classicist Stravinsky. He also
composed violin sonatas, some of which are also performed on the flute, two highly
regarded violin concerti, and two string quartets inspired by Beethoven.
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Music of the 20th Century

Prokofieffs musical compositions include concerti, chamber music, film scores, operas,
ballets, and official pieces for state occasions. He died in Moscow on March 15, 1953.
CONCERTO IN C MAJOR, OP. 26, NO. 3
(Excerpt)
Sergei Prokofieff

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15

MUSIC

Quarter I

FRANCIS POULENC (18991963)


One of the relatively few composers born into wealth and a privileged social position, the
neo-classicist Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc was a member of the group of young French
composers known as Les Six. He rejected the heavy romanticism of Wagner and the
so-called imprecision of Debussy and Ravel. His compositions had
a coolly elegant modernity, tempered by a classical sense of
proportion. Poulenc was also fond of the witty approach of Satie,
as well as the early neo-classical works of Stravinsky.
Poulenc was a successful composer for piano, voice, and choral
music. His output included the harpsichord concerto, known as
Concert Champetre (1928); the Concerto for Two Pianos (1932),
which combined the classical touches of Mozart with a refreshing
mixture of wit and exoticism in the style of Ravel; and a Concerto
for Solo Piano (1949) written for the Boston Symphony Orchestra.
Poulencs vocal output, meanwhile, revealed his strength as a lyrical
melodist. His opera works included Les Mamelles de Tiresias (1944), which revealed his
light-hearted character; Dialogues des Carmelites (1956), which highlighted his
conservative writing style; and La Voix Humane (1958), which reflected his own turbulent
emotional life.
Poulencs choral works tended to be more somber and solemn, as portrayed by Litanies
a la vierge noire (Litanies of the Black Madonna, 1936), with its monophony, simple
harmony, and startling dissonance; and Stabat Mater (1950), which carried a Baroque
solemnity with a prevailing style of unison singing and repetition. Poulencs musical
compositions total around 185 which include solo piano works, as well as vocal solos,
known as melodies, which highlighted many aspects of his temperament in his avant
garde style. He died in Paris on January 30, 1963.
Other members of Les Six
Georges Auric (18991983) wrote music for the movies and rhythmic music with lots
of energy. Louis Durey (18881979) used traditional ways of composing and wrote in
his own, personal way, not wanting to follow form. Arthur Honegger (18821955)
liked chamber music and the symphony. His popular piece Pacific 231 describes a train
journey on the Canadian Pacific Railway. Darius Milhaud (18921974) was a very
talented composer who wrote in several different styles. Some of his music uses bitonality
and polytonality (writing in two or more keys at the same time). His love of jazz can be
heard in popular pieces like Le Boeuf sur le Toit which he called a cinema-symphony.
Germaine Tailleferre (18921983) was the only female in the group. She liked to use
dance rhythms. She loved children and animals and wrote many works about them. She
also wrote operas, concerti, and many works for the piano.
16

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Music of the 20th Century

PERPETUAL MOTION, NO. 1


(Excerpt)
Francis Poulenc

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Avant Garde Music

losely associated with electronic music, the avant garde movement dealt with the
parameters or the dimensions of sound in space. The avant garde style exhibited a
new attitude toward musical mobility, whereby the order of note groups could be varied
so that musical continuity could be altered. Improvisation was a necessity in this style,
for the musical scores were not necessarily followed as written. For example, one could
expect a piece to be read by a performer from left to right or vice versa. Or the performer
might turn the score over, and go on dabbling indefinitely in whatever order before
returning to the starting point.

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17

MUSIC

Quarter I

From the United States, there were avant garde composers such as George Gershwin
and John Cage with their truly unconventional composition techniques; Leonard
Bernstein with his famed stage musicals and his music lectures for young people; and
Philip Glass with his minimalist compositions. Through their works, these composers
truly extended the boundaries of what music was thought to be in earlier periods.
The unconventional methods of sound and form, as well as the absence of traditional
rules governing harmony, melody, and rhythm, make the whole concept of avant garde
music still so strange to ears accustomed to traditional compositions. Composers who
used this style include Olivier Messiaen, John Cage, Phillip Glass, Leonard Bernstein,
George Gershwin, and Pierre Boulez.

GEORGE GERSHWIN (18981937)


George Gershwin was born in New York to Russian Jewish immigrants. His older brother
Ira was his artistic collaborator who wrote the lyrics of his songs. His first song was
written in 1916 and his first Broadway musical La La Lucille in 1919.
From that time on, Gershwins name became a fixture
on Broadway. He also composed Rhapsody in Blue
(1924) and An American in Paris (1928), which
incorporated jazz rhythms with classical forms. His
opera Porgy and Bess (1934) remains to this day the
onlyAmerican opera to be included in the established
repertory of this genre. In spite of his commercial
success, Gershwin was more fascinated with classical
music. He was influenced by Ravel, Stravinsky, Berg,
and Schoenberg, as well as the group of
contemporary French composers known as Les Six
that would shape the character of his major works
half jazz and half classical.
Gershwins melodic gift was considered phenomenal, as evidenced by his numerous songs
of wide appeal. He is a true crossover artist, in the sense that his serious compositions
remain highly popular in the classical repertoire, as his stage and film songs continue to
be jazz and vocal standards. Considered the Father of American Jazz, his mixture of
the primitive and the sophisticated gave his music an appeal that has lasted long after his
death. His musical compositions total around 369 which include orchestral music, chamber
music, musical theatre, film musicals, operas, and songs. He died in Hollywood, California,
U.S.A. on July 11, 1937.

18

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Music of the 20th Century

SUMMERTIME
(Excerpt)
George Gershwin

LEONARD BERNSTEIN (19181990)


Born in Massachussetts, USA, Leonard Bernstein endeared himself to his many followers
as a charismatic conductor, pianist, composer, and lecturer. His big break came when he
was asked to substitute for the ailing Bruno Walter in conducting the New York
Philharmonic Orchestra in a concert on November 14, 1943. The overnight success of
this event started his reputation as a great interpreter of the classics as well as of the more
complex works of Gustav Mahler.
Bernsteins philosophy was that the universal language of
music is basically rooted in tonality. This came under fire from
the radical young musicians who espoused the serialist
principles of that time. Although he never relinquished his
musical values as a composer, he later turned to conducting
and lecturing in order to safeguard his principles as to what
he believed was best in music. He achieved pre-eminence in
two fields: conducting and composing for Broadway musicals,
dance shows, and concert music.
Bernstein is best known for his compositions for the stage. Foremost among these is the
musical West Side Story (1957), an American version of Romeo and Juliet, which displays
a tuneful, off-beat, and highly atonal approach to the songs. Other outputs include another
Broadway hit Candide (1956) and the much-celebrated Mass (1971), which he wrote for
the opening of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C.

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19

MUSIC

Quarter I

He composed the music for the film On the Waterfront (1954). As a lecturer, Bernstein is
fondly remembered for his television series Young Peoples Concerts (19581973)
that demonstrated the sounds of the various orchestral instruments and explained basic
music principles to young audiences, as well as his Harvardian Lectures, a six-volume
set of his papers on syntax, musical theories, and philosophical insights delivered to his
students at Harvard University. His musical compositions total around 90. He died in
New York City, USA on October 14, 1990.
TONIGHT
From West Side Story
(Excerpt)
Leonard Bernstein, with lyrics by Stephen Sondheim

20

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Music of the 20th Century

PHILIP GLASS (1937

One of the most commercially successful minimalist composer is Philip Glass who is
also an avant garde composer. He explored the territories of ballet, opera, theater, film,
and even television jingles. His distinctive style involves cell-like phrases emanating from
bright electronic sounds from the keyboard that progressed
very slowly from one pattern to the next in a very repetitious
fashion. Aided by soothing vocal effects and horn sounds, his
music is often criticized as uneventful and shallow, yet
startlingly effective for its hypnotic charm.
Born in New York, USA of Jewish parentage, Glass became
an accomplished violinist and flutist at the age of 15. In Paris,
he became inspired by the music of the renowned Indian
sitarist Ravi Shankar. He assisted Shankar in the soundtrack
recording for Conrad Rooks film Chappaqua. He formed
the Philip Glass Ensemble and produced works such as Music
in Similar Motion (1969) and Music in Changing Parts (1970), which combined rocktype grooves with perpetual patterns played at extreme volumes.
Glass collaborated with theater conceptualist Robert Wilson to produce the four-hour
opera Einstein on the Beach (1976), an instant sell-out at the New York Metropolitan
Opera House. It put minimalism in the mainstream of 20th century music. He completed
the trilogy with the operas Satyagraha (1980) and Akhnaten (1984), based on the lives
of Mahatma Gandhi, Leo Tolstoy, Martin Luther King, and an Egyptian pharaoh. Here,
he combined his signature repetitive and overlapping style with theatrical grandeur on
stage. His musical compositions total around 170. Today, Glass lives alternately in Nova
Scotia, Canada and New York, USA.
MUSIC IN FIFTHS
(Excerpt)
Philip Glass

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21

MUSIC

Quarter I

Modern Nationalism

looser form of 20th century music development focused on nationalist composers


and musical innovators who sought to combine modern techniques with folk
materials. However, this common ground stopped there, for the different breeds of
nationalists formed their own styles of writing.
In Eastern Europe, prominent figures included the Hungarian
Bela Bartok and the Russian Sergei Prokofieff, who were
neo-classicists to a certain extent. Bartok infused Classical
techniques into his own brand of cross rhythms and shifting
meters to demonstrate many barbaric and primitive themes
that were Hungarianparticularly gypsyin origin.
Prokofieff used striking dissonances and Russian themes, and
his music was generally witty, bold, and at times colored with
humor. Together with Bartok, Prokofieff made extensive use
of polytonality, a kind of atonality that uses two or more
tonal centers simultaneously. An example of this style is
Prokofieffs Visions Fugitive.

Nikolai Rimsky Korsakov

In Russia, a highly gifted generation of creative individuals known as the Russian Five
Modest Mussorgsky, Mili Balakirev, Alexander Borodin, Cesar Cui, and Nikolai Rimsky
Korsakovinfused chromatic harmony and incorporated Russian folk music and liturgical
chant in their thematic materials.
VISIONS FUGITIVE
(Excerpt)
Sergei Prokofieff

Example of Modern Nationalism

22

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Music of the 20th Century

21ST CENTURY MUSIC TRENDS

usic scholars predict that the innovative and experimental developments of 20th
century classical music will continue to influence the music of the 21st century.
With so many technical and stylistic choices open to todays composers, it seems there is
no obstacle to their creativity and to the limits of their imagination. And yet, this same
freedom that has allowed such varied musical experimentation in recent years has also
caused contemporary classical musicor music utilizing the classical techniques of
compositionto lose touch with its audience and to lose its clear role in todays society.
Presently, modern technology and gadgets put a great impact on all types of music.
However, what still remains to be seen is when this trend will shift, and what the distinct
qualities of emerging classical works will be.

SUMMARY

he early half of the 20th century also gave rise to new musical styles, which were not
quite as extreme as the electronic, chance, and minimalist styles that arose later.
These new styles were impressionism, expressionism, neo-classicism, avant garde music,
and modern nationalism.
Impressionism made use of the whole-tone scale. It also applied suggested, rather than
depicted, reality. It created a mood rather than a definite picture. It had a translucent and
hazy texture; lacking a dominant-tonic relationship. It made use of overlapping chords,
with 4th, 5th, octaves, and 9th intervals, resulting in a non-traditional harmonic order
and resolution.
Expressionism revealed the composers mind, instead of presenting an impression of
the environment. It used atonality and the twelve-tone scale, lacking stable and
conventional harmonies. It served as a medium for expressing strong emotions, such as
anxiety, rage, and alienation.
Neo-classicism was a partial return to a classical form of writing music with carefully
modulated dissonances. It made use of a freer seven-note diatonic scale.
The avant garde style was associated with electronic music and dealt with the parameters
or dimensions of sound in space. It made use of variations of self-contained note groups
to change musical continuity, and improvisation, with an absence of traditional rules on
harmony, melody, and rhythm.
Modern nationalism is a looser form of 20th century music development focused on
nationalist composers and musical innovators who sought to combine modern techniques
with folk materials.

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23

MUSIC

Quarter I

A number of outstanding composers of the 20th century each made their own distinctive
mark on the contemporary classical music styles that developed. Claude Debussy and
Maurice Ravel were the primary exponents of impressionism, while Arnold Schoenberg
was the primary exponent of expressionism, with the use of the twelve-tone scale and
atonality. Bela Bartok was a neo-classical, modern nationalist, and a primitivist composer
who adopted Hungarian folk themes to introduce rhythms with changing meters and
heavy syncopation. Igor Stravinsky was also an expressionist and a neo-classical
composer. He incorporated nationalistic elements in his music, known for his skillful
handling of materials and his rhythmic inventiveness.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

What group of people inspired many of Bartoks compositions?

2.

Which Russian composer created the music for the ballet The Firebird?

3.

Who is considered the foremost impressionist?

4.

What kind of musical style is attributed to Schoenberg and Stravinsky?

5.

Who was the target audience of Prokofieffs Peter and the Wolf?

6.

Give an example of a musical work of Debussy, Ravel, Schoenberg, Stravinsky,


Bartok, Prokofieff, Poulenc, Gershwin, Glass, and Bernstein. Write your answers
in the table below.

Composer

Musical Work

Debussy
Ravel
Schoenberg
Stravinsky
Bartok
Prokofieff
Poulenc
Gershwin
Glass
Bernstein

24

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Music of the 20th Century

20TH CENTURY MUSICAL STYLES:


ELECTRONIC and CHANCE MUSIC

he musical styles that evolved in the modern era were varied. Some of these were
short-lived, being experimental and too radical in nature, while others found an active
blend between the old and the new.

Synthesizer

New inventions and discoveries of science and technology lead to continuing developments
in the field of music. Technology has produced electronic music devices such as cassette
tape recorders, compact discs and their variants, the video compact disc (VCD) and the
digital video disc (DVD), MP3, MP4, ipod, iphone, karaoke players, mobile phones and
synthesizers. These devices are used for creating and recording music to add to or to
replace acoustical sounds.

NEW MUSICAL STYLES


Electronic Music

he capacity of electronic machines such as synthesizers, amplifiers, tape recorders,


and loudspeakers to create different sounds was given importance by 20th century
composers like Edgar Varese, Karlheinz Stockhausen, and Mario Davidovsky.
Music that uses the tape recorder is called musique concrete, or concrete music. The
composer records different sounds that are heard in the environment such as the bustle of
traffic, the sound of the wind, the barking of dogs, the strumming of a guitar, or the cry
of an infant. These sounds are arranged by the composer in different ways like by playing
the tape recorder in its fastest mode or in reverse. In musique concrete, the composer is
able to experiment with different sounds that cannot be produced by regular musical
instruments such as the piano or the violin.

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25

MUSIC

Quarter I

SYNCHRONISMS NO. 5
(For Five Percussion Players and Tape / Excerpt)
Mario Davidovsky

Example of Electronic Music


Copyright by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation

EDGARD VARESE (18831965)


Edgard (also spelled Edgar) Varse was born on December
22, 1883. He was considered an innovative French-born
composer. However, he spent the greater part of his life and
career in the United States, where he pioneered and created
new sounds that bordered between music and noise.
The musical compositions of Varese are characterized by an
emphasis on timbre and rhythm. He invented the term
organized sound, which means that certain timbres and
rhythms can be grouped together in order to capture a whole
new definition of sound.Although his complete surviving works
are scarce, he has been recognized to have influenced several
major composers of the late 20th century.
26

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Music of the 20th Century

POME LECTRONIQUE
Edgard Varese

Copyright by Philips International B.V.

Varses use of new instruments and electronic resources made him the Father of
Electronic Music and he was described as the Stratospheric Colossus of Sound. His
musical compositions total around 50, with his advances in tape-based sound proving
revolutionary during his time. He died on November 6, 1965.

KARLHEINZ STOCKHAUSEN (1928

Karlheinz Stockhausen is a central figure in


the realm of electronic music. Born in
Cologne, Germany, he had the opportunity to
meet Messiaen, Schoenberg, and Webern, the
principal innovators at the time. Together with
Pierre Boulez, Stockhausen drew inspiration
from these composers as he developed his style
of total serialism. Stockhausens music was
initially met with resistance due to its heavily
atonal content with practically no clear melodic or rhythmic sense. Still, he continued to
experiment with musique concrete. Some of his works include Gruppen (1957), a piece
for three orchestras that moved music through time and space; Kontakte (1960), a work
that pushed the tape machine to its limits; and the epic Hymnen (1965), an ambitious
two-hour work of 40 juxtaposed songs and anthems from around the world.

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27

MUSIC

Quarter I

The climax of his compositional ambition came in 1977 when he announced the creation
of Licht (Light), a seven-part opera (one for each day of the week) for a gigantic ensemble
of solo voices, solo instruments, solo dancers, choirs, orchestras, mimes, and electronics.
His recent Helicopter String Quartet, in which a string quartet performs whilst airborne
in four different helicopters, develops his long-standing fascination with music which
moves in space. It has led him to dream of concert halls in which the sound attacks the
listener from every direction. Stockhausens works total around 31. He presently resides
in Germany.
STUDY II
(Excerpt)
Karlheinz Stockhausen

Chance Music

hance music refers to a style wherein the piece always sounds different at every
performance because of the random techniques of production, including the use of
ring modulators or natural elements that become a part of the music. Most of the sounds
emanate from the surroundings, both natural and man-made, such as honking cars, rustling
leaves, blowing wind, dripping water, or a ringing phone. As such, the combination of
external sounds cannot be duplicated as each happens by chance.
An example is John Cages Four Minutes and Thirty-Three Seconds (433") where the
pianist merely opens the piano lid and keeps silent for the duration of the piece. The
audience hears a variety of noises inside and outside the concert hall amidst the seeming
silence.
28

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Music of the 20th Century

JOHN CAGE (19121992)


John Cage was known as one of the 20th century composers
with the widest array of sounds in his works. He was born in
Los Angeles, California, USA on September 5, 1912 and
became one of the most original composers in the history of
western music. He challenged the very idea of music by
manipulating musical instruments in order to achieve new
sounds. He experimented with what came to be known as
chance music.
In one instance, Cage created a prepared piano, where
screws and pieces of wood or paper were inserted between
the piano strings to produce different percussive possibilities.
The prepared piano style found its way into Cages Sonatas
and Interludes (19461948), a cycle of pieces containing a wide range of sounds, rhythmic
themes, and a hypnotic quality. His involvement with Zen Buddhism inspired him to
compose Music of Changes (1951), written for conventional piano, that employed chance
compositional processes.
CONCERT FOR PIANO AND ORCHESTRA, 1958
(Cover, instruction sheet, and pages 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9)

John Cage

Copyright Edition Peters

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29

MUSIC

Quarter I

He became famous for his composition Four Minutes and 33 Seconds (433"), a chance
musical work that instructed the pianist to merely open the piano lid and remain silent for
the length of time indicated by the title. The work was intended to convey the impossibility
of achieving total silence, since surrounding sounds can still be heard amidst the silence
of the piano performance.
Cage also advocated bringing real-life experiences into the concert hall. This reached its
extreme when he composed a work that required him to fry mushrooms on stage in order
to derive the sounds from the cooking process. As a result of his often irrational ideas
like this, he developed a following in the 1960s. However, he gradually returned to the
more organized methods of composition in the last 20 years of his life.
More than any other modern composer, Cage influenced the development of modern
music since the 1950s. He was considered more of a musical philosopher than a composer.
His conception of what music can and should be has had a profound impact upon his
contemporaries. He was active as a writer presenting his musical views with both wit and
intelligence. Cage was an important force in other artistic areas especially dance and
musical theater. His musical compositions total around 229. Cage died in New York City
on August 12, 1992.

SUMMARY

he new musical styles created by 20th century classical composers were truly unique
and innovative. They experimented with the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony,
tempo, and timbre in daring ways never attempted before. Some even made use of
electronic devices such as synthesizers, tape recorders, amplifiers, and the like to introduce
and enhance sounds beyond those available with traditional instruments. Among the
resulting new styles were electronic music and chance music. These expanded the
concept of music far beyond the conventions of earlier periods, and challenged both the
new composers and the listening public.
As the 20th century progressed, so did the innovations in musical styles as seen in the
works of these composers. From France, Edgard Vareses use of new instruments and
electronic resources led to his being known as the Father of Electronic Music and a
description of him as The Stratospheric Colossus of Sound. From Germany, there was
Karlheinz Stockhausen, who further experimented with electronic music and musique
concrete. Stockhausens electronic sounds revealed the rich musical potential of modern
technology. From the United States, there was John Cage with his truly unconventional
composition techniques. Cages works feature the widest array of sounds from the most
inventive sources.

30

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Music of the 20th Century

WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.
3.
4.

Who was the French composer known as the Father of Electronic Music?
What are some of the new musical approaches of Cage?
What is meant by musique concrete used by Stockhausen?
Give an example of a musical work by Varese, Stockhausen, and Cage. Write
your answers in the table below.
Composer

Musical Work

Varese
Stockhausen
Cage

WHAT TO PROCESS
Listening Activity: Works of 20th Century Composers
1.

Your teacher will play excerpts of any (one) of the following musical examples:
Debussy

Ravel

Schoenberg
Bartok

Stravinsky
Prokofieff
Gershwin

Bernstein
Glass
Poulenc
Cage

Stockhausen
Varese

Claire de Lune, La Mer, Childrens Corner Suite


Miroirs, Sonatine, Daphnis et Chloe, Jeux dEau, Bolero
Verklarte Nacht, Violin Concerto, Piano Concerto,
Gurrelieder
String Quartet no. 4, Allegro, Mikrokosmos, Barbaro,
Music for Strings
The Rite of Spring, Petrouchka, The Firebird Suite
Romeo and Juliet (ballet), Piano Sonatas
An American in Paris, Porgy and Bess, Rhapsody in Blue,
Someone to Watch Over Me
Tonight from West Side Story, Clarinet Sonata
Einstein on the Beach, Satyagraha, Akhnaten
Concerto for Two Pianos, Dialogues des Carmelites
433"; Metamorphosis, for piano; Five Songs, for
contralto soloist and piano; Music for Wind
Instruments, for wind quintet
Etude, Electronic STUDIES I and II, Gesang der
Junglinge, Kontakte, Momente, Hymnen
Hyperprism for wind and percussion,
Octandre for seven wind instruments and double bass,
Intgrales for wind and percussion,
Ionisation for 13 percussion players

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31

MUSIC

Quarter I

2.
3.

Listen carefully to each excerpt and be able to recognize the distinct musical
style of each composer.
Choose a composition that you like. Write a short reaction paper on it.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
A.

Name the Composer, Title of the Music, Musical Style, and Description
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

After the Listening Activity, your teacher will prepare selected excerpts of
compositions by Debussy, Ravel, Schoenberg, Bartok, Stravinsky, Prokofieff,
Poulenc, Stockhausen, Glass, Cage, Bernstein, Varese, and Gershwin.
The class will be divided into four teams, with each team forming a line.
As your teacher plays a few measures of the first excerpt, the first student
in each line goes to the board and writes the name of the composer. The
second student will write the title of the music. The third student will write
the musical style. Then, the fourth student will write a description of the
music in one phrase.
The team that writes the correct answers first scores four (4) points.
The same procedure goes on until all the students in the line have had their
turn.
One student will be assigned as the scorer. The team with the highest
score is the winner. In case of a tie, the first team to finish is the winner.
The scorer will announce the winners and then ask them this question:
What was the most significant thing that you have learned from this activity?

WHAT TO PERFORM
A.

32

Activity 1:
Experimentation with the Sounds of 20th Century Music Systems
1.

Chance Music Put small items inside a bag. Include coins, pens, pins,
small bells, and other articles with percussive sounds. Pour the bags contents
on a hard surface and record the sounds that are produced with a cellphone
or other available device. Put the items back in the bag, and unload the
same while once again recording the sounds being produced. Note the
changes between the two sets of sounds recorded.

2.

Electronic Music Create short electronic music pieces using your


knowledge of 20th century musical styles.

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Music of the 20th Century

B.

Performance Activity 2:
Original Chance and Electronic Music
Rate scores are based on the elements of music such as rhythm, melodic appeal,
harmony and texture, tempo and dynamics, timbre, and overall musical structure.
1. The class will be divided into four groups.
2. Each group will create an original five-minute performance of Chance Music
and Electronic Music (if available) to be performed in class.
3. Those who are not performing will act as judges for the performance
evaluation.
4. Judges will have five placards or score cards or paper marked: BEST,
BETTER, GOOD, FAIR, NEEDS FOLLOW UP.
5. Judges will display a score card after evaluating the performance.
6. One student may be assigned to tabulate the scores after the performance.
7. Your teacher will announce the Best Performance award.
8. What was the role of the audience in the performance of Chance music?
Explain your answers.

C.

Performance Activity 3: Group Activity


Video Clips
1. You will be divided into four groups by counting off from 1 to 4.
2. Create and explore other arts (multi- media) that portray 20th century musical
style (chance, electronic, jazz, avant garde) through a 10-minute video clip
or MTV using your digital cameras or mobile phones.
3. Show and discuss your video works in class.
Live / TV Performances
1. Watch live performances of musical concerts, if available in your area or
watch live concerts recorded on TV.
2. Re-enact in class what you watched.
3. Make a 10-minute audio video presentation while you re-enact what you
have seen on live concerts and on TV.
4. Show and discuss your video works in class.

D.

Performance Activity 4:
Singing or Humming Musical Fragments
1.

2.

Your teacher will play several musical excerpts of selected 20th century
composers and will briefly discuss the title, composer, musical style, and
brief description of how he or she feels about the music.
Listen carefully to each excerpt and be able to recognize the distinct musical
style of each composer.

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33

MUSIC

Quarter I

3.

4.

5.

Sing or hum some melodic fragments (portion only) of any of the following
excerpts of 20th century music, together with the recordings:
a.
Claude Debussys Claire de Lune
b.
Leonard Bernsteins West Side Story
c.
George Gershwins Rhapsody in Blue
d. Ravels Bolero
e.
Any work of minimalist composers, Philip Glass or Meredith Monk
f.
Any work of nationalist composers, Erik Satie or Bela Bartok.
Based on the melodic fragments of the excerpts that you sang or hummed,
you should be able to aurally identify the different selected works of the
composers of the 20th century.
Choose a composition that you like. Write a brief profile about the composer
and give your personal reaction about the music on a 1/2 sheet of paper.
Submit it in class next meeting.

Evaluation Activity: Drawing Lots


1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

E.

Performance Activity 5:
Film Showing or Video Watching
1.
2.
3.

34

After the above singing or humming activity, your teacher will prepare a
box containing slips of paper with the names of Debussy, Ravel, Gershwin,
Bernstein, Glass, Monk, Satie, and Bartok written on them.
The class will be divided into four groups. Each group will choose four
representatives who will be assigned as contestants.
Each contestant will draw out a composers name from the box and must
say three sentences about his compositional technique or musical style, his
major contribution to modern music, and one work that shows his
compositional style.
The rest of the groups will evaluate each contestants answer by flashing a
card or paper marked CORRECT or WRONG. Each correct answer
earns a point.
The group with the highest number of points wins the contest.

Research on the 20th century musical play West Side Story written by Leonard
Bernstein.
Watch any video clip of West Side Story on the internet or You Tube.
Write a reaction paper explaining the following elements of the performance:
a.
Setting
b.
Musical compositions
c.
Role of composer and lyricist
d. Role of performers (actors, actresses)
e.
Role of audience (yourself)

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Music of the 20th Century

f.
g.
h.
4.

F.

Did you like what you watched? Why or why not? Explain your answers.

Performance Activity 6:
Singing Songs from West Side Story
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

G.

Sound and musical direction


Script / screenplay
Props, costumes, lighting

You may opt to do this as an individual or group activity. Groups will be


divided into four.
Listen to the songs Tonight, Maria, Somewhere, and America from video
or recordings of West Side Story. You will be asked to draw lots for the
song to sing.
Sing and perform the song in class with or without accompaniment. You
may also sing with the recordings.
Those who are not performing will act as judges for the performance
evaluation.
Judges will have five placards or score cards or paper marked: BEST,
BETTER, GOOD, FAIR, NEEDS FOLLOW UP.
Judges will display a score card after evaluating the performance.
One student may be assigned to tabulate the scores after the performance.
Your teacher will announce the Best Performance award.

Performance Activity 7:
Live Concert or Recording or Music Video
Choose the activity that you are interested in.
1.

Class Concert Live Performance


a.
You will be grouped into two. You choose your group if you will be
doing the following: singing, dancing, choreography, musical directing,
playing an instrument (either as accompaniment to the song or dance
or solo performance or as a band). Use props and costumes, if needed.
b.
Perform the concert in class in your own original interpretation of the
songs from West Side Story.

2.

Recording or Music Video: Individual or Group Activity


a.
You will be grouped into two and you will choose your group members.
b.
Record the performance of your classmates using a cassette recorder
or make a music video using your cellular phone, digital camera, or
video camera

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35

MUSIC

Quarter I

c.

Play the recorded performance or show the music video to your


classmates and choose the Best Performers.

Evaluation of Performing Activities


Rating scale: 5
4
3
2
1

=
=
=
=
=

Very Good
Good
Fair
Poor
Needs Follow-up

Rate scores are based on your performance quality.


1.

3.

4.

How well did I perform the songs from West


Side Story?

____________

How well can I identify the different musical genres


based on instrumentation, text, and purpose?

____________

How well can I describe the characteristics of each


through listening to their melody, harmony, rhythm,
text, and mass appeal?

____________

How well did I participate in the performance of


the different activities?

____________

Teachers Rating of the Students Performance


1.

36

Musicianship (60%)
a.
compositional concepts presented
b.
musical elements
c.
technique

____________
____________
____________

2.

Ensemble coordination (20%)

____________

3.

Ensemble organization (20%)

____________

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Quarter II: AFRO-LATIN AMERICAN


AND POPULAR MUSIC
CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner demonstrates understanding of...
1. Characteristic features of Afro-Latin American music and Popular
music.
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
The learner...
1. Performs vocal and dance forms of Afro-Latin American music and
selections of Popular music.

LEARNING COMPETENCIES
The learner...
1. Observes dance styles, instruments, and rhythms of Afro Latin
American and popular music through video, movies and live
performances.
2. Describes the historical and cultural background of Afro-Latin
American and popular music.
3. Listens perceptively to Afro-Latin American and popular music.
4. Dances to different selected styles of Afro-Latin American and popular
music.
5. Analyzes musical characteristics of Afro-Latin American and popular
music.
6. Sings selections of Afro-Latin American and popular music in
appropriate pitch, rhythm, style, and expression.
7. Explores ways of creating sounds on a variety of sources suitable to
chosen vocal and instrumental selections.
8. Improvises simple vocal/instrumental accompaniments to selected
songs.
9. Choreographs a chosen dance music.
10. Evaluates music and music performances using knowledge of musical
elements and style.
From the Department of Education curriculum for MUSIC Grade 10 (2014)

37
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MUSIC

Quarter II

MUSIC OF AFRICA

usic has always been an important part in the daily life of the African, whether for
work, religion, ceremonies, or even communication. Singing, dancing, hand
clapping and the beating of drums are essential to many African ceremonies, including
those for birth, death, initiation, marriage, and funerals. Music and dance are also important
to religious expression and political events.
However, because of its wide influences on global music that has permeated contemporary
American, Latin American, and European styles, there has been a growing interest in its
own cultural heritage and musical sources. Of particular subjects of researches are its
rhythmic structures and spiritual characteristics that have led to the birth of jazz forms.
African music has been a collective result from the cultural and musical diversity of the
more than 50 countries of the continent. The organization of this continent is a colonial
legacy from European rule of the different nations up to the end of the 19 th century,
whose vastness has enabled it to incorporate its music with language, environment, political
developments, immigration, and cultural diversity.

TRADITIONAL MUSIC OF AFRICA


African traditional music is largely functional in nature, used primarily in ceremonial
rites, such as birth, death, marriage, succession, worship, and spirit invocations. Others
are work related or social in nature, while many traditional societies view their music as
entertainment. It has a basically interlocking structural format, due mainly to its overlapping
and dense textural characteristics as well as its rhythmic complexity. Its many sources of
stylistic influence have produced varied characteristics and genres.
Some Types of African Music
Afrobeat
Afrobeat is a term used to describe the fusion
of West African with black American music.
Apala (Akpala)
Apala is a musical genre from Nigeria in the
Yoruba tribal style to wake up the worshippers
after fasting during the Muslim holy feast of
Ramadan. Percussion instrumentation includes
the rattle (sekere), thumb piano (agidigbo), bell
(agogo), and two or three talking drums.

Yoruba Apala Musicians

38
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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

Axe
Axe is a popular musical genre from Salvador, Bahia, and Brazil. It fuses the AfroCaribbean styles of the marcha, reggae, and calypso.

Jit
Jit is a hard and fast percussive Zimbabwean dance
music played on drums with guitar accompaniment,
influenced by mbira-based guitar styles.
Jive
Jive is a popular form of South African music
featuring a lively and uninhibited variation of the
jitterbug, a form of swing dance.

Juju
Juju is a popular music style from Nigeria that relies on the traditional Yoruba rhythms,
where the instruments in Juju are more Western in origin. A drum kit, keyboard, pedal
steel guitar, and accordion are used along with the traditional dun-dun (talking drum or
squeeze drum).
39
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MUSIC

Quarter II

Kwassa Kwassa
Kwassa Kwassa is a dance style begun in Zaire
in the late 1980s, popularized by Kanda
Bongo Man. In this dance style, the hips move
back and forth while the arms move following
the hips.

Marabi
Marabi is a South African three-chord
township music of the 1930s-1960s
which evolved into African Jazz.
Possessing a keyboard style combining
American jazz, ragtime and blues with African roots, it is characterized by simple chords
in varying vamping patterns and repetitive harmony over an extended period of time to
allow the dancers more time on the dance floor.

LATIN AMERICAN MUSIC INFLUENCED BY AFRICAN MUSIC


Reggae
Reggae is a Jamaican sound dominated by bass guitar
and drums. It refers to a particular music style that was
strongly influenced by traditional mento and calypso
music, as well as American jazz, and rhythm and blues.
The most recognizable musical elements of reggae are
its offbeat rhythm and staccato chords.

Salsa
Salsa music is Cuban, Puerto Rican, and Colombian
dance music. It comprises various musical genres
including the Cuban son montuno, guaracha,
chachacha, mambo and bolero.

40
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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

Samba
Samba is the basic underlying rhythm that typifies most Brazilian music. It is a lively and
rhythmical dance and music with three steps to every bar, making the Samba feel like a
timed dance. There is a set 4of dancesrather than a single dancethat define the Samba
dancing scene in Brazil. Thus,
4 no one dance can be claimed with certainty as the original
Samba style.
Soca
Soca is a modern Trinidadian and Tobago pop music
combining soul and calypso music.
Were
This is Muslim music performed often as a wake-up
call for early breakfast and prayers during Ramadan
celebrations. Relying on pre-arranged music, it fuses
the African and European music styles with particular
usage of the natural harmonic series.

Zouk
Zouk is fast, carnival-like hythmic music, from the Creole
slang word for party, originating in the Carribean Islands
of Guadaloupe and Martinique and popularized in the
1980s. It has a pulsating beat supplied by the gwo ka and
tambour bele drums, a tibwa rhythmic pattern played on
the rim of the snare drum and its hi-hat, rhythm guitar, a
horn section, and keyboard synthesizers.

41
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MUSIC

Quarter II

VOCAL FORMS OF AFRICAN MUSIC


Maracatu
Maracatu first surfaced in the
African state of Pernambuco,
combining the strong rhythms of
African percussion instruments
with Portuguese melodies. The
maracatu groups were called
nacoes (nations) who paraded
with a drumming ensemble
numbering up to 100,
accompanied by a singer, chorus,
and a coterie of dancers.
Maracatu dance

Musical instruments used in


Maracatu

The Maracatu uses mostly percussion instruments such as the alfaia, tarol and caixa-deguerra, gongue, agbe, and miniero.
The alfaia is a large wooden drum that is rope-tuned, complemented by the tarol which
is a shallow snare drum and the caixa-de-guerra which is a war-like snare. Providing the
clanging sound is the gongue, a metal cowbell. The shakers are represented by the agbe,
a gourd shaker covered by beads, and the miniero or ganza, a metal cylindrical shaker
filled with metal shot or small dried seeds called Lagrima fre Nossa Senhora.

Alfaia Drum

Caixa

Tarol

Miniero or Ganza

Agbe Sakere

Gongue

42
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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

Blues
The blues is a musical form of the late 19th century that has had deep roots in AfricanAmerican communities. These communities are located in the so-called Deep South
of the United States. The slaves and their descendants used to sing as they worked in the
cotton and vegetable fields.
The notes of the blues create an expressive and soulful sound. The feelings that are
evoked are normally associated with slight degrees of misfortune, lost love, frustration,
or loneliness. From ecstatic joy to deep sadness, the blues can communicate various
emotions more effectively than other musical forms.
Noted performers of the Rhythm and Blues genre are
Ray Charles, James Brown, Cab Calloway, Aretha
Franklin, and John Lee Hooker; as well as B.B. King, Bo
Diddley, Erykah Badu, Eric Clapton, Steve
Winwood, Charlie Musselwhite, Blues Traveler, Jimmie
Vaughan, and Jeff Baxter. Examples of blues music are
the following: Early Mornin, A House is Not a Home
and Billies Blues.
Ray Charles

Soul
Soul music was a popular music genre of the 1950s and 1960s. It originated in the
United States. It combines elements of African-American gospel music, rhythm and blues,
and often jazz. The catchy rhythms are accompanied by handclaps and extemporaneous
body moves which are among its important features. Other characteristics include call
and response between the soloist and the chorus, and an especially tense and powerful
vocal sound.

James Brown

Etta James

Some important innovators whose recordings in the 1950s


contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde
McPhatter, Hank Ballard, and Etta James. Ray Charles and
Little Richard (who inspired Otis Redding) and James
Brown were equally influential. Brown was known as the
Godfather of Soul, while Sam
Cooke and Jackie Wilson are also
often acknowledged as soul
forefathers. Examples of soul music
are the following: Aint No Mountain
High Enough, Ben, All I Could Do is
Cry, Soul to Soul, and Becha by Golly,
Wow.
43

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MUSIC

Quarter II

Spiritual
The term spiritual, normally associated with a deeply religious person, refers here to a
Negro spiritual, a song form by African migrants to America who became enslaved by its
white communities. This musical form became their outlet to vent their loneliness and
anger, and is a result of the interaction of music and religion from Africa with that of
America. The texts are mainly religious, sometimes taken from psalms of Biblical passages,
while the music utilizes deep bass voices. The vocal inflections, Negro accents, and
dramatic dynamic changes add to the musical interest and effectiveness of the performance.
Examples of spiritual music are the following: We are Climbing Jacobs Ladder, Rock
My Soul, When the Saints Go Marching In, and Peace Be Still.

Call and Response


The call and response method is a succession of two distinct musical phrases usually
rendered by different musicians, where the second phrase acts as a direct commentary on
or response to the first. Much like the question and answer sequence in human
communication, it also forms a strong resemblance to the verse-chorus form in many
vocal compositions. Examples of call and response songs are the following: Mannish
Boy, one of the signature songs by Muddy Waters; and School Day - Ring, Ring Goes the
Bell by Chuck Berry.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

Which African music is usually heard on the radios today?

2.

Among the types of African music, which is usually known as a type of music that
has originated from Brazil?

3.

Which type of music was popularized by Bob Marley?

4.

What is the music that is a New York Puerto Rican adaptation of Afro-Cuban
music?

5.

What are the different musical instruments included in the maracatu?

44
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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF AFRICA

frican music includes all the major instrumental genres of western music, including
strings, winds, and percussion, along with a tremendous variety of specific African
musical instruments for solo or ensemble playing.
Classification of Traditional African Instruments
A.

Idiophones
These are percussion instruments that are either struck with a mallet or against
one another.
1.

Balafon - The balafon is a West


African xylophone. It is a pitched
percussion instrument with bars
made from logs or bamboo.
The xylophone is originally an Asian
instrument that follows the structure of a piano. It came from Madagascar
to Africa, then to the Americas and Europe.

2.

Rattles - Rattles are made of seashells, tin,


basketry, animal hoofs, horn, wood, metal bells,
cocoons, palm kernels, or tortoise shells. These
rattling vessels may range from single to several
objects that are either joined or suspended in such
a way as they hit each other.

3.

Agogo - The agogo is a single bell or multiple bells that had its origins in
traditional Yoruba music and also in the samba baterias (percussion)
ensembles. The agogo may be called the
oldest samba instrument based on West
African Yoruba single or double bells. It
has the highest pitch of any of the bateria
instruments.

4.

Atingting Kon - These are slit gongs used to


communicate between villages. They were carved out
of wood to resemble ancestors and had a slit
opening at the bottom. In certain cases, their sound
could carry for miles through the forest and even
across water to neighboring islands. A series of gong
languages were composed of beats and pauses,
making it possible to send highly specific messages.
45

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MUSIC

Quarter II

5.

Slit drum - The slit drum is a hollow percussion


instrument. Although known as a drum, it is not a
true drum but is an idiophone.
It is usually carved or constructed from bamboo or wood
into a box with one or more slits in the top. Most slit
drums have one slit, though two and three slits (cut into
the shape of an H) occur. If the resultant tongues are
different in width or thicknesses, the drum will produce
two different pitches.

6.

Djembe - The West Africandjembe (pronounced zhem-bay) is one of the


best-known African drums is. It is shaped like a large goblet and played
with bare hands. The body is carved from a hollowed trunk and is covered
in goat skin.
Log drums come in different shapes and sizes as well:
tubular drums, bowl-shaped drums, and friction drums.
Some have one head, others have two heads. The bigger
the drum, the lower the tone or pitch. The more tension in
the drum head, the higher the tone produced. These drums
are played using hands or sticks or both; and sometimes
have rattling metal and jingles attached to the outside or
seeds and beads placed inside the drum. They are
sometimes held under the armpit or with a sling.

7.

Shekere - The shekere is a type of gourd and shell megaphonefrom West


Africa, consisting of a dried gourd with beads woven into a net covering
the gourd. Theagbe is another gourd drum
with cowrie shells usually strung with white
cotton thread. The
axatse is a small
gourd, held by the
neck and placed
between hand and leg.
Gourd shekere

8.

Rasp - A rasp, or scraper, is a hand percussion


instrument whose sound is produced by scraping the
notches on a piece of wood (sometimes elaborately
carved) with a stick, creating a series of rattling
effects.
Antique wooden rasp

46
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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

B.

Membranophones
Membranophones are instruments which have vibrating animal membranes used
in drums. Their shapes may be conical, cylindrical, barrel, hour-glass, globular, or
kettle, and are played with sticks, hands, or a combination of both. African drums
are usually carved from a single wooden log, and may also be made from ceramics,
gourds, tin cans, and oil drums. Examples of these are found in the different
localities entenga (Ganda), dundun (Yoruba), atumpan (Akan), and ngoma
(Shona), while some are constructed with wooden staves and hoops.
1.

Body percussion - Africans frequently use their bodies as musical


instruments. Aside from their voices, where many of them are superb singers,
the body also serves as a drum as people clap their hands, slap their thighs,
pound their upper arms or chests, or shuffle their feet.

This body percussion creates exciting rhythms which also stir them to action.
Moreover, the wearing of rattles or bells on their wrists, ankles, arms, and
waists enhances their emotional response.

2.

Talking drum - The talking drum is used to send messages to announce


births, deaths, marriages, sporting events, dances, initiation, or war.
Sometimes it may also contain gossip or jokes. It is believed that the drums
can carry direct messages to the spirits after the death of a
loved one.
However, learning to play messages on drums is extremely
difficult, resulting in its waning popularity. An example of the
talking drum is the luna.
Luna

47
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MUSIC

C.

Quarter II

Lamellaphone
One of the most popular African percussion
instruments is the lamellaphone, which is a set of
plucked tongues or keys mounted on a sound board.
It is known by different names according to the regions
such as mbira, karimba, kisaanj, and likembe.
Mbira (hand piano or thumb piano) - The thumb piano
or finger xylophone is of African origin and is used
throughout the continent. It
consists of a wooden board
with attached staggered metal
tines (a series of wooden, metal, or rattan tongues), plus
an additional resonator to increase its volume. It is played
by holding the instrument in the hands and plucking the
tines with the thumbs, producing a soft plucked sound.

D.

Chordophones
Chordophones are instruments which produce sounds from the vibration of strings.
These include bows, harps, lutes, zithers, and lyres of various sizes.
1.

Musical bow - The musical bow is the ancestor of all string instruments. It
is the oldest and one of the most widely-used string instruments of Africa.
It consists of a single string attached
to each end of a curved stick, similar
to a bow and arrow. The string is either
plucked or struck with another stick,
producing a per-cussive yet delicate
sound. The earth bow, the mouth bow,
and the resonator-bow are the principal
types of musical bows.
The earth bow, ground bow, or pit harp consist of a hole in the ground, a
piece of flexible wood and a piece of chord. The musician plucks the taut
string to accompany his singing. When the half gourd is not buried, the
performer holds the instrument very tightly under his knee flat side down,
so that the chord puts enough tension on the wood to bend it into the shape
of a hunting bow.

48
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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

A more advanced form of ground bow is made from a log, half a gourd, a
flat piece of wood, and cord. The wooden strip is driven firmly into one end
of the log and the half gourd is fastened to the log about 2 feet away from
the wooden strip. The cord, fastened from the wooden strip to the gourd, is
stretched so tightly into the shape of a bow. The player holds the instrument
on the ground by placing one leg across the log between the resonating
gourd and the wooden strip.
2.

Lute (konting, khalam, and the nkoni ) - The lute, originating from the
Arabic states, is shaped like the modern guitar and played in similar fashion.
It has a resonating body, a neck, and
one or more strings which stretch
across the length of its body and
neck. The player tunes the strings
by tightening or loosening the pegs
at the top of the lutes neck.
Nkoni

3.

West African plucked lutes include


the konting, khalam, and the nkoni.

Kora - The kora is Africa's most sophisticated harp,


while also having features similar to a lute. Its body is
made from a gourd or calabash. A support for the bridge
is set across the opening and covered with a skin that
is held in place with studs. The leather rings around the
neck are used to tighten the 21 strings
that give the instrument a range of over
three octaves. The kora is held upright
and played with the fingers.
African kora

4.

Zither - The zither is a stringed instrument with varying sizes and shapes
whose strings are stretched along its body. Among the types of African
zither are the raft or Inanga
zither from Burundi, the
tubular or Valiha zither from
Malagasy, and the harp or
Mvet zither from Cameroon.
Raft zither

49
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MUSIC

Quarter II

5.

E.

Zeze - The zeze is an African fiddle played with a bow, a small wooden
stick, or plucked with the fingers. It has one or two strings, made of steel or
bicycle brake wire. It is from Sub-Saharan Africa. It is also known by the
names tzetze and dzendze,
izeze and endingidi; and
on Madagascar is called
lokanga (or lokango)
voatavo.

Aerophones
Aerophones are instruments which are produced initially by trapped vibrating air
columns or which enclose a body of vibrating air. Flutes in various sizes and
shapes, horns, panpipes, whistle types, gourd and shell megaphones, oboe, clarinet,
animal horn and wooden trumpets fall under this category.
1.

Flutes - Flutes are widely used throughout Africa and either vertical or
side-blown. They are usually fashioned from a single tube closed at one end
and blown like a bottle.

Atenteben (Ghana)

Fulani Flutes

Panpipes consist of cane pipes of different lengths tied


in a row or in a bundle held together by wax or cord,
and generally closed at the bottom. They are blown
across the top, each providing a different note.

2.

Horns - Horns and trumpets, found almost everywhere in Africa, are


commonly made from elephant tusks and animal horns. With their varied
attractive shapes, these instruments are end-blown or side-blown and range
in size from the small signal whistle of the southern cattle herders to the
large ivory horns of the tribal chiefs of the interior. One trumpet variety, the
wooden trumpet, may be simple or artistically carved, sometimes resembling
a crocodiles head.

50
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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

Kudu horn - This is one type of horn made from the


horn of the kudu antelope. It releases a mellow and
warm sound that adds a unique African
accent to the music. This instrument, which
comes in a set of six horns, reflects the cross
of musical traditions in Africa. Today, the
kudu horn can also be seen in football
matches, where fans blow it to cheer for
their favourite teams.
3.

Reed pipes - There are single-reed pipes made from hollow guinea corn or
sorghum stems, where the reed is a flap partially cut from the stem near one
end. It is the vibration of this reed that causes the air within the hollow
instrument to vibrate, thus creating the sound.
There are also cone-shaped double-reed
instruments similar to the oboe or shawm.
The most well-known is the rhaita or
ghaita, an oboe-like double reed
instrument from northwest Africa. It is one
of the primary instruments used by
traditional music ensembles from Morocco. The rhaita was even featured
in the Lord of the Rings soundtrack, specifically in the Mordor theme.

4.

Whistles - Whistles found throughout the continent may be


made of wood or other materials. Short pieces of horn serve
as whistles, often with a short tube inserted into the
mouthpiece. Clay can be molded into whistles of many shapes
and forms and then baked. Pottery whistles are sometimes
shaped in the form of a head, similar to the Aztec whistles of
Central America and Mexico.
African whistle

5.

Trumpets - African trumpets are made of wood, metal, animal horns,


elephant tusks, and gourds with skins from snakes, zebras, leopards,
crocodiles and animal hide as ornaments to the
instrument.
They are mostly ceremonial in nature, often used to
announce the arrival or departure of important guests.
In religion and witchcraft, some tribes believe in the
magical powers of trumpets to frighten away evil
spirits, cure diseases, and protect warriors and hunters
from harm.
51

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MUSIC

Quarter II

African Musical Instruments from the Environment

any instruments of Africa are made from natural elements like wood, metal, animal,
skin and horns, as well as improvised ones like tin cans and bottles. These are
mainly used to provide rhythmic sounds, which are the most defining element of African
music. Africans make musical instruments from the materials in the environment, like
forest areas from where they make large wooden drums. Drums may also be made of
clay, metal, tortoise shells, or gourds. Xylophones are made of lumber or bamboo, while
flutes can be constructed wherever reeds or bamboo grow. Animal horns are used as
trumpets while animal hides, lizard skins, and snake skins can function as decorations as
well as provide the membranes for drum heads. Laces made of hides and skins are used
for the strings of harps, fiddles, and lutes.
On the other hand, bamboo was used to form the tongues of thumb pianos, the frames of
stringed instruments, and stamping tubes. Strips of bamboo are even clashed together
rhythmically. Gourds, seeds, stones, shells, palm leaves, and the hard-shelled fruit of the
calabash tree are made into rattles. Ancient Africans even made musical instruments
from human skulls decorated with human hair while singers use their body movements to
accompany their singing.
Modern Africans make use of recycled waste materials such as strips of roofing metal,
empty oil drums, and tin cans. These people, bursting with rhythm, make music with
everything and anything. At present, new materials that are more easily accessible, such
as soda cans and bottles, are becoming increasingly important for the construction of
percussion instruments. Some rhythmic instruments like scrapers, bells, and rattles also
provide the pitch and timbre when played in an ensemble to provide contrasts in tone
quality and character.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

What are the classifications of African music?

2.

What are the characteristics of each classification of African music?

3.

Name some African musical instruments under the following categories:


a.
idiophones
b.
chordophones
c.
membranophones
d. aerophones

4.

Describe how African musical instruments are sourced from the environment.
Give examples.

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

MUSIC OF LATIN AMERICA

he music of Latin America is the product of three major influences Indigenous,


Spanish-Portuguese, and African. Sometimes called Latin music, it includes the
countries that have had a colonial history from Spain and Portugal, divided into the
following areas:
a.
Andean region (a mountain system of western South America along the
Pacific coast from Venezuela to Tierra del Fuego) Argentina, Bolivia,
Chile, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela
b.
Central America Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras,
and Panama
c.
Carribean Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Martinique,
and Puerto Rico
d. Brazil
At the same time, because of the inter-racial cross breeding and migration, the abovenamed countries were also somewhat commonly populated by five major ancestral groups
as follows:
a.
Indian descendants of the original native Americans who were the inhabitants
of the region before the arrival of Christopher Columbus
b.
African descendants from Western and Central Africa
c.
European descendants mainly from Spain and Portugal but also including
the French, Dutch, Italian, and British
d. Asian descendants from China, Japan, India, and Indonesia/Java
e.
Mixed descendants from the above-named groups

INFLUENCES ON LATIN AMERICAN MUSIC


1.

Indigenous Latin-American Music


Before the arrival of the Spanish, Portuguese, and other European colonizers,
the natives were found to be using local drum and percussion instruments such as
the guiro, maracas, and turtle shells, and wind instruments such as zampona (pan
pipes) and quena (notched-end flutes) remain popular and
are traditionally made out of the same aquatic canes,
although PVC pipe is sometimes used due to its resistance
to heat, cold, and humidity. Generally, quenas only are
played during the dry season. Materials came from hollow
tree trunks, animal skins, fruit shells, dry seeds, cane and
Quena
clay, hardwood trees, jaguar claws, animal and human
bones, and specially-treated inflated eyes of tigers.

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MUSIC

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Zampona

Guiro

Turtle shells

Maracas

The indigenous music of Latin America was largely functional in nature, being
used for religious worship and ceremonies. The use of instruments as well as
singing and dancing served to implore the gods for good harvest, victory in battles,
guard against sickness and natural disasters, and of course provide recreation.

2.

Native American/Indian Music


The ethnic and cultural groups of the principal native Americans share many
similar yet distinctive music elements pertaining to melody, harmony, rhythm,
form, and dynamics. Short musical motives from descending melodic lines were
a common feature, where tempo, rhythm, and tone colors vary with the specific
occasion or ritual. Many dance forms were repetitious, while songs had a wide
range of volume levels.
Some of the Native American music includes courtship songs, dancing songs,
and popular American or Canadian tunes like Amazing Grace, Dixie, Jambalaya,
and Sugar Time. Many songs celebrate themes like harvest, planting season or
other important times of year.

3.

Afro-Latin American Music


The African influence on Latin American music is most pronounced in its rich and
varied rhythmic patterns produced by the drums and various percussion
instruments. Complex layering of rhythmic patterns was a favorite device, where

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

fast paced tempos add to the rhythmic density. Vocal music was often deepchested while instrumental music greatly relied on resonant drums and sympathetic
buzzers to produce rich sounds and occasional loud volume levels to reflect their
intensity.
4.

Euro-Latin American Music


The different regions of Latin America adopted various characteristics from their
European colonizers. Melodies of the Renaissance period were used in Southern
Chile and the Colombian Pacific coasts, while step-wise melodies were preferred
in the heavily Hispanic and Moorish-influenced areas of Venezuela and Colombia.
Alternating dual meters, such as 68 and 44 , known as sesquialtera found in
Chile and adopted in Cuba and Puerto Rico, were immortalized in the song I
Wanna Be in America from Leonard Bernsteins Broadway hit West Side Story.
Other European influences were manifested in the texture of Euro-Latin American
music, from unaccompanied vocal solos to those accompanied by stringed
instruments.

5.

Mixed American Music


The diversity of races and cultures from the Native Americans, Afro-Latin
Americans, and Euro-Latin Americans account for the rich combinations of musical
elements including the melodic patterns, harmonic combinations, rhythmic
complexities, wide range of colors and dynamics, and various structural formats.
This musical fusion of Latin America combining native instruments with European
counterparts and musical theories was further enriched by the instruments brought
by the African slaves. The result of the massive infusion of African culture also
brought about the introduction of other music and dance forms such as the AfroCuban rumba, Jamaican reggae, Colombian cumbia, and the Brazilian samba.

6.

Popular Latin American Music


Latin America has produced a number of musical genres and forms that had been
influenced by European folk music, African traditional music, and native sources.
Much of its popular music has in turn found its way to the many venues and
locales of America, Europe, and eventually the rest of the world. Its danceable
rhythms, passionate melodies, and exotic harmonies continue to enthrall music
and dance enthusiasts worldwide even as the forms themselves undergo constant
modifications that are more relevant to the times. Some of these Latin American
popular music forms are tango, bossa nova, samba, son, and salsa.
55

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MUSIC

Quarter II

a.

Samba
The samba is a dance form of African origins
around 1838 which evolved into an AfricanBrazilian invention in the working class and slum
districts of Rio de Janeiro. Its lively rhythm,
consisting of a 24 meter but containing three steps
each that create a feeling of a 34 meter instead,
was meant to be executed for singing, dancing,
and parading in the carnival. Samba has a number
of variations, so that there is no clear-cut definition
of a single samba form. Its most adventurous kind
is known as the batucada, referring at once to a
large percussion ensemble of up to a hundred players, a jam session, or an
intensely polyrhythmic style of drumming.

b.

Son
The son is a fusion of the popular music or canciones (songs) of Spain and
the African rumba rhythms of Bantu origin. Originating in Cuba, it is usually
played with the tres (guitar), contrabass, bongos, maracas, and claves (two
wooden sticks that are hit together). Although the son is seldom heard
today, its most important legacy is its influence on present-day Latin
American music, particularly as the forerunner of the salsa.

c.

Salsa
The salsa is a social dance with marked influences from Cuba and Puerto
Rico that started in New York in the mid 1970s. Its style contains elements
from the swing dance and hustle as well as
the complex Afro-Cuban and Afro-Carribean
dance forms of pachanga and guaguanco.
The execution of the salsa involves shifting
the weight by stepping sideways, causing the
hips to move while the upper body remains
level. The arms and shoulders are also
incorporated with the upper body position.
In each, a moderate tempo is used while the
upper and lower bodies act in seeming
disjoint as described above.

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF LATIN AMERICA

he varied cultures developed in Latin America gave rise to different types of wind
and percussion instruments. As with the African continent, their rich history dating
back thousands of years ago with the Aztec, Maya, and other prehistoric cultural groups
in Latin America understandably generates their own brands of creativity in making music.
In Central America, the ancient civilizations of the Aztec and Maya peoples used various
instruments mainly for religious functions and usually by professional musicians. As some
instruments were considered holy and it was further believed that music was supposed to
glorify the gods, mistakes in playing these instruments were considered offensive and
insulting to them. Some of their instruments include the following:

Tlapitzalli
The tlapitzalli is a flute variety from the Aztec culture made
of clay with decorations of abstract designs or images of
their deities.
Teponaztli
The teponaztli is a Mexican slit drum hollowed
out and carved from a piece of hardwood. It is
then decorated with designs in relief or carved to
represent human figures or animals to be used for
both religious and recreational purposes.

Conch
The conch is a wind instrument made from a seashell usually
of a large sea snail. It is prepared by cutting a hole in its
spine near the apex, then blown into as if it were a trumpet.
Rasp
The rasp is a hand percussion instrument whose sound is
produced by scraping a group of notched sticks with another
stick, creating a series of rattling effects.

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MUSIC

Quarter II

Huehueti
The huehueti is a Mexican upright tubular drum used by the
Aztecs and other ancient civilizations. It is made of wood
opened at the bottom and standing on three legs cut from the
base, with its stretched skin beaten by the hand or a wooden
mallet.

Whistles
Whistles are instruments made of natural elements such
as bone from animals. The eagle-bone whistle is the
most common whose function is to help symbolize
the pieces purpose.

Incan Instruments
Among the Incas of South America, two instrumental varieties were most common:
a. Ocarina
The ocarina was an ancient vessel flute made of clay or
ceramic with four to 12 finger holes and a mouthpiece
that projected from the body.

b. Panpipes (Zamponas)
The zamponas were ancient instruments tuned to different
scalar varieties, played by blowing across the tubetop.
Typical models were either in pairs or as several bamboo
tubes of different lengths tied together to produce
graduated pitches of sound.

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

Andean Instruments
The Andean highlands made use of several varieties of flutes and string instruments that
include the following:
a. Pitus
The pitus are side-blown cane flutes that are played all
year round.

b. Wooden Tarkas
The tarkas are vertical duct flutes with a mouthpiece similar
to that of a recorder, used during the rainy season.

c. Quenas
The quenas are vertical cane flutes with an end-notched made from fragile bamboo.
They are used during the dry season.

d. Charango
The charango is a ten-stringed Andean guitar from Bolivia. It is the size of a ukulele
and a smaller version of the mandolin, imitating the early guitar and lute brought by
the Spaniards. It produces bright sounds and is often used in serenades in Southern
Peru.

59
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MUSIC

Quarter II

Mariachi
The Mariachi is an extremely popular band in Mexico whose original ensemble consisted
of violins, guitars, harp, and an enormous guitarron (acoustic bass guitar). Trumpets
were later added, replacing the harp. Mariachi music is extremely passionate and romantic
with their blended harmonies and characterized by catchy rhythms. Its musicians are
distinctly adorned with wide-brimmed hats and silver buttons.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.

What are the different musical instruments of Latin American music?


What are the characteristics of each instrument?

VOCAL AND DANCE FORMS OF LATIN AMERICAN MUSIC

atin American instruments are extremely useful in adding life, color, and variety to
their many vocal and dance forms which have captured the worlds attention and
affectionate adoption. In the Philippines, many of these characteristics have been taken
in, particularly in the Brazilian bossa nova, cha cha, rumba, and the Argentine tango.
Other dance forms became locally popular especially in the 1960s and 1970s until the
arrival of disco and rock music. However, the original Latin dance forms have been
experiencing constant revivals of their popularity especially in ballroom dancing as the
trendier modern styles also fade almost as quickly as they come.
1.

Cumbia
Originating in Panama and Colombia, the cumbia became a popular African
courtship dance with European and African instrumentation and characteristics.
It contained varying rhythmic meters among the major locations 24 meter in
Colombia; 24 , 44 , and 68 meters in Panama, and 22 meter in Mexico. Instruments
used are the drums of African origin, such as the tabora (bass drum), claves,

60
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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

which are hard, thick sticks that sets the beat, guitar, accordion, clarinet, modern
flute, and caja, a type of snare drum.
2.

Tango
The word tango may have been of African origin meaning African dance or
from the Spanish word taner meaning to play (an instrument). It is a foremost
Argentinian and Uruguayan urban popular song and dance that is related to the
Cuban contradanza, habanera, and Cuban tango, and remains a 20th century
nationalistic Argentinian piece of music that is most expressive. Its main
development was in the slum areas of Buenos Aires, and eventually became
fashionable in Parisian society in the early part of the 20th century, as well as in
England and other parts of Western Europe.

During the 1890s, the working class of Buenos Aires, Argentina came across a
new kind of rhythm known as the tango, whose choreographic steps followed
the dance trend of the Viennese Waltz and the polka involving close contact
between the male and female dancers.
Tango later became more intellectual in the 1940s when more poetic lyrics were
inserted and allowed little freedom. Later in the 1960s, more improvisation and
movement were incorporated into the form, allowing the singers and dancers
more room for creative expressions.

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MUSIC

3.

Quarter II

Cha Cha
The cha cha is a ballroom dance the originated in Cuba
in 1953, derived from the mambo and its characteristic
rhythm of 2 crochets 3 quavers quaver rest, with a
syncopation on the fourth beat. The cha cha may be
danced with Cuban music, Latin Pop, or Latin Rock.
The Cuban cha cha, considered more sensual that may
contain polyrhythmic patterns, has a normal count of
two-three-chachacha and four and one, two, three.

4.

Rumba
The rumba popular recreational dance of Afro-Cuban origin, performed in a
complex duple meter pattern and tresillo, which is a dotted quaver dotted quaver
dotted semiquaver rhythm. It is normally used as a ballroom dance where a solo
dancer or couple would be in an embrace though slightly apart, with the rocking
of the hips to a fast-fast-slow sequence and often containing cross rhythms.
There is a repetitive melody with an
ostinato pattern played by the maracas,
claves, and other Cuban percussion
instruments. It contains jazz elements that
became a model for the cha cha, mambo,
and other Latin American dances. It was
also used for concert music, as it appeared
in the Second Piano Concerto of the French
composer Darius Milhaud.

5.

Bossa nova
Bossa nova originated in 1958-59 as a movement effecting a radical change in
the classic Cuban samba. The word bossa comes from the Brazilian capital of Rio
de Janeiro, which means either trend or something charming, integrating
melody, harmony, and rhythm into a swaying feel, where the vocal style is often
nasal. The nylon-stringed classical guitar is the most important instrument of this
style. Bossa nova contains themes centering on love, women, longing, nature,
and youthfulness.
Bossa nova emerged in the 1950s when a slower, gentler version of the samba
became popular with the upper and middle class sectors of society. It was music
for easy and relaxed listening, conducive to romantic dates and quiet moments at
the lounges.

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

A foremost figure of bossa nova is Antonio


Carlos Jobim, who became famous with his
song Desafinado (1957). He collaborated with
Vincius de Moraes in the play Orfeu da
Conceicao (1956), musical recording of Cancao
do Amor Demais (1958), and the song Garota
de Ipanema or Girl from Ipanema (1962) that
turned bossa novas popularity into a worldwide
phenomenon.
Antonio Carlos Jobim

In the Philippine pop music scene, Sitti Navarro is a


singer who has become known as the Philippines
Queen of Bossa Nova. Some of her bossa nova songs
include Para sa Akin, Hey Look at the Sun, Lost in
Space, and Kung Di Rin Lang Ikaw.
Sitti Navarro

6.

Reggae
Reggae is an urban popular music and dance style that originated in Jamaica in
the mid 1960s. It contained English text coupled with Creole expressions that
were not so familiar to the non-Jamaican. It was a synthesis of Western American
(Afro-American) popular music and the traditional Afro-Jamaican music,
containing a western-style melodic-harmonic base with African sounds and
characteristics, American pop and rock music mannerisms, and a preference for a
loud volume in the bass.
The best-known proponent of
reggae music is Bob Marley,
a Jamaican singer-songwriter,
musician, and guitarist. He
achieved international fame and
acclaim for songs such as: One
Love, Three Little Birds; No
Woman, No Cry; Redemption
Song; and Stir It Up.

Bob Marley

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MUSIC

7.

Quarter II

Foxtrot
The foxtrot is a 20th century social dance that originated
after 1910 in the USA. It was executed as a one step,
two step and syncopated rhythmic pattern. The tempo
varied from 30 to 40 bars per minute and had a simple
duple meter with regular 4-bar phrases. There was no
fixed step pattern, instead borrowing from other dance
forms and having a simple forward/backward sequence.
The foxtrot gave rise to other dances such as the black
bottom, Charleston, and shimmy.

8.

Paso Doble
The paso doble (meaning double step) is a theatrical
Spanish dance used by the Spaniards in bullfights, where
the music was played as the matador enters (paseo)
and during passes just before the kill (faena).
The dance is arrogant and dignified with a duple meter,
march-like character, where the dancer takes strong
steps forward with the heels accompanied by artistic
hand movements, foot stomping, sharp and quick
movements, with the head and chest held high.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

What are the different vocal and dance forms of Latin American music?

2.

What are the characteristics of each vocal and dance form of Latin American
music?

3.

Which type of music was popularized by Bob Marley?

4.

Which type of music was popularized by Antonio Carlos Jobim?

5.

Who is known as the Philippines Queen of Bossa Nova?

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

JAZZ

he arrival of the jazz genre did not come overnight. It was an offshoot of the
music of African slaves who migrated to America. As music is considered a therapeutic
outlet for human feelings, the Africans used music to recall their nostalgic past in their
home country as well as to voice out their sentiments on their desperate condition at that
time. Since then, these melancholy beginnings have evolved into various more upbeat
jazz forms which the world has adopted and incorporated into other contemporary styles.

RAGTIME
Ragtime is an American popular musical style mainly for piano, originating in the AfroAmerican communities in St. Louis and New Orleans. Its style was said to be a modification
of the marching mode made popular by John Philip Sousa, where the effect is generated
by an internally syncopated melodic line pitted against a rhythmically straightforward
bass line. Its music is written unlike jazz which is mainly improvised, and contains regular
meters and clear phrases, with an alternation of low bass or bass octaves and chords.

Scott Joplin
Jelly Roll Morton

Foremost exponents of ragtime were Jelly Roll Morton who was an American ragtime
and early jazz pianist and composed Frog I More Rag. Scott Joplin, who also composed
the popular Maple Leaf Rag, Solace, and The Entertainer. Joplin is also knows as the
King of Ragtime. Ragtime also influenced a number of classical composers, among
them Erik Satie, Claude Debussy, and Igor Stravinsky, who injected ragtime rhythmic
elements in their compositions.
BIG BAND
The term Big Band refers to a large ensemble form originating in the United States in
the mid 1920s closely associated with the Swing Era with jazz elements. Relying heavily
on percussion (drums), wind, rhythm section (guitar, piano, double bass, vibes), and

65
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MUSIC

Quarter II

brass instruments (saxophones), with a lyrical string section (violins and other string
instruments) to accompany a lyrical melody. A standard big band 17-piece instrumentation
consists of the following musical instruments percussion, brass, and woodwind
instrruments: five saxophones (most often two altos, two tenors, and one baritone), four
trumpets, four trombones (often including one bass trombone), and a four-piece rhythm
section (composed of drums, acoustic bass or electric bass, piano and guitar). Some big
bands use additional instruments. Big band music originated in the United States and is
associated with jazz and the swing.

Glenn Miller Orchestra

Among the great big bands were the Glenn Miller Orchestra (A String of Pearls, Moonlight
Serenade, In The Mood, American Patrol, and Smoke Gets in Your Eyes); the Count
Basie Orchestra (April in Paris); and the Benny Goodman Orhcestra (Sing, Sing, Sing);
while some solo signers such as Cab Calloway (Minnie the Moocher) Doris Day (Stardust,
Im in the Mood for Love); Roy Eldridge, and others also collaborated with big bands.

BEBOP
Bebop or bop is a musical style of modern jazz which is characterized by a fast tempo,
instrumental virtuosity, and improvisation that emerged during World War II. The speed
of the harmony, melody, and rhythm resulted in a heavy
performance where the instrumental sound became more tense
and free.

Dizzy Gillespie

Its main exponents were trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie, alto sax


player Charlie Parker, drummers Max Roach and Roy Haynes,
pianists Bud Powell and Thelonius Monk; guitarist Charlie
Christian; tenor sax players Dexter Gordon and Sonny Rollins,
who was also a composer; and trombonist JJ Johnson.

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

JAZZ ROCK
Jazz rock is the music of 1960s and 1970s bands that inserted jazz elements into rock
music. A synonym for jazz fusion, jazz rock is a mix of funk and R&B (rhythm and
blues) rhythms, where the music used amplification
and electronic effects, complex time signatures, and
extended instrumental compositions with lengthy
improvisations in the jazz style.
Popular singer/songwriters Joni Mitchell, Tim
Buckley, and Van Morrison were among those who
adopted the jazz rock style.
Joni Mitchell

Some popular groups that emerged using the above music styles were the following:

Grateful Dead
Cream
Blood, Sweat, and Tears
Santana
Traffic
Chicago
Steely Dan
Lighthouse
Frank Zappa
Soft Machine
Hatfield and the North

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

What are the different jazz forms?

2.

What are the characteristics of each jazz form?

3.

Name one of the Big Bands that became popular.

4.

Which type of music was adopted by singer-songwriter Joni Mitchell?

5.

Name three of the popular groups that used the jazz rock style.

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MUSIC

Quarter II

POPULAR MUSIC

opular music literally means music of the populace, similar to traditional folk music
of the past. As it developed in the 20th century, pop music (as it has come to be
called) generally consisted of music for entertainment of large numbers of people, whether
on radio or in live performances. From the standard songs and ballads of the legendary
Cole Porter, George Gershwin, and Frank Sinatra to the rock and roll craze of Elvis
Presley and the Beatles and the present day idols in the alternative music and disco
modes, popular music is now shared by the entire world.
BALLADS
The ballad originated as an expressive folksong in narrative verse with text dealing typically
about love. The word is derived both from the medieval French chanson balladee and
ballade which refers to a dancing song. Used by poets and composers since the 18th
century, it became a slow popular love song in the 19th century.
Today, the term ballad now refers to a love song in a slightly pop or rock style, with the
following characteristics:
1.

Blues Ballads
This is a fusion of Anglo-American and Afro-American styles from the 19th century
that deals with the anti-heroes resisting authority. The form emphasizes the
character of the performer more than the narrative content, and is accompanied
by the banjo or guitar.

2.

Pop Standard and Jazz Ballads


This is a blues style built from a single verse of 16 bars ending on the dominant or
half-cadence, followed by a refrain/chorus part of 16 or 32 bars in AABA form.
The B section acts as the bridge, and the piece normally ends with a brief coda.

Some enduring pop standard and jazz ballads include The Man I Love (George
Gershwin, above left), Always (Irving Berlin, above center), and In a Sentimental
Mood (Duke Ellington, above right).

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

3.

Pop and Rock Ballads


A pop and rock ballad is an emotional love song with suggestions
of folk music, as in the Beatles composition The Ballad of John
and Yoko and Billy Joels The Ballad of Billy. This style is
sometimes applied to strophic story-songs, such as Don McLeans
American Pie.
Don McLean

STANDARDS
In music, the term standard is used to denote the most popular and enduring songs
from a particular genre or style, such as those by Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and Rodgers
and Hart. Its style is mostly in a slow or moderate tempo with a relaxed mood. It also
features highly singable melodies within the range and technical capacity of the everyday
listener.
Among the foremost proponents of this style was Frank
Sinatra, also known as Ol Blue Eyes, Chairman of the
Board, or The Voice. His genre was categorized as
traditional pop and jazz. He
was a successful singer, actor,
producer, director, and
conductor. His hit singles
include My Way and Strangers
in the Night.
Frank Sinatra (far left)
and
Nat King Cole (left)

Another well-loved standards singer was American balladeer Nat King Cole. Although
an accomplished pianist, he owes most of his popular musical fame to his soothing baritone
voice, which he used to perform in big band, vocal jazz, swing. traditional pop, and jump
blues genres. He was the first black American to host his own television show and
maintained worldwide popularity over 40 years past his death. He is widely considered
one of the most important musical personalities in United States history. His hit songs
include Unfogettable, Mona Lisa, and Too Young.
Matt Monroe was an English singer who became one of the most popular entertainers
in the international music scene during the 1960s. Throughout his 30-year career, he
filled cabarets, nightclubs, music halls, and stadia in Australia, Japan, the Philippines, and
Hong Kong to Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and the Americas. Among his hit singles
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included Portrait of My Love, Softly as I Leave You, the James


bond theme From Russia with Love, Born Free, which became his
signature song, and Walk Away.
Other popular singers of standards were Perry Como, Bing Crosby,
Andy Williams, Sammy Davis Jr., Doris Day, Patti Page, Barbra
Streisand, and Paul Anka.
Matt Monroe

ROCK AND ROLL


Rock and roll was a hugely popular song form in the United States during the late 1940s
to the 1950s. It combined Afro-American forms such as the blues, jump blues, jazz, and
gospel music with the Western swing and country music. The lead instruments were the
piano and saxophone, but these were eventually replaced by modern instruments.
In its classic form, rock and roll employed one or two electric guitars (lead, rhythm), a
string bass or bass guitar, and a set of drums that provided the rhythmic pattern. This
form came during the age of technological change when electric guitars were supplemented
by amplifiers and microphones to raise the volume. It derived its name from the mot of a
sonhip on the ocean, rock and roll.
The greatest exponent of the rock and roll style was the legendary
Elvis Presley. His hit songs such as Heartbreak Hotel and Blue
Suede Shoes were complemented by his good looks and elaborate
movements that included hugging the microphone as he sang.

Elvis
Presley

The Beatles

Presleys style was the precursor of the


British band known as The Beatles,
whose compositions further boosted rock and roll as the favorite genre of the times.
Examples of The Beatles songs in this genre are I Saw Her Standing There, Get Back,
While My Guitar Gently Weeps, Rock and Roll Music, and Ticket to Ride.
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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

The Beatles John Lenon and Paul McCartney


as Composers/Songwriters
John Lennon (1940-1980) was an English musician,
singer, performer, songwriter and co-songwriter. He was
born and raised in Liverpool, England. He rose to
worldwide fame as a founder member of the rock band
The Beatles, which was considered as the most
commercially successful band in the history of popular
music.
Lennon formed as songwriting partnership with Paul McCartney, which is considered as
one of the most celebrated songwriting partnerships of the 20th century. Lennons hit
compositions for the Beatles include Strawberry Fields Forever, Help, In My Life,
Tomorrow Never Knows, Rain, Norwegian Road, I am the Walrus, Come Together, Youve
Got to Hide Your Love Away, and Happiness is a Warm Gun.
When The Beatles disbanded in 1970, Lennon embarked on a solo career. Among his
solo top billboard hits include Imagine, Mind Games, Power to the People, Dream,
Nobody Told Me, Watching the Wheels, Woman, Whatever Gets You Through the Night,
and Instant Karma.
In 2002, according to a BBC poll on the 100 Greatest Britons, John was voted in eighth
place. In 2008, Rolling Stone Magazine ranked him the fifth-greatest singer of all time.
He was posthumously inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1987; and into the
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice as a member of The Beatles in 1988 and as a solo artist
in 1994.
Sir James Paul McCartney (1942- ) is an English singer,
songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, co-writer, and composer.
Paul gained worldwide popularity and fame as a member of
The Beatles, which included John Lennon, George Harrison,
and Ringo Starr. Beatles was one of the most influential groups
in the history of pop music.
The songwriting partnership with Lennon for the Beatles is one of the most celebrated
of the 20th century. McCartney has been recognized as one of the most successful
composers and performers of all time, with 60 gold discs and sales of over 100 million
albums and 100 million singles of his work with the Beatles and as a solo artist. It has
been known that more than 2,200 artists have covered his Beatles song Yesterday, which
is more than any other copyrighted song in history.
McCartney was a two-time inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of
The Beatles in 1988, and as a solo artist in 1999. He is a 21-time Grammy Award winner
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having won both individually and with The Beatles. He has written or co-written 32
songs that have reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100.
As of 2014, McCartney had sold more than 15.5 million RIAA-certified units in the
United States. He was knighted in England for his services to music. His top hit
compositions for The Beatles include Hey Jude; Fool on the Hill; Ill Follow the Sun; I
Will; I Saw Her Standing There; All My Loving; Paperback Writer; Michelle; Eleanor
Rigby; We Can Work It Out; And I Love Her; Here, There, and Everywhere; Penny
Lane; and others.

DISCO
The 1970s saw the rise of another form of pop music
known as disco. Disco music pertained to rock music
that was more danceable, thus leading to the establishment
of venues for public dancing also called discos. The term
originated from the French word discotheque which
means a library for phonograph records.
The disco style had a soaring and reverberating sound
rhythmically controlled by a steady beat (usually44 meter)
for ease of dancing, and accompanied by strings, horns,
electric guitars, and electric pianos or synthesizers.
Famous figures of the
The Bee Gees
disco genre include
ABBA, Donna Summer (The Queen of Disco), The
Bee Gees; Earth, Wind, and Fire; KC and the
Sunshine Band; The Village People; and Gloria
Gaynor, bringing us such hits as Dancing Queen,
Stayin Alive, Boogie Wonderland, and Hot Stuff.
ABBA

Donna Summer

Earth, Wind, and Fire

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

POP MUSIC
Parallel with the disco era, other pop music superstars
continued to emerge. Among them were Neil Sedaka
(Laughter in the Rain), Diana Ross and the Supremes (Stop
in the Name of Love), Olivia Newton John (Hopelessly
Devoted to You), Stevie Wonder (You Are the Sunshine of
My Life), Elton John (Skyline Pigeon), The Carpenters
(Weve Only Just Begun), and Barry Manilow (Mandy).
Pop superstars in more recent years include solor artists
Celine Dion (My Heart Will Go On), Madonna (Material
Diana Ross and the
Girl), Whitney Houston (I Will Always Love You), Mariah
Supremes
Carey (Hero), Justin Timberlake (Justified), Britney Spears
(Oops, I Did It Again), Beyonce (Irreplaceable), Lady Gaga (Bad Romance), and Bruno
Mars (Just The Way You Are); as well as vocal groups such as Boyz II Men (Four Seasons
of Loneliness), The Backstreet Boys (I Want It That Way), NSync (This I Promise You),
Destinys Child (Survivor), among many others.

Michael Jackson, The King of Pop


Perhaps the most popular solo performer of all time is Michael
Joseph Jackson who was born on August 29, 1958 and died
on June 25, 2009. He was an American recording artist,
entertainer, singer-songwriter, record producer, musical
arranger, dancer, choreographer, actor, businessman, and
philanthropist.
The seventh child of the Jackson family, he made his debut as
an entertainer in 1968 as a member of The Jackson 5. He then
began a solo career in 1971 while still a member of the group
and was referred to as the "King of Pop" in subsequent years.
Jackson's 1982 album Thriller remains the world's best-selling album of all time, and
four of his other solo studio albums are among the world's best-selling records: Off the
Wall (1979), Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991), and HIStory (1995).
In the early 1980s, he became a dominant figure in American popular music and culture.
He was the first African American entertainer to amass a strong crossover following on
MTV. The popularity of his music videos airing on MTV, such as Beat It, Billie Jean, and
Thrillerwidely credited with transforming the music video from a promotional tool
into an art formhelped bring the relatively new channel to fame. Videos such as Black
or White and Scream made Jackson an enduring staple on MTV in the 1990s.

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With stage performances and music videos, Jackson popularized a number of physically
complicated dance techniques, such as the robot and the moonwalk. His distinctive
musical sound and vocal style influenced many hip hop, pop music, and contemporary
R&B artists across several generations world-wide. Jackson donated and raised millions
of dollars for beneficial causes through his Heal the World Foundation, charity singles,
and support of 39 charities.
One of the few artists to have been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice,
his other achievements include Multiple Guinness World Recordsincluding one for
"Most Successful Entertainer of All Time"13 Grammy Awards, 13 number one singles
in his solo career, and the sale of 750 million records worldwide. Jackson is one of the
worlds most famous artists because of his highly successful career which made him a
part of popular culture for nearly four decades.
At the time of his death, Jackson was preparing for This Is It, a series of 50 concerts
that would have been held at The O2 arena in London beginning July 13, 2009, and a
world tour to follow after the series of concerts. After Michael Jackson's death, Billboard's
entire top nine positions on Billboard's Top Pop Catalog Albums chart housed Jacksonrelated titles on July 1, 2009.

Todays Pop Music Idols

One Direction

Rihanna
Ed Sheeran

As the 21st century continues to unfold, more


and more pop groups emerge spanning an
entire range of musical styles and genres.
There are music groups like Black Eyed Peas,
K Pop (Korean), My Chemical Romance, Fall
Out Boys, The Red Jumpsuit Apparatus,
Souja Boy, Train, Maroon 5, and One
Direction.
While solo performers include Adele, Taylor
Swift, Ed Sheeran, Rihanna, Chris Brown,
Ariana Grande, Justin Beiber, Miley Cyrus,
Katy Perry, Nikki Minaj, Selena Gomez, and
others.

HIP HOP AND RAP


Hip hop music is a stylized, highly rhythmic type of music that usually (but not always)
includes portions of rhytmically chanted words called rap. In rapping, the artist speaks

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

along with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Hip hop arose in


the 1970s within the Afro-American and Latino youth in the Bronx
area of New York City. But by the 1980s, it had spread to many
other countries. It has since evolved into a subculture that
encompasses music (rapping, DJing, scratching,
and beatboxing); a nearly acrobatic style of dancing,
called break dancing; a distinct manner of dress;
and graffiti-style artwork.
Among the early hip hop artists were LL Cool J
and Run-D.M.C. While more recent popular names
in this genre have been Beastie Boys, Eminem, and
Kanye West.

Eminem

Kanye
West

ALTERNATIVE MUSIC
Alternative music was an underground independent form of music that arose in the 1980s.
It became widely popular in the 1990s as a way to defy mainstream rock music. Thus,
it was known for its unconventional practices such as distorted guitar sounds, oppressive
lyrics, and defiant attitudes. It was also characterized by high energy levels that bred new
styles such as new wave, punk rock, post-punk, indie rock, gothic rock, jangle pop,
noise pop, C86, Madchester, Industrial Rock, and Shoegazing. Examples of alternative
music are You Belong with Me, Shake It Off.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

Briefly describe the historical and cultural background of African, Latin American,
jazz, and popular music.

2.

Analyze the musical characteristics of African, Latin American, jazz, and popular
music.

3.

How did the following music reflect life in their respective cultures and the
conditions at that time?
a.
African music maracatu, blues, soul, spiritual, call and response
b.
Latin American Music cumbia, tango, cha cha, rumba, bossa nova,
reggae, foxtrot, paso doble
c.
Jazz ragtime, big band, bebop, jazz rock
d. Popular music ballads, standards, rock and roll, disco, pop, hip hop and
rap, alternative music

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PHILIPPINE POPULAR MUSIC

he one word that comes to mind when we think of contemporary Philippine music is
the type commonly termed as Original Pinoy Music or Original Philippine Music, or
OPM for short. It was originally used to refer only to Philippine pop songs, particularly
ballads, such as those popular after the collapse of its predecessor, the Manila Sound, in
the late 1970s up until the present.
In the 1960s to 1970s, Nora Aunor, Pilita Corrales, Eddie Peregrina, Victor Wood, Asin,
APO Hiking Society, and others were highly popular OPM singers. In the 1970s to
1980s, the major commercial Philippine pop music artists were Claire dela Fuente, Didith
Reyes, Rico Puno, Ryan Cayabyab, Basil Valdez, Celeste Legaspi, Hajji Alejandro, Rey
Valera, Freddie Aguilar, Imelda Papin, Eva Eugenio, Nonoy Zuiga, and many others.

ORIGINAL PILIPINO MUSIC (OPM)


The 1980s to 1990s are also regarded as the golden era of Philippine
ballads. Among the classics that emerged were those created by:

Ryan Cayabyab (Kay Ganda ng Ating Musika,


Kahit Ikay Panaginip Lang)

George Canseco (Kapantay ay Langit,


Kastilyong Buhangin, Tubig at Langis)

Willie Cruz (Sanay Wala Nang Wakas,


Bituing Walang Ningning)

Jose Mari Chan (Beautiful Girl, Please Be


Careful With My Heart, Constant Change)

Gary Valenciano (Sana Maulit Muli)

George Canseco

Ryan Cayabyab

Most of these compositions made use of Western-type


melody and harmony, while expressing uniquely Filipino
emotions in movingly poetic lyrics. These came to be known
as OPM, and were popularized by solo artists like Pilita
Corales, Nora Aunor, Basil Valdez, Celeste Legaspi, Hajji
Alejandro, Leah Navarro, Sharon Cuneta, Martin Nievera,
Gary Valenciano, ZsaZsa Padilla, Regine Velasquez, and
Ogie Alcasid.

At the start, OPM was centered in Manila, where Tagalog and English are the dominant
languages. However, other ethno-linguistic groups such as the Visayan, Bikol,
Kapampangan, and Ilocano also began to sing and record their songs in their native
dialects.
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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

Gary
Valenciano

Martin
Nievera

Between the 1980s and 1990s, OPM was led by artists such as Martin Nievera, Gary
Valenciano, Lea Salonga, Regine Velasquez, Sharon Cuneta, Vina Morales, Raymond
Lauchengco, Francis Magalona, Pops Fernandez, Jos Mari Chan, Dingdong Avanzado,
Janno Gibbs, Ogie Alcasid, Joey Albert, Manilyn Reynes, among many others.
In the 1990s, the famous solo artists and bands included The Eraserheads, Smokey
Mountain, Donna Cruz, Jessa Zaragoza, Ariel Rivera, Southborder, Afterimage, Andrew
E., Jaya, Rivermaya, Parokya ni Edgar, among many others. Underground bands emerged
and along with them were their perceptions of idealism and self-expression.
More recently, OPM stars have included Yeng Constantino, Sarah Geronimo, Aisa
Seguerra, and international singers Arnel Pineda (of the international rock group, Journey),
Charice Pempengco, and others.

Sarah Geronimo

Arnel Pineda

Charice

PHILIPPINE POP MUSIC

op music in the Philippines started as an adaptation or translation, if not complete


imitation, of Western hits. It started with Bobby Gonzales Hahabol-habol (Hot
Pursuit), a local version of the rock and roll songs of the
1950s, and Rico Punos Luneta, a local adaptation of The
Way We Were. This immediately clicked with the youth and
eventually gained wide acceptance even among the burgis
(bourgeois or elite) crowd.
Rico J. Puno

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The start of the Manila Sound in the mid-1970s gave rise to songs using a colloquial
language called Taglish, a combination of Tagalog and English. These Filipino lyrics sung
to pop melodies resulted in highly singable songs with contemporary appeal.

Hotdog (above) and


The Apo Hiking Society (right)

Among the proponents of the Manila Sound were the Hotdog, Cinderella, The Rainmakers,
and the Apo Hiking Society. After waning briefly in the 1990s, this sound regained
popularity in recent years with remakes of the 1970s originals by contemporary rock
bands.

PHILIPPINE JAZZ

hilippine musicians have also been inspired by jazz music. Among them are jazz
pianist and recording artist Boy Katindig, who comes from the well-known clan of
musicians that includes jazz piano legend Romy Katindig and saxophonist Eddie Katindig.
The Katindig family pioneered Latin jazz in Manila.
Lito Molina and
the Jazz Friends

Eddie Katindig

Bobby
Enriquez

Other notable Filipino jazz musicians include Lito Molina, Angel Pea, Emil Mijares, and
internationally known jazz pianist Bobby Enriquez.
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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

PHILIPPINE ALTERNATIVE FOLK MUSIC

Freddie Aguilar

The Philippines also saw the rise of alternative folk music


which was different from the traditional and popular
form. This new form combined ethnic instrumentation
with electronic accompaniment, while presenting themes
or issues of society and the environment. Some of the
Filipino composers who championed this style were Joey
Ayala, Grace Nono, and Edru Abraham of Kontragapi
(Kontemporaryong Gamelan Pilipino).

Among other Filipino composers whose styles ranged from folk to semi-ethnic werewere
Freddie Aguilar, best known for his song Anak; Yoyoy Villame, composer of Magellan;
Florante, composer of Akoy Isang Pinoy; and Gary Granada, composer of Ka Bayani.

PHILIPPINE ROCK

he year 1973 saw the birth of Philippine or


Pinoy rock music which successfully merged
the rock beat with Filipino lyrics. This new sound
was introduced by the legendary Juan de la Cruz Band
(with their song Ang Himig Natin) which had for its
members Joey Pepe Smith, Wally Gonzales, and
the originator of Jeproks, Mike Hanopol, who later
became a major symbol of Pinoy rock.
Juan de la Cruz Band

Other early exponents of Pinoy rock included the band Maria Cafra; Sampaguita, the
female rocker; and folk-rock singer Heber Bartolome and his Banyuhay band, whose
songs expressed strong messages of nationalism.
Continuing this legacy of Pinoy rock today are vocal groups
and bands that include River Maya, The Dawn, True Faith,
The Eraserheads, Wolfgang, Bamboo, Parokya ni Edgar, Hale,
Sandwich, SugarFree, Sponge Cola,and others.
Parokya
ni Edgar

Bamboo

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PINOY RAP

n the Philippines, rap was also made popular by such composers and performers as
Francis Magalona (Mga Kababayan Ko and Watawat) and Andrew E (Humanap Ka
ng Pangit).
Francis Magalona was born on October 4, 1964 and died on
March 6, 2009. He is also known as FrancisM, Master
Rapper, and The Man From Manila. He was a Filipino
rapper, songwriter, producer, actor, director, television host,
and photographer. He is often hailed as the King of Pinoy
Rap and is considered a legend in the Philippine music
community.
With the success of his earliest albums, Magalona was the Francis Magalona
first Filipino rapper to cross over to the mainstream. He is
also credited for having pioneered the merging of rap with Pinoy rock, becoming a
significant influence on artists in that genre as well. He was later awarded a posthumous
Presidential Medal of Merit for his musical and artistic brilliance, his deep faith in the
Filipino, and his sense of national pride that continue to inspire us.

Pop Music Collaborations


Philippine pop artists have also collaborated with classical artists and orchestras in a
number of their recordings and concerts. Some of the concerts of Martin Nievera, Gary
Valenciano, Regine Velazquez, Lea Salonga, and Sharon Cuneta have featured the
Philippine Philharmonic Orchestra, the ABS-CBN Orchestra, and the Manila Philharmonic
Orchestra in performances at the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) and the
Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), both known venues for classical music,
as well as at the Araneta Coliseum and Folk Arts Theater (FAT). Classical musicians have
also performed in malls and other commercial venues to popularize classical music, popular
music, and OPM.

SUMMARY
From theater tunes to rock and roll, pop, standards, hip hop, rap, and contemporary
balladswhether in the West, in the Philippines, or anywhere else in the worldthese all
provided a rich and diverse musical background in the development of Philippine
contemporary music. The development of Philippine music was also influenced by the
history of the countryfrom its pre-Spanish roots, through the Spanish and American
periods, up to the present. It has since evolved to have its own rich and distinct identity.

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

How did the different forms of popular music reflect life in the 20th century?
Differentiate the characteristics of Philippine pop, rock, and rap music.
What role did media like radio, television, and recordings play in the development
of these different musical genres?
Describe the Manila Sound in Philippine pop music.
Name some well-known OPM performers.

WHAT TO PROCESS
Class Activity
1.

Your teacher will play one recording of each of the following: African Music,
Latin American Music, Jazz, Popular Music (standards, rock and roll, disco), and
OPM (ballad, Pinoy rock, Pinoy rap). Listen carefully to each recording.

2.

Participate in a class discussion on the distinctive features and qualities of each


musical genre and style.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
Activity 1: Making Improvised African and Latin American Instruments
Individual or Group Activity
1.

Make improvised African or Latin American instruments using dried vegetables,


animal hide, wood, strips of roofing metal, tin cans, bamboo, etc.

2.

Create a rhythmic/harmonic accompaniment for any song you know using these
improvised African or Latin American instrument.

3.

How did you relate in making improvised African or Latin American musical
instruments found in the environment?

Activity 2: Choreography to Express the Music


Individual or Group Activity
1.

Conceptualize a choreography to show some dance steps set to the following


music:
a.
African
b.
Latin American
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c.
d.
e.
2.

Jazz
Popular (Pop) Music
OPM

How does it feel to conceptualize the dance movements in each music category?

WHAT TO PERFORM
Group Activities
1.

2.

3.

Class Singing Concert live performance


a.

Your teacher will divide the class into four groups.

b.

Each group will be asked to draw lots to sing a song from one of the following
musical genres:
For African Music - choose from Kumbaya, Waka Waka, or Mbube
For Latin-American music - One Note Samba
For Jazz - choose from Someone to Watch Over Me by Ella Fritzgerald
or All That Jazz from the movie Chicago
For Pop and OPM - choose your own song.

c.

Decide among your group members which of you will sing, plan the
choreography or movements to accompany the song, play a musical
instrument, and record the groups performance on video.

d.

Learn your assigned song, using the lyrics on the following pages. Practice
it, with the choreography and accompaniment. Then, perform it in class.

Dance Interaction
a.

As your group performs in class, invite the other class members to join you
in the dance movements or choreography that you have prepared.

b.

Do an impromptu selection of Best Dance Performance among your


classmates.

Music Video Award


a.

During the class performance, the assigned group member(s) will record
your groups performance using a mobile phone, tablet, or video camera.

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

b.

Simulate a Music Video Award event by joining the other groups in


presenting your respective videos in class.

c.

The class members will choose the Best Song Performance based on
how well the group presented their assigned music genre.

Kum-ba-ya
Kum-bay-ya is a spiritual song that was first recorded in the 1920s. It
became a popular standard campfire song in Girl or Boy Scouting
and during summer camps. The song is originally a simple petition to
God to come and help those in need. This inspiring hymn is heard in
many countries of Central Africa. It has great personal meaning and
the singer often creates his own words as he works or pray. The words
Kum Bay Ya mean come by here or stay nearby.
Kum bay ya, my Lord, kum bay ya;
Kum bay ya, my Lord, kum bay ya;
Kum bay ya, my Lord, kum bay ya
O Lord, kum bay ya.
Someones laughing, my Lord, kum bay ya
Someones laughing, my Lord, kum bay ya
Someones laughing, my Lord, kum bay ya
O Lord, kum bay ya.
Someones crying, my Lord, kum bay ya
Someones crying, my Lord, kum bay ya
Someones crying, my Lord, kum bay ya
O Lord, kum bay ya.
Someones praying, Lord, kum bay ya
Someones praying, Lord, kum bay ya
Someones praying, Lord, kum bay ya
O Lord, kum bay ya.
Someones singing, my Lord, kum bay ya
Someones singing, my Lord, kum bay ya
Someones singing, my Lord, kum bay ya
O Lord, kum bay ya.

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MUSIC

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Waka Waka (This Time for Africa)


FIFA World Cup 2010 Official Anthem
"Waka Waka (This Time for Africa)" or in Spanish, "Waka Waka (Esto
es frica)" is a song by Colombian singer-songwriter Shakira. It feautures
South African band, Freshlyground, and pairs an African Colombian
rhythm with a Soca-inspired beat. Its lyrics encourage one to aim for
ones goals, like a soldier on a battlefield. The song was used as the
official song of the 2010 FIFA World Cup held in South Africa.
You're a good soldier
Choosing your battles
Pick yourself up
And dust yourself off
And back in the saddle
You're on the frontline
Everyone's watching

You know it's serious


We're getting closer
This isnt over
The pressure is on
You feel it
But you've got it all
Believe it

One Note Samba


Samba de Uma Nota S ("One-Note Samba") is a song composed by
Antonio Carlos Jobim, with Portuguese lyrics by Newton Mendona
and English lyrics by Jobim. The song title refers to the main melody
line, which at first consists of a long series of notes of a single tone.
This is just a little samba
Built upon a single note
Other notes are bound to follow
But the root is still that note
Now this new note is the consequence
Of the one we've just been through
As I'm bound to be
The unavoidable consequence of you
There's so many people
Who can talk and talk, and talk
And just say nothing
Or nearly nothing

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

I have used up all the scale


I know and at the end
I've come to nothing
I mean nothing
So I come back to my first note
As I come back to you
I will pour into that one note
All the love I feel for you
Any one who wants the whole show
Re mi fa so la ci do
He will find himself with no show
Better play the note you know
So I come back to my first note
I must come back to you
I will pour into that one note
All the love I feel for you
Any one who wants the whole show
Re mi fa so la ci do
He will find himself with no show
Better play the note you know

Someone To Watch Over Me


There's a saying old, says that love is blind
Still we're often told, "Seek and ye shall find"
So I'm going to seek a certain lad I've had in mind
Looking everywhere, haven't found him yet
He's the big affair I cannot forget
Only man I ever think of with regret
I'd like to add his initial to my monogram
Tell me, where is the shepherd for this lost lamb?

85
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MUSIC

Quarter II

There's a somebody I'm longin' to see


I hope that he, turns out to be
Someone who'll watch over me
I'm a little lamb who's lost in the wood
I know I could, always be good
To one who'll watch over me
Although he may not be the man some
Girls think of as handsome
To my heart he carries the key
Won't you tell him please to put on some speed
Follow my lead, oh, how I need
Someone to watch over me
Won't you tell him please to put on some speed
Follow my lead, oh, how I need
Someone to watch over me
Someone to watch over me

Evaluation of Performing Activities


Rating scale:
5 = Very Good
4 = Good
3 = Fair

2 = Poor
1 = Needs Follow-up

Rate scores are based on the groups performance quality.


1.

How well did our group perform our assigned music?


a.
African Music
b.
Latin American Music
c.
Jazz
d. Pop Music / OPM

_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________

How well can I identify the different musical genres


based on instrumentation, melody, rhythm, text,
timbre, harmony, and purpose?

_______________

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Afro-Latin American and Popular Music

3.

4.

5.

How well can I describe the characteristics of


each genre as I listened to the melody,
harmony, rhythm, and lyrics?

_______________

How well did our group perform the different


dance moves for our assigned song?

_______________

How well can I (individually) sing the following


musical genres?
a.
African Music
b.
Latin American Music
c.
Jazz
d. Popular / Pop Music
e.
OPM

_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________

Teachers Rating of the Performance


1.

Musicianship (60%)
(musical elements, technique)

_______________

2.

Presentation impact and showmanship (20%)

_______________

3.

Ensemble coordination and organization (20%)

_______________

87
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MUSIC

Quarter III

Quarter III: CONTEMPORARY


PHILIPPINE MUSIC

CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner demonstrates understanding of...
1. Characteristic features of contemporary music.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
The learner...
1. Sings contemporary songs.

LEARNING COMPETENCIES
The learner...
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Listens perceptively to excerpts of major contemporary works.


Describes characteristics of traditional and new music.
Gives a brief biography of selected contemporary Philippine
composers.
Sings selections of contemporary music with appropriate pitch,
rhythm, style, and expression.
Explores ways of creating sounds on a variety of sources.
Improvises simple vocal/instrumental accompaniments to selected
songs.
Creates a musical on the life of a selected contemporary Philippine
composer.
Evaluates music and music performances using knowledge of musical
elements and style.

From the Department of Education curriculum for MUSIC Grade 10 (2014)

88
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Contemporary Philippine Music

CONTEMPORARY
PHILIPPINE MUSIC

ccording to National Artist Ramon Santos, PhD, contemporary music in the


Philippines refers to compositions that have adopted ideas and elements from 20th
century art music in the west, as well as the latest trends and musical styles in the
entertainment industry.
The modern Filipino repertoire consists of musical pieces that have been written in 20th
century idioms that have evolved out of such stylistic movements as impressionism,
expressionism, neo-classicism, as well as avant garde and new music.
New music are compositions which are improvisational works such as the early
compositions of Dr. Ramon Santos, Radyasyon and Quadrasyon; Josefino Chino
Toledos Samut-Sari, Pintigan and Terminal Lamentations, and Jonathan Baes Wala
and Banwa.

20th CENTURY
TRADITIONAL COMPOSERS

ith Spain and then America having colonized the Philippines from the early 1500s
to the late 1800s, it was unavoidable that Western compositional techniques found
their way into the works of Filipino composers. Yet, even 20th century Filipino composers
have managed to retain some traditional elements in their assimilation of Western
techniques. In fact, they have become the strongest foundations of what we now know
as Philippine music.
Among the major Philippine contemporary composers are Francisco Buencamino Sr.,
Francisco Santiago, Nicanor Abelardo, Antonio Molina, Hilarion Rubio, Col.
Antonino Buenaventura, Rodolfo Cornejo, Lucio San Pedro, Rosendo Santos Jr.,
Alfredo Buenaventura, and Ryan Cayabyab.

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MUSIC

Quarter III

FRANCISCO B. BUENCAMINO SR.


(1883 1952)
Francisco Beltran Buencamino Sr. was born on November
5, 1883 in Bulacan. He was the son of a musically inclined
couple. His father was Fortunato Buencamino, a church
organist and band master. His mother was Luisa Beltran, a
noted singer. He studied music composition and harmony at
Liceo de Manila. Unfortunately, he was not able to finish.
He taught at the Ateneo de Manila, and at Centro Escolar de
Seoritas whose Conservatory of Music he founded. He also
created the Buencamino Music Academy in 1930 where
Nicanor Abelardo was one of his students. Expanding his
career, he ventured into musical directing and scoring, and composing film music for
Sampaguita Pictures, LVN, and Excelsior.
Buencaminos compositions include Harana, Pandanggo ni Neneng, Collar de
Sampaguita, Dulces las Horas, Mayon (Fantasia de Concierto), My Souls Lament,
Larawan, Mazurka, Boholana, Mi Bandera, Princesa ng Kumintang, Maligayang Bati,
Ang Bukang Liwayway, Pandanggo ni Neneng, Ang Bagong Balitaw, Himig ng Nayon,
Damdamin (Romance), and Pizzicato Caprice.
Many of his piano works have become a staple part of the Philippine repertoire of todays
young students, especially Mayon, Larawan, and Maligayang Bati. He also wrote several
zarzuelas and kundimans. He passed away on October 16, 1952 after which a posthumous
award honored him with the title Outstanding Composer.
LARAWAN
Francisco Buencamino Sr.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

Francisco Santiago
(1889 1947)
Francisco Santiago is known as the Father of the Kundiman
and belongs to the Triumvirate of Filipino Composers. He
finished his music specialization at the American Conservatory
of Music in Chicago, where he obtained his Doctorate Degree
in 1924.
Santiagos music was Romantic in style, incorporating Western
forms and techniques with folk materials. He composed several
works such as kundiman, symphonies, piano concertos, and
other music pieces for the piano, violin, and voice.
Among his famous works are Pakiusap, Madaling Araw, Sakali Man, Hibik ng Pilipinas,
Ano Kaya ang Kapalaran, and Kundiman (Anak Dalita). This piece was sung before
the Royal Court of Spain upon the request of King Alfonso II. He was also a musical
director for films. Among the films whose music he supervised are Kundiman, Leron
Leron Sinta, Madaling Araw, Manilea, and the movie inspired by his own composition
Pakiusap. He became the first Filipino Director of the UP Conservatory of Music.
PILIPINAS KONG MAHAL
Francisco Santiago

91
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MUSIC

Quarter III

NICANOR ABELARDO
(1893 1934)
Nicanor Abelardo is one of the Triumvirate of Filipino
Composers which includes Antonio Molina and Francisco
Santiago. He studied music at the Chicago Music College and
was influenced by the musical styles of Schoenberg, Hindemith
and Stravinsky.
Abelardo developed a style that combined European romanticism
with chromaticism. His compositions contain hazy tones,
dissonance and unusual chordal combinations found in such
works as Cinderella Overture, Panoramas, and a violin sonata.
Although a 20th century modern composer in style, he is also
considered a composer in the Romantic style. His best-known compositions include Mutya
ng Pasig, Nasaan Ka Irog, Cavatina for Violoncello, and Magbalik Ka Hirang.

ANTONIO J. MOLINA
(1894 1980)
National Artist for Music
Antonio Molina, the first National Artist for Music, is
considered one of the Triumvirate of Filipino Composers
which includes Nicanor Abelardo and Francisco Santiago. He
began his music career as an orchestral soloist at the Manila
Grand Opera House.
He served as Dean of the Centro Escolar University
Conservatory of Music from 1948 to 1970. He was also a
faculty member of the University of the Philippines
Conservatory (now College) of Music.
Molina was a product of both the Romantic and Impressionist schools of thought. He
was fascinated by the dynamics and harmonies of Debussy, but retained much of the
Romantic style in his melody. A characteristically impressionist work is his piano work
Malikmata (Transfiguration). The mysteriously exotic chords of this piece gradually lead
to a lyrical melody, with the traditional harmonies abruptly returning to the initial mood.
Molina wrote several compositions for piano, violin, and voice as well as a Spanish-style
opera form known as the zarzuela.

92
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Contemporary Philippine Music

He is best known for his poignantly romantic serenade for violin and piano Hatinggabi.
Subsequent transcriptions of this piece were written for the cello, flute, piano, and guitar.
Other works by Molina include orchestral music - Misa Antoniana Grand Festival Mass,
Ang Batingaw, Kundiman-Kundangan; chamber music - String Quartet, Kung sa Iyong
Gunita, Pandangguhan; and vocal music - Amihan, Awit ni Maria Clara, and Larawan
Nitong Pilipinas. He received the National Artist for Music award in 1973. He passed
away on January 29, 1980.

MUTYA NG PASIG
Music and Lyrics by Nicanor Abelardo

93
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MUSIC

Quarter III

HATINGGABI (Excerpt)
Antonio J. Molina (Music) / Levi Celerio (Lyrics)

SA UGOY NG DUYAN (Excerpt)


Lucio San Pedro (Music) / Levi Celerio (Lyrics)

PANDANGGO SA ILAW (Excerpt)


Antonino Buenaventura (Music) / Levi Celerio (Lyrics)

94
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Contemporary Philippine Music

HILARION RUBIO Y FRANCISCO


(1902 1985)
Hilarion Rubio was born on October 21, 1902 in Bacoor, Cavite. A composer, music
teacher, conductor, and clarinetist, he created substantial works for the orchestra. He
served as conductor for opera, ballet, dance recitals, and movie music.
His early interest in music came from the influence of his uncle who was then playing
with the Bacoor Band. His first music lessons in music theory and clarinet were with Fr.
Amando Buencamino who taught him solfeggio and some musical instruments. When he
was eight years old, he was accepted as a member of the Bacoor Band as a clarinetist. At
that time, he made his first composition Unang Katas for his concert with the band.In his
high school years at the North High School (now Arellano High School), Rubio became
a member of several orchestras. He performed with various movie house bands and
orchestras. He was also a member of the Lyric Theater Orchestra, Trozo Band in Benavides
Street, and the Band Moderna in Tondo. After he graduated from high school in 1930,
he co-founded the Anak Zapote Band. He later became a bandleader and conductor of
the ROTC Band of the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines (UP) and
played the violin and timpani with the UP Junior Symphony Orchestra.
After his student years, Rubio became a conductor of opera at the Manila Music School
in 1936. He became the choirmaster and choral conductor of the Choir Islanders. Also,
he assumed the position of instructor at the Conservatory of Music, University of the
Philippines. He was also a lecturer at the Buencamino Music Academy, La Concordia
College, College of the Holy Spirit, Santa Isabel College, Laperal Music Academy, Manila
Music School,St. Theresas College, and the Valencia Academy of Music. He became
full professor of the UP Conservatory of Music from 1936-1937. He was appointed
director of the Conservatory of Music, Centro Escolar University in 1944-1945.
During the Second World War, Rubio composed and arranged many works and conducted
many military and civilian brass bands. After the war, he was appointed conductor of
the Manila Municipal Symphony Orchestra. He held various positions, including as Vice
President of the PASAMBAP (Pambansang Samahan ng mga Banda sa Pilipinas), the
National Band Association, board and charter member of the League of Filipino composers,
and the first President of the Philippine Bandmasters Association. He was conductor of
the National Opera Company for 23 years from 1937 to 1960.
Rubios compositions include: Bulaklaken, Theme and Variations for Band, Dance of
the Nymphs Rondo, Florente at Laura (overture), Halik, Danza, Unang Katas, Twopart Invention (piano), Ang Konsyerto (ballet), Ang Magsasaka, Bukang Liwayway,
Concertino in C (marimba and piano), Filipinas Kong Mahal, Hatulan Mo Ako,
Ginintuang Araw, In a Tropical Sea, Light, Narra, Mutya ng Silangan, To the Filipino
Youth, Nela, National Heroes Day Hymn, and Salamisim. He passed away on December
28, 1985.
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MUSIC

Quarter III

COL. ANTONINO BUENAVENTURA


(1904 1996)
National Artist for Music
Col. Antonino Ramirez Buenaventura was a renowned
composer, conductor, and teacher. His father Lucio was the
chief musician of the Spanish artillery band in Intramuros and
founder of Banda Buenaventura. As a young boy, he had
already demonstrated a passion for music while learning the
rudiments of music and solfeggio and becoming a proficient
clarinet player.
Col. Buenaventura further developed his musical abilities at
the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines (UP)
at the age of 19. He received a Teachers Diploma in Science
and Composition at UP. Nicanor Abelardo and Francisco
Santiago were among his famous mentors. At the University, Buenaventura led the UP
ROTC Band and established the UP Junior Orchestra which was the first collegiate
orchestra in the country. He pursued further studies at the Institute of International
Education in New York. He was also awarded a study grant by the UNESCO in 1949.
He was a delegate to the general assembly of the International Society for Music Education
held in Montreux, Switzerland in 1976. He represented the country at the general meetings
of the International Music Council (IMC) in Rome (1962) and Hamburg (1964).
Buenaventura was actively involved with the various military bands which ultimately
earned him his military rank of Colonel. He was a music instructor and band conductor
of the Philippine Military Academy (PMA). Later, he restored the Philippine Constabulary
Band in 1945, which was reputedly likened to a symphony orchestra. It was considered
as one of the best military bands in the world. It would later be renamed the Philippine
Army Band. He also founded the San Pablo Music Academy in Laguna.
Buenaventura was a faculty member of the UP Conservatory of Music. Later, he became
the music director of the Conservatory of Music, University of Santo Tomas (UST) in
1961. After retiring from the military, he became the music director at the School of
Music and Arts, University of the East (UE) in 1964. He promoted Philippine music
through his extensive use of folk materials which he had recorded around the country
with Ramon Tolentino and National Artist for Dance Francisca Reyes Aquino.
Buenaventura composed the music and folk dance notations for the dance researches of
Aquino. As a multi-awarded musician, he composed Minuet, Mindanao Sketches,
Divertimento for Piano and Orchestra, Variations and Fugue, and Greetings based on
Philippine folk music. Pandanggo sa Ilaw, one of his most popular compositions, remains
a favorite performance repertoire of many folk dance companies. He was declared National
Artist for Music in 1988 and passed away in 1996.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

RODOLFO S. CORNEJO
(1909 1991)
was born on May 15, 1909 in Singalong,
Manila. Inspired by his mothers genuine support, the young
Cornejo started formal music lessons at the age of six. He
performed on stage after only two years of music studies. During
this time, he was also invited as organist of the Pasay Catholic
Church. His first composition at age 10 was a piano piece
entitled Glissando Waltz. It was followed three years later by a
military march entitled Salute. At the age of 14, 26 of Cornejos
compositions were already listed by the United Publishing
Company Inc.
R

Cornejo graduated with a Teachers Diploma in Pianoforte and a Teachers Diploma in


Science and Composition at the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines
(UP) in 1930. He received his Bachelor of Music degree major in piano and theory from
the Chicago Musical College of Roosevelt University, USA in 1932. He received a Master
of Music degree major in composition and conducting at the Chicago Musical College of
Roosevelt University, USA in 1933. He was conferred a Doctor of Music degree honoris
causa in 1954. He received his Doctor of Philosophy degree major in composition from
the Neotarian College of Philosophy in Kansas City, USA in 1947.
Cornejo taught at the UP Conservatory of Music and became the researcher and official
composer of the Philippine government-in-exile. He was appointed by then President
Manuel L. Quezon. He was commissioned to write a symphony and an opera and compose
the music for the documentary film on President Quezons funeral. He served as pianistdirector of a USO concert unit that entertained the Allied Forces at the E.T.O., the
Marianas, and the Hawaiian Islands during World War II.
Cornejo was the soloist of the Manila Symphony Orchestra, Filipinas Youth Symphony
Orchestra, and UP Symphony Orchestra. Later on, he became the musical director of the
Sampaguita and Vera-Perez Movie Companies. Since 1978, he held concerts in the United
States. He appeared as composer-conductor at the Seattle Opera House and the Seattle
Playhouse. He is listed in The International Whos Who in Music.
Cornejo was also known for his extemporaneous thematic improvisations based on the
letters of peoples names. His compositional output includes A la Juventud Filipina,
Bailes de Ayer, Caprice on a Folksong, Cello Sonata, Ibong Adarna, Kandingan, Malakas
at Maganda, Overture, Okaka, Oriental Fantasy, Ibong Adarna, Piano Concerto Nos.
1,2,3, Ruby, and Song of the Miners. He passed away on August 11, 1991.

97
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MUSIC

Quarter III

FELIPE PADILLA DE LEON SR.


(1912 1992)
National Artist for Music
Felipe Padilla de Leon was born on May 1, 1912 in Barrio Papaya
(now General Tinio) in Penaranda, Nueva Ecija. He is the son of
Juan de Leon and Natalia Padilla. Felipe de Leon married pianist
Iluminada Mendoza with whom he had six children. Bayani and
Felipe Jr., are two of his children. Bayani is a well-known composer,
and Felipe Jr. is a writer and the chairman of the National
Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA).
De Leons talent in painting and drawing was discovered during
his school days and admired by his uncle, peers. People asked him
to make illustrations and sketches and was paid for them. When he
was studying at the Nueva Ecija High School, he went on trips with his hometown band
and wrote short pieces for them. He took up Fine Arts at the University of the Philippines
in 1927, but he had to stop schooling in order to make a living. He played the trombone
in dance orchestras which performed in cabarets, circuses and bodabil (vaudeville). Then,
he worked as an assistant conductor of the Nueva Ecija High School Orchestra where he
started doing musical arrangements. Later on, he wrote music for the zarzuela.
He decided to study formally and enrolled at the Conservatory of Music, University of
the Philippines, where he studied under National Artists Col. Antonio Buenaventura and
Antonio Molina. He contributed articles to the school paper and vernacular magazines.
Later, he wrote music columns for the Manila Times (then known as Manila Tribune)
and Taliba. He graduated with a music teacher's diploma, major in conducting in 1939.
Much later, he took advanced studies in composition under Vittorio Giannini of the
Julliard School of Music in New York, USA. De Leon received many awards, such as
Composer of the Year (1949), Manila Music Lovers Society, Musician of the Year (1958),
UP Conservatory of Music, and others. He was conferred an honorary degree, doctor of
philosophy in the humanities, by the University of the Philippines in 1991.
De Leon wrote piano compositions, hymns, marches, art songs, chamber music, symphonic
poems, overtures, band muic, school songs, orchestral works, operas, kundiman, and
zarzuelas. He was known as a nationalist composer who expressed the Philippines' cultural
identity through his compositions. Two operas which are considered his masterpieces
are the Noli Me Tangere (1957) and El Filibusterismo (1970). These two operas have
been staged in the Philippines and abroad. He also wrote a march during the Japanese
regime entitled Tindig, Aking Inang Bayan, and another march Bagong Lipunan during
the martial law. He wrote the popular Christmas carols Payapang Daigdig (1946), Noche
Buena, and Pasko Na Naman, both in 1965. Felipe de Leon received a posthumous
award as National Artist for Music in 1997. He died on December 5, 1992.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

LUCIO SAN PEDRO


(1913 2002)
National Artist for Music
Lucio San Pedro was born on February 11, 1913 in Angono,
Rizal. Since his elementary days, he started composing. He
studied the banjo which inspired him to become a serious
musician. He later pursued his music degree at the University
of the Philippines and the Juilliard School in New York, USA.
Upon returning to the Philippines, he became a professor of
theory and composition at the University of the Philippines
College of Music.
San Pedro is known as a romantic nationalist. He
incorporated Philippine folk elements in his compositions
with Western forms and harmony. His chords have a rich expressive tonality, as represented
in his well-loved Sa Ugoy ng Duyan, a lullaby melody sung by his mother.
His orchestral compositions are best represented by the Suite Pastorale (1956), a poetic
aural description of his hometown Angono, and his nationalistic symphonic poem Lahing
Kayumanggi (1962). Other compositions include songs, pieces for violin, cello, and chorus.
His works for the symphonic band was where he was most prolific and productive both
as composer and conductor.
His musical prowess was internationally recognized when he was invited to be a judge at
the prestigious Van Cliburn International Piano Competition in 1980. He was declared
National Artist for Music in 1991 and passed away on March 31, 2002.

ROSENDO E. SANTOS JR.


(1922 1994)
. was born on September 3, 1922 in
Cavite City. At age 11, he started composing band marches,
instrumental, and vocal scores, as well as music for Catholic
masses.

He studied in Cavite schools and later graduated from the UP


Conservatory of Music where he eventually became a faculty
member. He also pursued a Master of Music degree in theory
and composition from the Catholic University of America in
Washington, D.C. After which, he also served on its faculty
as well as in West Virginia University and Howard University.
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MUSIC

Quarter III

As a UNESCO scholar, Santos was awarded the Philippine Composer of the Century
after receiving the Composer of the Year Award in Manila in 1956 and 1957. He joined
the faculty at Wilkes University, Pennsylvania in 1968. He performed as timpanist, pianist,
and conductor with several orchestral groups. He conducted church choirs in Maryland,
New Jersey, Lehman, Huntsville, and Shavertown United Methodist Churches in
Pennsylvania, USA. He composed the background music for J. Arthur Rank Films at
Pinewood Studios in London, England, where he worked with British composers Malcolm
Arnold and Muir Mathieson. Among Santos teachers were famous composers Aaron
Copland, Irving Fine, Humphrey Searle, and conductor Norman Del Mar.
A prolific composer, he had composed several piano concerti, sonatas, symphonies,
symphonic poems, five operas in Filipino, numerous band overtures, and more than 200
marches. He had also written 50 masses in Latin and 20 in English. He has more than
1,000 musical compositions in the library of the University of the Philippines. Santos
last musical work and only ballet composition, Melindas Masquerade, was performed
in 1995, a year after his death. Santos passed away on November 4, 1994 in Swoyersville,
Pennsylvania, USA.

ALFREDO BUENAVENTURA
(1929
)
Dr. Alfredo Santos Buenaventura, composer, conductor and
teacher, was born in Sta. Maria, Bulacan on October 14, 1929.
He grew up in a musical environment and became a band
member in his hometown at a young age. He was drawn by
his fascination with trumpets and trombones and became one
of its arrangers and conductors. He was one of twenty boy
sopranos of Tiples at Sto. Domingo Church from where he
received his first significant musical training. At that time, he
also wrote his first composition, Danza.
A prolific composer, Buenaventura has composed over 50 major works including five
full-length operas, operettas, dance dramas, cantatas, symphonies, concertos, ballets,
overtures, prelude, fugues, and chamber music. His compositions and other creative
works have transcended territorial, racial, and language barriers as these have been
performed abroad by international virtuosi and religious groups. Many of his compositions
are based on Filipino heroes, legends, and epics. He uses native songs, both tribal and
folk, as themes of his music compositions. A number of his compositions are accompanied
by Filipino indigenous instruments.
Some of his major works include the operas Maria Makiling (1961), Diego Silang
(1966), Prinsesa Urduha (1969), cantatas Ang Ating Watawat (1965), Pasko ng Barangay
(1964), three piano concertos subtitled Celebration, Determination, and Exultation, and
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Contemporary Philippine Music

symphonies such as Dakilang Lahi (1971), Gomburza (1981), and Rizal, the Great
Malayan Antagonist (1990). His minor works numbering more than 50 cover mostly
religious songs and hymns for specific celebrations such as the Sixteenth Centenary of
St. Augustine, Mass for the 400th Year of the Augustinian Recollect, and the Philippine
Music Festival. His other creative musical works have been commissioned by the Cultural
Center of the Philippines, Metropolitan Theater, and the National Music Competitions
for Young Artists (NAMCYA).
Buenaventuras compositional style rests mainly on his own set of musical ideas, wherein
he creates a combination of contemporary and conventional materials. He keeps his
melodies simple and understandable but with contemporary harmonies that enhance their
complexity. He became an official organist of the Manila Cathedral in 1960. He became
the Dean of the College of Music, Centro Escolar University. He is a member of the
League of Filipino Composers. He received a number of awards in the music industry.
He was twice an awardee of the Republic Cultural Heritage Award and the The Outstanding
Filipino Award (TOFIL) for Music in 1995.

CIPRIANO RYAN CAYABYAB


(1954
)
Ryan Cayabyab is a popular contemporary composer who
also has classical compositions to his credit, such as Misa,
Four Poems for Soprano and Piano, and Te Deum. His
compositional style makes much use of syncopation, extended
chords, and chromatic harmony.
Among his numerous compositions are the award-winning
Kay Ganda ng Ating Musika (1978), as well as the modern
zarzuela Alikabok (2003), the opera Spoliarium with libretto
by Fides Cuyugan-Asensio, and a variety of choral pieces and
song cycles. He also produced a number of recordings,
including the memorable album One, where he personally sang the unaccompanied songs
on different tracks to produce 16 voices.
Cayabyab was born on May 4, 1954 in Manila. He obtained his Bachelor of Music degree
at the University of the Philippines College of Music. After which, he became a faculty
member for Composition at the same University. He also served as the Executive and
Artistic Director of the San Miguel Foundation for the Performing Arts, which oversaw
the operations and programming of the San Miguel Philharmonic Orchestra and the San
Miguel Master Chorale. At present, he continues to be a much sought-after professor,
musical director, composer, arranger, and conductor in the Philippine concert and recording
scenes.
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MUSIC

Quarter III

SUMMARY
With the European and American influences brought by our colonizers, it was inevitable
that the musical styles of 20th century Western composers found their way into Philippine
compositions.
Francisco Buencamino founded the Centro Escolar de Seoritas, Conservatory of Music.
He also created the Buencamino Music Academy in 1930. Nicanor Abelardo was one of
his students. Expanding his career, Buencamino also ventured into musical direction and
scoring, composing music for Sampaguita Pictures, LVN, and Excelsior. He also wrote
several zarzuelas and kundiman. Francisco Santiago is known as the Father of the
Kundiman and belongs to the Triumvirate of Filipino Composers.
Nicanor Abelardo developed a style that combined European romanticism with
chromaticism. He belongs to the Triumvirate of Filipino Composers together with
Francisco Santiago and Antonio Molina. The Tanghalang Nicanor Abelardo (Main
Theater) of the Cultural Center of the Philippines and the Abelardo Hall of the College of
Music, University of the Philippines are named after him. Antonio Molina came to be
known as the Father of Philippine Impressionist Music, while composer Lucio San
Pedro integrated indigenous musical forms, conventions, and instruments in his works in
the modern nationalistic style.
Hilarion Rubio was a Filipino composer, music teacher, conductor, and clarinetist. His
name was closely identified with his works for the orchestra, conductor for opera, ballet,
dance recitals, and music for movies. Col. Antonino Buenaventura promoted Philippine
music by extensively using folk materials in his works. He recorded folk and dance music
around the country with Ramon Tolentino and National Artist for Dance Francisca Reyes
Aquino. Buenaventura composed the music and did the notations for the folk dances as
researched by Aquino.
Rodolfo S. Cornejo was considered the first Filipino composer who received an honory
degree from a government recognized music school in the United States. He was known
for his pianistic and compositional talent by extemporizing a piano composition at the
spur of the moment. Felipe P. de Leon wrote piano compositions, hymns, marches, art
songs, chamber music, symphonic poems, overtures, band muic, school songs, orchestral
works, operas, kundimans and zarsuelas. He was known as a nationalist composer who
expressed the Philippines' cultural identity through his compositions.
Lucio San Pedro is known as a romantic nationalist. He incorporated Philippine folk
elements in his compositions with Western forms and harmony. His chords have a rich
expressive tonality, as represented in his well-loved Sa Ugoy ng Duyan, a lullaby melody
sung by his mother. Rosendo Santos Jr. is listed in the New Groves Dictionary of
Music and Musicians. A prolific composer, his works include concerti, sonatas,
symphonies, symphonic poems, five operas in Philippine dialect, numerous band overtures,
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Contemporary Philippine Music

and more than 200 marches. He wrote 50 masses in Latin and 20 in English. He has more
than 1,000 musical compositions in the library of the University of the Philippines.
Alfredo Buenaventura is among the few composers in the Philippines who composed
five full-length operas. He has his own set of ideas about music and composition. He
created a combination of contemporary and conventional, kept his melodies simple and
understandable, but he used contemporary harmonies to suit the intellectuals.
Contemporary composer and conductor Ryan Cayabyab spans both popular and classical
worlds with his pop, ballads, operas, zarzuela, orchestral, and choral compositions.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

Discuss the lives and musical contributions of the following 20th century Filipino
composers:
a.
Francisco Buencamino Sr.
g. Rodolfo Cornejo
b.
Francisco Santiago
h.
Felipe Padilla de Leon Sr.
c.
Nicanor Abelardo
i.
Lucio San Pedro
d. Antonio Molina
j.
Rosendo Santos Jr.
e.
Hilarion Rubio
k. Alfredo Buenaventura
f.
Col. Antonino Buenaventura
l.
Ryan Cayabyab

2.

Point out the characteristics of the musical style of the above-mentioned Filipino
composers.
Composer

Characteristics of the Musical Style

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

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MUSIC

Quarter III

WHAT TO PROCESS
A.

Listening Activity
1.

Your teacher will play excerpts of recordings of any (one composition) of


the following works by Filipino song composers:
a. Antonio Molina

b.
c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

- Hatinggabi, Misa Antoniana, Grand Festival


Mass, Ang Batingaw, Kundiman- Kundangan;
String Quartet, Kung sa Iyong Gunita,
Pandangguhan, Amihan, Awit ni Maria Clara,
Larawan Nitong Pilipina
Lucio San Pedro - Sa Ugoy ng Duyan, Suite Pastorale, Lahing
Kayumanggi
Ryan Cayabyab - Misa, Four Poems for Soprano and Piano, Te
Deum, Kay Ganda ng Ating Musika, Limang
Dipang Tao, Da Coconut Nut, Alikabok,
Spoliarium, Kumukuti-kutitap
Col. Antonino
Buenaventura
- Minuet, Mindanao Sketches, Divertimento for
Piano and Orchestra, Variations and Fugue,
and Greetings, Pandanggo sa Ilaw, Princesa
ng Kumintang, Pandanggo ni Neneng
Alfredo
Buenaventura
- Maria Makiling (1961), Diego Silang(1966),
Prinsesa Urduha (1969); Ang Ating Watawat
(1965), Pasko ng Barangay (1964); Dakilang
Lahi (1971), Gomburza (1981), and Rizal, the
Great Malayan Antagonist (1990.
Rodolfo Cornejo - A la Juventud Filipina, Bailes de Ayer, Caprice
on a Folksong, Cello Sonata, Cello Sonata,
Ibong Adarna, Kandingan, Malakas at
Maganda Overture, Okaka, Oriental Fantasy,
Ibong Adarna, Piano Concerto Nos. 1,2,3,
Ruby, Song of the Miners,
Hilarion Rubio - Bulaklaken, Dance of the Nymphs Rondo,
Florente at Laura, Halik, Danza, Ang
Konsyerto (ballet), Ang Magsasaka, Bukang
Liwayway, Concertino in C (Marimba and
piano), Filipinas Kong Mahal, Hatulan Mo
Ako, Ginintuang Araw, In a Tropcal Sea,
Filipino Youth, Nela, Light, Narra, Mutya ng
Silangan

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Contemporary Philippine Music

h. Rosendo Santos Jr. Melindas Masquerade


i. Nicanor Abelardo - Nasaan Ka Irog?, Bituing Marikit, Mutya ng
Pasig, Paskong Anong Saya, Cavatina,
Kundiman ng Luha, Magbalik Ka Hirang
j. Francisco Santiago- Kundiman (Anak Dalita), Himutok, Pakiusap,
Madaling Araw, Sakali Man, Pilipinas Kong
Mahal, Ano Kaya ang Kapalaran?
k. Felipe de Leon Sr. - Bulaklak Alitaptap, Bagong Lipunan,
Payapang Daigdig, Pasko na Naman, Noche
Buena, Kay Tamis ng Buhay, Sapagkat Mahal
Kita
l. Francisco Buencamino - Harana, Pandanggo ni Neneng, Collar de
Sampaguita, Dulces las Horas, Mayon
(Fantasia de Concierto), My Souls Lament,
Larawan, Mazurka, Boholana, Mi Bandera,
Princesa ng Kumintang, Maligayang Bati,
Ang Bukang Liwayway, Pandanggo ni Neneng,
Ang Bagong Balitaw, Himig ng Nayon,
Damdamin (Romance), and Pizzicato Caprice.
2.
3.
4.

B.

Listen carefully to each excerpt and recognize the different musical styles
of the composers.
Analyze the music. Take note of the elements of music present: rhythm,
melody, tempo, dynamics, texture, harmony, form, and timbre.
Choose a composition that you like. Write a short reaction paper on it in
relation to its musical elements.

Evaluation of Listening Activity


Name the Composer, Title of the Music, Musical Style, and Description
1.

2.
3.

4.

After the above Listening Activity, your teacher will prepare selected excerpts
of compositions by Lucio San Pedro, Antonino Buenaventura, Alfredo
Buenaventura, Antonio Molina, Rodolfo Cornejo, Francisco Buencamino,
Hilarion Rubio, Rosendo Santos Jr, Francisco Santiago, Nicanor Abelardo,
Felipe Padilla de leon Sr., and Ryan Cyabyab.
The class will be divided into four teams, with each team forming a line.
As your teacher plays a few measures of the first excerpt, the first student
in each line goes to the board and writes the name of the composer. The
second student will write the title of the music. The third student will write
the musical style. Then, the fourth student will write a description of the
music in one phrase.
The team that writes the correct answers first, scores four (4) points.
105

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MUSIC

Quarter III

5.
6.
7.

The same procedure goes on until all the students in the line have had their
turn.
One student will be assigned as the scorer. The team with the highest score
is the winner. In case of a tie, the first team to finish is the winner.
The scorer will announce the winners and then asks them this question:
What was the most significant thing that you have learned from this activity?

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND: SOLO, DUET, TRIO, QUARTET, QUINTET


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Compose a simple song. Write the lyrics and the music.


You may adapt a certain melody from the compositions of the traditional
composers that you like. Write the new lyrics to fit the music.
You may include an accompaniment such as guitar, flute, recorder, keyboard,
drums, tambourine, maracas or improvise musical instruments from the
environment.
You may sing it a capella (without accompaniment) or with accompaniment.
Perform your composition or your song adaptation in class.
What motivated you to compose or adapt the music of that song?

WHAT TO PERFORM
A.

Singing Activity
Individual or in groups: Sing any of the compositions of Lucio San Pedro, Col.
Antonino Buenaventura, Alfredo Buenaventura, Antonio Molina, Rodolfo
Cornejo, Francisco Buencamino Sr., Hilarion Rubio, Rosendo Santos Jr., Nicanor
Abelardo, Francisco Santiago, Felipe Padilla de Leon, and Ryan Cayabyab.
If individual activity, choose one composition that you will perform.
If group activity, do the following procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Your teacher will divide the class into four groups.


Your group will choose any traditional composer. Research further on his
compositions, if needed.
Select one composition that you like best or you are familiar with, or you
may learn a new song. Choose your groups musical director.
Sing the song in class with your groupmates interpreting the music with
appropriate pitch, rhythm, style, timbre, dynamics, melody, texture, harmony,
and expression.
You may add instrumental accompaniment like guitar, flute, recorder,
maracas, tambourine, or keyboard.

106
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Contemporary Philippine Music

6.

You may bring a minus one music in CD, or from your mobile phone or on
USB.
7. You may improvise simple vocal or instrumental accompaniment/s to the
songs you have chosen.
8. You may explore ways of creating sounds as instrumental accompaniment
to the song from a variety of sources or from the environment.
9. Your teacher will choose the Best Singing Group based on musicianship
(musical elements) 60%, presentation impact and showmanship 20%,
ensemble coordination and organization 20%.
10. All students will evaluate by rating each others performance and their own
performance.

Evaluation of Singing Activity


Rating Scale:

5 - Very Good
4 - Good
3 - Fair

2 - Poor
1 - Needs Follow up

Rating the other performers (if individual activity):


1.
2.
3.

How well did the performers express the message


of the songs?
How well did the performers pronounce
the lyrics of the songs?
How well did the performers sing based on musical
elements and style:
a.
pitch
b.
rhythm
c.
style
d. expression
e.
dynamics
f.
melody
g. timbre
h.
texture
i.
harmony

__________
__________

__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________

Rating the group members (if group activity):


1.
2.
3.

How well did the group members express the


message of the songs?
How well did the group members sing?
How well did the group members participate?

__________
__________
__________

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MUSIC

B.

Quarter III

Creating and Performing Activities: Musical


1.

Your teacher will divide the class into four groups. Each group choose a
traditional composer that was discussed in class. Research further on his
life and works.

2.

Create a contemporary musical on the life of your chosen composer.


Incorporate some of his compositions (melodic fragments) in the musical
and story.

3.

Improvise simple vocal or instrumental accompaniments (example: guitar,


keyboard, percussion) for the songs that you have chosen.

4.

Explore ways of creating sounds as accompaniment on a variety of sources


or from the environment for the creation of the musical.

5.

Perform the musical in class. Your teacher will choose the Best Group
Musical Performance based on musicianship (musical elements) 50%,
audience impact and showmanship 20%, ensemble coordination and
organization 20%, stage discipline or deportment 10%.

Evaluation of Creating and Performing Activities: Musical


Rating Scale:

5 - Very Good
4 - Good
3 - Fair

2 - Poor
1 - Needs Follow up

Rating the other performers / groups:


1.

2.

How well did the performers express the


message of the musical?

__________

How well did the performers act in the musical


based on the following:
a.
voice quality
b.
expression
c.
stage presence
d. audience impact
e.
mastery of the musical
g. musical elements (rhythm, melody, dynamics)
h.
technique
i.
showmanship

__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________

108
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Contemporary Philippine Music

Rating your own group members:


1.
2.
3.
4.

How well did your group members express the


message of the musical?
How well did your group members perform?
How well did your group members coordinate with
each other during the performance in the ensemble?
How well did your group organize yourselves in
the ensemble?

__________
__________
__________
__________

Rating myself:
1.
2.
3.
4.

How well did I express the message of the musical?


How well did I perform with my group?
How well did I coordinate with the other members
during the performance in the ensemble?
How well did I cooperate in the ensemble?

__________
__________
__________
__________

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MUSIC

Quarter III

NEW MUSIC COMPOSERS

omposers of experimental New Music in the Philippines include Jose Maceda,


Lucrecia Kasilag, Ramon Santos, Manuel Maramba, Jerry Dadap, Francisco
Feliciano, Josefino Chino Toledo, and Jonas Baes. They retained the Filipino spirit
by incorporating traditional music forms as well as indigenous rhythms and instruments
in their compositions.

JOSE MACEDA
(1917 2004)
National Artist for Music
Jose Maceda was born in Manila on January 17, 1917. He
started his music studies at the Academy of Music in Manila.
Later, he went to Paris to study with Alfred Cortot. He
eventually pursued advanced studies in the USA with E. Robert
Schmitz and earned a Doctorate Degree in Ethnomusicology
from UCLA.
Macedas musical style changed when he encountered the music
of the indigenous tribes of Mindoro in 1953. He then embarked
on his lifes work, dedicated to the understanding and
preservation of Filipino traditional music. His extensive research
and fieldwork resulted in an immense collection of recorded
music taken from the remote mountain villages and far-flung inland communities in the
Philippines. Although his compositional approach tended to be Western in style, Maceda
combined sounds of the environment with ethnic instruments. His compositions were
usually for large groups of musicians. Among his works are Ugma-Ugma (1963), a work
for voice and ethnic instruments; Agungan (1975), a piece for six gong families; Pagsamba
(1968), a musical ritual for a circular auditorium using several ethnic percussion
instruments; Cassettes 100 (1971), a composition for 100 cassette tape recorders; and
Ugnayan (1974), an ethnic piece played at the same time over several radio stations.
Considered as the first Filipino avant garde composer, he also worked at a recording
studio in Paris in 1958 which specialized in musique concrte. During this period, he met
Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, and Iannis Xenakis, considered the musical giants
of this musical genre.Maceda served as Professor of Piano and Musicology at the College
of Music, University of the Philippines from 1952 to 1990. He was appointed Executive
Director of its Center for Ethnomusicology in 1997. In the same year, he was conferred
the honor of National Artist for Music. He passed away in Manila on May 5, 2004.

110
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Contemporary Philippine Music

UDLOT-UDLOT (Excerpt)
Jose Maceda

LUCRECIA R. KASILAG
(1918 2008)
National Artist for Music
Lucrecia R. Kasilag was born in San Fernando, La
Union on August 31, 1918. She went to Manila to
pursue a degree in Music at the Philippine Womens
University. She then obtained her Masters degree from
the Eastman School of Music in New York, USA.
Her compositions were influenced by her professors
Irving McHose and Wayne Barlow. Kasilags
compositions demonstrated a fusion of Eastern and
Western styles in using instruments, melody, harmony,
and rhythm. She is particularly known for incorporating
indigenous Filipino instruments into orchestral
productions.
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MUSIC

Quarter III

Among Kasilags many compositions are Toccata for Percussion and Winds (1959),
composed for indigenous Muslim instruments and Western instruments; The Legend of
the Sarimanok (1963), composed for chamber orchestra and Philippine ethnic instruments;
Divertissement and Concertante (1960), compositions for piano and orchestra combining
Western and Eastern forms, harmonies, and intervals; and Dularawan (1969), a musical
drama combining a dance solo with a chorus and an ethnic orchestra. Her other works
include compositions for piano, instrumental ensemble, and chorus.
She was equally admired in the academe as a former Dean of the College of Music and
Fine Arts, Philippine Womens University. In the cultural field, she was the President of
the Cultural Center of the Philippines. In the dance circles, she was the President and
Music Director of the Bayanihan Dance Company. She also served as Chairman of the
Asian Composers League and the League of Filipino Composers.
She is credited for having written more than 200 musical works, ranging from folksongs
to opera to orchestral works, which she continued to compose for the rest of her life. For
all these outstanding achievements, she was conferred the title of National Artist for
Music in 1989. She passed away in Manila in August 2008.
DIVERTISSEMENT (Excerpt)
Lucrecia R. Kasilag
Edited

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Contemporary Philippine Music

RAMON P. SANTOS
(1941
)
National Artist for Music
Ramon P. Santos was born in Pasig on February 25,
1941. He completed his Bachelor of Music degree at
the College of Music, University of the Philippines.
He finished his Master of Music degree at Indiana
University, USA. He received his Doctor of
Philosophy degree in Composition at the State
University of New York, USA. He had also pursued
graduate studies in Ethnomusicology at the University
of Illinois, USA.
Santos compositional style features chromaticism, music seria, and electronic components,
combined with indigenous Philippine music elements. His works include Ding Ding Nga
Diyawa, Nabasag na Banga at Ibat iba pang Pinag-ugpong-ugpong na Pananalita sa
Wikang Pilipino para sa Labing Anim na Tinig, and LBAD. He had done extensive
research on the gamelan music of Java as well as the traditional music of the Ibaloi,
Maranao, Mansaka, Bontoc, Yakan, and Boholano tribes in the Philippines.
Santos held the position of Dean of the UP College of Music from 1978 to 1988. At
present, he is the head of the UP Center of Ethnomusicology and was appointed Professor
Emeritus of the same institution. He was conferred the title of National Artist for Music
in 2014.
LBAD
Ramon P. Santos

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MUSIC

Quarter III

FR. MANUEL MARAMBA, OSB


(1936 )

Fr. Manuel Perez Maramba, OSB is one of the most


accomplished musicians and liturgists in the Philippines emerging
during the second half of the 20th century. He was born on July
4, 1936 in Pangasinan.
When he was 11 years old, he gave his first public performance
at the Bamboo Organ in Las Pias. He became the official
accompanist of the Las Pias Boys Choir at 14 years old. He
was the youngest finalist to participate in the National Music
Competitions for Young Artists (NAMCYA) piano competition
in 1978. Immediately after high school, he was sent on full scholarship to the University
for Music and Performing Arts in Graz, Austria. There, he earned with distinction the
degree of Master of Arts in Church Music.He also received a Teachers Certificate in
Organ. His musical career led him to the United States, where he performed at Carnegie
Hall at the age of 19.
After finishing his Bachelor of Music degree major in Piano at the Conservatory of Music,
University of Sto. Tomas (UST), Fr. Maramba pursued his studies abroad where he
received his Master of Music degree, Artist Diploma, Bachelor of Music degree in
Composition, and Teachers Certificate in Theory from the Peabody Conservatory of
Johns Hopkins University, USA. He received a Masters degree of Musical Arts in
Performance from Yale Universitys School of Music, USA. He also studied sacred music
at the Kirchenmusikschule in Regensburg, Germany. He took further lessons in piano,
organ, and the harpsichord at the Hochschule fur Musik in Vienna, Austria.
Fr Maramba is a monk at Our Lady of Montserrat Abbey in Manila. He was the former
director of the Paul VI Institute of Liturgy in Malaybalay, Bukidnon during which he
composed the music for the papal mass. A prominent canon lawyer, he served on the
National Appellate Matrimonial Tribunal. He was also a faculty member at the UST
Conservatory of Music, St. Scholaticas College, and Sta. Isabel College.
He has composed operas like Aba!, Sto. Nino, La Naval, and Lord Takayama Ukon. His
other major compositions are the music for Awakening which was commissioned by
Ballet Philippines and music for Philippine Ballet Theaters production of Seven Mansions;
three masses Papal Mass for World Youth Day, 1995; Mass in Honor of St. Lorenzo
Ruiz, and the Mass in Honor of the Sto. Nino; three cantatas St. Lorenzo Ruiz, St.
Benedict, and St. Scholastica; Three Psalms; A hymn in honor of St. Lorenzo Ruiz, and
the official hymn of the 1996 National Eucharistic Congress; a zarzuela entitled Ang
Sarswela sa San Salvador, and three orchestral works Pugad Lawin, The Virgin of
Naval, and Transfiguration.
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Contemporary Philippine Music

JERRY DADAP
(1935 )
Jerry Dadap, the first Filipino composer to conduct his own
works at the Carnegie Recital Hall in New York City, was born
on November 5, 1935 in Hinunangan, Southern Leyte. He
earned his Bachelors Degree in Music, major in Composition
at the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines
(UP) in 1964.
In 1968, he went to the USA on a study-observation grant
from the Music Promotion Foundation of the Philippines. While
there, he received a full scholarship grant from the United
Presbyterian Church of USA from 1969 to 1971. During that
time, he obtained his Postgraduate Diploma in Composition at the Mannes College of
Music in New York, USA. Upon his return to the Philippines in 1971, he taught
composition, ear training, and orchestration at the Sta. Isabel College of Music in Manila.
Dadap started composing when he was still studying at Silliman University in the southern
city of Dumaguete. Among his numerous compositions are The Passionate and the Wild
(1960), Mangamuyo I (1976) and Mangamuyo II (1977), The Redemption (1974), Five
Little Fingers (1975), Tubig ng Buhay (1986), Dakilang Pagpapatawad (1986), Andres
Bonifacio, Ang Dakilang Anak Pawis, Ang Pag-ibig ng Diyos, Balitaw Nos. 1-7, Lamang Epic, Lorenzo Ruiz, Chorale Symphonic Ode Nos. 1 and 2, Aniway at Tomaneg,
Song Cycle, Nos. 1-4, Choral Cycle Nos. 1-3, and Diyos Ama ay Purihin. His major
works as composer-conductor were performed at the concert LAHI that featured works
by local major composers.

FRANCISCO F. FELICIANO
(1942 2014)
National Artist for Music
Francisco F. Feliciano, avant garde composer and conductor
for band and chorus, was born on February 19, 1942 in
Morong, Rizal. His first exposure to music was with the Morriz
Band, a brass ensemble established and owned by his
father, Maximiano Feliciano. He started his music career in
the high school band where he had played the cymbals and the
clarinet.
Feliciano obtained his Teachers Diploma in Composition and
Conducting at the Conservatory of Music, University of the
Philippines (UP) in 1964, and a Bachelor of Music degree
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MUSIC

Quarter III

major in Composition in 1967. Subsequent degrees include a Master in Music Composition


from the University of the Philippines, a Diploma in Music Composition from the
Hochschule der Kunst in Berlin, Germany, and a Master of Musical Arts and Doctorate
in Music Composition from Yale University School of Music, USA. He studied
composition with Jacob Druckman, Isang Yun, H.W. Zimmerman and Krystof Penderecki.
Feliciano became the choir conductor and instructor in music fundamentals at St. Andrews
Seminary in Quezon City. He became an instructor at the UP Conservatory of Music and
conducted the UP Symphony Orchestra. He was the musical director of the movie Ang
Bukas ay Atin and provided orchestration for a number of musical productions including
My Fair Lady and various Philippine productions. Feliciano composed more than 30
major works, including the musical dramas Sikhay sa Kabila ng Paalam, Ashen Wings,
and the monumental three-act opera La Loba Negra (1984). He also wrote music for the
orchestra such as Prelude and Toccata (1973), Fragments (1976), Life of Wartime Filipino
Hero Jose Abad Santos, and the ballet Yerma (1982).
Among his other large works are Transfiguration and Missa Mysterium for orchestra
and large chorus. He has composed several prize winning works such as Pokpok Alimpako,
(a favorite piece of choirs in international choral competitions), Salimbayan, Umiinog,
and Walang Tinag (Perpetuum I mobile) which was premiered at the ISCM Festival in
New York City, USA. His latest choral works, Pamugn and Restless, have been performed
by Filipino choirs in various choral festivals in Europe. In 1977, he was given a John D.
Rockefeller III Award in Music Composition.
Feliciano composed hundreds of liturgical pieces, mass settings, hymns, and songs for
worship. He founded the Asian Institute for Liturgy and Music (AILM) in Quezon City,
a school for church musicians, and supervised the publication of a new Asian hymnal
containing mostly works of Asian composers. He was conferred the title of National
Artist for Music in 2014. He died on September 19, 2014.

JOSEFINO TOLEDO
(1959 )
Josefino Chino Toledo is a recognized figure in the Asian
contemporary art music scene. He received his Master of Music
degree from the Cleveland Institute of Music, USA. Among his
awards are the following: Ten Outstanding Young Men
(TOYM); International Award for the Arts; Civitella Ranieri
Fellowship in Italy; and the Chancellor Awards for Outstanding
Musical Works, University of the Philippines.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

Toledo served at the Pangkat Kawayan (a bamboo orchestra) from 1966 to 1979 and the
Philippine Youth Orchestra (PYO) in 1977-1978. A principal percussionist of the Manila
Symphony Orchestra in 1980-1983, he later became music director and principal conductor
in 1985. He attended the 1984 International Computer Music Conference in France. He
was the countrys representative to the 1980 Young Composers Conference in HongKong,
the ASEAN Composers Forum on Traditional Music in 1989 (Philippines) and 1993
(Singapore), the 1995 ASEAN Composers Workshop (Indonesia), and the 1996
International Composers Workshop (Gaudeamus, Amsterdam). He was also a fellow at
the 1990 Pacific Music Festival and Pacific Composers Conference (Japan).
Toledo is a Music Professor at the College of Music, University of the Philippines (UP).
He is the founding music director of the Metro Manila Community Orchestra, the UP
Festival Orchestra, and the Crosswave Symphony Orchestra. He is noted for conducting
the premiere performances of the works of Filipino composers as well as other Asian
composers. His own music, including works for chorus, orchestra, chamber ensemble,
solo instrument, and music theater have been performed by well-known international
artists and ensembles.
AUIT
(Excerpt)
Josefino Toledo

117
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MUSIC

Quarter III

JONAS BAES
(1961
)
Jonas Baes was born in Los Baos, Laguna in 1961. He
enrolled at the College of Music, University of the Philippines
(UP) in 1977 as a student of Ramon P. Santos.While at UP,
he encountered the works of Jose Maceda and attended several
seminar-workshops of visiting lecturers. He researched on
the music of the Iraya-Mangyan people of Mindoro, which
later became the inspiration for his compositions. From 19921994, he studied with Mathias Spahlinger in Freiburg,
Germany.
Baes is known for writing music utilizing unorthodox musical instruments such as beanpod rattles, leaves, iron-nail chimes, and various Asian instruments such as bamboo
scrapers, bamboo flutes, and vocal music using Asian vocal techniques. His early works
in the 1980s were influenced by Maceda in the use of large numbers of performers.
In the 1990s, he experimented with various methods by which the audience became
integral in the performance. It was also typical for social theory to influence the work of
Baes who has made a mark on contemporary music and cultural politics in the Asian
region.
Some of Baes musical compositions include: Imagined Community, after Benedict
Anderson for four bamboo scrapers, bamui trail caller, sarunai for oboe, khaen for
mouth organ, and about a hundred iron nail chimes distributed among the audience;
1997/2001; WALA (Nothingness) for seven or hundreds of mens voices 1997/2001;
DALUY (Flow)interval music for five animator-percussionists and about a hundred bird
whistles distributed among the audience, 1994; IBO-IBON (birdwoman) for dancer
wearing small bells, two large wind chimes passed around the audience, four animatorcallers, and iron nail chimes played by the audience (1996); SALAYSAY, for solo voice,
three percussionists, and pairs of pebbles distributed among the audience; PATANGISBUWAYA (and the crocodile weeps) for four sub-contrabass recorders or any blown
instruments 2003; PANTAWAG (music for calling people) for 15 bamboo scrapers, 15
palm leaves, and 20 muffled forest voices 1981; and BASBASAN (blessing) for 20
bean-pod rattles and 20 muffled mens voices 1983.
Baes received the Gawad Chancellor para sa Pinakamakusay na Mananaliksik (Hall of
Fame, 2003) from the University of the Philippines. He is currently an Associate Professor
in Composition and Theory at the UP College of Music as well as an ethnomusicologist,
cultural activist, and writer.

118
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Contemporary Philippine Music

SUMMARY
Jose Macedas musical style shifted when he encountered the music of the indigenous
tribes of Mindoro in 1953. He then embarked on his lifes work, dedicated to the
understanding and preservation of Filipino traditional music. His extensive research and
fieldwork resulted in an immense collection of recorded music taken from the remote
mountain villages and far-flung inland communities in the Philippines.
Lucrecia Kasilags compositional style demonstrated a fusion of Eastern and Western
styles in using instruments, melody, harmony, and rhythm. She is particularly known for
incorporating indigenous Filipino instruments into orchestral productions.
Ramon Santos compositional style features chromaticism, music seria, and electronic
components, combined with indigenous Philippine music elements.
Fr. Manuel Maramba OSB, one of the most accomplished musicians in the Philippines,
is best known as a liturgical composer whose body of works lean towards religious
figures and events. His versatility as a pianist, composer, arranger, theorist, and teacher
is widely recognized in the local musical scene.
Jerry Dadap, the first Filipino composer to conduct his own works at the Carnegie
Recital Hall in New York City,
Francisco Feliciano is one of Asias leading figures in liturgical music, having composed
hundreds of liturgical pieces, mass settings, hymns, and songs for worship. At the Asian
Institute for Liturgy and Music, a school for church musicians which he founded, he
supervised the publication of a new Asian hymnal containing mostly works of Asian
composers.
Josefino Toledo is the founding music director of the Metro Manila Community Orchestra,
the UP Festival Orchestra, and the Crosswave Symphony Orchestra. He is noted for
conducting the premiere performances of the works of Filipino composers as well as
other Asian composers. His own music has been performed by well-known international
artists and ensembles.
Jonas Baes, Associate Professor in Composition and Theory, ethnomusicologist, cultural
activist, and writer, has explored innovative territories and unusual musical treatments in
his works.

119
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MUSIC

Quarter III

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

Research and describe the characteristics of New Music.

2.

Discuss the lives and works of following 20th century Filipino composers and
performers:
a.
b.
c.
d.

3.

Jose Maceda
Lucrecia Kasilag
Ramon Santos
Fr. Manuel Maramba, OSB

e.
f.
g.
h.

Jerry Dadap
Francisco Feliciano
Josefino Toledo
Jonas Baes

Point out the characteristics of the musical style of the above-mentioned Filipino
composers.
Composer

Characteristics of the Musical Style

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

120
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Contemporary Philippine Music

WHAT TO PROCESS
A.

Listening Activity
1.

Your teacher will play excerpts of recordings of any (one composition) of


the following works by Filipino new music composers:
a.

Jose Maceda - Ugma-Ugma; Agungan ; Pagsamba; Ugnayan; Udlot


Udlot

b.

Lucrecia Kasilag - Toccata for Percucssion and Winds; The Legend


of the Sarimanok; Divertissement and Concertante; Dularawan

c.

Josefino Toledo - 2nd Og-og; Abe; Ako ang Daigdig; Alitaptap; Aliwiw; Awiting Bayan; Barasyon; Asia; Kah-non; Humigit Kumulang;
Lima; Mi-sa; Missa de gallo; Oyog-Oyog; Musika para sa; Pasyon
at Buhay; Pompyang; Pintigan; Pilipino Komiks; Sigaw; Tatluhan;
Auit, Ub-og; Ug-nay; Tula-li

d.

Francisco Feliciano - Sikhay sa Kabila ng Paalam; Ashen Wings;


La Loba Negra; Prelude and Toccata ; Fragments; Yerma; The life
of wartime Filipino hero, Jose Abad Santos; Transfiguration; Missa
Mysterium; Pokpok Alimpako; Salimbayan; Umiinog, Walang Tinag;
Pamugn and Restless

e.

Jerry Dadap - The Passionate and the Wild; Mangamuyo I) and


Mangamuyo II; The Redemption; Five Little Fingers; Tubig ng
Buhay; Dakilang Pagpapatawad; Andres Bonifacio, Ang Dakilang
Anak Pawis; Ang Pag-ibig ng Diyos; Balitaw Nos. 1-7; Lam-ang
Epic; Lorenzo Ruiz; Chorale Symphonic Ode Nos. 1 and 2; Aniway
at Tomaneg; Song Cycle, Nos. 1-4; Choral Cycle Nos. 1-3; Diyos
Ama ay Purihin; Lam-ang Epic; Mangamuyo I and II; Five Little
Fingers; Tubig ng Buhay; The Redemption.

f.

Fr. Manuel Maramba - Aba!, Sto. Nino; La Naval; Lord Takayama


Ukon; Awakening ; Seven Mansions; Papal Mass for World Youth
Day, 1995; Mass in Honor of St. Lorenzo Ruiz; Mass in Honor of the
Sto. Nino; cantatas St. Lorenzo Ruiz, St. Benedict, and St. Scholastica;
Three PsalmsA hymn in honor of St. Lorenzo Ruiz, and the official
hymn of the 1996 National Eucharistic Congress; Ang Sarswela sa
San Salvador; Pugad Lawin; The Virgin of Naval; and
Transfiguration.

121
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MUSIC

B.

Quarter III

g.

Ramon Santos - Ding Ding ng a Di ya wa ; Nab as ag n a B an ga


a t Ib at i ba p an g P in ag - ug po ng -u g po ng n a Pananalita
sa Wikang Pilipino para sa labing anim na tinig, and LBAD

h.

Jonas Baes - WALA (Nothingness); DALUY (flow); IBOIBON (Birdwoman); SALAYSAY; PATANGIS-BUWAYA ; PANTAWAG ;
BASBASAN (Blessing).

2.

Listen carefully to each excerpt and be able to recognize the different musical
elements and styles of the composers.

3.

Analyze the music focusing on the elements of music present, such as rhythm,
melody, tempo and dynamics, texture and harmony, form, and timbre.

4.

Choose a composition that you like. Write a reaction paper on it

Evaluation of Listening Activity


Name the Composer, Title of the Music, Musical Style, and Description
1.

After the above ListeningActivity, your teacher will prepare selected excerpts
of compositions by the following: Josefino Toledo, Ramon Santos, Jose
Maceda, Fr. Manuel Maramba, Lucrecia Kasilag, Francisco Feliciano, Jerry
Dadap, and Jonas Baes.

2.

The class will be divided into four teams, with each team forming a line.

3.

As your teacher plays a few measures of the first excerpt, the first student
in each line goes to the board and writes the name of the composer. The
second student will write the title of the music. The third student will write
the musical style. Then, the fourth student will write a description of the
music in one phrase.

4.

The team that writes the correct answers first, scores four (4) points.

5.

The same procedure goes on until all the students in the line have had their
turn.

6.

One student will be assigned as the scorer. The team with the highest score
is the winner. In case of a tie, the first team to finish is the winner.

7.

The scorer will announce the winners and then asks them this question:
What was the most significant thing that you have learned from this activity?

122
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Contemporary Philippine Music

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND: SOLO, DUET, TRIO, QUARTET, QUINTET


1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Your teacher will divide you into groups.


Compose a simple song incorporating indigenous music and folksongs or
you may adapt a certain melody from the compositions of the New Music
composers that you like. Write the new lyrics to fit the music.
You may include an accompaniment or improvised musical instruments.
Sing it a capella (without accompaniment) or with accompaniment.
Perform your composition or song adaptation in class.
Choreograph dance movements by interpreting the music of the new
composer that you have chosen, if needed.
Perform in class.
Write a reaction papaer on How did you feel in our incorporating our
indigenous music to your compositions or song adaptations. Submit it in
class next meeting.

WHAT TO PERFORM
Creating and Performing Activities: Musical
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

Your teacher will divide the class into four groups. Each group choose a
traditional composer that was discussed in class. Research further on his
life and works.
Create a contemporary musical on the life of your chosen composer.
Incorporate some of his compositions (melodic fragments) in the musical
and story.
Improvise simple vocal or instrumental accompaniments (example: guitar,
keyboard, percussion) to the songs that you have chosen.
Explore ways of creating sounds as accompaniment on a variety of sources
or from the environment for the creation of the musical.
Perform the musical in class. Your teacher will choose the Best Group
Musical Performance based on musicianship (musical elements) 50%,
audience impact and showmanship 20%, ensemble coordination and
organization 20%, stage discipline or deportment 10%.

123
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MUSIC

Quarter III

Evaluation of Creating and Performing Activities: Musical


Rating Scale:

5 - Very Good
4 - Good
3 - Fair

2 - Poor
1 - Needs Follow up

Rating the other performers / groups:


1.
2.

How well did the performers express the


message of the musical?
How well did the performers sing and act in
the musical based on the following:
a.
voice quality
b.
expression
c.
stage presence
d. audience impact
e.
mastery of the musical
f.
pitch
g. rhythm
h.
style
i.
acting

__________

__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________

Rating your own group members:


1.
2.
3.

How well did your group members express the


message of the musical?
How well did your group members perform?
How well did your group members participate?

__________
__________
__________

Rating myself:
1.
2.
3.
4.

How well did I express the message of the musical? __________


How well did I perform with my group?
__________
How well did I coordinate with the other members during the performance
in the ensemble? __________
How well did I cooperate in the ensemble?
__________

124
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Contemporary Philippine Music

SONG COMPOSERS

he 20th century Filipino song composers/lyricists include Levi Celerio, Constancio


de Guzman, Mike Velarde Jr., Ernani Cuenco, Restie Umali, George Canseco,
Angel Pea, Leopoldo Silos Sr., Santiago Suarez. Together, they had produced a
memorable output of traditional Filipino love songs, music for the movies, and materials
for contemporary arrangements and concert repertoire.
LEVI CELERIO
(1910 2002)
National Artist for Literature and Music
Prolific lyricist and composer Levi Celerio was named
National Artist for Music and Literature in 1997. Also a
violinist, he had written the lyrics for over 4,000 songs in
his lifetime, including many for film. A great number of
kundimans and Filipino love songs have lyrics written by
him, most notable of which are Dahil sa Iyo, Buhat, and
Ang Pasko ay Sumapit.
Celerio was known for creating music
with a mouth-blown leaf

Celerio was born in Tondo on April 30, 1910. He studied at the Academy of Music in
Manila under a scholarship. Later, he went on to join the Manila Symphony Orchestra.
Aside from writing his own lyrics, he also translated and re-wrote the lyrics of folksongs
to traditional melodies like Maliwanag Na Buwan from Ilocos, Ako ay May Singsing
from Pampanga, and Alibangbang from the Visayas.
His achievements include a citation in the Guinness Book of World Records for being the
only person to make music with a mouth-blown leaf. He will forever be remembered
through his lyrics for songs such as Ang Pipit (music by Lucio D. San Pedro); Bagong
Pagsilang (music by Felipe Padilla de Leon); Sa Ugoy ng Duyan (music by Lucio D. San
Pedro); Misa de Gallo (music by J. Balita); Itik-itik (folk song); Tinikling (folk song),
among others. Celerio passed away on April 2, 2002.

125
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MUSIC

Quarter III

CONSTANCIO DE GUZMAN
(1903 1982)
Constancio Canseco de Guzman was born on November 11,
1903 in Guiguinto, Bulacan. He grew up in Manila where he
studied piano and composition under Nicanor Abelardo. At the
prodding of his father, he went to law school but switched to
pursue and finish a BS Commerce degree at Jose Rizal College
in 1928. He passed the certified public accountants (CPA) board
examinations in 1932. After he took the CPA board exam, he
started working for the movies.
Acknowledged as the Dean of Filipino Movie Composers and
Musical Directors, De Guzman became the music director of
movie production companies like Sampaguita, LVN, Royal,
Excelsior, Lea, and Tagalog Ilang-Ilang Productions. His unexpected hit music,
Panaginip, paved the way for him to record hundreds of songs, principally under Villar
and Columbia Records.
In 1948, his song Ang Bayan Ko and Kung Kitay Kapiling won the gold medal at the
Paris International Fair. Bayan Ko was later adopted as the symbolic song of the People
Power Movement of 1986. The same song won for him the Awit Award for Best Filipino
Lyricist. Some of De Guzmans notable compositions include Babalik Ka Rin, Ang Tangi
Kong Pag-ibig, Birheng Walang Dambana, Maalaala Mo Kaya, and Sa Piling Mo. De
Guzman passed away on August 16, 1982.

MIGUEL MIKE VELARDE JR.


(1913 1986)
Miguel Mike Guison Velarde Jr, composer, conductor, movie actor, and musical
director was born in Manila on October 23, 1913 as the second of two children of Dr.
Miguel Velarde, Sr. and Dolores Guison. His family moved to Zamboanga when he was
only one year old and where he spent the succeeding eighteen years of his life. His exposure
to the unaffected and unpretentious environment of Basilan and Zamboanga had influenced
his creative imagination, mainly nurtured by his mother who became his first music teacher
in piano and violin when he was six years old.
Velarde studied at the Zamboanga Normal School, where he became a member of the
school orchestra and graduated as valedictorian. He then went to Manila to pursue
medicine at the University of the Philippines, but later realized that it was music that he
truly loved. He learned the basics of harmony and composition from Antonio Molina
and Ariston Avelino as he further deepened his musical knowledge through self-study.

126
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Contemporary Philippine Music

Later, when his father however objected to his plans to pursue a music career, he went on
to support himself as a bus conductor to realize his dream. He later got a job at a radio
station where he was featured as singer and jazz composer in its morning and evening
programs. He also opened a jazz school and became song editor for the Philippines Free
Press.
Velarde eventually went into writing Tagalog songs, composing the song Ugoy-Ugoy
Blues which opened opportunities for him in the movies. He had a jazz band known as
Mike Velardes Jazztocrats. He became editor of the Literary Song Movie Magazine.
Velarde composed musical scores for Sampaguita Films movie productions and managed
its advertising department. Among his most important works were Luksang Tagumpay,
which received the FAMAS (Filipino Movie Arts and Sciences) Award for Best Picture
(1960) and for which he wrote its story and screenplay, and Alaala Kita for Best Director
(1961). He attributes substantive influence from American composer and songwriters
Irving Berlin and Cole Porter.
In subsequent years, Velarde created his own style as he composed highly melodious and
romantic songs such as Ikaw, Lahat ng Araw, Habang Buhay, Minamahal Kita , Ikaw ay
Akin, and Dahil Sa Iyo. In 1970, he won the Best Conductor award at the First International
Popular Song Contest in Japan with his composition As Long as Forever. He received
the Cultural Achievement Award in Popular Music from the Philippine Government
Cultural Association in 1975 and the Gawad CCP Para Sa Sining in 1986. His other
compositions include Buhat, Ikaw, Bituing Marikit, Minamahal Kita, Dating Sumpaan,
Dalisay, Eternally Yours, and Gabi at Araw. Velarde passed away in 1986.

SANTIAGO SUAREZ
(1901 1964)
Santiago Suarez was born in Sampaloc, Manila. He learned how to play the piano from
his grandmother who was also a competent harpist, while his grandfather played the
flute. He attended the Conservatory of Music, University of the Philippines and the Ateneo
de Manila in Intramuros. He took private music lessons from Caetano Jacobe, Pedro
Floriaga, and Nicanor Abelardo.
Suarezs compositions are a mixture of the soulful kundiman style and the lively strains
of the countryside. The melodies are tonal and catchy, while the rhythms follow the
regular meter with minimal tempo changes. His harmonies follow the traditional classical
progression, making his compositions easy to understand without the complexities of
form and structure. Some of his works are quite popular and heard even with todays
classical singers, pop singers, and choral groups. They include the following: Ligaya Ko,
Pandanggo ni Neneng, Dungawin mo Hirang, Bakya Mo Neneng, Caprichosa, Sa Libis
ng Nayon, Harana, Kataka-taka, Labandera Ko, Lakambini, Kamia, Ikaw ang Buhay
127
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MUSIC

Quarter III

Ko!, Kay Lungkot nitong Hating-Gabi, and Mutya Niyaring Puso. Suarez passed away
in 1964.

RESTITUTO RESTIE UMALI


(1916 1998)
Restituto Aquino Umali was born in Paco, Manila on June 16, 1916. His early exposure
to music was due to the influence of his father who taught him violin as well as his
exposure to the regular family rondalla. He was also taught solfeggio and score reading
at the Mapa High School where he became an active member of the school glee club and
orchestra.
Umali played the E-flat horn, trombone, and tuba when he was part of the UST (University
of Santo Tomas) Band. He also taught choral arranging and orchestration at the UST
Conservatory of Music. He majored in Composition and Conducting at the Conservatory
of Music, University of the Philippines (UP) and Commerce at the Jose Rizal College.
He even passed an electricians course at the Philippine School of Arts and Trades before
embarking on a rewarding career as musical scorer for movies.
During World War II, Umali took lessons in harmony from Felipe Padilla de Leon. Shortly
after the war, he performed with the Manila Symphony Orchestra. He continued his
studies in composition and conducting even while teaching at the UP Conservatory of
Music. He was under the tutelage of noted composers such as Lucrecia Kasilag, Antonio
Buenaventura, and Ramon Tapales.
Umali arranged the Philippine national anthem and the local classic Kataka-taka for the
Boston Pops Orchestra when it performed for the Philippine Independence Night in
Boston in 1972. He composed approximately 120 movie theme songs and more than
250 scores for movies. His musical scoring career was capped by a Universal Pictures
production of No Man Is An Island starred by Jeffrey Hunter and Barbara Perez. His
musical scores for the movies Sa Bawat Pintig ng Puso (1964), Pinagbuklod ng Langit
(1969), Mga Anghel na Walang Langit (1970), and Ang Alamat (1972) won for him
Best Musical Score honors at the Filipino Academy of Movies Arts and Sciences
(FAMAS Awards). He also garnered the Best Music Awards for Bitter-Sweet at the
1969 Manila Film Festival and Ang Agila at Ang Araw at the 1973 Olongapo Film Festival.
Among Umalis most popular songs are Saan Ka Man Naroroon, Alaala ng Lumipas,
Ang Pangarap Koy Ikaw, Sa Libis ng Barrio, Di Ka Nag-iisa, and Paano Kita Lilimutin.
He had arranged the performance of Maestro Federico Elizaldes Manila Little Symphony
aired on radio stations DZRH and DZPI, apart from his stint as musical director fof
Sampaguita Pictures.

128
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Contemporary Philippine Music

BAYAN KO (Excerpt)
Constancio de Guzman, music / Corazon de Jesus, lyrics

DAHIL SA IYO (Excerpt)


Mike Velarde Jr., music / Dominador Santiago, lyrics

BAKYA MO NENENG (Excerpt)


Santiago Suarez

SAAN KA MAN NAROROON (Excerpt)


Restie Umali, music / Levi Celerio, lyrics

129
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MUSIC

Quarter III

ANGEL PEA
(1921 2014)
is a classical and jazz composer,
arranger, and bass player. He is widely considered by
modernFilipino jazz musiciansas one of the founders of
traditional jazz in thePhilippines.
A

He was born was born on April 22, 1921 to a musical family.


Pea learned solfeggio from his mother Rosario Velarde
Matias. His mother was a schoolteacher who studied voice
at the University of the Philippines. His father, Gregorio
Cid Pea, played the violin. His grandfather was a respected
guitar player. He grew up in Malabon which was then famous for its musicians and
marching bands. At the age of 11 when his mother passed away, he was discouraged by
his father to continue his musical pursuits. But, the boy persisted and proceeded to study
music theory and composition.
Pea wrote his first original jazz composition just before World War II erupted. He also
wrote kundimans for the young women he would be courting. After the war, he became
one of the most sought-after musical arrangers in Manila. He had also switched from
guitar to bass. This switch led him to write orchestral background music for various
musical ensembles.
He also wrote musical scores for film companies, most notably LVN Pictures. As his
interest in classical composition grew more intense, he formed a big band in 1956 for the
Upsilon Sigma Phis traditional concert at theUniversity of the Philippines. During that
time, he composed Bagbagtulambing, a landmark in Philippine music.
In 1959, the University of Santo Tomas launched a national symphonic composition
contest open to Filipino composers. Peas entry Igorot Rhapsody won first prize the
following year. Since then, he moved effortlessly between the jazz and classical idioms.
In the mid-1960s during his 3-year stint in Hongkong, he earned a Licentiate with the
Royal School of Music in London.
Pea auditioned for the Honolulu Symphony Orchestra. He was immediately accepted
as bassist and later as arranger in 1969. He would spend the next 28 years in Hawaii,
where he continued to write his own music. As farewell homage, the Manila Symphony
Orchestra performed his Concerto for Double Bass and Orchestra. In 1981 on the occasion
of the 75th anniversary of Filipino presence in Hawaii, the Honolulu Symphony premiered
his Concerto for Jazz Quartet and Orchestra with an all-star Filipino jazz quartet.
The following year, the Cultural Center of the Philippines performed a concert of his
classical works in his honor. Despite of his absence from Manila, local jazz groups
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Contemporary Philippine Music

continued to play his compositions. The seeds that he had sown began to bear fruit. Now,
a new generation of Filipino musicians are starting to discover the composer. When he
finally came back to the Philippines, he started teaching scholars in Double Bass as an
adjunct faculty member of the UP College of Music. He started collaborating with the
UP Jazz Ensemble on a number of concerts.
In 1998, a House Resolution from the State of Hawaiis House of Representatives was
passed to honor Pea for his contributions in the field of music as a world renowned jazz
musician, musical arranger, and Hawaiis own living classical composer. TheJazz Society
of the Philippines-USA further gave him a Lifetime Achievement Award at the Third
Annual Fil-Am Jazz Festival in Hollywood. Pena passed away on December 22, 2014.

ERNANI CUENCO
(1936 1988)
National Artist for Music
Ernani Joson Cuenco, composer, film scorer, musical
director and music teacher, was conferred the National Artist
Award for Music in 1999. His works embody a Filipino sense
of musicality that contain the classical sound of the kundiman.
Cuenco was born on May 10, 1936 in Malolos, Bulacan. As a
boy, he was encouraged to learn the violin. He was mentored
by his mother, his godmother Doa Belen Aldaba Bautista,
and his first teacher, Jovita Tantoco.He earned his Bachelors
Degree in Music, major in Piano at the UST Conservatory of
Music in 1956. A UST scholarship grant in the same year
enabled him to study the cello under Professor Modesto Marquiz, which he finished in
1965. In 1968, he completed his Master of Music degree at the Sta. Isabel College.
From 1960 to 1968, Cuenco was a cellist at the Manila Symphony Orchestra under Dr.
Hubert Zipper. Likewise, he played for the Filipino Youth Symphony Orchestra and the
Manila Chamber Soloists from 1966 to 1970.
His career as a musical director began in 1960 when he was discovered by then actor
Joseph Estrada while he was playing as part of a band he had formed with friends at an
exclusive restaurant in Makati. In 1963, Cuenco was sent as a delegate to the International
Music Conference in Tokyo, Japan. Aside from being a composer and musical director,
he was also a faculty member at the UST Conservatory of Music until his death on July
11, 1988.

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MUSIC

Quarter III

To this day, Cunecos compositions are popular and well-loved, especially Gaano Ko
Ikaw Kamahal and Bato sa Buhangin which he composed for films in honor of his wife.
Aside from these signature pieces, Cuencos other songs include Nahan, Kahit na Magtiis,
Diligin Mo ng Hamog ang Uhaw na Lupa, Pilipinas, Inang Bayan, Isang Dalangin, and
Kalesa.

GEORGE CANSECO
(1934 2004)
George Masangkay Canseco was born on April 23, 1934 in
Naic, Cavite. He graduated with a Liberal Arts degree at the
University of the East. After graduation, he worked for the
Philippines Herald and the Associated Press as a journalist. He
also worked as a free-lance scriptwriter for hire in Manila.
Canseco was considered as a nationally acclaimed composer
of numerous popular classics. He was commissioned by
Former First Lady Imelda R. Marcos to compose a national
tribute hymn entitled Ako Ay Pilipino (I Am A Filipino). He
wrote the classic Kapantay Ay Langit, a theme from the awardwinning motion picture of the same title, sung by Amapola. Its
English version entitled Youre All I Love containing some Tagalog lyrics was sung by
American singer Vic Dana. The song won the Manila Film Festival Best Song of the
Year Award in 1972. He followed it with an English song entitled Songs exclusively for
Songs and Amapola under the Vicor Music Corporation Pioneer Label.
One of his best-known compositions was Child, the English-language version of Freddie
Aguilars signature song Ank. He wrote songs for the countrys top popular singers
such as Sharon Cuneta, Basil Valdez, Regine Velasquez, Zsa Zsa Padilla, Pilita Corrales,
Martin Nievera, and Kuh Ledesma.
Canseco credited film producer and Vicor Music Corporation owner Vic del Rosario for
giving him his biggest break in the music industry. He was elected President of the Filipino
Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, Inc. (FILSCAP) in 1973. He was also
elected as Councilor for the First District of Quezon City in 1988.
His legacy as a composer include approximately 120 song titles including Ikaw, Kailangan
Kita, Dito Ba, Hiram, Tubig at Langis, Hanggang sa Dulo ng Walang Hanggan,
Sinasamba Kita, Kastilyong Buhangin, Minsan Pa Nating Hagkan ang Nakaraan,
Ngayon at Kailanman, Saan Darating ang Umaga, Sana Bukas Pa ang Kahapon, Dear
Heart, Gaano Kadalas ang Minsan, Paano kita Mapapasalamatan, and Kahapon
Lamang. He passed away on November 19, 2004 in Manila.

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Contemporary Philippine Music

GAANO KO IKAW KAMAHAL (Excerpt)


Ernani Cuenco, music / Levi Celerio, lyrics

DAHIL SA ISANG BULAKLAK (Excerpt)


Leopoldo Silos Sr., music / Levi Celerio, lyrics

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MUSIC

Quarter III

LEOPOLDO SILOS Sr.


(1925 2015)

Leopoldo Silos Sr. was born on March 6, 1925.


He was a composer, singer, and arranger. He
composed and recorded a number of romantic
songs, the most famous of which were two of
his well known hits, Dahil Sa Isang Bulaklak
(Because Of One Flower) and Hindi Kita
Malimot (I Cant Forget You). He was also the
award-winning musical director of the longrunning television musical program, Aawitan
Kita, which starred Armida Siguion-Reyna.
Accordingly, the music of Silos touches the sentiment quite deeply. His lyrical melodies
are complemented by exotic harmonies. His melodies were made more appealing through
their extended chords, diminished intervals, and secondary dominants. Thus, that enriched
the otherwise basic chordal patterns accompanying a tonal melody. Although not as widely
performed as other mainstream love songs and kundimans, his music always impresses
the listener with its melodic sincerity and elegantly crafted accompaniments. The other
notable compositions of Silos include Aling Kutsero, Ay Anong Saklap, Bastat Mahal
Kita, Diyos Lamang ang Nakakaalam, Hindi Ko Malilimutan, Lagi kitang Naaalala,
Langit sa Lupa, Halina Halina, Lihim na Pag-ibig, and Mundo May Mawala. He died
on March 10, 2015.
SUMMARY
Song composers became popular with their musical compositions used as musical
background or theme songs in movies and films.
Levi Celerio made it to the Guinness Book of World Records for being the only person
to make music with a leaf. He received numerous awards for his musical achievements in
film.
Constancio de Guzman was acknowledged as the Dean of Filipino movie composers
and musical directors. He is the composer of the nationalistic song Bayan Ko.
Mike Velarde Jr. was a composer, conductor, and musical director. He composed the
popular song Dahil Sa Iyo in 1938. In 1975 the Philippine Government Cultural
Association awarded him the Cultural Achievement Award in Popular Music. He received
the Gawad CCP Para Sa Sining in 1986.

134
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Contemporary Philippine Music

Ernani Cuenco was a composer, film scorer, musical director, and music teacher. He
was hailed as a National Artist in Music in 1999. His works embody the Filipino sense of
musicality. The classical sound of the kundiman is evident in some of his ballads. Up to
this day, his compositions are popular and well-loved.
Restie Umali was a composer, teacher, and musical arranger. He arranged the Philippine
national anthem and the local classic Kataka-taka for the Boston Pops Orchestra when it
performed for the Philippine Independence Night in Boston in 1972. He wrote a total of
more or less120 movie theme songs. He composed more than 250 scores for movies
which was capped by a Universal Pictures production of No Man Is An Island starred by
Jeffrey Hunter and Barbara Perez.
George Canseco was considered a nationally acclaimed composer of numerous popular
Filipino classics. He composed songs for Filipino singers and movie stars.
Angel Pea is a classical and jazz composer, musical arranger, and bass player. He is
widely considered by modernFilipino jazz musiciansas one of the founders of traditional
jazz in thePhilippines.
Leopoldo Silos Sr. was a composer, singer, and musical arranger. He composed and
recorded romantically soulful songs. He was the award winning musical director of the
television musical Aawitan Kita.
Santiago Suarez was an accomplished composer of traditional Filipino love songs. His
popular works include Dungawin Mo Hirang, Bakya Mo Neneng, Caprichosa, Sa Libis
ng Nayon, and Kataka-taka.
WHAT TO KNOW

1.

Discuss the lives and musical contributions of the following 20th century
Filipino song composers
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

2.

Levi Celerio
Constancio de Guzman
Mike Velarde Jr.
Ernani Cuenco
Restie Umali

f.
g.
h.
i.

George Canseco
Angel Pea
Leopoldo Silos Sr.
Santiago Suarez

For each of the composers named above, give the title of any of his
compositions.

135
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MUSIC

Quarter III

Composer

Title of Any Composition

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

________________

_____________________________________________

WHAT TO PROCESS
A.

Listening Activity
1.

Your teacher will play excerpts of recordings of any of the following works
by Filipino song composers:
a. Levi Celerio

b. Constancio
de Guzman

- Ang Pipit; Sa Ugoy ng Duyan; Misa de Gallo;


Itik-itik (folk song); Tinikling (folk song); and Ang
Pasko ay Sumapit.

- Bayan Ko, Babalik Ka Rin, Ang Tangi Kong Pagibig, Birheng Walang Dambana, Maalaala Mo
Kaya, Sa Piling Mo, Ang Langit koy Ikaw

c. Mike Velarde Jr. - Buhat, Ikaw, Bituing Marikit, Minamahal Kita,


Dating Sumpaan, Dalisay, Eternally Yours, Gabi
at Araw, Dahil sa Iyo

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Contemporary Philippine Music

d. Ernani Cuenco

- Nahan, Kahit na Magtiis, Diligin Mo ng Hamog


ang Uhaw na Lupa, Pilipinas, Inang Bayan, Isang
Dalangin, Kalesa, Gaano Ko Ikaw Kamahal, Bato
sa Buhangin

e. Restie Umali

- Saan Ka Man Naroroon, Alaala ng Lumipas, Ang


Pangarap Koy Ikaw, Sa Libis ng Barrio, Di Ka
Nag-iisa, Paano Kita Lilimutin

f. George Canseco - Ikaw, Kailangan Kita, Dito Ba, Hiram, Langis at


Tubig, Hanggang sa Dulo ng Walang Hanggan,
Sinasamba Kita, Kastilyong Buhangin, Minsan pa
nating hagkan ang Nakaraan, Ngayon at
Kailanman, Saan Darating ang Umaga, Sana
Bukas Pa ang Kahapon, Dear Heart, Gaano
Kadalas ang Minsan
g. Angel Pea

- Bagbagtulambing, Igorot Rhapsody, Concerto for


Double Bass and Orchestra, Concerto for Jazz
Quartet and Orchestra

h. Leopoldo Silos Sr. Dahil sa Isang Bulaklak, Hindi Kita Malimot,


Aling Kutsero, Ay Anong Saklap, Bastat Mahal
Kita, Diyos lamang ang nakakaalam, Hindi ko
Malilimutan, Lagi kitang Naaalala, Langit at
Lupa, Halina Halina, Lihim na Pag-ibig, Mundo
May Mawala
i. Santiago Suarez - Ligaya Ko, Pandanggo ni Neneng, Dungawin Mo
Hirang, Bakya Mo Neneng, Caprichosa, Sa Libis
ng Nayon, Harana, Kataka-taka, Labandera Ko,
Lakambini, Kamia, Ikaw ang Buhay Ko!, Kay
Lungkot Nitong Hating-Gabi, Mutya Niyaring
Puso
2.

Listen carefully to each excerpt and be able to recognize the different musical
styles of the composers.

137
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MUSIC

B.

Quarter III

3.

Analyze the music and take note of the elements of music present, such as
rhythm, melody, tempo and dynamics, texture and harmony, form, and
timbre.

4.

Choose a composition that you like. Write a reaction paper on it.

Evaluation of Listening Activity


Name the Composer, Title of the Music, Musical Style, and Description
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

After the above Listening Activity, your teacher will prepare selected excerpts
of compositions by the following: Celerio, De Guzman, Velarde, Cuenco,
Umali, Canseco, Pea, Silos, and Suarez.
The class will be divided into four teams, with each team forming a line.
As your teacher plays a few measures of the first excerpt, the first student
in each line goes to the board and writes the name of the composer. The
second student will write the title of the music. The third student will write
the musical style. Then, the fourth student will write a description of the
music in one phrase.
The team that writes the correct answers first, scores four (4) points.
The same procedure goes on until all the students in the line have had their
turn.
One student will be assigned as the scorer. The team with the highest score
is the winner. In case of a tie, the first team to finish is the winner.
The scorer will announce the winners and then asks them this question:
What was the most significant thing that you have learned from this activity?

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND: SOLO, DUET, TRIO, QUARTET, QUINTET


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8..

Compose a simple song. Write the lyrics and the music.


You may adapt a certain melody from the compositions of the song
composers that you like. Write the new lyrics to fit the music.
You may include an accompaniment such as guitar, flute, recorder, keyboard,
drums, tambourine, maracas or improvise musical instruments from the
environment.
You may sing it a capella (without accompaniment) or with accompaniment.
Do some dance movements of the music.
Perform your composition or your song adaptation and the dance
movements.
What motivated you to compose or adapt the music of that song?
How did you feel about this activity?

138
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Contemporary Philippine Music

WHAT TO PERFORM
A.

Singing Activity: Song Medley


Sing any of the compositions of Celerio, De Guzman,
Velarde, Cuenco, Umali, Canseco, Pea, Silos, and Suarez.
I

For group work, do the following:


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

B.

Your group will choose any song composers. You research further on his
compositions, if needed.
Select three compositions that you like best or you are familiar with or you
may learn a new song. Choose your musical director.
Sing the three (3) minutes medley in class with your groupmates interpreting
the music with appropriate pitch, rhythm, style, timbre, dynamics, melody,
texture, harmony, and expression.
You may bring an instrumental accompaniment like guitar, flute, recorder,
maracas, tambourine, or keyboard.
You may bring a minus one music in CD, or from your mobile phone, or
USB.
You may improvise simple vocal or instrumental accompaniment/s to the
songs you have chosen.
You may explore ways of creating sounds as instrumental accompaniment
to the song from a variety of sources or from the environment.
Your teacher will choose the Best Singing Group based on musicianship
(musical elements) 60%, presentation impact and showmanship 20%,
ensemble coordination and organization 20%.
All students will evaluate by rating each others performance and their own
performance.

Creating and Performing Activities: Musical


1.

2.

3.
4.

Your teacher will divide the class into four groups. Each group choose a
song composer that was discussed in class. Research further on his life and
works.
Create a contemporary musical on the life of your chosen composer.
Incorporate some of his compositions (melodic fragments) in the musical
and story.
Improvise simple vocal or instrumental accompaniments (example: guitar,
keyboard, percussion) to the songs that you have chosen.
Explore ways of creating sounds as accompaniment on a variety of sources
or from the environment for the creation of the musical.

139
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MUSIC

Quarter III

5.

Perform the musical in class. Your teacher will choose the Best Group
Musical Performance based on musicianship (musical elements) 50%,
audience impact and showmanship 20%, ensemble coordination and
organization 20%, stage discipline or deportment 10%.

Evaluation of Creating and Performing Activities: Musical


Rating Scale:

5 - Very Good
4 - Good
3 - Fair

2 - Poor
1 - Needs Follow up

Rating the other performers / groups:


1.

2.

How well did the performers express the


message of the musical?

__________

How well did the performers sing and act in the musical
based on the following:
a.
voice quality
__________
b.
expression
__________
c.
stage presence
__________
d. audience impact
__________
e.
mastery of the musical
__________
g. musical elements (rhythm, melody, dynamics) __________
h.
technique
__________
i.
showmanship
__________
j.
acting
__________

Rating your own group members:


1. How well did your group members express the
message of the musical?
2. How well did your group members perform?
3. How well did your group members coordinate with
each other during the performance in the ensemble?
4. How well did your group organize yourselves in
the ensemble?
Rating myself:
1. How well did I express the message of the musical?
2. How well did I perform with my group?
3. How well did I coordinate with the other members
during the performance in the ensemble?
4. How well did I cooperate in the ensemble?

__________
__________
__________
__________

__________
__________
__________
__________

140
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20th and 21st Century Multimedia Forms

Quarter IV: 20th AND 21st CENTURY


MULTIMEDIA FORMS
CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner demonstrates understanding of...
1. Characteristic features of 20th and 21st century opera, musical play,
ballet, and other multi-media forms.
2. The relationship among music, technology, and media.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
The learner...
1. Performs selections from musical plays, ballet, and opera in a
satisfactory level of performance.
2. Creates a musical work, using media and technology.

LEARNING COMPETENCIES
The learner...
1. Describes how an idea or story in a musical play is presented in a
live performance or video.
2. Explains how theatrical elements in a selected part of a musical play
are combined with music and media to achieve certain effects.
3. Sings selections from musical plays and opera expressively.
4. Creates/improvises appropriate sounds, music, gestures, movements,
and costumes using media and technology for a selected part of a
musical play.
5. Presents an excerpt from a 20th or 21st century Philippine musical
and highlights its similarities and differences to other Western musical
plays.

From the Department of Education curriculum for MUSIC Grade 10 (2014)

141
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MUSIC

Quarter IV

OPERA
IN THE PHILIPPINES

he emergence of the Filipino opera started to take shape during the middle part of
the 19th century. Foreign performers, including instrumental virtuosi, as well as
opera singers and Spanish zarzuela performers came to the country to perform for
enthusiastic audiences.
The opera is an art and music form in which singers and musicians perform
a dramatic work combining text (called alibretto) and a musical score, usually in an
elaborate theatrical setting. It incorporates many of the elements of spoken theater, such
as acting, scenery, costumes, and sometimes includes dance. The performance is typically
given in an opera house, cultural center, theater, or auditorium. It is accompanied by
an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble. The dialogue is entirely sung and not spoken.
Opera is part of the Western classical music form and tradition. It started in Italy at the
end of the 16th century and soon spread through the rest of Europe. While English,
French, and Italian operas were being presented, it was the Italian opera that captured
the creative imagination of composers, librettists, and singers alike.

Zorilla Theatre

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20th and 21st Century Multimedia Forms

Manila Grand Opera House

As the locals were being exposed to Western art and music, they were also realizing their
inner talents and passion for the opera. The themes were ripe for voicing their own
sentiments about love of country and longing for independence from colonial rule.
The element of tragedy, emanating from the popular themes of romance, deceit, murder,
vendetta, and other elements of human frailty, became a favorite story pattern of the
Filipino opera. Some operatic works were based on previous literary creations, such as
Rizals Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. The tragic endings and unresolved conflicts
made them excellent choices for an operatic production.

Local Theaters and Early Philippine Operas


Local theaters, including the Zorilla, Principe Alfonso, Variedades, Quiapo and Tondo
Theaters, were the choice venues for the mainly Italian operas that came to the country,
such as Lucia di Lammermoor, La Boheme, La Traviata, and Aida. Later, other opera
venues were established, led by the Manila Grand Opera House and the Metropolitan
Theater (Met).
The first Filipino opera is said to be to Sandugong Panaginip by Pedro Paterno, a poet,
novelist, musician, and government official. This was first presented at the Zorilla Theater
on August 2, 1902. It was later translated by the Englishman M.W. Loving with the title
The Dreamed Alliance.

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MUSIC

Quarter IV

Following this historic development, other prominent figures and ensembles contributed
significantly in the promotion of opera. They were composer Bonifacio Abdon as the
first Filipino opera conductor, Dr. Ramon Javier as the first Filipino opera impresario
who promoted local talents to participate in foreign productions. The Orchestra Molina
was known for their interpretation of operatic works as well as other classical
compositions.

Metropolitan Theater (Met)

Subsequent Filipino operas followed sporadically, such as Lakangbini by Patricio Mariano


that was staged at the Metropolitan Theater on December 19, 1933. Operatic divas
included Nelia Manalo, who portrayed the leading role of Violetta in Giuseppe Verdis
La Traviata. Mercedes Matias-Santiago portrayed the role as Lucia in Gaetano Donizettis
Lucia di Lamermoor. National Artist Jovita Fuentes portrayed the role as Mimi in Giacomo
Puccinis La Boheme. The establishment of the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP)
by then First Lady Imelda Romualdez-Marcos in 1969 paved the way for other Filipino
operas to be staged at a legitimate venue of international standard.

NOLI ME TANGERE and EL FILIBUSTERISMO


Operas based on Rizals two novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo were composed
by National Artist Felipe Padilla de Leon. These were presented at the CCP Main Theater
in 1970 and 1975, respectively. Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo were later restaged
also at CCP as musical plays with new music composed by Ryan Cayabyab and new
creative team.

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20th and 21st Century Multimedia Forms

Cultural Center of the Philippines

LA LOBA NEGRA
La Loba Negra (The Black She-Wolf) is a three-act Filipino opera. Acts I and II are
based on history. Act III is based on a legend attributed to Fr. Jose Burgos. He was one
of the three martyred priests, Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora who were executed in
Bagumbayan (now Luneta) in 1872. The music was composed by National Artist Francisco
Feliciano, with libretto by soprano Fides Cuyugan Asensio. The premiere was held in
1984 with Lamberto Avellana as director. In 1985 direction was by Peque Gallaga and
Jorge V. Ledesma, production design by Don Escudero, costume design by National
Artist Salvador Bernal, lighting design by Dennis Marasigan, and choreography by Rene
C. Hinojales.
La Loba Negra was presented by the Cultural Center of the Philippines in cooperation
with the Asian Institute for Liturgy and Music at the CCP Main Theater from August 16
to 25, 1984 and the 2nd season in 1985. Ms. Asensio alternated with
Eleanor Calbes as Dona Luisa/La Loba. Jimmy Melendrez alternated
with Noel Velasco as Governor-General Fernando Manuel
Bustamante. Secondary roles were performed by Nomer Son as
Torralba, Gamaliel Viray/Nolyn Cabahug as Fr. Sebastian Totanes,
Aileen Espinosa Cura as Florentina Dolores, and Lito Carating/Elmo
Makil as Kapitan Macatangay. The composer himself conducted the
Philippine Philharmonic Orchestra. Choral support was from the
Philippine Madrigal Singers, Singers Harmonics, Tiples de Santo
Domingo, Pasyon Singers of Cardona, and the Zarzuela Foundation
Librettist and soprano,
Chorus.
Fides Cuyugan Asensio
145
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MUSIC

Quarter IV

Background of the Opera


The story of La Loba Negra takes place during the 17th century of Spanish rule in the
Philippines. It revolves around the tragic assassination of Spanish Governor-General
Bustamante. His administration was greatly admired for his planned reforms in the
colonial administration. It also focused on the bitter reaction and planned vendetta
(revenge) by his wife Doa Luisa (La Loba Negra) on the religious perpetrators. As
massive corruption and friar abuse were prevalent, the entry of Governor-General
Bustamante to institute reforms did not sit well with the powerfully abusive priests,
which led to his untimely death.

Synopsis
The opera begins with a Prologue depicting the scene of a woman dancing around a
priest tied to a log. She scolds him in a haunting atmosphere of pitch darkness and a
howling wolf from the distance. The scene shifts to the Governors Palace Ballroom
where a welcome party in honor of the new Governor-General Bustamante is in progress.
Upon the arrival of the Governor, lavish gifts are offered to him by the various guests. To
their surprise and dismay, the Governor downplays their ostentatious revelry and giftgiving as a sign of potential corruption in his song Makinig Kayo.The entry of Fray
(friar/priest) Totanes and his regal posturing further elicits sarcastic remarks from the
Governor. As he and his wife Doa Luisa exits the scene, an indio (Spanish term used for
a Filipino native) servant named Macatangay enters with a message to the Governor
from his employer, Auditor General Torralba.
Fray Totanes takes advantage of the Governors exit by asserting the power of the church
over the state in his song Siya Ba ang Magsasabi Sa Akin? prompting the Governors
daughter Dolores to chide him for his unbecoming remarks in her fathers house. Fray
Totanes apologizes without a trace of sincerity as Dolores exits followed by an interested
young friar. Meanwhile, Fray Totanes intercepts the gifts meant for the Governor . He
got the gifts to add to the Churchs treasury. He blesses the guests as he reassures them
of a place in heaven.
In the Palaces family room, Doa Luisa is singing an aria Huizilipochtli about an Aztec
god which her daughter Dolores was curiously questioning about its meaning. Their
conversation is interrupted by the Governor who was on his way out to investigate the
Auditor Generals office on the state of the Treasury. Dolores, suspecting the impending
result of the investigation amid the pocketing by the friars, weeps bitterly as her mother
tries to comfort her. At the Auditor Generals office, Fray Totanes witnesses Torralba
collecting taxes from the various merchants in order to get their trade permits. He then
shares the loot with Fray Totanes who in turn gives part of his share to his mistress
Conchita. The Governor enters shortly, and after a brief confrontation with Torralba,
discovers that the Treasury coffers are empty.
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He orders the latters immediate imprisonment in Fort Santiago, a most dreaded place
for criminals and political prisoners at that time. The scene ends with a duet Anong
Saklap Nitong Pangyayari by the two, with Torralba in remorse and shame and Bustamante
in pity and disgust over the situation. The chorus sings Sa Haring Pari, O Sa Paring
Hari in the distance. The continuing crackdown of Governor Bustamante on the religious
officials did not spare even the Archbishop of Manila as they were all detained in Fort
Santiago. A religiously-led demonstration ensues in the Town Plaza but is quickly dispelled
by the Governors soldiers. The priests are exhorted by Fray (friar/priest) Totanes to
come out in full-force to plot the assassination of their most hated enemy. A mass is held
without the usual service as the altar is covered black to symbolize a coffin, topped by
the Spanish flag and a crucifix.
As they march toward the Governors palace, singing Muerte, Muerte Para El Traidor
Bustamante,a messenger forewarns the Governor of the plot. But to no avail, the assassins
are able to reach the palace and kill the Governor along with his son Jose. Doa Luisa,
witnessing this brutal killing, asks the Lord and the Virgin Mary to forgive the perpetrators.
However, her mind snaps at the shock of the moment, wherein she instead invokes the
Aztec god to assist her in avenging the murders of her loved ones. With a loud scream
filled with pain and anguish, she has renounced her Christian faith.
Doa Luisa, now disguised as La Loba Negra (The Black She-Wolf), commences her
revenge during the elaborate ceremonies of Palm Sunday. And together with her sexuallyabused daughter, methodically slays the friars she encounters. She killed over 200 priests
in a span of two years. Her infamous reputation has spread as the religious clergy cower
in fear. Macatangay, who has also become a rebel leader for a different cause of achieving
independence, joins forces with La Loba Negra. They continued in their ritual religious
murders, singing the songs O Poong Maykapal, Kayong Mga Namumuno, and Hindi Na
Malayo Ang Araw.
The scene is transported back to the Prologue with Doa Luisa castigating the friar
responsible for the seduction and rape of her daughter. Added to her earlier murders of
the friars for the deaths of her husband and son, Doa Luisas vengeful emotions have
now been purged out. When her daughter is wed to Sandugo, she has become one with
the indios of her adopted country. Before she dies, Doa Luisa was heard singing
Napakahaba ng Gabi. She speaks of a bright tomorrow after the long night as the
chorus sings Sulong, Mahal Kong Kababayan.
The music and libretto have closely collaborated to portray the dramatic moods in the
opera. The dramatic moods are particularly depicted in the murder scenes that are
effectively contrasted with the solemn sounds and religious fervor of the liturgical rites.
The somewhat debatable moral issue of vengeance may perhaps be explained by the
temporary insanity of Doa Luisa. It was caused by the brutal killings of her husband and
son, wherein the Aztec god is portrayed as a scapegoat for the Christian purge. As librettist
Asensio concluded: The night is long but the sun will rise and rise again in the East.
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MUSIC

Quarter IV

NOLI ME TANGERE, THE OPERA


The three-act opera Noli Me Tangere was composed by National Artist Felipe Padilla de
Leon, with libretto by National Artist Guillermo Tolentino. It premiered in 1957 at the
FEU Auditorium. The cast included Juanita Javier Torres as Maria Clara, Don David as
Ibarra, Fides Cuyugan Asensio as Sisa, Milo Cristobal as Padre (Father/priest) Damaso,
and Morli Daram as the director.

A scene from Noli Me Tangere, the opera

There were other several productions that followed the premiere production. The
performance in 1987 was held at the CCP Main Theater from September 18 to 20, 1987
in cooperation with Music Theatre Foundation of the Philippines. Oscar C. Yatco
conducted the Philippine Philharmonic Orchestra. The opera was directed by Jonas
Sebastian. The production staff also included National Artist Salvador Bernal for Set and
Costume Design, Dennis Marasigan for Lighting, and Sylvia Garcia-Nera for Overall
Production. The cast of major characters included Nolyn Cabahug and Sal Myneo (Sal)
Malaki alternating as Ibarra, Andion Fernandez/Nanette Moscardon-Maigue as Maria
Clara, Fides Cuyugan-Asensio/Luz Morete as Sisa, Elmo Makil/Nomer Son as Elias,
and Nomer Son/Jonathan Velasco as Padre Damaso. Jonas Sebastian as the director.
The novel of national hero Dr. Jose Rizal, Noli Me Tangere, has been a source of many
artistic productions and endeavors. From a silent film adaptation in 1915, it was the
subject of a movie in 1961 directed by Gerardo de Leon. It won the 10th FAMAS Award
for Best Film. It was first presented as an opera by National Artist for Music Felipe
Padilla de Leon in 1957 and in 1987. It was later adapted in 1992 by National Artist for
Film Eddie Romero in a 13-episode series for television. The novel also became the
subject of musical plays and revivals. The opera had its US production premiered as Noli
Me Tangere: The Opera at Harris Theater in Chicago on May 28, 2012. It was also
staged at The Kaye Playhouse, Hunter College, New York City, USA last October 2013,
and at the Resorts World in Manila in September 2014.

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The Novel Behind the Opera


The title of Rizals novel Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) was said to have originated
from the Latin version of the words, originating from John 20:17. It was spoken by Jesus
to Mary Magdalene who recognized Him after His Resurrection, reasoning to her for I
am not yet ascended to the Father. The novel was written to expose the ills of the
Spanish Catholic friars and the ruling government. It was finished in 1886.
Rizal initially found it difficult to solicit moral and financial support from his friends, until
Maximo Viola helped him with the printing. The printing of Noli was done in Berlin,
Germany. The English version was later released to Australian Book Stores. After which,
Penguin Books took on the tasks of publishing the novel to have its own translated
version. The book was banned in the Philippines by the Spanish authorities for its
supposedly subversive elements. This led to Rizals exile, imprisonment, and execution.

Synopsis of the Opera


Act I

A scene from Noli Me Tangere, the opera (Ibarra and Maria Clara)

The spacious sala of Santiago de los Santos, otherwise known as Kapitan Tiago, in San
Diego, is the setting for the welcome reception. It was a gathering honoring the 22-year
old student Crisostomo Ibarra after a seven-year stay in Europe. The Gobernadorcillo
and his wife Doa Victorina lead the guest list that includes Padre Damaso, vocal in his
criticism of the Filipino whom he referred to as indio while also blaming the
Gobernadorcillo for interfering in their local affairs. He continues this harsh attitude
upon the arrival of Ibarra when he ignores the latter as he tries to greet the friar.
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MUSIC

Quarter IV

Ibarra is also shaken and shocked by the news of the death of his father, where he confides
to Don Filipo his puzzlement surrounding his fathers death. Before Ibarra left for San
Diego, Lt. Guevara, a civil guard, revealed to him the circumstances that led to his
fathers death. Don Rafael Ibarra, a rich hacendero of the town, was unjustly accused by
Padre Damaso of being a heretic and a subversive and subsequently jailed. As the case
was almost being resolved, Don Rafael fell sick and died in his cell. His remains, initially
interred at the Catholic cemetery, were ordered transferred by Padre Damaso to another
location.
Ibarra, although lamenting the fateful circumstances, does not hold revenge on his mind.
Instead, he starts to reveal plans to build a schoolhouse in memory of his father. He is
only partly comforted by the announcement of the immenent arrival of his beloved Maria
Clara, the adopted daughter of Kapitan Tiago. She was accompanied by her aunt, Tia
Isabel. Ibarra rushes to greet them on their arrival. As the guests move into the dining
room, the two lovers are huddled together reminiscing their past moments spent together.
Ibarra, still thinking his fathers death, begs to be excused in order to pay respects at his
fathers grave while Maria Clara fears disaster.

Act II
Scene I
All roads lead to the cemetery
as the people of San Diego
observe All Saints Day.
Pilosopo Tasio meets Crispin
and Basilio going to the
church to ring the bells. The
ringing of the bells will warn
the people of a coming storm.
He cautions the two brothers
to stay away from the bells to
avoid being struck by
lightning.
Ibarra arrives at the cemetery
A scene from Noli Me Tangere, the opera
to look for his fathers grave.
He is angered when one of the
gravediggers informs him that he was ordered to transfer his fathers body to another
site. When he inquires about the location of the new site, the man confides that he disobeyed
the orders. And instead, he threw the body into the lake. This causes Ibarra to jump at
him in a fury and leave the cemetery in a rage,

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As evening approaches amidst flashes of lightning and sounds of thunder, the


Gobernadorcillo and Pilosopo Tasio are engaged in sarcastic conversation. The scene
shifts to Crispin who is suddenly accused of theft and is detained at the convent. His
brother Basilio runs to their mother Sisa but is shot in the leg. Sisa, confronted by the
guardia civil, arrives and protests her sons innocence as she breaks down in shock.
Meanwhile, the bereaved Ibarra seeks counseling from Pilosopo Tasio who advises the
youth to bend your head with the storm like a bamboo. Heeding the advice of the wise
man, Ibarra realizes though that the authorities he intends to yield to were the same
people that imprisoned and caused his fathers death.

Scene II
The young people of San Diego hold a picnic by the lake to celebrate Ibarras return from
Europe. Maria Clara is prevailed upon to sing, wherein she renders the famous number
Kay Tamis ng Buhay recalling the happy life in her native land. Meanwhile, a group of
fishermen arrive to lament the presence of a crocodile that prevented them from catching
any fish. Elias, a woodsman, volunteered to drive the crocodile away but is greatly
endangered. Ibarra rushes to his rescue and saves Elias. In his gratitude, Elias warns
Ibarra of the approaching dangers from the latters enemies. As Sisa passes by, she is still
lonely over her lost children. Elias assists the insane woman to find the two children.
While Ibarra continues to tell of his dream to build a school in his fathers memory, Padre
Damaso joins in the conversation and ridicules the plan as a scheme of the viper. To
which, an enraged Ibarra grabs a knife and attempts to stab him. Only the timely
intercession of Maria Clara pacifies the young man. However, this gives Padre Damaso
an excellent opportunity to have him excommunicated.

Act III
Scene I
As Ibarra has been exiled from San Diego, Maria Clara is left depressed while her Tia
Isabel and friends try to comfort her. Kapitan Tiago enters the bedroom to tell the sad
news that inspite of his appeal Padre Damaso has told him to cancel the wedding
arrangements between Maria Clara and Ibarra. Actually, Kapitan Tiago had in mind his
relative Alfonso Linares to marry Maria Clara instead of Ibarra. Doa Victorina then
enters the room and together with Padre Damaso starts planning for the meeting between
Maria Clara and Linares.
Meanwhile, Ibarra has sought the help of the Gobernadorcillo who manages to cancel
his excommunication from the church. He is able to return and visit Maria Clara to
propose marriage. The couples rejoicing at the house of Kapitan Tiago is interrupted by
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MUSIC

Quarter IV

the arrival of the Alferez who


arrests Ibarra for being
involved in an uprising. Again
driven to depression, Maria
Clara seeks the help of the
Heavenly Mother. A fire is
seen from the closed window.

Scene II
Worried over the fate of Ibarra, Maria Clara ignores Padre Damasos advice discouraging
her from entering the convent. As she prays to the Heavenly Mother to restore her lost
love, Elias appears at the window, taking along Ibarra who has just escaped from prison.
Ibarra is desperate at the rumor of Maria Claras impending marriage to Linares. She
explains that she was forced to accept the marriage agreement to save her mothers
honor after finding out that her real father was in fact Padre Damaso! Nevertheless, she
assures Ibarra that her heart will always belong to him. Meanwhile, as Ibarra and Elias
sneak out of the window, two gunshots are heard from the guardia civil (civil guard).
Maria Clara witnessed the tragic scene. She thinks that Ibarra had been shot and killed.
But, it was Elias who was shot while Ibarra had managed to escape.

Scene III
Sisa is seen wailing her haunting
refrain as she rests on a tombstone.
Basilio, still nursing the wounds on
his leg, arrives and greets his
mother. Unable to recognize him
at first, Sisa eventually recovers
her fragile memory and embraces
her son. However, the shock of the
moment is too much for her heart
and she expires. Meanwhile, a
seriously wounded Elias appears
and instructs Basilio to build a pyre
(funeral fire) for his mother and him as he gives him a stash of hidden gold to fund his
education. As the boy started to gather materials for the funeral pyre and the early light
of dawn appears, Elias gasps out his last breath of life.

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EL FILIBUSTERISMO, THE OPERA


The opera El Filibusterismo was composed by National Artist Felipe Padilla De Leon in
1970, with libretto by Anthony Morli. It was in three acts and written in Tagalog. The
casts included Fides Cuyugan Asensio as Paulita, Constancio Bernardo as Simoun, Irma
Potenciano as Juli. It was stageds at the Cultural Center of the Philippines.

The Novel Behind the Opera


El Filibusterismo (The Filibuster) was a novel by Dr. Jose Rizal, a sequel to the earlier
Noli Me Tangere. It tells of the continuing struggle of the Filipino people to achieve
freedom and emancipation from colonial rule. Through the major characters involved, it
reflects the prevailing state of Philippine government and society that has become corrupt
and immoral. For which, a revolution was being seen as the only solution for change. It
was also perceived as a warning from Rizal, an intellectual of the highest order. Although
he favored a peaceful way of instituting reforms, the seemingly hopeless situation to
achieve this method points closer and closer to armed rebellion in order to gain
independence.

A scene from El Filibusterismo, The Opera

Rizal considered this second novel as more profound and mature than Noli Me Tangere,
revealing his less hopeful outlook on the political and social situation in the country.
Written for the Filipinos and not for the Spaniards, it was first distributed to his friends in
Europe. However, the book was immediately seized when it arrived in the Philippines. It
was later used as a major evidence in the subversion charges against him. Even after his
death, it became a source of inspiration for revolutionaries that included Andres Bonifacio.

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MUSIC

Quarter IV

Synopsis of the Opera


The major character is Crisostomo Ibarra. He had escaped from prison for subversion
charges some 13 years before. He was thought to have drowned in the river. He arrives
aboard a steamship along with passengers from different walks of life. He disguised
himself as Simoun in search of his beloved Maria Clara.
Maria Clara had become a nun after learning of Ibarras supposed drowning and because
of her refusal to marry another man as arranged by her evil father. In an earlier letter to
Maria Clara, Simoun tells her of his plan to lead a revolution. He had been sentenced for
execution before he had managed to escape. Now, upon his return, he is bent on fulfilling
this plan by asking the support of key people.
Simoun also comes across a medical student named Basilio while the latter was visiting
the grave of his mother Sisa. Basilio recognized the disguised Simoun as Ibarra. Basilio
however refuses to join his revolutionary cause. He preferred instead to marry his love
Huli and lead a peaceful life devoted to healing the sick.
On the eve of the supposed revolt organized by Simoun, when a French vaudeville Les
Cloches de Comeville was being attended by Manilas high society, he hears the news
that Maria Clara has just died in the convent. He contemplated to commit suicide.
However, Maria Claras ghost appears and asks him to stay alive to atone for his destructive
spirit. His first revolutionary attempt has failed. In the meantime, his bitterness has
jeopardized the love relationship between Juanito Pelaez and Paulita Gomez.
Paulita was an orphaned heiress cared for by her aunt Doa Victorina, and Isagani. She
was raised by the secular priest Padre Florentino. It also influences Basilio to join Simouns
cause after his engagement. Huli has died in despair over Basilios imprisonment. Actually,
this was a betrayal by Simoun by pointing to him and other students for allegedly
masterminding a revolution that he himself planned.
Still ignoring the warning voice of Maria Clara, Simoun hatches a second plan to be
carried out during the wedding of Paulita Gomez to Juanito Pelaez. His plan is to bring
a crystal lamp as a wedding gift but which contains deadly explosives that would go off
once the lamps oil runs out and is relit. This plan Simoun tells Basilio as they are dining
in his mansion.
However, Basilio has a sudden change of heart and quickly warns Isagani, who is just
arriving at the scene to watch the wedding festivities. The shocked Isagani runs away
with the lamp and throws it into the river. As Manila is scandalized by the discovery of his
plan, Simoun escapes the arrest of the authorities and takes refuge in the house of Padre
Florentino near the sea. He again tries to commit suicide by taking poison.

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As Simoun lay dying, Padre Florentino scolds


him for his plot while assuring him of Gods
mercy. He also divests Simoun of his precious
stones and hurls them into the waters. He called
these evil stones which should remain forever
under the sea. From a distance, Isagani
contemplates his desolation at a lost love
amidst the vastness of the sea while witnessing
a passing procession for the Feast of San
Diego.

SUMMARY
La Loba Negra (The Black She-Wolf) is a three-act Filipino opera. Acts I and II are
based on history. Act III is based on a legend attributed to Fr. Jose Burgos, one of the
three martyred priests Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora who were executed in Bagumbayan
(now Luneta) in 1872. The music was composed by National Artist Francisco Feliciano,
with libretto by soprano Fides Cuyugan Asensio. The premiere was held in 1984 with
National Artist for Theater and Film Lamberto Avellana as director.
The three-act opera Noli Me Tangere was composed by National Artist Felipe Padilla de
Leon, with libretto by National Artist Guillermo Tolentino. It premiered in 1957 at the
FEU Auditorium. The cast included Juanita Javier Torres as Maria Clara, Don David as
Ibarra, Fides Cuyugan Asensio as Sisa, Milo Cristobal as Padre Damaso, and Morli Daram
as the director. There were several other productions that followed the premiere
production.
El Filibusterismo is a novel by Dr. Jose Rizal, a sequel to the earlier Noli Me Tangere.
It was written four years later. It tells of the continuing struggle of the Filipinos to achieve
freedom and emancipation from Spanish colonial rule. The opera El Filibusterismo was
composed by National Artist Felipe Padilla de Leon in 1970, with libretto by Anthony
Morli. It was in three acts and written in Tagalog.

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MUSIC

Quarter IV

BALLET
IN THE PHILIPPINES

he medium of dance and ballet to interpret novels, folktales, and stories provides
visual excitement as the characters come alive not in spoken dialogue but in body
movements. Much of the communication is relayed in pantomime. It is a performance in
which a story is told without words by using body movements and facial expressions.
The lack of spoken words or sung lyrics is more than made up for by the creative steps
and arm gestures of the dancers. Their facial expressions and body movements add more
meaning to the story being revealed. The performance is further enhanced by colorful
costumes, elaborate sets, visually suggestive music, and synchronized choreography.
Together, the dance or ballet production makes for a complete drama by itself without a
single word being spoken.
Filipino ballets vividly present folktales based on local fables for example, Lola Basyang
as well as epics from neighboring regions, such as Indias Ramayana. Highly
communicative movements and steps dramatize the actions in the respective stories.
The colorful sets and costumes add to the glitter and attraction of the productions.
Although not as extensively explored as the other performing genres for local adaptation,
Filipino ballet productions have evoked wide enthusiasm from people of all ages. They
have been added to the repertory of Philippine dance companies to supplement the Western
classical ballets, such as Nutcracker Suite, Swan Lake, Giselle, and Sleeping Beauty.

Nutcracker Suite

Philippine prima ballerina


Lisa Macuja with her daughter
in Nutcracker Suite

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TATLONG KUWENTO NI LOLA BASYANG

Lola Basyang is a ballet adaptation of Severino Reyes folktales Mga Kuwento ni Lola
Basyang. It was meant to instill and rekindle the interest of the Filipino youth in the
beauty, richness, and heritage of Philippine literature. The typical storytelling scene shows
the grandmother (Lola Basyang, the pen name of the author) on a rocking chair with her
grandchildren listening to her fascinating tales.
Two episodes of such stories were presented by Ballet Manila, with Lisa Macuja-Elizalde
as the companys Executive Director and prima ballerina. Entitled Tatlong Kuwento ni
Lola Basyang (2009) and Tatlo Pang Kuwento ni Lola Basyang (2013), the stories were
taken from the dozens of stories in the collection of Severino Reyes.
Tatlong Kuwento ni Lola Basyang featured the following stories:
1.

Ang Kapatid ng Tatlong Marya


This is a fantasy story set to neo-ethnic music in a contemporary style. It is about
a heros fantastic journey to different kingdoms in pursuit of his bewitched sisters.
The music is by Joey Ayala, with choreography by Lisa Macuja-Elizalde.

2.

Ang Mahiwagang Biyulin


This is a local version of the Pied Piper tale where the main character mesmerizes
his followers through the music of his violin. The story instills in them the moral
lesson that good triumphs over evil. The music is by Ryan Cayabyab, arranged
by Arnold Buena, and choreography is by Tony Fabella.

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MUSIC

3.

Quarter IV

Ang Prinsipe ng Mga Ibon


This is a love story where a princess falls in love with a bird. It was choreographed
by Ballet Manila danseur (a male ballet dancer) Osias Barroso. The music is
taken from selected musical works of National Artists arranged by Mon Faustino.

The second episode, Tatlo Pang Kuwento ni Lola Basyang, included the following stories:
1.

Ang Palasyo ng Mga Dwende


This is a romantic adventure wherein the heroine Yani is being maltreated by her
envious stepmother and stepsisters. The cursed bird is changed back into a prince
with the help of Yani. It depicts Mindanao and the ancient Pintados through its
neo-ethnic movements.
The music and musical arrangements were done by Diwa de Leon using a
hegalong, a native boat-like string musical instrument from Mindanao. Illustration
was done by Albert Gamos. The choreographer was Gerardo Francisco who
collaborated with Kris-belle Mamangun, Naomi Jaena, and Romeo Peralta.

2.

Labindalawang Masasayang Prinsesa


This is a romantic fantasy of the twelve daughters of the king. In the ballet, the
eldest daughter is acted out by Lisa Macuja Elizaldes daughter Missy. The twelve
daughters secretly leave their bedroom at night to travel to an enchanted land and
dance with the princes.
Choreography was done by Lisa Macuja-Elizalde, in collaboration with Francis
Jaena, Sofia Peralta, Rudy de Dios and the Ballet Manila dancers. It featured
fairly simple classical ballet steps with the traditional adagios or slow movements
for the prince and princess. It also featured the comic variations for the scenes
with the king. The colors of the costumes depicted Filipino elements in fiesta
combinations. The music used OPM hits such as Kailangan Kita and Ikaw ang
Lahat Sa Akin arranged by Arnold Buena.

3.

Anting-Anting
This is a horror-comedy wherein the cowardly hero Huan tries to overcome his
fears in order to win his love. The slapstick comedy is enhanced by exaggerated
movements as Huan is later haunted by ghosts that add to his fears for which he
looks for an anting-anting (lucky charm) to ward them off.
Musical arrangements were done by Juan Carlo Magsalin, with choreography by
Osias Barroso in collaboration with Michael Divinagracia. Illustration was done
by Hubert Fucio. Costumes featured farmers clothing for men and kimona/saya
for women.

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These productions of Ballet Manila featuring the six stories in two episodes add visual
excitement and colorful sets and costumes to the interesting fables and tales of Lola
Basyang. With various choreographers, music composers, music arrangers, and illustrators,
the stories were transformed into a wonderland fantasy where the characters come alive.
It is not surprising that the productions have attracted a wide audience, especially among
the young. The appeal of the ballet production came not only from the tales or stories but
also from the dance and music as well.
Lola Basyang Stories in Other Media
Other stories of Lola Basyang which were presented in ballet were also performed in
other media forms, such as movies and television series.
Movies (Sampaguita Pictures):
1. Si Pedrong Walang Takot (Fearless Peter), starring Dolphy as the brave hero
who scares away a giant by means of an enchanted bell.
2. Ang Mahiwagang Kuba (The Enchanted Hunchback), tale of a princess who
marries a hunchback.
3. Ang Dakilang Puso ng Isang Ina (The Noble Heart of a Mother), a family drama.
4. Ang Prinsesang Naging Pulubi (The Princess Who Became a Beggar), a tale of
an overly selective princess in her suitors who later finds true love with a beggar.
Television Series:
1. Ang Prinsesang Unggoy (The Monkey Princess)
2. Ang Walong Bulag (The Eight Blind Men)
3. Maria Alimango (Maria the Crab)
4. Ang Gwapong Sastre (The Handsome Tailor)
5. Ang Mahiwagang Balabal (The Enchanted Cape)
6. Ang Dragon sa Ilog Lingwa (The Dragon at Lake Lingwa)
7. Ang Kastilyong Bakal (The Iron Palace)
8. Prinsesang Kalbo (The Bald Princess)
9. Ang Pitong Hilo (Seven Idiots)
Also included here are a number of stories featured in the movies and Ballet Productions
mentioned above.
1. Ang Alamat ng Manok (Legend of the Chicken), originally Ang Parusa ng Higante
or The Giants Curse
2. Ang Sultan Saif (The Sultan Saif)
3. Parusa ng Dwende (The Dwarfs Curse)
4. Rosa Mistica (Mystical Rose)
5. Ang Binibining Tumalo Sa Hari (The Maiden Who Defeated the King)
6. Ang Prinsipeng Duwag (The Cowardly Prince)
7. Pandakotyong (Pandakotyong)
8. Ang Prinsipeng Mahaba ang Ilong (The Prince With a Long Nose)
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RAMA HARI

Rama Hari, translated as King Rama, is the Philippine adaptation of the Indian epic
Ramayana set to music, dance, and drama. Originally presented on February 8 to 17,
1980, the creative team consisted of Ryan Cayabyab (Music), National Artist Alice Reyes
(Choreography), National Artist Bienvenido Lumbera (Literature), and National Artist
Salvador Bernal (Theater Design), with the CCP Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by
Cayabyab. The major roles were performed by Basil Valdez (Rama), Kuh Ledesma (Sita),
and Leo Valdez (Ravana). The dancers were Nonoy Froilan as the counterpart of Rama,
Effie Nanas/Ester Rimpos as Sita, and Robert Medina as Ravana. The production had
the dancers moving alongside the characters to provide the choreographic interpretation
of their singing and acting. It also featured the song Magbalik Ka Na Mahal sung by Kuh
Ledesma, which was said to be instrumental in launching her music career.

DEPED COPY
The Indian Epic Behind the Musical Production
The Ramayana is one of the two great Indian epics that tell about Indian life around
1000 BC and how dharma was practiced. Later, it became a model of behavior for the
whole Hindu population. Dharma is a type of behavior said to be in accordance with the
order that makes life and the universe possible. According to its meaning, it explains the
expectations in fulfilling duties, respecting rights, observing proper conduct, practicing
virtues, and maintaining a rightful way of living. The epic Ramayana consists of 18
books containing approximately 24,000 verses divided into 500 songs.

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The story revolves around Prince Rama, the eldest son of Dasaratha, King of Ayodha,
who had three wives and four sons Rama, Bharata, and the twins Lakshmana and
Satrughna. Rama, considered the incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. He was in line to
the throne after his father decided to retire. But, the intercession from his stepmother
prevented this succession. She relied on the kings promise to her that he would grant
any two wishes she desired. She opted to have Rama banished to the forest for 14 years.
She wanted to have her own son and Ramas younger stepbrother, Bharata, to ascend the
throne despite the kings pleadings.

Without hesitation and in keeping with the dharma, Rama heeded his stepmothers wish
and moved to the woods of Panchavati. He was accompanied by his wife Sita and younger
brother Lakshmana. Both of whom insisted on going with him. When Bharata learned
about what happened to Rama, he lamented what his mother had done. He sought Rama
in the forest and pleaded with him to return and take his rightful position as king. Rama
refused however, citing his fathers command and her stepmothers wish.
However, Bharata requested instead to bring Ramas sandals. This would be placed on
the kings throne as a symbol of his authority until he returns after 14 years. As the three
spent happy years in the forest, they come across Ravana. He was the ten-headed ruler
of Lanka and one of the forests evil creatures. He abducts Sita and forces her to marry
him. After some mighty battles, Rama is able to kill Ravana and rescue Sita.
However, in keeping again with the dharma and to set a good example, Rama demanded
that she prove her purity first before he could take her back as his wife. To which, Sita
did. They eventually return to Ayodha and Rama becomes king. As with Rama, Sita, and
Bharata, they also set good examples following the dharma. This epic teaches the Indians
to perform their dharma. It t has become a national symbol of divine virtues upon which
their great leaders including Mahatma Gandhi found their inspiration.
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A revival production of Rama Hari was presented at the Cultural Center of the Philippines
from November 30 to December 9, 2012 based on the 1980 version of the same production.
This time, the pop ballet musical featured singers Christian Bautista alternating with OJ
Mariano as Rama, Karylle Tatlonghari/Kalila Aguilos as Sita, and Robert Sena as Ravana.
The character dances were done by Jean Marc Cordero/Richardson Yadao for Rama,
and Carissa Adea/Katherine Trofeo for Sita. Conducting the Manila Symphony Orchestra
was Jeffrey Solares.
The production made use of jeweled costumes with richly embellished ornaments as
headdresses and bangles against a set backdrop that was basically minimalist. The
predominantly red colored-based costumes of the principal characters were enhanced by
the contrasting white flowing attires of the dancers. A related production entitled Rama
at Sita was presented at the University of the Philippines with Ariel Rivera portraying the
role of Rama and Lani Misalucha interpreting Sita. Directing the play was Floy Quintos,
with choreography by Agnes Locsin.

SUMMARY
The Filipino ballets vividly present folktales based on local fables (example, Lola Basyang)
and epics from neighboring regions (example, Indias Ramayana). Highly communicative
movements and steps dramatize the actions in the respective stories. The colorful sets
and costumes add to the luster and attraction of the productions. Although not as
extensively explored as the other performing genres for local adaptation, Filipino ballets
have evoked wide enthusiasm from people of all ages.
Lola Basyang is a ballet adaptation of Severino Reyes folktales Mga Kuwento ni Lola
Basyang. It was meant to instill and rekindle the interest of the Filipino youth in the
beauty, richness, and heritage of Philippine literature.
Rama Hari, translated as King Rama, is the Philippine adaptation of the Indian epic
Ramayana set to music, dance, and drama.

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MUSICAL PLAYS

he musical play is a popular and generally lighter form of musical drama than the
opera. The themes are usually more contemporary, and the musical melodies more
manageable by the average singer. The acting is less intense and dramatic. The
choreography and dance sequences provide visual breaks from the ongoing plots.
Musical plays have been associated with the Broadway plays of New York City and West
End Productions in London, including My Fair Lady, South Pacific, Camelot, West Side
Story, Les Miserables, Phantom of the Opera, Lion King, Beauty and the Beast, Wicked,
Mama Mia, Cats, and Miss Saigon.
Broadway Musicals
The first major Broadway musical was Showboat, which featured the popular mode of
transport in the American frontier. Since then, musicals have presented other themes:
Siamese royalty in The King and I, English aristocracy in My Fair Lady, Austrian history
in The Sound of Music, medieval English tragedy in Camelot, and interracial gang rivalry
and romance in West Side Story. Many Broadway musicals were also made into films.

Scenes from Westside Story

Scene from The Sound of Music

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Broadway musicals are family entertainment with themes and texts which are generally
light and easy to understand. These may include the problems of everyday life, such as
love and romance, social acceptance, jealousy and intrigue, and adventure. The singing is
usually amplified, unlike the operatic quality of classically trained voices.
Thus, many songs from Broadway musicals have become popular hits and some have
achieved semi-classical status because of their sustained popularity. Among these are
Climb Every Mountain from Sound of Music, I Could Have Danced All Night from My
Fair Lady, If I Loved You from Carousel, If Ever I Would Leave You from Camelot,
Some Enchanted Evening from South Pacific, and Sun Moon from Miss Saigon. These
are also widely used for local and school productions because of their popularity, appeal,
and generally less demanding style of singing and acting.
A number of other musicals were adaptations of classical operas. Among these were
Miss Saigon based on Puccinis Madame Butterfly and Aida from Verdis opera with the
same title. While with the advent of technology, modern productions like The Phantom
of the Opera, Les Misrables, Beauty and the Beast, and Lion King have enthralled
audiences with amazing set designs, elaborate costumes, and computer-generated visual
and sound effects.

Lea Salonga on Broadway

Lea Salonga in Miss Saigon

One Filipino artist who attained international status on both Londons West End and
Broadway is Lea Salonga. She is best known for her portrayal of Kim in the musical Miss
Saigon, a role for which she won the prestigious Tony Award for theater in the USA and
the Laurence Olivier Award in London. She also garnered the Drama Desk and Outer
Critics Circle Awards for the same role in the USA. Salonga is the first Filipina to have
won various international awards for a single role.
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Miss Saigon is a musical by Claude-Michel Schnberg and Alain Boublil, with lyrics by
Richard Maltby, Jr. It is a modern adaptation of Giacomo Puccinis opera Madame
Butterfly, which also tells the tragic tale of a doomed romance wherein an Asian woman
is abandoned by her Caucasian lover. The setting of the plot is relocated to the 1970s
Saigon during the Vietnam War, with Madame Butterflys love story between an American
Lieutenant and a Japanese geisha modified into a romance between an American soldier
and a Vietnamese bar girl.
Miss Saigon first opened at West End in London in 1989 and closed in 1994. The London
production became one of the Theatre Royals (Drury Lane) longest running musicals.
Thereafter, it was successfully produced in many cities around the world. The USA
production opened at the Broadway Theatre in New York on April 11, 1991 and closed
on January 28, 2001 after 4,092 performances. It was again re-staged in London in 2014
with a diffrent cast.

Lea Salonga in
Les Miserables

And as Mei-Li in
Flower Drum Song

Following Miss Saigon, Salonga was the first Asian to play the role of Eponine in the
musical Les Misrables, based on the novel of the same title written in 1862 by the
French author Victor Hugo. She also played the role of Mei-Li in Flower Drum Song.

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The Phantom of the Opera


The Phantom of the Opera is a broadway
musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Richard
Stilgoe, with lyrics by Charles Hart and music by
Lloyd Webber. It is based on the novel The
Phantom of the Opera by Gaston Leroux.
The story focuses on a beautiful singer Christine
Daa as she is seduced by a mysterious disfigured
musical genius known as The Phantom of the
Opera. The Phantom lives beneath the Paris
Opera House and terrorizes those who work there. He demands that Christine be the star
of the theaters productions. When the young singer rejects the Phantoms advances and
her lover Raoul intervenes, the Phantom sets no limits in his pursuit of revenge and of
Christines love. However, Christine escapes with Raoul to the roof, where she tells him
about her subterranean rendezvous with the Phantom. Raoul is skeptical but swears to
love and to protect her always, as demonstrated in their song All I Ask of You.
The Phantom of the Opera is one of the longest-running Broadway musicals of all time.
At the 1988 Tony Awards, the Broadway production was nominated for 11 awards and
won seven, including the coveted Best Musical award. The musical also won seven awards
at the 1988 Drama Desk Awards.

Les Misrables
Les Misrables, known as Les Mis, is a
musical composed in 1980 by French
composer Claude-Michel Schnberg with
libretto by Alain Boublil. It is based on the
novel Les Miserables by Victor Hugo. It is
perhaps the most famous of all French
musicals and one of the most famous
musicals performed worldwide.
Les Mis tells the story of paroled convict Jean Valjean who, failing attempts to find work
as an honest man, breaks his chains and conceals his identity in order to live his life again.
Other characters in the musical include the police inspector Javert, who becomes obsessed
with finding Valjean; Fantine, the single mother of Cosette, who is forced to become a
prostitute to support her daughter; Marius, a French student who falls in love with Valjeans
adopted daughter, Cosette; Eponine, the young daughter of the Thnardiers who falls in
love with Marius; the Thnardiers, who own an inn; and Enjolras and other students,
who are working toward freeing the oppressed lower class of France.
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The musical opened in September 1980 at the Palais des Sports in Paris. The first English
production, produced by Mackintosh and directed by Trevor Nunn, opened on October
8, 1985 at the Barbican Arts Centre in London. The Broadway production opened on
March 12, 1987 and was nominated for 12 Tony Awards, winning eight, including Best
Musical and Best Original Score, and ran until 2003.
On October 8, 2006, the show celebrated its 21st anniversary and became the longestrunning West End musical in history and is still running (though it has changed venues).
Its Tony award-winning score includes the songs I Dreamed a Dream, Do You Hear the
People Sing?, One Day More, Empty Chairs at Empty Tables, Master of the House, and
On My Own.

MUSICAL PLAYS
IN THE PHILIPPINES

n the Philippines, the musical play is a more recent development than Broadway and
West End, relying mostly on adaptations from novels, literary works, or biographical
sketches of famous artists.

ANDRES BONIFACIO, ANG DAKILANG ANAK-PAWIS, THE MUSICAL


The musical play Andres Bonifacio: Ang Dakilang Anak-Pawis is a five-act work
commissioned by Alfonso Puyat in 1979, depicting the life of revolutionary hero Andres
Bonifacio. It was co-produced by the Cultural Center of the Philippines and the Andres
Bonifacio Music Foundation, Inc., and was staged again at the CCP Main Theater on
August 20 and 21, 1994
with Jerry Dadap as
composer-conductor
and the late Elmo Makil
as Bonifacio.
In 2014, the UP College
of Music and Andres
Bonifacio Concert Choir
presented their own
version of the musical
play in celebration of the
150th birth anniversary
of Bonifacio.

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The Hero Behind the Musical


Andres Bonifacio was born on November 30, 1863 in Tondo, Manila to Santiago
Bonifacio and Catalina de Castro. Santiago was a tailor, boatman, and local politician,
while Catalina worked in a cigarette-rolling factory. As the eldest of six children, Andres
was forced to give up his plans for higher education to support his younger siblings due
corredor of local raw materials
for J.M. Fleming and Company, a British firm. Later, he worked also as a grocer/bodeguero
for Fressell and Company, a German firm. Bonifacios tragic childhood seemed to have
extended to his adulthood. His first wife, Monica, died at a young age of leprosy. His son
by his second wife, Gregoria de Jesus, died as an infant.
t

In 1892, Bonifacio joined Jose Rizals reformist organization La Liga Filipina. As


Bonifacio worked to revive the organization after Rizals arrest and deportation, he also
founded a new organization called Katipunan along with his friends Ladislao Diwa and
Teodoro Plata. Its complete name was shortened with the initials KKK that stand for
Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng Mga Anak ng Bayan.
The new organization, consisting of people from the lower and middle income groups,
was formed to mount an armed resistance against the Spanish colonizers It generated
wide support from several provinces that also established their respective regional
branches. Bonifacio became the President or Presidente Supremo of the Katipunan in
1895. He continued to attract thousands of followers into the movement. Along with this
development, he and his friends Emilio Jacinto and Pio Valenzuela put up a newspaper
called Kalayaan (Freedom).
In the summer of 1896, the Spanish authorities sensing an armed uprising being hatched,
arrested hundreds of people, including Jose Rizal. Rizal was tried and later executed in
Bagumbayan (now Luneta). This incited Bonifacio and his followers to kick off the revolt.
They tore up their community tax certificates or cedulas as a symbol of defiance against
the government. He proclaimed himself President of the Revolutionary Government and
declared independence on August 23, 1896. He issued a manifesto shortly thereafter for
an attack on Manila. This ignited simultaneous revolts in other places that included San
Juan del Monte, Marikina, Montalban, San Mateo, and Cavite.
During the series of clashes where Bonifacio had mixed results of success and failures, a
young upper-class politician from Kawit, Cavite named Emilio Aguinaldo surfaced. Under
his military leadership, much of the revolts successes were attributed to him because he
was better educated and came from a wealthy and influential family. Thus, in a rigged
election at the rebels Tejeros Convention of 1897, Aguinaldo was elected president of
the Revolutionary Government. The deposed Bonifacio refused to recognize the new
government, causing Aguinaldo to have him arrested. Bonifacio was ultimately tried for
treason and sedition in a sham trial and was sentenced to death. Together with his brother
Procopio, Andres Bonifacio was shot dead on May 10, 1897 at the age of 34.
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ATANG - DULANG MAY MUSIKA


Atang - Dulang May Musika is a musical based on the life of the first superstar of the
Philippines, Atang de la Rama. It starred Ayen Munji-Laurel, Shamaine Centenera
Buencamino, Frances Makil-Ignacio, Kalila Aguilos, Teroy Guzman, Greg de Leon, Mitoy
Sta. Ana, Ricky Ibe, Meynard Pealosa, Bituin Escalante and the Dulaang UP Ensemble.
Biography of Atang de la Rama
H

was more popularly known as Atang


de la Rama. She was a singer,
bodabil performer, and the first
Filipina film actress. She was born
in Tondo, Manila on January 11,
1902 and died on July 11, 1991. By
the age of 7, she was already
performing in a number of Spanish
zarzuelas including Mascota, Sueo
de un Vals, and Marina. Later, at the age of 15, she became popular with the song
Nabasag ang Banga in the Filipino zarzuela Dalagang Bukid.
During the American Occupation, Atang almost singlehandedly tried to promote the
kundiman (love song or art song) and the Filipino zarzuela. The themes centered on
Filipino values and lifestyles. Her efforts paid off as the success of original Filipino zarzuelas
such as Dalagang Bukid became quite well known. She produced the plays Anak ni Eva
and Bulaklak ng Kabundukan that earned her the label as Queen of the Kundiman and
Zarzuela in 1979.
Her further stints at major theaters in Manila including Teatro Libertad and Teatro Zorilla
became opportunities for her to propagate the kundiman and zarzuela. Other makeshift
venues were the cockpits and open plazas around the country. Her audiences ranged
from the tribal communities of the Igorots, Aetas, and the Mangyans to the foreign
spectators in Hawaii, San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, Tokyo, Shanghai, and
Hongkong. In 1987, she was proclaimed National Artist for Theater and Music for her
dedication and propagation of original Filipino theater and music. She was married to
National Artist for Literature Amado V. Hernandez.

Atang, The Musical


The musical play Atang, written by Floy Quintos, directed by Alexander Cortes, and
with music by Von de Guzman, was shown at the Guerrero Theater, Palma Hall in UP
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Diliman in 2008 as part of the Zarzuela Festival organized by the UP College of Arts and
Letters. Playing the title role were Ayen Munji-Laurel, Sharmaine Centerera-Buencamino,
Frances Makil-Ignacio, and Anna Migallos, supported by Bituin Escalante as Katy de la
Cruz, Teroy Guzman as Ka Amado (Atangs husband), and Frances Makil as the old
Atang. The songs rendered by Ms. Laurel (Atang) included notable kundiman favorites
Nasaan Ka Irog, Pakiusap, Madaling Araw, Nabasag ang Banga (from the zarzuela
Dalaging Bukid), and Masayang Dalaga (from the zarzuela Ang Kiri).

Atang - Dulang May Musika staged at UP Diliman in 2008

Ayen Munji-Laurel, as Atang


Sharmaine Centenera-Buencamino,
alternating as Atang

She also sang duets with her husband Ka Amado such as Kitang Dalawa and Pilipinas
Kong Mahal. But what elicited enthusiastic audience response were the duets with Katy
de la Cruz, Magkano ang Bibingka Mo? and Mamang Gusting. The play also featured
the two men in Atangs life General Artemio Ricarte and her husband, National Artist
for Literature Amado Hernandez. Kitang Dalawa was originally a poem by Hernandez
dedicated to his wife, which Von de Guzman brought to life with his music.
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KATY! THE MUSICAL


The musical Katy! is about the life of bodabil (vaudeville) star Katy de la Cruz. It was
initially presented by Actors Studio East Production in 1988. The play commissioned
Ryan Cayabyab for the music and Jose Javier Reyes for the lyrics. It starred Mitch Valdes
in the title role.

Biography of Katy de la Cruz


Catalina de la Cruz was born in Bustos, Bulacan on
February 13, 1907 and died on November 10, 2004.
Popularly known as Katy de la Cruz, she was hailed
as the Queen of Filipino Jazz and Queen of
Bobadil.
Her career spanned eight decades, during which time she became the highest paid Filipino
entertainer. She appeared in films, jazz venues, theaters, and bodabil, the Filipino
counterpart of the American vaudeville. Bodabil contained songs and dances, slapstick
comedy routines, and magic acts, with chorus girls providing musical and dance support.
It became popular in the Philippines from 1910 to the mid 1960s, and was often used to
fill in gaps between short Spanish zarzuelas or between acts of longer ones.
Among the leading bodabil performers during its heyday were Bayani Casimiro (referred
to as the Fred Astaire of the Philippines), Eddie Mesa (Elvis Presley of the Philippines),
Diomedes Maturan (Perry Como of the Philippines), and Nora Aunor. Katys formal
schooling ended when she was just in the third grade. In its place, she became active in
show business. She started at the age of seven when she was hired by a Manila film
theater to sing to the movie audience in between movie screenings.
Those routines would later evolve into the bodabil (Filipino counterpart of Vaudeville),
where Katy would learn her songs by listening to phonograph records and the English
language from her brother. As a rising star in the bodabil circuit, she had the opportunity
to perform alongside Atang de la Rama. Soon, she became the main performer in Manilas
largest theaters such as the Savoy, Palace, and Lux. Among her co-performers were
prominent entertainers Chichay, Etang Discher, Patsy, and Mary Walter.
Katy became associated with the jazz genre when it became nationally popular in the
1920s. Her signature piece was the St. Louis Blues. At the same time, she was able to
master the art of scat singing, a vocal improvisation without words in favor of nonsense
syllables. In the 1930s, she became identified with the song Balut, inspired by the local
duck egg delicacy. The song is still sung by performers like Pilita Corrales, New Minstrels,
and Lani Misalucha. She would also appear occasionally in films. She received the FAMAS
Best Supporting Actress in 1953 for her role in the film Inspirasyon.
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When bodabil started to decline, Katy decided to concentrate on concert performances


and international tours. Some of the foreign venues included the Forbidden City nightclub
in San Francisco. She also performed in popular casinos of Las Vegas and the concert
halls of Thailand, Taiwan, Australia, Singapore, and Hawaii. She retired in San Francisco.
Occasional performances, though, would still dot her schedules until the late 1980s. Of
her four children, two followed her career path. The eldest Angie, being the more active,
paired with Nikki Ross to form the Wing Duo. This was a popular bodabil tandem in the
50s. Her other child in show business was Veronica. Retiring from active life in the
1990s, Katy died at the age of 97.

The Musical
The opening scene of the musical Katy! starts with a visit by Katy, already in her old age,
to the theater where she used to perform during her glorious past. Learning that it would
soon be closing down, Katy reminisces on her past. The musical unfolds as a retrospect
of her performances.

Other roles were portrayed by Tenten Muoz as the young Katy, Celeste Legaspi as
Olivia, Bernardo Bernardo as Tatay, Marco Sison as Peping, Robert Sea as Dolphy,
Pinky Marquez as Hanna, Arlene Borja as Patsy, and Gigi Posadas as Mary. In January
2013, the revival of the musical was held at the Cultural Center of the Philippines Main
Theater, co-produced with the Spotlight Artists Centre. It was presented again at the
Meralco Theater from July to August of the same year. Portraying the title role was Isay
Alvarez Sea, supported by Aicelle Santos as Teen Katy, Yedda Lambujon/Leana Tabunar
as the young Katy, Dulce as Olivia, Tirso Cruz III as Tatay, Gian Magdangal as Peping,
Epi Quizon as Dolphy, Tricia Jimenez as Hanna, Celine Fabie as Patsy, and CJ Mangahis
as Mary. Some songs in the musical included Minsan Ang Minahal Ay Ako; Saging;
Luha sa Kinalimutang Lupa; Aba, ba, ba; Boogie; and Tingnan Mo Nga Naman.
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FLORANTE AT LAURA, THE MUSICAL


The musical Florante at Laura was presented by Tanghalang Pilipino at the CCP Little
Theater (Tanghalang Aurelio Tolentino) from July 7 to 24, 1988. This was in celebration
of the 200th birth anniversary of the author Francisco Balagtas-Baltazar. The musical
was selected as the official Philippine entry to the first ASEAN Theater Festival in August
1988.
The music and musical arrangements were
done by Nonong Buencamino, based on
the book and lyrics of Tony Perez.
Directed by Nonon Padilla, the production
team included National Artist Salvador
Bernal for set and costume design, Bobby
Roces for lighting design, and Christine
Blando for choreography.
The lead roles were played by Bimbo
Cerrudo and Ronnie Quizon alternating
as Florante (Makata), Joanne Lorenzana/
Rina Reyes as Laura (Musa), Audie Gemora/Tony Marino as Adolfo (Lalaking Nakaitim),
Dio Marco/Carlo Orosa as Aladin (Estudyante), Celeste Bueno/Gina Wilson as Flerida
(Dalagita), Nonie Buencamino/Jake Macapagal as Minandro (Pusong-Babae), and
Armand Malig as Sultan Ali-Adab (Matandang Negosyante).

The Tale Behind the Musical


This tale by Francisco Balagtas-Baltazar takes place in a remote tropical jungle between
the mythical kingdoms of Albania and Persia. Two desperate warriors are lamenting the
fates that have befallen them. Florante, a Christian duke from Crotona formerly bethrothed
to Princess Laura of Albania, has been banished to die as a result of a coup led by his
scheming cousin Adolfo. Aladin, a weak Muslim prince from Persia, has also been banished
by his father, the Sultan Ali-Adab, for deserting his troops in battle.
Count Adolfos hatred for Florante started during their early school days in Athens.
During that time, Florante excelled in academics, sports, and the arts while Adolfo was
far behind the achievements of his cousin. He in fact attempted to kill Florante during a
school play out of jealousy, but the latter was saved by his best friend Menandro. As a
result, Adolfo was expelled from the school and sent back to Albania. The two meet
again during the funeral of Florantes mother in Albania.
An emissary from Crotona, Florantes birthplace, arrives at Albania to report to King
Linceo that the Persian general Osmalic has invaded their kingdom, and that Crotona
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also is in need of military aid. Florante offers to lead the Albanian troops to fight the
Persians, to the great distress of the kings daughter, Princess Laura because she is secretly
in love with him.
Florantes troops subdue the Muslims in Crotona, and a great celebration takes place. In
the midst of the revelry, Florante recalls the memory of Laura and her beauty. He heads
back to Albania without his knowing that the Turkish general Miramolin has invaded
defenseless Albania and imprisoned the royal household during his absence. Florante and
his troops arrive in time to rescue the monarchy and repel the Muslims, among them is
Aladin. After being badly wounded by Florante, he deserts his army and escapes back to
Persia.
Insane with jealousy over Florantes two victories and Lauras affection for him, Adolfo
plans to overthrow the monarchy and orders the execution of all government leaders. He
abducts Laura and exiles Florante to the jungle, where he is bound to a tree and left at the
mercy of the lions.
Aladins fate is a result of his intense love for Flerida. She is a Muslim maiden who
unknown to him, is desired by his own father, the Sultan Ali-Adab. He contrived to get
rid of his son in order to court Flerida. The Sultan sends Aladin with his troops to assist
Miramolin in capturing Albania. Reluctantly, Aladin prepares for battle as Flerida grieves.
Aladin wounded by Florante in Albania, he retreats and returns to Persia. His father
sentences him to death for abandoning his troops.
Pleading for the life of her beloved Aladin, Flerida consents to marry the Sultan and
thereby manages to reduce Aladins sentence. He is merely banished from the kingdom.
Aladin is released from prison and leaves Persia hastily without seeing Flerida. Upon
arrival in the jungle, he again meets Florante and frees him from bondage out of compassion
for a fellow outcast.
Minandro leads a rebellion in Albania and successfully overthrows Adolfos dictatorship.
Adolfo takes Laura and escapes to the jungle. He tries to court Laura, but is rejected. So,
he tries to overpower and rape her. On the eve of her wedding to the Sultan, Flerida
disguises herself as a warrior and slips out of the palace to look for Aladin. She decides
to hide in the jungle, where she comes upon Adolfo and Laura. Seeing Laura struggling
to free herself from the hands of Adolfo, Flerida shoots him with an arrow and kills him.
Like Florante and Aladin, the two ladies share their personal tragedies.
The four ill-starred lovers meet in the jungle in a joyful reunion amidst their respective
freedoms. They all travel to Albania, where Aladin and Flerida are converted to Christianity.
Florante marries Laura, and Aladin marries Flerida in a jubilant double wedding. The
reunited couple reigns as king and queen. Meanwhile, upon receiving news of the death
of Sultan Ali-Adab, Aladin and Flerida travel back to Persia to rule as the new Sultan and
his wife.
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20th and 21st Century Multimedia Forms

Synopsis of the Musical


The musical is an adaptation of the original Florante at Laura where damned souls are
given the chance to be saved from eternal damnation if they can prove the existence of
true love. They are then transformed into the characters portrayed in the Florante at
Laura story, where a happy ending liberates the two unfortunate pairs of lovers.
The Makata (Poet) portrays the
role of Florante as the story
unfolds. Thrown in prison by a
wealthy rivals evil plotting,
Makata pines for his beloved. He
writes her a farewell letter and then
slashes his wrists. Makata then
descends into Disko Averno, an
urban hell where all desperate
souls who commit suicide out of
love are sent.
Makata meets Pusong Babae (Homosexual) who hanged himself to end his love for his
best friend; Matandang Negosyante (Old Businessman) who shot himself out of guilt for
falling in love with his daughter-in-law; Dalagita (Young Woman) who leaped from a tall
building for being torn between her love for father and son; and Estudyante (Student)
who had a drug overdose upon learning about his fathers love affair with his girlfriend.
He also meets Lalaking Nakaitim (Man in Black) who presides over the disco and
welcomes him as a new guest.
Now on the brink of death, Makata hears the song of his Musa (Muse) as he clings to his
last strand of life. Eager to acquire his soul, Lalaking Nakaitim agrees to propose a deal:
Makata can escape eternal damnation only if he can prove the existence of true love.
Lalaking Nakaitim stages a play in the Lungsod (City) outside Disko Averno, and
designates roles to the disco dancers Pusong Babae becomes Minandro, Matandang
Negosyante is Sultan Ali-Adab, Dalagita is Flerida, Estudyante is Aladin, Makata is
Florante (himself), and Lalaking Nakaitim is Adolfo. When the play is over and with
their true love finally proven, Pusong Babae, Matandang Negosyante, Dalagita, and
Estudyante are finally liberated from hell.
Makata finds himself in his prison cell once more. A messenger informs him that his
beloved and his rival have been wed, but that his beloved shed tears upon reading Makatas
letter. In a final appearance, the Muse descends toward the Makata to bestow him with
her gift the inspiration to write a verse epic (Awit) about love. The featured songs
include Pag-ibig ay Laging May Panahon, Sa Gubat, Prutas at Lason, Isang Basong
Pag-ibig, Awit ng Lumbay ni Florante, Ligaya ng Dibdib, and Sa Loob at Labas.
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MUSIC

Quarter IV

DARAGANG MAGAYON
The musical play Daragang Magayon is a
production for poetry and mixed media for male
and female narrators, female voice, two
percussionists, two pianists, and two dancers. It was
first presented at the Cultural Center of the
Philippines Loading Dock in March 1991. It was
produced by the CCP Womens Desk and the
Coordinating Center for Dance to mark Womens
Month based on a poem by Merlinda C. Bobis.
The music was composed by National Artist Ramon
P. Santos, with choreography by Hazel Sabas, set
and lighting design by Katsch SJ Catoy, and costume Ea Torrado as Magayon in the 2013
design by Julie Lluch Dalena. The readers were restaging of Daragang Magayon
Dindo Angeles and Dessa Quesada, the vocalist was
Johanna Cabili, while the musicians were Josefino Chino Toledo, Verne de la Pea,
Mauricia Borromeo, and Leticia del Valle. It also featured dancers Wendy Panganiban
and Brando Miranda assisted by Ballet Philippines and the New Zealand Ballet.

The Myth Behind the Musical


This myth on the origin of Mount Mayon is centered on an immortal tale of love familiar
to all people in the Bicol region. They would like to believe that the lovers Magayon, the
beautiful maiden for whom the volcano is named, and her lover Ulap must be kissing.
The only daughter of local chieftain Makusog, Magayon falls in love with Ulap, the
brave son of a neighboring tribes chieftain. However, a jealous suitor named Pagtuga
kidnaps Makusog and threatens to kill him unless Magayon marries him instead of Ulap.
With hands tied in order to save her fathers life, Magayon sadly agrees.
Just as they are about to be wed, Ulap appears at the ceremony and kills Pagtuga.
Magayon rushes into Ulaps arms but she is unfortunately struck by a stray arrow. As she
lies dying in his arms, Ulap is also fatally stabbed in the back by one of Pagtugas men.
The two lovers are laid to rest. The mound of earth under which they are buried grows
bigger with the passage of time. Eventually, the mound rises up to become known as the
volcano with a perfect cone, named Mayon.
The breathtaking symmetry of Mt. Mayon has inspired visual and performing artists
alike. An example of this is composer Francisco Buencaminos Fantasy for Piano and
Orchestra, Mayon, depicting the carefree life in the region until the volcano erupts and
destroys all life and vegetation. When the dust settles, however, the people return to their
usual chores and enjoy life once more.
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20th and 21st Century Multimedia Forms

Restaging of Daragang Magayon


The restaging of the original musical play was held at the CCP Main Theater on February
8, 2013, followed by another one in Albay entitled Daragang Magayon: An Istorya ni
Mayon. This musical revival was a production of E-Dance Theater and it was also
supported by the Bicol Provincial Government. The aim was to revitalize its tourism
program that would highlight the rich cultural heritage of Bicol. A major twist was the
use of technology and multimedia. It included film and animation and some dance revisions
to meet the choreographic demands of the new production directed by Katrina Santos
Mercado.
It was also highlighted by the involvement of National Artist for Literature Virgilio Almario
for poetry, Albay poet laureate (one who is regarded by a country or region as its most
eminent or representative poet) Abdon Balde for dramaturgy (the art or technique of
dramatic composition and theatrical representation), and Gerald Mercado for
choreography. The music of Ramon Santos was retained. The composer himself conducted
an ensemble consisting of the UP Rondalla, Novo Concertante Manila Choir, and singers
Stefanie Diclas Quintin (soprano), Agrifino Jonaf del Fierro (bass), and Jay-El Viteno
(tenor). The major characters were played by Ea Torrado as Magayon, Victor Maguad as
Ulap, Francis Cascano as Pagtuga, and Marcus Tolentino as Makusog. The costume
designer was Julie Lluch Dalena.

NOLI ME TANGERE, THE MUSICAL

The musical play Noli Me Tangere was staged at the CCP Little Theater from February
1 to 4, 1996 as a production of Tanghalang Pilipino. The creative team included Ryan
Cayabyab as composer and musical director, National Artist Bienvenido Lumbera as
librettist, Edna Vida as choreographer, National Artist Salvador Bernal as set and costume
designer, Masaaki Sano as lighting designer, Gerry Fernandez as associate lighting designer,
and Nonon Padilla as stage director.
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MUSIC

Quarter IV

The role of Crisostomo Ibarra is alternately played by John Arcilla and Audie Gemora,
Maria Clara by Gigi Posadas, Padre Damaso by Bodjie Pascua/Bernardo Bernardo, Padre
Bernardo Salvi by Eugene Villaluz/Raul Roxas, Elias by Calvin Millado/Raul Roxas,
Kapitan Santiago de los Santos by Lito Villareal, Doa Victorina de los Reyes by Sheila
Francisco/Peaches Gallegos, Sisa by Irma Adlawan/Mia Ongsiako, Tia Isabel by Clottie
Gealogo/Alma May Dalida, and Alfonso Linares by Roden Araneta.
The musical play closely follows the storyline of the original novel and the opera. There
are slight differences in the partitioning of the story into the different acts, in the
dramatization of the ending, as well as in the music and libretto which are entirely exclusive
between opera and musical play.
The musical play assumes a more contemporary approach in the musical compositions
owing to Cayabyabs chromatic and rhythmically innovative style, as compared with de
Leons highly tonal and more lyrical character. Selected songs in the musical include Sa
Muling Pagkikita, Dalawang Liham, Tatlong Sulok ng Pag-ibig, Ang Mga Sawimpalad,
Ang Multo sa Lawa, Ang Totoo ay Totoo, and Sa Bagtasan ng Mga Landas.
The musical play had its rerun in 2011 during the 150th anniversary of Rizals birth, and
again in 2013, both times at the CCP Little Theater.

EL FILIBUSTERISMO, THE MUSICAL


The musical play El Filibusterismo is a two-act play that was staged at the CCP Main
Theater from August 8 to 10, 1997 as a production of Tanghalang Pilipino. The creative
team was composed of Ryan Cayabyab for music,
Jovy Miroy for the libretto, Edna Vida for the
choreography, National Artist Salvador Bernal for
the set and costume design, and Nonon Padilla for
stage direction.
The role of Simoun/Crisostomo Ibarra was
alternately played by John Arcilla and Bernardo
Bernardo. Josephine Roces was Maria Clara, Emmy
P. Cayabyab and Melani Mabilangan alternated as
Paulita Gomez, Miguel Vera was Isagani, and Ariel
Dayanghirang was Basilio. They were
complemented by a large chorus.
The musical play closely follows the Rizal novel,
whose major character Crisostomo Ibarra disguised
as Simoun. He returns to Manila from thirteen years of absence in order to find his
beloved Maria Clara. Another reason is to stage a revolution to emancipate the country
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20th and 21st Century Multimedia Forms

from colonial rule. His plots would fail more than once. The first attempt fails because of
the death of Maria Clara. The second attempt fails after his bomb plot was foiled during
a wedding festivity by his associates Basilio and Isagani. Simoun would later take shelter
in the house of Padre Florentino after escaping arrest by the authorities for his plots. He
commits suicide there through poisoning. The play ends with Isagani witnessing a religious
procession as Simoun lay dead from his own frustrations and desolation.

MAGSIMULA KA, THE MUSICAL


The musical play Magsimula Ka by Gines Tan was staged at the CCP Main Theater from
April 7 to 24, 1988. As the winner of the CCP Playwriting Contest in 1983, it became
one of the longest running musicals at the CCP. Later, it underwent a series of revivals in
the ensuing years while some of its initial lead performers eventually became stars in their
own right.
Magsimula Ka is the story of young dreamers
whose ambitions begin to fade in lifes realities.
They are part of the graduating class filled with
hope but end up compromising their idealism
for their own survival. Miguel is a young
composer whose father forces him to forego
his music in favor of a business career. Monina
wants to be a social worker to help the less
privileged but is discouraged by the problems
that go with the profession. Mandy has a
beautiful voice but circumstances lead him
instead to singing in a cheap beer garden for
lack of support. Mario is a talented scriptwriter
whose creativity is directed to writing sex
advice columns in a tabloid.
The play responds to the young peoples lingering question of whether there is hope for
them in this cruel world. A major factor in realizing this hope is to start and uphold ones
talent or ambition despite all odds. These are evident when they meet a disabled girl
whom they befriend and teach how to overcome her physical and psychological suffering;
when the beer garden hostesses where Mandy sings take pride in themselves; when
Miguels mother finds fulfillment in her sons eventual success; or when Miguels younger
sister plays a crucial role in his reconciliation with their father.
The three boys Miguel, Mandy, and Mario decide to join a national pop-song
competition Philippop and reach the final stage. The finals represent the crucial part of
the play where the songs of equally talented groups are also performed. Here, the cast of
veteran singers form part of the competition. A romance also develops between Miguel
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MUSIC

Quarter IV

and Monina. The climactic song Magsimula Ka is a fitting theme for the musical and its
contestants in search of fame and fortune.
The cast was a combination of veteran singers and new talents that included Dio Marco
alternating with Joey Lorenzo as Miguel, Isay Alvarez as Monina, Armand Malig/Bobby
Martino as Mandy, and Albert Jimenez/Rico Villavert as Mario. Others in the cast included
Jograd de la Torre as Jograd, Beverly Salviejo as Manang, Oby Castaeda/Edna Triste as
Mr. and Mrs. Madrigal, Shielu Bharwani as Millie, and Alana Soriano as Della. Veteran
guest performers were Celeste Legaspi, Leah Navarro, Leo Valdez, Marco Sison, Pat
Castillo, Rico J. Puno, Dulce, Angelique Lazo, Carlo Orosa, and Gigi Posadas. The
composer/musical director was Gines Tan, while the musical arranger was Ryan Cayabyab.
Choreography was by Edna Vida, set design by Ferdie Jingco, light design by Monino
Duque, sound design by Mylo Sarmiento, and costume coordination by Edgar Alegre.
Direction was by Nestor U. Torre.
Numerous songs in the play eventually became popular hits. These include: Magandang
Gabi, Buhay Kot Pag-ibig, Kundi Ka Masilayan, Kahit Kailanman, Ialay Sa Akin, PaIstaran, Hiyas Na Pugad, Ang Nais Ko, Katuwaan, Ang Dapat Masunod, Buhay ng
Atsay/Kilabot ng Atsay, Mundoy Laging Bata, Mahirap Magpalaki ng Magulang,
DeliaDinggin Mo!, Halaga ng Buhay, Pano Kita Liligawan?, Mga Diwatang Kalapati,
Kahit Saan, Kahit Kailan, Halina Sa Baclaran, Munting Habilin, Sinong Magwawagi,
Sinong Masasawi?, Higit Kailan Pa Man, and Ang Katutubong Pilipina. For the
Philippop Finals, the song entries included Pangarap, Pag-ibig, Pag-asa, May Dilim,
May Liwanag, Kahit Isang Dukha, May Langit Ding Malalasap, Buhay Disco, Sisikat
Din Ako, Tanging Ikaw Lamang, Sa Tuwing Kapiling Ka, and Magsimula Ka.
A revival of the musical was held at the Music Museum, with one of the original stars
Isay Alvarez and her husband Robert Sea as producer and director, respectively. Opening
with the Philippop scene, the guest stars were Jamie Rivera, Isay Alvarez Sea, Robert
Sea, and Jenine Desiderio.
The scene turns back the clock to the graduation ceremony of four friends Miguel
(Poppert Bernadas), Mandy (Myke Salomon), Mario (Fredison Lo), and Monina (Ciara
Sotto). It also featured Ana Feleo as Miguels mother.
The theme song Magsimula Ka won three major prizes Song of the Year Award in the
First Cecil Awards of 1982, Grand Prize award in the First ASEAN Song Festival in
1981, and the Third Prize award in the 4th Metro Manila Popular Music Festival in 1981.
The popularity of the play resulted in its elevation into a full-length musical with the
same title that won the 1983 CCP Playwriting Contest. This has been performed more
than 80 times around the country.

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20th and 21st Century Multimedia Forms

SUMMARY
In the Philippines, the musical play is a more recent development than its Broadway and
West End counterparts, relying mostly on adaptations from novels, literary works, or
biographical sketches of famous artists.
The musical play entitled Andres Bonifacio: Ang Dakilang Anak-Pawis is a five-act
work commissioned by Alfonso Puyat in 1979, depicting the life of revolutionary hero
Andres Bonifacio. Music was by Jerry Dadap.
The musical play Atang - Dulang May Musikal, written by Floy Quintos and directed by
Alexander Cortes, was shown at UP Diliman in 2008 as part of the Zarzuela Festival
organized by the UP College of Arts and Letters. It is a musical based on the life of the
first superstar of the Philippines, Atang Dela Rama.
The musical Katy! is about the life of bodabil star Katy de la Cruz. It was initially presented
by Actors Studio East Production in 1988. The music and musical arrangements were
done by Nonong Buencamino, based on the book and lyrics of Tony Perez. The play
commissioned Ryan Cayabyab for the music, Jose Javier Reyes for the lyrics, and starred
Mitch Valdes in the title role.
The musical Florante at Laura was presented by Tanghalang Pilipino at the CCP Little
Theater (Tanghalang Aurelio Tolentino) from July 7 to 24, 1988 in celebration of the
200th birth anniversary of the author Francisco Balagtas-Baltazar. It was selected as the
official Philippine entry to the first ASEAN Theater Festival in August 1988.
The musical play Daragang Magayon, a production for poetry and mixed media for
male and female narrators, female voice, two percussionists, two pianists, and two dancers,
is based on a poem by Merlinda C. Bobis. It was first presented at the Cultural Center of
the Philippines Loading Dock on March 1 and 2, 1991. It was produced by the CCP
Womens Desk and the Coordinating Center for Dance to celebrate Womens Month.
The musical play on Noli Me Tangere was staged at the CCP Little Theater from February
1 to 4, 1996 as a production of Tanghalang Pilipino. The creative team included Ryan
Cayabyab as Composer and Musical Director, National Artist Bienvenido Lumbera as
Librettist, Edna Vida as Choreographer, National Artist Salvador Bernal as Set and
Costume Designer, Masaaki Sano as Lighting Designer, Gerry Fernandez as Associate
Lighting Designer, and Nonon Padilla as Stage Director. The musical play closely follows
the storyline of the original novel and the opera. The musical play assumes a more
contemporary approach in the musical compositions owing to Cayabyabs chromatic and
rhythmically innovative style.

181
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MUSIC

Quarter IV

The musical play on El Filibusterismo was staged at the CCP Main Theater from August
8 to 10, 1997 as a production of Tanghalang Pilipino. The creative team was composed
Libretto, Edna Vida for the Choreography,
National Artist Salvador Bernal for the Set and Costume Design, and Nonon Padilla for
Stage Direction. The musical play closely follows the Rizal novel, whose major character
Crisostomo Ibarra disguised as Simoun.
o

The musical play Magsimula Ka by Gines Tan was staged at the CCP Main Theater from
April 7 to 24, 1988. As the winner of the CCP Playwriting Contest in 1983, it became
one of the longest running musicals at the CCP. Later, it underwent a series of revivals in
the ensuing years while some of its initial lead performers eventually became stars in their
own right. Magsimula Ka is the story of young dreamers whose ambitions begin to fade
in lifes realities. They are part of the graduating class filled with hope but end up
compromising their idealism for their own survival. The play responds to the young
peoples lingering question of whether there is hope for them in this cruel world. A major
factor in realizing this hope is to start and uphold ones talent or ambition despite all
odds.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

How did the different forms of Philippine opera, ballet, and musical plays
reflect life in the 20th century?

2.

Discuss the characteristics of Philippine opera, ballet, musical play, and


other multi-media forms. Explain your answers.

3.

What role did media and social media play in the development of these
musical genres specifically the radio, television, video, and recordings?

Explain how theatrical elements in a selected part of a musical play are


combined with music and media to achieve certain effects.

5.

Describe how an idea or story in a musical play is presented in a live


performance.

6.

Describe how an idea or story in a musical play is presented in a music


video.

7.

How is Broadway music relevant to life in the 20th century?

8.

Discuss some characteristics of Broadway music that made it popular.

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20th and 21st Century Multimedia Forms

WHAT TO PROCESS
Listening and Singing Activities
1.

Your teacher will divide the class into three groups. Each group will be
assigned to research lyrics of three musical excerpts of any opera, Broadway
musical, and Philippine musical play.

2.

Your teacher will play musical excerpts from the songs listed below.

3.

Listen to the selections to appreciate the music.

4.

Sing the selections expressively together with the recordings or from the
internet (You Tube), using the lyrics that you researched. Time allotment
for each group is five (5) to ten (10) minutes only.

5.

You may add choreography and use musical instruments, if needed.

6.

Your teacher will evaluate the performance based on: musicianship (musical
elements) 50%, audience impact 20%, stage presence 20%, stage discipline
and deportment10%.

7.

Your teacher will announce the Best Performance award.


Songs from Philippine Operas
a.
La Loba Negra (Napakahaba na ng Gabi)
b.
Noli Me Tangere (Kay Tamis ng Buhay, Huwag mo akong pabayaan,
Awit ng Gabi ni Sisa)
c.
El Filibusterismo
Songs from Broadway Musicals
a.
Phantom of the Opera (All I Ask of You, Music of the Night, Think of
Me, Phantom of the Opera)
b.
West Side Story (I Have a Dream, Somewhere, Maria, Tonight)
c.
Carousel (If I Loved You, Youll Never Walk Alone )
d. Sound of Music (My Favorite Things, Eidelweiss, Do Re Mi, So
Long Farewell, The Lonely Goatherd, Maria, and The Sound of Music)
e.
Miss Saigon (Sun and Moon, Movie in My Mind, Id Give My Life
for You, I Still Believe, Last Night of the World)
f.
Les Miserables (On My Own, I Dreamed a Dream, Empty Chairs
and Empty Tables, Do You Hear the People Sing?, Castle on a Cloud)
g. Beauty and the Beast (Something There, Be Our Guest, If I Cant
Love Her, A Change in Me, Beauty and the Beast)

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MUSIC

Quarter IV

Songs from Philippine Musical Plays


a.
Noli Me Tangere (Buksan Mo ang Iyong mga Mata, Paalam na
Pag-ibig,Sa Muling Pagkikita, Dalawang Liham, Tatlong Sulok ng
Pag-ibig, Ang Mga Sawimpalad, Ang Multo sa Lawa, Ang Totoo ay
Totoo, Sa Bagtasan ng Mga Landas)
b.
El Filibusterismo (Awit ng Isang Lawin, Aklas)
c.
Andres Bonifacio: Ang Dakilang Anak-Pawis (Marangal na Dalit
ng Katagalugan, La Deportacion, Awit ng Manggagawa, Anuman
Gagawin)
d. Katy! (Balut!; Ang Entablado ay Mundo; Tale, Tale; Pahiram ng
Kanta; Tupada; Bituing Tahimik; Minsan ang Minahal ay Ako)
e.
Atang - Dulang May Musika (Nasaan Ka Irog, Pakiusap, Madaling
Araw, Nabasag ang Banga (from the zarzuela Dalaging Bukid),
Masayang Dalaga)
f.
Florante at Laura (Pag-ibig ay Laging May Panahon, Sa Gubat,
Prutas at Lason, Isang Basong Pag-ibig, Awit ng Lumbay ni Florante,
Ligaya ng Dibdib, Sa Loob at Labas)
g. Daragang Magayon (note: research on You Tube)
h.
Magsimula Ka (Magandang Gabi, Magsimula Ka, Pangarap, Pagibig, Pag-asa, May Dilim, May Liwanag, Kahit Isang Dukha, May
Langit Ding Malalasap, Buhay Disco, Sisikat Din Ako, Tanging Ikaw
Lamang, Sa Tuwing Kapiling Ka)

Enrichment Activities
Watch Live / TV Performances
1. Watch live performances of Philippine opera, ballet, and musical plays that
had been discussed in class if available in your area, or watch live
performances on TV or the internet.
2. Watch a live performance of a Western opera (ex: Rigoletto, Tosca, La
Traviata, Aida), ballet (ex: Swan Lake, Nutcracker), or a Broadway musical,
or watch video clips or excerpts on TV or the internet.
3. Write a reaction paper on what you have watched.

Video Clips
1. You will be divided into four groups.
2. Together with your groupmates, explore how multi-media arts can be used
to portray 20th century musical styles (Philippine opera, ballet, musical
plays, and Broadway musicals) through a five-minute video clip using your
digital cameras or mobile phones.
3. You may use the internet as your reference.
4. Show and discuss your video works in class.
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20th and 21st Century Multimedia Forms

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
Group Activity. Your teacher will divide the class into four groups.
1.

Within your group, brainstorm among yourselves one work from each of
the following musical forms:
a.
one Philippine opera
b.
one Philippine musical play
c.
one Philippine ballet

2.

Create a short musical work (opera, ballet, or musical play) using media
and technology. You may use local folktales, legends, history, biographies
of heroes, and customs and traditions as themes of your musical work.

3.

Create or improvise appropriate sounds, music, gestures, movements, and


costumes using media and technology.

4.

For the music, you may compose your own songs or you may use or adapt
the melody of existing songs such as folksongs, indigenous music of your
area, pop, classical, Broadway, and OPM. Then, write your own lyrics suited
to the melody for the song adaptation.

5.

What insights did I gain from this activity?

WHAT TO PERFORM
Group or Individual Activities
1.

Concert - Live Performance of Philippine musicals and Broadway musicals


a.

The class will be divided into two groups.

b.

Each group will present an excerpt of a 20th or 21st century Philippine


musical and an excerpt of a Broadway musical.

c.

Highlight the similarities and differences between these two forms of


musicals.

d.

You may use musical instruments as accompaniment for your music works
or you may perform a capella (without accompaniment).

e.

Use props and costumes, if needed.

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MUSIC

2.

Quarter IV

Recording or Music Video


a.

Your group leader will choose 1 or 2 members to record the performance


of your group members using a cassette recorder or make a music video
using your cellular phone, digital camera, or video camera.

b.

Play the recorded performance or show the music video to your classmates.

c.

Your teacher will choose the Best Performer based on musicianship (60%),
audience impact (20%), and stage presence (20%).

Evaluation of Performing Activities


Rating Scale:

5 - Very Good
4 - Good
3 - Fair

2 - Poor
1 - Needs Follow-up

Rate scores are based on the performance quality.


1.

How well did I perform with my group the following


musical styles?
a.
Philippine opera
b.
Phillippine ballet
c.
Philippine musical play
d. Broadway musical

__________
__________
__________
__________

How well can I identify the different musical genres


based on instrumentation, text, and purpose?

__________

3.

How well can I describe the characteristics of each


through listening and singing to their melody, harmony,
rhythm, text, and mass appeal?
__________

4.

How well can I identify the different musical styles


(opera, ballet, musical plays, Broadway musicals)?

__________

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20th and 21st Century Multimedia Forms

ARTS

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Quarter I: MODERN ART

CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner demonstrates understanding of
1. art elements and processes by synthesizing and applying prior learnings and skills.
2. the arts as integral to the development of organizations, spiritual belief, historical
events, scientific discoveries, natural disasters/occurrences, and other external
phenomena.
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
The learner
1. performs/participates competently in a presentation of a creative impression
(verbal/nonverbal) from the various art movements.
2. recognizes the difference and uniqueness of the art styles of the various art
movements (techniques, processes, elements, and principles of art).

LEARNING COMPETENCIES
The learner
1. analyzes art elements and principles in the production of work following a
specific art style from the various art movements.
2. identifies distinct characteristics of arts from the various art movements.
3. identifies representative artists and Filipino counterparts from the various art
movements.
4. derives the mood, idea, or message from selected artworks.
5. determines the role or function of artwork by evaluating their utilization and
combination of art elements and principles.
6. uses artworks to derive the traditions/history of the various art movements.
7. compares the characteristics of artworks produced in the various art movements.
8. creates artworks guided by techniques and styles of the various art movements.
9. describes the influence of iconic artists belonging to the various art movements.
10. applies different media techniques and processes to communicate ideas,
experiences, and stories showing the characteristics of the various art movements.
11. evaluates works of art in terms of artistic concepts and ideas using criteria from
the various art movements.
12. shows the influences of modern art movements on Philippine art forms.
13. mounts an exhibit using completed artworks influenced by Modern Art
movements.
From the Department of Education curriculum for ARTS Grade 10 (2014)

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Modern Art

Quarter I: MODERN ART


INTRODUCTION

n all of human history, art has mirrored life in the community, society, and the world in
all its colors, lines, shapes, and forms. The same has been true in the last two centuries,
with world events and global trends being reflected in the art movements.
The decades from 1900 to the present have seen the human race living in an evershrinking planet. The 20th century saw a boom in the interchange of ideas, beliefs, values,
and lifestyles that continues to bring the citizens of the world closer together.
Technological breakthroughs
From the Industrial Revolution of the late 1800s, the world zoomed into the Electronic
Age in the mid-1900s, then into the present Cyberspace Age. In just over 100 years,
humans went from hand-cranked telephones to hands-free mobile phones, from the
first automobiles to inter-planetary space vehicles, from local radio broadcasting to
international news coverage via satellite, from vaccinations against polio and smallpox
to laser surgery.
Social, political, and environmental changes
There has been migration across the globe, allowing different cultures, languages, skills,
and even physical characteristics of different races to intermingle like never before.
The 20th century also suffered through two World Wars, and several regional wars in
Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. There was the Great Depression of the 1930s, and
the Asian economic crisis of the 1990s. Considered the modern-day plague, AIDS has
afflicted millions the world over, while millions more continue to live in hunger,
disease, and poverty. Environmental destruction has also become a major concern.
Effects on the world of art
The art movements of the late 19th century to the 20th century captured and
expressed all these and more. Specifically, these were the movements known as
impressionism and expressionism. While earlier periods of art had a quite set
conventions as to the style, technique, and treatment of their subjects, impressionists
and expressionists conveyed their ideas and feelings in bold, innovative ways. These
were the exciting precursors of the modern art of the 21st century.

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ARTS Quarter I

Impressionism: Origins of the Movement

mpressionism was an art movement that emerged in the second half of the 19th
century among a group of Paris-based artists. The duration of the impressionist
movement itself was quite short, less than 20 years from 1872 to the mid-1880s. But
it had a tremendous impact and influence on the painting styles that followed, such as
neo-impressionism, post-impressionism, fauvism, and cubismand even the artistic
styles and movements of today.
The name impressionism was coined from the title of a work by French painter
Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant (in English, Impression, Sunrise).

Impression, Sunrise
Claude Monet, 1872
Oil on canvas

The term precisely captured what this group of artists sought to represent in their
works: the viewers momentary impression of an image. It was not intended to be
clear or precise, but more like a fleeting fragment of reality caught on canvas,
sometimes in mid-motion, at other times awkwardly positionedjust as it would be
in real life.

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Modern Art

The Influence of Delacroix


As with all emerging art movements, impressionism owed its inspiration to earlier
masters. One major influence was the work of French painter Eugne Delacroix.
Delacroix was greatly admired and emulated by the early impressionistsspecifically
for his use of expressive brushstrokes, his emphasis on movement rather than on
clarity of form, and most of all his study of the optical effects of color.
In particular, Delacroixs painting, The
Barque of Dante, contained a then
revolutionary technique that would
profoundly influence
the coming
impressionist movement. And it involved
something as simple as droplets of water.

The Barque of Dante


Eugne Delacroix, 1822
Oil on canvas

The painting is loosely based on a fictional scene from Dantes Inferno, showing
Dante and the poet Virgil crossing hells River Styx, while tormented souls struggle
to climb aboard their boat. It is the drops of water running down the bodies of these
doomed souls (see enlarged detail below) that are painted in a manner almost never
used in Delacroixs time.
When studied closely, it is seen
that four different, unmixed
pigmentsyellow, green, red,
and whitecreate the image of
each drop and its shadow.
Viewed from a little distance,
these colors blend to represent
individual drops glistening with
light. The distinct colors merge
in the eye of the viewer to appear monochromatic (single-colored) or, in this case of
water droplets, colorless. In short, an impression is formed.
Putting this and similar principles into wider practice, future painters would carry
French art into one of its richest periods: impressionism.

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ARTS Quarter I

Impressionism:
A Break from Past Painting Traditions

here were several areas in which impressionist artists moved away from the
established practices of art at that time. These involved their use of color, choice
of subject matter and setting, and technique for capturing light and conveying
movement.
Color and Light
The painting conventions and techniques of earlier art periods were very much
concerned with line, form, and composition. In contrast, the impressionists painted
with freely brushed colors that conveyed more of a visual effect than a detailed
rendering of the subject. They used short broken strokes that were intentionally
made visible to the viewer. They also often placed pure unmixed colors side by side,
rather than blended smoothly or shaded. The result was a feeling of energy and
intensity, as the colors appeared to shift and moveagain, just as they do in reality.
Everyday Subjects
Impressionists also began to break away from the creation of formally posed portraits
and grandiose depictions of mythical, literary, historical, or religious subjects. They
ventured into capturing scenes of life around them, household objects, landscapes and
seascapes, houses, cafes, and buildings. They presented ordinary people seemingly
caught off-guard doing everyday tasks, at work or at leisure, or doing nothing at all.
And they were not made to look beautiful or lifelike, as body parts could be distorted
and facial features merely suggested by a few strokes of the brush.
Painting Outdoors
The location in which the impressionists painted was also different. Previously, still
lifes, portraits, and landscapes were usually painted inside a studio. However, the
impressionists found that they could best capture the ever-changing effects of light on
color by painting outdoors in natural light. This gave their works a freshness and
immediacy that was quite a change from the stiffer, heavier, more planned paintings
of earlier masters.
Open Composition
Impressionist painting also moved away from the formal, structured approach to
placing and positioning their subjects. They experimented with unusual visual angles,
sizes of objects that appeared out of proportion, off-center placement, and empty
spaces on the canvas.
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Modern Art

The Influence of Photography


Photography was in its early stages at this time as well. As it gained popularity,
photography inspired impressionists to capture fleeting moments of action, whether in
landscapes or in the day-to-day lives of people. But whereas camera snapshots
provided objective, true-to-life images, the artists were able to offer a subjective view
of their subjects, expressing their personal perceptions rather than creating exact
representations. They also had the advantage of manipulating color, which
photography at that time still lacked.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

How did the term impressionism originate? What did it mean?


In what country did this art movement begin, and in what period of
history?
What was the significance of the painting technique used by Delacroix in
the development of the impressionist style?
What characteristics distinguished impressionism from the art
movements of the earlier centuries? Cite and briefly describe at least
three of these characteristics.
How was the impressionist style influenced by the early stages of
photography?

WHAT TO PROCESS
To help you understand the revolutionary technique for applying color introduced by
the impressionists, experiment with this simplified process:
1.
Take a set of watercolors (cake type or in tubes). Choose one
secondary color: orange, green, or violet.
2.
Color a shape on a paper using this single secondary color.
3.
Beside it, color a similar shape using strokes of the two primary colors
that are combined in that particular secondary color (ex: red + yellow
= orange; blue + yellow = green; red + blue = violet).
4.
Hold the paper some distance away and ask your classmates to
comment on the impression of the secondary color you have created
and the actual color itself.

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ARTS Quarter I

Impressionism:
Works of Manet, Monet, and Renoir

y the 1870s, the stage was set for the emergence of the next major art movement
in Europe, impressionism. It started with a group of French paintersthat
included Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Auguste Renoirand eventually spread
to other countries, such as Italy, Germany, and The Netherlands.

EDOUARD MANET
Edouard Manet (1832-1883) was one of the first 19th century artists to depict
modern-life subjects. He was a key figure in the transition from realism to
impressionism, with a number of his works considered as marking the birth of
modern art.

Argenteuil
Edouard Manet, 1874
Oil on canvas

Rue Mosnier Decked With Flags


Edouard Manet, 1878
Oil on canvas

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Modern Art

Caf Concert
Edouard Manet, 1878
Oil on canvas

The Bar at the Folies-Bergere


Edouard Manet, 1882
Oil on canvas

CLAUDE MONET
Claude Monet (1840-1926) was one of the founders of the impressionist movement
along with his friends Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, and Frdric Bazille. He was
the most prominent of the group; and is considered the most influential figure in the
movement. Monet is best known for his landscape paintings, particularly those
depicting his beloved flower gardens and water lily ponds at his home in Giverny.

La Promenade
Claude Monet, 1875
Oil on canvas

The Red Boats, Argenteuil


Claude Monet, 1875
Oil on canvas

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ARTS Quarter I

Bridge Over a Pond of Water Lilies


Claude Monet, 1899
Oil on canvas

Irises in Monets Garden


Claude Monet, 1900
Oil on canvas

AUGUSTE RENOIR
Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), along with Claude Monet, was one of the central
figures of the impressionist movement. His early works were snapshots of real life,
full of sparkling color and light. By the mid-1880s, however, Renoir broke away from
the impressionist movement to apply a more disciplined, formal technique to portraits
of actual people and figure paintings.

Dancer
Auguste Renoir, 1874
Oil on canvas

A Girl with a Watering Can


Auguste Renoir, 1876
Oil on canvas

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Modern Art

Mlle Irene Cahen dAnvers


Auguste Renoir, 1880
Oil on canvas

Luncheon of the Boating Party


Auguste Renoir, 1881
Oil on canvas

Post-Impressionism:
Works of Cezanne and Van Gogh

fter the brief yet highly influential period of impressionism, an outgrowth


movement known as post-impressionism emerged. The European artists who
were at the forefront of this movement continued using the basic qualities of the
impressionists before themthe vivid colors, heavy brush strokes, and true-to-life
subjects. However, they expanded and experimented with these in bold new ways,
like using a geometric approach, fragmenting objects and distorting peoples faces
and body parts, and applying colors that were not necessarily realistic or natural.
Two of the foremost post-impressionists were Paul Czanne and Vincent van Gogh.

PAUL CEZANNE
Paul Czanne (18391906) was a French artist and post-impressionist painter. His
work exemplified the transition from late 19th-century impressionism to a new and
radically different world of art in the 20th centurypaving the way for the next
revolutionary art movement known as expressionism.

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ARTS Quarter I

Hortense Fiquet in a Striped Skirt


Paul Cezanne, 1878
Oil on canvas

Still Life with Compotier


Paul Cezanne, 1879-1882
Oil on canvas

Harlequin
Paul Cezanne, 1888-1890
Oil on canvas

Boy in a Red Vest


Paul Cezanne, 1890
Oil on canvas

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Modern Art

VINCENT VAN GOGH


Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) was a post-impressionist painter from The
Netherlands. His works were remarkable for their strong, heavy brush strokes, intense
emotions, and colors that appeared to almost pulsate with energy. Van Goghs
striking style was to have a far-reaching influence on 20th century art, with his works
becoming among the most recognized in the world.

Sheaves of Wheat in a Field


Vincent van Gogh, 1885
Oil on canvas

The Sower
Vincent van Gogh, 1888
Oil on canvas

Still Life: Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers


Vincent van Gogh, 1888
Oil on canvas

Bedroom at Arles
Vincent van Gogh, 1888
Oil on canvas
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ARTS Quarter I

Starry Night
Vincent van Gogh, 1889
Oil on canvas

Wheat Field with Cypresses


Vincent van Gogh, 1889
Oil on canvas

WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Name three of the most prominent artists of the impressionist movement.


Cite one outstanding characteristic of each of these artists.
Who were two of the most famous post-impressionists?
What new techniques or styles distinguished post-impressionism from
the earlier impressionism?
Identify two to three specific artworks where these techniques are
prominently seen.

WHAT TO PROCESS
Creating Your Own Impressionist Artwork: Impasto
One of the most distinctive painting techniques used by impressionist artists was
impasto. Impasto is the very heavy application of paint to the canvasoften with a
spatula or knife instead of a paintbrush, and sometimes even directly squeezed from the
tube.
Materials:

illustration board or chipboard


Tubes of acrylic paints (can be shared among the class members)
Paintbrushes
Wooden popsicle sticks
Pencil
Rags for clean up

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Modern Art

Procedure:
1.
Decide on a simple design for your artwork. Keep in mind what colors of
paints are available to you.
2.
Using a pencil, sketch in the general design on the illustration board or
chipboard.
3.
Apply the paints to your design with the brush, then more thickly with
the popsicle sticks and, in certain spots, squeeze the paint directly from
the tube.
4.
Allow the paint to dry thoroughly before handling or displaying the
finished artwork.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
A.

Impressionism and the Rise of Modern Art


1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

B.

Was the term impressionism fitting for this art movement? Why do
you say so?
From your knowledge of world history during the late 19th century, do
you see a relation between the impressionist styles and the major events
of that period?
Do you agree that impressionism set the stage for the succeeding
movements of modern art? If so, in what ways?
Do you see this style reflected even in the works of todays artists?
Explain briefly.
Do you know of any Filipino artists who also used the impressionist
style? If yes, explain how they applied this style in their works. If not,
you may want to research on this on the internet to discover something
new.

Elements and Principles of Art in Impressionism


1.

As a review, briefly describe each of the following elements of art


which you have learned in your Art classes in the earlier grade levels.
a.
Line
b.
Shape
c.
Form
d.
Space
e.
Color
f.
Value
g.
Texture

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ARTS Quarter I

2.

Now review the following principles of art which you have studied
before. Briefly describe each one.
a.
Rhythm / Movement
b.
Balance
c.
Emphasis
d.
Harmony / Unity / Variety
e.
Proportion

3.

For each element of art above, cite one sample work by an


impressionist or post-impressionist painter and briefly describe how
this element was applied in a new way. You may use the following
sample format:
Ex.:

4.

For each principle of art above, cite one sample work by an


impressionist or post-impressionist painter and briefly describe how
this principle was applied in a new way. You may use the following
sample format:
Ex.:

C.

Element: Line
Name of artist:_______________________________________
Title of work: _______________________________________
How the element was applied: __________________________

Principle: Rhythm/Movement
Name of artist:_______________________________________
Title of work: _______________________________________
How the principle was applied: _________________________

Impressionism and You


1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

Which of the impressionist mastersManet, Monet, Renior, Cezanne,


and Van Goghhas a style that most strongly appeals to you? Explain
briefly.
Is there a value in learning about art movements like impressionism that
arose over a century ago, halfway around the world from us? Why or
why not?
On a personal level, what struck you most about the impressionist style
of art?
Would you want to experiment further with painting in this style?
Explain briefly.
Would you want to own an artwork in the impressionist style? Why or
why not?

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Modern Art

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Culminating Exhibit of Modern Art
Having learned about and understood the concept and techniques of impressionism, you
can now prepare your impasto artworks for the culminating exhibit at the end of the
quarter.
1.
2.

Properly label your artwork with an original title, your name, the date,
and the technique used (impasto).
Your Arts teacher will store the finished artworks for inclusion in the
exhibit at the end of the quarter.

Expressionism: A Bold New Movement

n the early 1900s, there arose in the Western art world a movement that came to be
known as expressionism. Expressionist artists created works with more emotional
force, rather than with realistic or natural images. To achieve this, they distorted outlines,
applied strong colors, and exaggerated forms. They worked more with their imagination
and feelings, rather than with what their eyes saw in the physical world.
Among the various styles that arose within the expressionist art movements were:
neoprimitivism
fauvism
dadaism
surrealism
social realism
Neoprimitivism
Neoprimitivism was an art style that incorporated elements from the native arts of
the South Sea Islanders and the wood carvings of African tribes which suddenly
became popular at that time. Among the Western artists who adapted these elements
was Amedeo Modigliani, who used the oval faces and elongated shapes of African art in
both his sculptures and paintings.

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ARTS Quarter I

Head
Amedeo Modigliani, c. 1913
Stone

Yellow Sweater
Amedeo Modigliani, 1919
Oil on canvas

Fauvism
Fauvism was a style that used bold, vibrant colors and visual distortions. Its
name was derived from les fauves (wild beasts), referring to the group of
French expressionist painters who painted in this style. Perhaps the most known
among them was Henri Matisse.
Woman with Hat
Henri Matisse,
1905
Oil on canvas

Blue Window
Henri Matisse, 1911
Oil on canvas

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Modern Art

Dadaism
Dadaism was a style characterized by dream fantasies, memory images, and visual
tricks and surprisesas in the paintings of Marc Chagall and Giorgio de Chirico below.
Although the works appeared playful, the movement arose from the pain that a group
of European artists felt after the suffering brought by World War I. Wishing to protest
against the civilization that had brought on such horrors, these artists rebelled against
established norms and authorities, and against the traditional styles in art. They chose
the childs term for hobbyhorse, dada, to refer to their new non-style.

Melancholy and Mystery of a Street


Giorgio de Chirico, 1914
Oil on canvas

I and the Village


Marc Chagall, 1911
Oil on canvas

Surrealism
Surrealism was a style that depicted an illogical, subconscious dream world beyond
the logical, conscious, physical one. Its name came from the term super realism,
with its artworks clearly expressing a departure from realityas though the artists were
dreaming, seeing illusions, or experiencing an altered mental state.

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Persistence of Mem o r y
Salvador Dali, 1931
Oil on canvas

Many surrealist works depicted morbid or gloomy subjects, as in those by Salvador


Dali. Others were quite playful and even humorous, such as those by Paul Klee and
Joan Miro.

Diana
Paul Klee, 1932
Oil on wood

Personages with Star


Joan Miro, 1933
Oil on canvas

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Modern Art

Social Realism
The movement known as social realism.expressed the artists role in social reform.
Here, artists used their works to protest against the injustices, inequalities,
immorality, and ugliness of the human condition.
In different periods of history, social realists have
addressed different issues: war, poverty,
corruption, industrial and environmental hazards,
and morein the hope of raising peoples
awareness and pushing society to seek reforms.
Ben Shahns Miners Wives, for example, spoke
out against the hazardous conditions faced by
coal miners, after a tragic accident killed 111
workers in Illinois in 1947, leaving their wives
and children in mourning.
Miners Wives
Ben Shahn, 1948
Egg tempera on board

Guer nica
Pablo Picasso, 1937
Oil on canvas (Size: 11 5 1/2 x 25 5 3/4)

Pablo Picassos Guernica has been recognized as the most monumental and
comprehensive statement of social realism against the brutality of war. Filling one wall of
the Spanish Pavilion at the 1937 Worlds Fair in Paris, it was Picassos outcry against
the German air raid of the town of Guernica in his native Spain.

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ARTS Quarter I

Created in the mid-1900s, Guernica combined artistic elements developed in the


earlier decades with those still to come. It made use of the exaggeration, distortion, and
shock technique of expressionism. At the same time, it had elements of the emerging
style that would later be known as cubism.

Abstractionism

nother group of artistic styles emerged at the same time as the expressionist
movement. It had the same spirit of freedom of expression and openness that
characterized life in the 20th century, but it differed from expressionism in certain
ways. This group of styles was known as abstractionism.
The abstractionist movement arose from the intellectual points of view in the 20th
century. In the world of science, physicists were formulating a new view of the
universe, which resulted in the concepts of space-time and relativity. This
intellectualism was reflected even in art. While expressionism was emotional,
abstractionism was logical and rational. It involved analyzing, detaching, selecting,
and simplifying.
In previous centuries, works of art were a reflection,
in one way or another, of the outside world. In 20th
century abstractionism, natural appearances became
unimportant. Artists reduced a scene into geometrical
shapes, patterns, lines, angles, textures and swirls of
color. The resulting works ranged from
representational abstractionism, depicting stillrecognizable subjects (as in the artwork on the left),
to pure abstractionism, where no recognizable
subject could be discerned.

Oval Still Life (Le Violon)


Georges Braque, 1914
Oil on canvas

Grouped under abstractionism are the following art styles:


cubism
futurism
mechanical style
nonobjectivism
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Modern Art

Cubism
The cubist style derived its name from the cube, a threedimensional geometric figure composed of strictly measured
lines, planes, and angles. Cubist artworks were, therefore, a play
of planes and angles on a flat surface. Foremost among the cubists
was Spanish painter/sculptor Pablo Picasso (right).
In earlier styles, subjects were depicted in a three-dimensional
manner, formed by light and shadow. In contrast, the cubists
analyzed their subjects basic geometrical forms, and broke them up into a series of
planes. Then they re-assembled these planes, tilting and interlocking them in different
ways.

Three Musicians
Pablo Picasso, 1921
Oil on canvas

Girl Before a Mirror (detail)


Pablo Picasso, 1932
Oil on canvas

In addition, the art of the past centuries had depicted a scene from a single, stationary
point of view. In contrast, cubism took the contemporary view that things are actually
seen hastily in fragments and from different points of view at the same time. This was
reflected in the depiction of objects from more than one visual angle in the same
painting (e.g., the bulls head in Picassos Guernica, page 207).
Human figures as well were often represented with facial features and body parts
shown both frontally and from a side angle at once. This gave a sense of imbalance and
misplacement that created immediate visual impact. It also gave cubism its
characteristic feeling of dynamism and energy. To this day, variations of cubism
continue to appear in many contemporary artworks.

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ARTS Quarter I

Futurism
The movement known as futurism began in Italy in
the early 1900s. As the name implies, the futurists
created art for a fast-paced, machine-propelled age.
They admired the motion, force, speed, and strength
of mechanical forms. Thus, their works depicted the
dynamic sensation of all theseas can be seen in the
works of Italian painter Gino Severini.
Armored Train
Gino Severini, 1915
Oil on canvas

Mechanical Style
As a result of the futurist movement, what became known as the mechanical style
emerged. In this style, basic forms such as planes, cones, spheres, and cylinders all fit
together precisely and neatly in their appointed places.
This can be seen in the works of
Fernand Lger. Mechanical
parts such as crankshafts,
cylinder blocks, and pistons are
brightened only by the use of
primary colors. Otherwise, they
are lifeless. Even human figures
are mere outlines, rendered
purposely without expression.

The City
Fernand Lger, 1919
Oil on canvas

Nonobjectivism
The logical geometrical conclusion of abstractionism came in the style known as
nonobjectivism. From the very term non-object, works in this style did not make
use of figures or even representations of figures. They did not refer to recognizable
objects or forms in the outside world.
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Modern Art

Lines, shapes, and colors were used in a


cool, impersonal approach that aimed
for balance, unity, and stability. Colors
were mainly black, white, and the
primaries (red, yellow, and blue).
Foremost among the nonobjectivists was
Dutch painter Piet Mondrian.

New York City


Piet Mondrian, 1942
Oil on canvas

WHAT TO KNOW
A.

Expressionism
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
B.

Describe how the different elements and principles were used by


expressionist artists to convey their individual style. Discuss three
examples from works in these Learners Materials.
What qualities make an artwork expressionistic?
Where did neoprimitivism get its influences?
Who is the French artist famous for his fauvist style?
What are the characteristics of fauvism?
Why was the childs term dada fitting for the art movement
known as dadaism?
What style of painting is Salvador Dali known for?
What art movement expressed the artists social role?

Abstractionism: Cubism, Futurism, Mechanical Style


1.
2.
3.
4.

Explain the difference between expressionism and abstractionism.


How did the cubists give a sense of dynamism and energy to their
works?
Who is considered the most famous abstractionist and cubist artist?
Describe how each of the following styles reflected modern life:
a.
futurism
b.
mechanical style
c.
nonobjectivism
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ARTS Quarter I

WHAT TO PROCESS
Your teacher will divide the class into groups as indicated for the following activities.
A.

For Expressionism
Create a Work of Social Realism
1.
With your group mates, choose a current issue in society that you feel
needs to be addressed.
2.
Select art materials that are readily available, such as one whole sheet
of cartolina; acrylic paints, poster paints, or any available paints;
markers, crayons, pastels, or colored pencils; #8 brush; scissors; glue
or paste; and pictures from magazines, newspapers, or calendars.
3.
Working as a group, plan how to use these materials to express your
message about your chosen social issue.
4.
Assign a task to each group member, then create your artwork
together. (Note: Remember that expressionism made use of very
strong images and colors, and expressed deep emotions.)
5.
Decide on a title for your group artwork.
6.
Present your finished artwork to the rest of the class.
7.
Join in the discussion about the social message of each groups
artwork.
8.
Comment on how each group effectively used the characteristics
of expressionism (through the elements and principles of art) to
convey this social message.

B.

For Abstractionism
Groups A, B, C: Create a Picasso
1.
Review the description of Picassos cubist style.
2.
Based on this, plan a cubist artwork for your group to create.
3.
Prepare a magazine, assorted photographs, 1 sheet of oslo paper,
scissors, and glue or paste.
4.
Select a large photograph from the magazine and/or the other photos,
and cut these up into segments of different shapes and sizes.
5.
Glue or paste the segments on the oslo paper in a creative way, but with
the image still recognizable.
6.
Give your cubist artwork a title.
7.
Display it in front of the class, together with the works of the other
groups.
8.
Join your classmates in giving personal reactions to each others work.
Groups D, E, F: Create a Mondrian
1.
Review the description of Mondrians style of painting.
2.
Based on this, plan a non-objectivist artwork for your group to create.
3.
Prepare sheet of cartolina; masking tape; scissors; a #8 round

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Modern Art

4.
5.
6.

7.
8.

paintbrush; and acrylic, poster, or any available paints in primary colors,


black, and white.
Use the tape to mask off strips and spaces on the board.
Paint the exposed areas using your chosen colors. Wait for the paint to
dry.
Continue masking and painting, overlapping strips of color as Mondrian
did, until you have completed your artwork. (Note: Allow the paint to
dry thoroughly between applications before laying the masking tape to
avoid destroying your design.)
Give your painting a title. Display it in front of the class, together with
the works of the other groups.
Join your classmates in giving personal reactions to each others
works.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
A.

Expressionism
1.
How was expressionist art an outgrowth of life in modern society?
2.
Were all surrealist artworks gloomy? Support your answer.
3.
Which among the forms of expressionism (fauvism, dadaism,
surrealism, social realism) appeals to you the most? And which does
not appeal to you at all? Explain why.
4.
Expressionism in Philippine art Research online for works by
Filipino artists who used variations of this style (e.g., Cesar Legaspi).
Give your personal reaction to these.

B.

Abstractionism
1.
Which form of abstractionism do you find most striking? Explain why.
2.
Do you consider action painting, color field painting, and pictographic
painting true art? Why or why not?
3.
Abstractionism in Philippine art Research online for works by
Filipino artists who used variations of this style (e.g., Arturo Luz, Jose
Joya, and others). Give your personal reaction to these.

C.

Cubism
1.
Recall the message expressed in the painting Guernica by Picasso.
Study the details that he incorporated to convey that message.
2.
Do you think his technique was effective? Why or why not?
3.
How does the painting make you feel?
4.
Cubism in Philippine art Research online for works by Filipino
artists who used variations of this style (e.g., Vicente Manansala and
others). Give your personal reaction to these.

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ARTS Quarter I

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Culminating Exhibit of Modern Art
Having learned about and understood the concept and techniques of expressionism and
abstractionism, you can now prepare your artworks for the culminating exhibit at the end
of the quarter.
1.
Properly label all the finished artworks with original titles, your group
members names, the date, and the technique used.
2.
Your Arts teacher will store the finished artworks for inclusion in the
exhibit at the end of the quarter.

Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Op Art

orld events in the mid-20th century immensely influenced the course of human
life and, with it, the course of art history. World War I (1913-1914) and World
War II (1941-1945), in particular, shifted the political, economic, and cultural world
stage away from Europe and on to the New World continent, America.
The New York School
In the 1920s and 1930s, aspiring young American painters, sculptors, and writers
sailed to Europe to expand their horizons. But during the dark days of World War II, a
reverse migration brought European scientists, architects, and artists to American shores.
New York, in particular, became a haven for the newly-arrived artists and their
American counterparts.
The result was the establishment of what came to be known as The New York
Schoolas opposed to The School of Paris that had been very influential in
Europe. The daring young artists in this movement succeeded in creating their own
synthesis of Europes cubist and surrealist styles. Their style came to be known as
abstract expressionism.

Action Painting
One form of abstract expressionism was seen in the works of Jackson Pollock.
These were created through what came to be known as action painting.

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Modern Art

Pollock worked on huge canvases spread on the floor, splattering, squirting, and
dribbling paint with (seemingly) no pre-planned pattern or design in mind. The total
effect is one of vitality, creativity, energy made visible. Pollocks first one-man
show in New York in 1943 focused worldwide attention on abstract expressionism
for the first time.

Autumn Rhythm
Jackson Pollock, 1950
Oil on canvas

Color Field Painting


In contrast to the vigorous gestures of the action painters, another group of artists
who came to be known as color field painters used different color saturations
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ARTS Quarter I

(purity, vividness, intensity) to create their desired effects. Some of their works were
huge fields of vibrant coloras in the paintings of Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman.

Magenta, Black, Green


on Orange
Mark Rothko, 1949
Oil on canvas

Vir Heroicus Sublimis


Barnett Newman, 1950-1951
Oil on canvas

Others took the more intimate pictograph approach, filling the canvas with repeating
picture fragments or symbolsas in the works of Adolph Gottlieb and Lee Krasner.

Forgotten Dream
Adolph Gottlieb, 1946
Oil on canvas

Abstract No. 2
Lee Krasner, 1948
Oil on canvas

After The New York School


By the early 1960s, the momentum of The New York School slowed down. In its
place, a new crop of artists came on the scene using lighter treatment and flashes of
humor, even irreverence, in their artworks.
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Modern Art

The movements they brought about have come to be called:


neodadaism and pop art
conceptual art
op art
the new realism

Neodadaism, Pop Art, Op Art


Like the dadaist movement that arose after World War I, the neodadaism of the
1960s wanted to make reforms in traditional values. It also made use of
commonplace, trivial, even nonsensical objects. But unlike the angry, serious tone of
the original dadaists, the neodadaists seemed to enjoy nonsense for its own sake and
simply wanted to laugh at the world.
Their works ranged from paintings, to posters, to collages, to three-dimensional
assemblages and installations. These made use of easily recognizable objects and
images from the emerging consumer societyas in the prints of Andy Warhol. Their
inspirations were the celebrities, advertisements, billboards, and comic strips that
were becoming commonplace at that time. Hence the term pop (from popular) art
emerged.

Twelve Cars
Andy Warhol, 1962
Art print

Marilyn Monroe
Andy Warhol, 1967
Silkscreen print

Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997) was an American pop artist. During the 1960s, along
with Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns, and James Rosenquist among others, he became a
leading figure in this new art movement.

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ARTS Quarter I

Whaam!
Roy Lichtenstein, 1963
Acrylic and oil on canvas

In the Car
Roy Lichtenstein, 1963

Conceptual Art
As the term implies, conceptual art was that which arose in the mind of the artist,
took concrete form for a time, and then disappeared (unless it was captured in photo
or film documentation). Conceptualists questioned the idea of art as objects to be
bought and sold. Instead, they brought their artistic ideas to life temporarily, using such
unusual materials as grease, blocks of ice, food, even just plain dirt.
A key difference between a conceptual artwork and a traditional painting or sculpture is
that the conceptualists work often requires little or no physical craftsmanship.
Much of the artists time and effort goes into the concept or idea behind the work,
with the actual execution then being relatively quick and simple. An example is this
conceptual art piece by Kosuth.
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Modern Art

One and Three Chairs


Joseph Kosuth, 1965
An actual chair (center), with a photograph of the same chair
and an enlarged copy of a dictionary definition of a chair

Op Art
Another movement that emerged in the 1960s was
optical art or op art. This was yet another
experiment in visual experiencea form of action
painting, with the action taking place in the viewers
eye. In op art, lines, spaces, and colors were precisely
planned and positioned to give the illusion of movement.
Current
Bridget Riley, 1964
Synthetic polymer paint on composition board

As the eye moved over different segments of the image, perfectly stable components
appeared to shift back and forth, sometimes faster, sometimes slower as the brain
responded to the optical data. Viewers experienced sensations varying from
discomfort to disorientation to giddiness.

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ARTS Quarter I

WHAT TO KNOW
A.

Abstract Expressionism: Action Painting, Color Field Painting


1.
2.
3.
4.

B.

What were two of the art movements that emerged from The New
York School?
Why were action painting and color field painting given these names?
Who was the artist who became famous for his action painting style?
Describe how the elements and principles of art were used in the
unique techniques and approaches of these movements.

Neodadaism, Pop Art, Op Art


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is conceptual art? How is it unlike any other art movement before
it?
How was neodadaism different from the earlier dadaism movement?
From where did pop art draw its subjects?
Name the foremost artists of the pop art movement.
Explain how the elements of art were used to create the special
technical effect in op art.

WHAT TO PROCESS
Group Projects: My Own Modern Art
Your teacher will divide the class into six groups, and will assign the modernist art
styles as follows:
Groups 1 and 4 - Action painting
Groups 2 and 5 - Color field painting
Groups 3 and 6 - Pop art
Depending on the group you belong to, follow the procedure below:
Procedure for Action Painting
1.

Prepare your materials 1 whole cartolina, box board, or other recycled


board; acrylic paints; 1-inch paintbrushes, sponges, or popsicle sticks;
recycled mixing plates; small rags for cleaning up; newspaper for
covering work surface.

2.

As a group, discuss the overall composition and technique that you will
use.

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Modern Art

3.

Select desired colors of paint and apply these to the board using actions
such as brushing, sprinkling, dripping, and flicking. Let the paint dry.

4.

Decide on a title for your group painting and display it in the classroom.

5.

Be ready to explain the action painting techniques that you used and
to exchange comments with the other groups about their works. In
what ways are they the same? In what ways are they different?

Procedure for Color Field Painting: Pictograph Approach


1.

Prepare your materials 1 whole cartolina or 1 whole box board;


acrylic, poster, or any available paints in primary colors, black, and
white; #8 paintbrushes; small rags for cleaning up.

2.

As a group, plan the overall composition and technique that you will
use. Select colors of paint similar to those used by color field artists,
and plan how these will be arranged in your artwork.

3.

For pictograph approach - Use the #8 brush to paint small picture


fragments or symbols in a repeating pattern on the entire cartolina or
board. Let the paint dry.

4.

Decide on a title for your group painting and display it in the classroom.

5.

Be ready to explain the pictograph approach that you used and to


exchange comments with the other groups about their works.

Procedure for Pop Art


1.

Prepare your materials 1 whole cartolina or 1 whole box board; old


colored magazines, newspapers, or calendars; scissors; glue or paste;
watercolors, acrylic paints, poster colors, crayons, or pastels; #8
paintbrushes and/or sponges.

2.

Select a popular subject for your artwork (e.g., a product, a


celebrity, a movie or television character, a sport, a place, a brand
name, etc.). Plan how this will be depicted using your available
materials.

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3.

Cut out images, letters, etc. from the magazines, newspapers, or


calendars, and glue or paste them on the cartolina or board. Color the
surrounding background with watercolors, poster colors, or any
available paints. You may add details with crayons or pastels.

4.

Decide on a title for your group artwork and display it in the classroom.

5.

Be ready to explain the pop art style and techniques that you used
(e.g., inspired by Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, etc.) and to
exchange comments with the other groups about their works.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Explain the shift of the center of art from Europe to the United States
in the mid-1900s. What political, economic, or social conditions
caused this shift?
Was modern art readily accepted as true art? Why or why not?
How did the U.S. involvement in modern art eventually influence
Philippine art? What historical developments allowed this to happen?
Can you name any Filipino artists who used or are using any of these
modernist styles?
Do these styles appeal to you? Explain why or why not.

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Culminating Exhibit of Modern Art
Having learned about and understood the concept and techniques of abstract
expressionism, pop art, and op art, you can now prepare your artworks for the
culminating exhibit at the end of the quarter.
1.
Properly label all the finished artworks with original titles, your group
members names, the date, and the technique used.
2.
Your Arts teacher will store the finished artworks for inclusion in the
exhibit at the end of the quarter.

222

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Contemporary Arts Forms:


Installation Art and Performance Art

he 20th century also saw the rise of new art forms aside from the traditional
ones of painting and sculpture. Among these were installation art and
performance art. Installation art makes use of space and materials in truly
innovative ways, while performance art makes use of the human body, facial
expressions, gestures, and sounds. Both speak powerfully about contemporary
issues, challenging their viewers to respond.

Installation Art
Installation art is a contemporary art form that uses sculptural materials and other
media to modify the way the viewer experiences a particular space. Usually
lifesize or sometimes even larger, installation art is not necessarily confined to
gallery spaces. It can be constructed or positioned in everyday public or private
spaces, both indoor and outdoor.

Cordillera Labyrinth
Roberto Villanueva, 1989
Bamboo and runo grass
Outdoor installation at the Cultural Center of the Philippines

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ARTS Quarter I

Pasyon at Rebolusyon
Santiago Bose, 1989
Mixed media installation

Go to Room 117
Sid Gomez Hildawa, 1990
Mixed media installation

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Four Masks
Edgar Talusan Fernandez, 1991
Outdoor installation

Materials used in todays installation art range from everyday items and natural
materials to new media such as video, sound, performance, and computers.
It may be said that primitive forms of this art have existed since prehistoric times.
However, this genre was not regarded as a distinct category until the mid-20th
century and only came to prominence in the 1970s. The installation artists
manipulation of space and materials has also been called environmental art,
project art, and temporary art.
Essentially, installation art creates an entire sensory experience for the viewer. Many
installations are of a size and structure that the viewer can actually walk through
them, and experience varying facets of the work in stages. Some works allow the
viewer to touch or feel, hear, and smell elements that the artist has incorporated in the
installation. Thus, there is a strong parallel between installation art and theater. Both
play to an audience that is expected to interact with and be affected by the sensory
experience that surrounds them.

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ARTS Quarter I

Performance Art
Performance art is a form of modern art in which the actions of an individual or a group
at a particular place and in a particular time constitute the work. It can happen
anywhere, at any time, or for any length of time. It can be any situation that involves
four basic elements:
time
space
the performers body
a relationship between performer and audience.

In performance art, the performer himself


or herself is the artist.

Performance art does include such activities as theater, dance, music, mime, juggling,
and gymnastics. However, the term is usually reserved for more unexpected, avantgarde, and unorthodox activities intended to capture the audiences attention. The
performer himself or herself is the artist, rather than an actor playing a character as in
a stage play.
The performance venue may range from an art gallery or museum to a theater, caf,
bar, or street corner. The performance itself rarely follows a traditional story line or plot.
It might be a series of intimate gestures, a grand theatrical act, or the performer
remaining totally still. It may last for just a few minutes or extend for several hours. It
may be based on a written script or spontaneously improvised as the performance
unfolds.

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WHAT TO KNOW
A.

Installation Art
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

B.

What are the distinct characteristics of installation art?


Why is it called installation?
In general, what do installation artists express in their works? Cite two
examples from these Learners Materials.
Aside from the traditional mediums and materials, what new elements
can installation artists incorporate in their works?
What are some unique ways that the viewer can get to experience a
piece of installation art?

Performance Art
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What are different names for performance art?


How do these point to the distinct qualities of this form of art?
In what decade did this art form emerge?
As distinct from traditional art forms, what or who serves as the
medium in performance art? Explain briefly.
Give examples of places where performance art takes place.

WHAT TO PROCESS
Your teacher will divide the class into four groups. Groups A and B will create an
installation artwork. Groups C and D will present performance art.
Groups A and B: Installation Art
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The group members will brainstorm on the concept of an installation


work to be constructed within the school grounds.
As a group, gather creative and innovative materials for the planned
installation and bring these to your chosen work area.
Together, assemble the materials to construct your installation.
Give the work a thought-provoking title and label it accordingly.
All the groups will then take a tour of the installations created by the
others.
Hold a discussion on how the finished works made the class members
feel and think; and whether they consider these good examples of
installation art or not.

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ARTS Quarter I

Groups C and D: Performance Art


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The group members will brainstorm on the concept of a performance


art presentation.
As a group, agree on the place, equipment, costumes, and props (if
any) for your presentation.
Assign roles/tasks to each group member, as performers, production
crew, etc.
At the assigned time, the two groups will perform in front of the class.
Hold a discussion on how the performance art presentations made the
class members feel and think; and whether they consider these good
examples of performance art or not.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Do installation art and performance art exemplify the qualities of


modern art? If yes, in what ways do they do so?
Do art forms like these serve a purpose in todays world? Explain your
opinion.
Select two examples of installation art in these Learners Materials and
describe your reaction to itwhether positive or negative, or a bit of
both.
Do you think you would enjoy experiencing performance art? Why or
why not?
Compare your former views on what art is with what you now see in
installation art and performance art. Have your views changed? In
what way?

WHAT TO PERFORM

CULMINATING ACTIVITY FOR QUARTER I:


AN EXHIBIT OF MODERN ART

The last session for Quarter I will be devoted to staging An Exhibit of Modern
Art presenting the following categories:
1. Impressionism
2. Expressionism
3. Abstractionism, Pop art, Op art
4. Installation art
5. Performance art
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You will be assigned to select from among your own works, as well as source photos,
magazine or calendar cutouts, Internet images, etc. of at least two to three
representative artworks each for the above categories.

Curating the Exhibit


Each artwork will be accompanied by a card briefly describing the work as follows:

For student-made artworks:


Title

_________________________________________________

Artist/s _________________________________________________
Artistic style and medium used _______________________________
Date of creation ___________________________________________

For reproductions or images of known artworks:


Title

_________________________________________________

Artist

_________________________________________________

Artistic style and medium used _______________________________


Year or period of creation __________________________________
Prevailing historical events at that time
Link between the work and the context in which it was created

Invite the school Administration, other faculty members, and your schoolmates to
visit the exhibit. Be prepared to explain the works and how these present the
characteristics of different movements and styles of modern art.

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ARTS Quarter I

Critiquing the Exhibit


As a form of self-evaluation, rate the culminating exhibit using the format below:

AN EXHIBIT ON MODERN ART


Evaluation Form

Criteria

Very Good

Good

Fair

Poor

Selection of artworks
(theme and message)
Completeness of exhibit
Presentation
(display, mounting, and
labelling of works)
Assignment of tasks
Cooperation among students
Response of exhibit visitors

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Quarter II: TECHNOLOGY-BASED ART

CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner demonstrates understanding of
1. new technologies that allow new expressions in the arts using art elements and
processes.
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
The learner
1. creates a tech-based artwork (video clips and printed media such as posters,
menus, brochures, etc.) relating to a selected topic from the different learning
areas using available technologies, e.g., food and fashion.
LEARNING COMPETENCIES
The learner
1. identifies art elements in the technology-based production arts.
2. identifies distinct characteristics of arts during the 21st century in terms of:
- production
- functionality / range of audience reach.
3. identifies artworks produced by technology from other countries and their
adaptation by Philippine artists.
4. realizes that technology is an effective and vibrant tool for empowering a person
to express his/her ideas, goals, and advocacies, which elicits immediate action.
5. determines the role or function of artworks by evaluating their utilization and
combination of art elements and principles.
6. uses artworks to derive the traditions/history of a community (e.g., landscapes,
images of people at work and play, portrait studies, etc.).
7. compares the characteristics of artworks in the 21st century.
8. creates artworks that can be locally assembled with local materials, guided by
21st century techniques.
9. describes the influence of technology in the 21st century on the evolution of
various forms of art.
10. applies different media techniques and processes to communicate ideas,
experiences, and stories showing the characteristics of 21st century art (e.g., the
use of graphic software like Photoshop, InDesign, etc.).
11. evaluates works of art in terms of artistic concepts and ideas using criteria
appropriate for the style or form.
12. mounts an exhibit of completed technology-based artworks.
From the Department of Education curriculum for ARTS Grade 10 (2014)

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ARTS Quarter II

Quarter II: TECHNOLOGY-BASED ART


INTRODUCTION

echnology has literally taken over every aspect of life in the 21st century, and the
creative and visual arts have not been spared. In fact, for the younger generations,
art as you know it is defined by technologyfrom its creation, to its manipulation, to
its reproduction, and even to its distribution.
Technology-based art is essentially computer-generated and/or manipulated.
Through the centuries, visual artists used actual brushes and palettes, and a whole
array of paints, inks, and natural pigments applied to paper, canvas, fabric, stucco
walls and ceilings. Todays computer artists employ the ever-expanding powers of
image manipulation programs and applications to create their works which can appear
in an entire range of mediawhether as a physical output or a virtual experience.

Computer/Digital Arts
Origin and Early Stages

omputer art or digital art first came on the scene in the early 1960s.
Understandably, this was due to the technology that was constantly developing
and that became available at that time. Thus, the early experimenters were not
necessarily artists, but engineers and scientists who had access to and experience with
the hardware needed. It was they who began to recognize the potential of artistic
expression through the application of scientific and mathematical principles.
In fact, even in the sample works we present here, you will note a strong scientific or
mathematical look and feel to the creations of many digital artists. Geometric forms
and repeating patterns appear frequently. More traditional subjects like human beings,
landscapes, animals, and still life elements are simply incorporated as part of those
forms and patternsrather than as the main focus.
Also understandable was the initial reaction of the public to computer-generated art.
There were questions as to whether it was, in fact, true art since it made use of
electronic and mechanical devices, rather than the artists own hand, to produce the
images and effects. Within a few years, however, there was a general acceptance of
digital art as an exciting and thought-provoking form of modern art. Exhibits of
computer art became highly popular and critically acclaimed, as digital artists or
computer art masters or superstars came to the fore in Europe, Russia, and the
United States.
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Technology-based Art

A sampling of their works can be seen here.

Frieder Nake
Polygon Drawings, 1965

Vera Molnar
(Des) Ordres, 1974
Plotter drawing

Georg Nees
Schrotter (Gravel), c. 1965

Ronald Davis
Mountain and Staurolyte, 1997
Computer-generated 3D art

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ARTS Quarter II

Manfred Mohr, 1999

Olga Kisseleva, 2012

Jean-Pierre Hebert, 2007

Some digital artists have even used their works to express their views on political,
social, and cultural issues; as well as to advocate causes that are critical to modern
life, such as the environment and climate change. Others even explore the
philosophical relationship between science and technology and the arts.

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Technology-based Art

The Philippine Scene

n our country, Filipino artists were likewise influenced by the technology trend in
art. However, this was more in the commercial sphere. From the 1960s to the
1990s, their computer-generated works were primarily geared towards illustrating for
international comic books. In fact, Filipino illustrators earned quite a reputation for
their talents and were highly in demand in this field. They eventually became equally
sought after as animators for some of the major film production companies in the
United States, as well as animated television series produced in different countries.
(See a more detailed presentation on Filipino comics illustrators and animators in
Quarter III.)
Eventually, however, the concept of computer-generated works as a means of serious
artistic expression gained ground among the younger generation of local artists.
Today, even the more established names in the fieldartists and critics alikehave
come to accept and recognize digital works as fine art. To view works by Philippine
artists employing digital art techniques, you may visit the websites of the more
progressive museums and art organizations. Among these are:

The Center for Art and Thought http://www.centerforartandthought.org/


Deviant Art http://www.deviantart.com/browse/all/digitalart/
The Ateneo Art Gallery http://www.ateneoartgallery.org/
Yuchengco Museum http://yuchengcomuseum.org/

Cityscape
Antonio Gorordo, c 2010-2012
Digital art

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ARTS Quarter II

There are also institutions offering training courses on the digital arts, such as the
First Academy of Computer Arts, the Philippine Center for Creative Imaging (PCCI),
as well as the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA)
through scholarships given by the Animation Council of the Philippines (ACPI).
Courses such as these open up an array of career opportunities for young Filipinos in
the fields of advertising, animation design, multimedia communication, and web
development. (More on these topics in Quarter III.)

Digital Art in the Hands of Everyone


Computer technology has by now invaded
every aspect of modern life. It was, therefore, inevitable that it would develop into
forms and devices that could be mass
produced, mass distributed, and therefore
widely accessible to everyone. In other
words, anyone with a computer device
from a desktop PC to a laptop, to a tablet
or android phonecan now capture and
edit images and videos; create, manipulate,
and share works of art; and even compose music. You can beand probably already
area digital artist in your own right.

Summary
Computer/digital arts make use of electronic and mechanical devices, rather than
the artists own hand, to produce the desired images and effects. Thus, these are
definitely technology-based art forms. In recent decades, personal gadgets such as
laptops, tablets, and android phones have incorporated the artistic capabilities of the
large-scale computers. So it is now possible for anyone to be a digital artist.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.
3.
4.

Briefly describe how technology madeand continues to makedigital art


possible.
Was digital art readily accepted and recognized as true art when it emerged
in the 1960s? What was the reason for this?
What devices can now be used to create digital art? Do you own one such
device?
Name one or two computer programs that can enable you to create an original
illustration from scratch.

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Technology-based Art

WHAT TO PROCESS
Digital Image Creation [Session 2]
Note: Pre-requisite for this activity is exposure to/experience with Computer
Illustration under Technology Livelihood Education (TLE).
1.

If you have access to a computer drawing program, such as Adobe Creative


Suite or its less complex counterparts, create an original artwork.

2.

If a drawing program is not available, capture an image instead using a digital


camera, a DSLR camera, a tablet, or an android/mobile phone.

3.

Store the finished illustration or image in a device that contains an image


editing program, similar to these:
Gimp (GNU Image Manipulation Program)
Paint.net
Inkscape
Xara Extreme
Artweaver
Draw Plus
Pencil
Picasa
Paint Star
Smooth Draw
Spray
Karbon
Adobe Photoshop
Corel PaintShop Pro X5
The stored illustration or image will be manipulated using any of these editing
programs, during a later session of Quarter II on Computer Generated Images
(see page 240).

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
A.

Research Activity
1.

Research online for the works of any two of these digital artists:
James Faure Walker
Geroge Grie
Manfred Mohr
Olga Kisseleva
Ronald Davis
John Landsdown
Joseph Nechvatal
Perry Welman
Matthias Broegel
Jean-Pierre Hebert
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ARTS Quarter II

2.

B.

Select one artwork each by the artists that you have chosen. Give the
basic details of each (title of work, name of artist, technique used, year
created). Briefly explain how the following principles of art are
incorporated or expressed in these particular works:
a. Rhythm, Movement
b. Balance
c. Emphasis
d. Harmony, Unity, and Variety
e. Proportion

Questions
1.

Write a brief personal reaction to the works you chosewhether


positive or negative. Explain your opinion.

2.

Was there a difference in how Filipino artists first ventured into the
world of digital art? If yes, explain briefly.

3.

Research online for three Filipino artists using digital techniques for
their works. Compare and contrast their works with the examples of
digital art by the foreign artists presented above.

4.

As a young citizen of the Philippines and of the world, how do you


feel about the pervasiveness of digital technology in
a. art (digital illustration, digital photography, digital videos)?
b. media?
c. entertainment / gaming?
d. education?
e. communication?

5.

How do you personally make use of digital technology in each of the


above areas?

6.

Specifically in the area of art (digital illustration, photography,


videos), what artworks are you able to create with the help of the
available technology? Cite at least 5 examples.

7.

Do you find yourself exposed to or involved in using digital devices


and applications in most aspects of your life? What are the benefits?
What are the risks or disadvantages?

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Technology-based Art

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Quarter II Exhibit of Technology-Based Art
Having learned the concept and techniques of computer/digital art, you can now
prepare your artworks for the culminating exhibit at the end of the quarter.
All the finished artworks should be labelled with original titles, your name or your
group members names, the date, and the technique used.

Mobile Phone Art / Computer-generated Images

Mobile Phone Art

he mobile phone that you constantly hold has evolved from a mere
communication tool, into a creative device that allows you to generate original
works of art for an entire range of purposes. These could be personal photographs and
videos that you can manipulate with a myriad special effects, both visual as well as
sound and music. They could also be school projects or reports that require you to
combine images, incorporate text, even include simple animation.
And the wonder of it all is that you can do all these right on your own mobile devices,
particularly the new-generation models known as android tablets, phones, and
combination of both called phablets. The tasks that traditional photo editors used to
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ARTS Quarter II

perform manuallycropping, retouching, airbrushingare now just a few of the


many editing effects done for you with split-second ease at the click of a mouse, a
keyboard command, or a few taps and drags of your finger on a touch screen.
You are probably already familiar with the following image manipulation programs
and applications that run on todays android devices:

Pixlr a powerful, free online image editor


Pic Collage allows you to make collages incorporating photos, stickers, text,
and frames
Photo Grid a downloadable application for android phones that allows you
to make collages out of images from your photo gallery
Doodle Booth an iPad application (with a free downloadable version) that
enables you to doodle on your images using available stickers
Photo Booth an application for taking photos and videos using an iPad or
iPad mini (a version for the iPhone, called SimpleBooth, is also available)
Magic Mirror Booth an iPhone application that allows you to take
amusing, distorted images, simulating camera effects
Pic Monkey a free online photo editing tool that provides filters, frames,
text, and effects to manipulate your images
Flipagram a downloadable application that allows you to bring your
photos to life in short videos set to music of your choice
Picsart a free photo editor and drawing application, as well as a social
network for you to share your art with others
Snapseed a photo application that enables you to enhance, transform, and
share your photos; a free downloadable version for android phones is
available
Instagram a fast and fun way to share images with others; snap a photo,
choose from among the available filters, and share via Facebook, Twitter,
Tumblr, and more

Many more such programs and applications are constantly being developed with even
more new, exciting, and fun features and capabilities.
Each of these has an extensive array of special features you can use to modify your
images. Among these are: frames, borders, and banners; filters, cropping in different
shapes, automatic collage or color change, stickers, text bubbles; effects such as warp,
skew, tunnel, fish eye, and negative; adding spot color to only certain elements of
an image; creating a photo montage with music. Some programs even make it
possible to have any photo simulate a work of art in a whole range of mediafrom
oil to watercolor to pen and ink to charcoal to oil pastels to a Warhol poster to a
Japanese woodblock print.

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Technology-based Art

Original image

Modified with cropping, superimposed text,


and a silk texture

Original image

Modified to pencil sketch effect


in gray scale, plus rounded corners
Photos and image manipulation by Tawid Publications

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ARTS Quarter II

Mirror Photo multiple mirror images

Original image

Modified with color retained


on selected portions
Photos and image manipulation by Tawid Publications

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Technology-based Art

Original image

Original image

Modified to a completely different color

Modified to a multi-image collage in different tints

Photos and image manipulation by Tawid Publications

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ARTS Quarter II

Computer Generated Images

f you want to create original images from scratch, you may make your own
illustrations using specialized programs for image generation and manipulation.
Examples of these would be Adobe Illustrator and Corel Draw. These are, however,
designed to run on desktop computers and laptops, so you would need to have access
to these larger and more complex devices.
There are scaled-down versions of such programs specifically developed for use on
smaller, handheld units like your personal tablet or android phone. These enable you
to perform virtually all of the tasks that a program like Illustrator performs but,
almost literally, in the palm of your hand. Many of these come at a fraction of the cost
of the more complex programs or, in some cases, even for free.
Among such programs are:

Gimp (GNU Image Manipulation Program)


Paint.net
Inkscape
Xara Extreme
Artweaver
Draw Plus
Pencil
Picasa
Paint Star
Smooth Draw
Spray
Karbon
Adobe Photoshop Express
Corel PaintShop Pro X5

WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What is mobile phone art?


What technology has made this possible?
What is the raw material or starting point for creating an artwork on a
cellphone?
How is this initial material then transformed into an original piece of art?
Name some programs and/or applications that can be used to create art on a
mobile phone?
Aside from using mobile phone software, what is another means of creating
art from scratch using computer technology?

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Technology-based Art

7.
8.
9.

What is the raw material or starting point for creating an artwork on a


computer?
How do you transform a digital image into a work of art using a computer?
Name some computer programs that are designed for this purpose.

WHAT TO PROCESS
Creating Mobile Phone Art / Computer-generated Art [Session 4]
1.

Depending on the devices available to you, you may either:


a. Capture an image using your cellphone camera
b. Create an image from scratch using a drawing/illustration program on a
computer, laptop, or tablet

2.

Save your captured image or finished illustration in preparation for


transforming it into an example of cellular phone art or computer-generated
art.
[Note: Refer to any applicable modules of Technology Livelihood Education
(TLE) for detailed instructions on what programs to use, and how to use
them.]

3.

Using any of the applications installed in your available device(s),


experiment with different effects and features to modify your saved image or
illustration. You may try some of the following effects, as well as others
offered by the application(s) you are using:
re-size
crop
skew / warp
rotate
flip
adjust brightness
adjust sharpness
change colors
gray scale
sepia tone
apply a texture
superimpose text, trying different fonts
apply frames, borders, or banners
edit out an element that you do not want to appear
add an element that is not in the original image

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ARTS Quarter II

4.

Save the most unique, striking, or remarkable modified images to be printed


out later for inclusion in the culminating Exhibit on Computer/Digital Art.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mobile phone art is a technology-based art form. Support this statement


with your own brief explanation.
Do you consider the products of such mobile phone applications as true art?
Why or why not?
Did you feel like an artist while capturing and modifying your mobile phone
image? Describe the experience.
In the case of rendering and modifying an original computer illustration, do
you consider this as true art? Why or why not?
Describe your experience, if you used this technique to create a computergenerated artwork.

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Quarter II Exhibit of Technology-Based Art
Having learned the concept and techniques of mobile phone art and computergenerated images, you can now prepare your artworks for the culminating exhibit at
the end of the quarter.
All the finished artworks need to be labelled with original titles, your name or your
group members names, the date, and the technique used.

Digital Photography

nother means of generating an original image is to capture it first as a digital file.


In the case of todays electronic technology, that would mean recording the
image using a digital camera or a device with a built-in camera, like your mobile
phone, android device, or tablet.
Prior to the development of digital photography, cameras were essentially sealed
boxes that would allow a split-second entry of light to strike a section of lightsensitive film inside it. The result was that whatever was in front of the camera at the
precise instant that the light entered it would be imprinted on that exposed section of
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Technology-based Art

film as a photographic image. The photographer (or a commercial developing service)


would then have to process the exposed film in a special enclosed space known as a
dark roomand only then would the recorded images be seen.

Point-and-shoot vs. DSLR


The multi-step process described above has since been overtaken by the magic of
digital photography. Todays users have the option of a point-and-shoot type of
digital camera which automatically makes all the adjustments in lighting, focus,
zoom-in and zoom-out, even removal of red eye with the user being given some
leeway for slight adjustments. It offers image enhancement features like adjusting
color and brightness imbalances, as well as sharpening or blurring the image. It may
even offer unique effects like fish eye or filters that allow pre-setting of the photo
to be taken with a colored tint or a special texture. Plus, it allows the user to
immediately review the photos taken without waiting for a complex developing
processand to delete any unsatisfactory images while storing the good ones for
future needs.
A second option is the digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. This also provides
the film-less and instant review features of a point-and-shoot type of digital camera,
but gives the photographer much more artistic freedom and control to select the
camera settings to create the desired final image with the preferred visual effects.
Many professional photographers remain loyal to the traditional (i.e., non-digital)
single lens reflex camera which still uses film. They believe that film photography
has an authenticity and genuineness to its images that is lost in the artificial and
automatic manipulations of digital photography. There is no denying, however, the
ease and convenience that digital photography offers to the millions of amateur
photographers out there. Without needing years of training and experience, we are
now able to capture images with professional-quality results.

Basic Tips for Taking Good Photographs


Whether you are using a point-and-shoot camera or a DSLR, there are basic
guidelines for capturing a good quality photographic image:
1.

Choose a good location. An interesting location can sometimes make the


difference between a good and a great photo.

2.

Check that the available background is relatively simple and not too
cluttered, so that the focus will be on your chosen subject.

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ARTS Quarter II

3.

Natural light in the outdoors or near a window is usually the most flattering
or effective for any kind of subject. Ideally, the best light for photos is
within the first hour after sunrise and the last hour before sunset.

4.

Avoid taking shots facing the light, as this would make your subject back-lit
and most of the details would be lost in shadow.

5.

If you intend to take a posed shot, position your subject where you want in
relation to the location, background, and source of light.

6.

If you intend to take a candid shot, position yourself where you can capture
the most interesting, amusing, touching, or engaging moment or expression.

7.

Take a variety of shotsranging from far shots showing the surroundings,


to medium-distance shots concentrating on the main subject, to tight or
close-up shots that focus on details of the subject. You can then choose from
among all these for the best photo or photos.

WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

What is digital photography?


Briefly describe the basic technology behind the earliest cameras.
In place of the previous light-sensitive film, how are todays digital images
captured and stored?
What are the two main types of digital photography in use today?
Why is one of them called point-and-shoot photography?
What does the acronym DSLR stand for?
Cite two or three differences between these forms of digital photography.

WHAT TO PROCESS
Creating a Pinhole Camera [Session 5]
Materials:
shoebox or similar lidded box
black paint (if box is colored or printed)
Note: To save time, the boxes may be painted completely black
beforehand.
small piece of sheet metal (approximately 3 x 3)
large needle
X-acto knife
sandpaper
light-sensitive photo paper
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Technology-based Art

tape
scissors

Procedure:
1. Your teacher will divide the class into groups of 5-6 students each.
2. Each group will do the following procedure:
a. Use the needle to punch a tiny hole in the piece of sheet metal.
Smoothen the edges of the hole with sandpaper.
b. Cut a small square opening in one side of the box, using the X-acto
knife.
c. Tape the piece of sheet metal over this opening on the inside of the
box. Completely seal all edges of the sheet metal with tape.
d. On the outer side of the opening, make a flap out of scrap
cardboard to cover the pinhole in the sheet metal. Secure it in place
with more tape.
e. Bring the box, its lid, the light-sensitive photo paper, and the tape
into a totally dark closet or small room.
f. Carefully unwrap the light-sensitive photo paper. Tape the paper on
the inner side of the box opposite the pinhole.
g. Put the lid on the box and seal its edges securely with tape on all
sides to ensure that no light can seep in.
[Reference:
http://www.instructables.com/id/How-To-Make-A-Pinhole-Camera/]
3. Once the pinhole cameras are ready, each group will go outdoors and
look for a subject for their respective photos. Note: Be sure to choose a
totally still or static subject.
4. Follow the procedure below for taking a photograph with your camera:
a. Position the camera on a stable surface, with the covered pinhole
facing in the direction of your chosen subject.
b. Without moving or shaking the box, carefully loosen the tape
holding the cardboard flap over the pinhole.
c. Tape the flap in the open position for approximately 15 minutes,
and leave the box totally still for the entire duration.
d. When the time is up, carefully close the flap and tape it shut once
more.
5. Keeping your pinhole cameras fully sealed, bring them to a shop in your
area where the exposed paper will be developed into photographs.

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ARTS Quarter II

Taking Point-and-Shoot or DSLR Photos [Session 6]


Note: The objective of this activity is for you to become familiar with the process
of using the cameras. There will be separate group projects in Quarter III to
create photographs for the culminating exhibit on Technology-based Arts.
1. For how to use a digital point-and-shoot camera, refer to online tutorials
similar to this:
http://www.digitalcamerareview.com/default.asp?newsID=5464&news=h
ow+to+take+great+pictures+with+your+point+and+shoot+camera
2. For how to use a DSLR camera, refer to online tutorials similar to this:
http://digital-photography-school.com/megapost-learning-how-to-useyour-first-dslr/
http://www.wikihow.com/Use-Your-Digital-Camera%27s-ISO-Setting

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

What was the experience like creating your own pinhole camera, and being
able to capture images using it?
What do you see as the advantages of digital photography as compared to
the earlier film-type photography?
What do you think of the view that film photography is more artistic than
digital photography? Support your opinion.
If you have experienced both regular digital photography and DSLR
photography, which one did you find more useful to you? More doable?
More interesting? Explain your answers.
What do you think of the way digital technology has made quality
photography accessible to everyone, including young people like you?

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Quarter II Exhibit of Technology-Based Arts
Having learned the concept and techniques of digital photography, you can now
prepare your artworks for the culminating exhibit at the end of the quarter.
1.

2.

Label the photos taken with the pinhole cameras with original titles, your
group members names, the date, and the technique used.
[Note: In the final exhibit for Arts Grade 10, these will be an interesting
contrast to the digital photos to be taken in Quarter III.]
Your Arts teacher will store the photos for inclusion in the exhibit at the end of
the quarter.

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Technology-based Art

Video Games / Digital Painting / Imaging Videos


Video Games

or todays younger generation that grew up in a


digital world, even entertainment now comes
courtesy of computer devices. A major component of
such entertainment is in the form of video games of
every conceivable genre, subject matter, and skill
level.
These range from educational games and mind
twisters, to building and construction games, to ones
that entail physical interaction by the users (sports,
fitness, dance). Then there are the tremendously popular games of strategy, war,
science fiction, and mythical worlds that employ amazingly complex and realistic
graphics, motion, sound, and other special effects.
Similar to image creation and manipulation, it is now possible for video game fans to
become video game creators themselves. Online tutorials and guides are available on
sites like e-how, Instructables, and You Tube. Plus there are available programs that
can be downloaded and used immediately, with no need for prior knowledge on
coding or web development.
Examples of such programs are:

Twine - http://twinery.org/
Stencyl - https://www.udemy.com/create-your-first-computer-game-withstencyl/
GameMaker - https://www.yoyogames.com/learn

Digital Painting
Digital painting is a method of creating an artwork using a computer. This is,
however, different from the image generating devices and programs discussed above,
which create, modify, store, and share images entirely on a laptop, tablet, or android
phone. Digital painting still makes use of traditional painting mediums such as acrylic
paint, oils, ink, and watercolor and also applies the pigment to traditional surfaces,
such as canvas, paper, polyester etc. But it does so by employing computer software
that drives a type of robot device (such as a plotter) or an office machine (such as a
printer) that takes the place of the artists hand.

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ARTS Quarter II

Digital painting also refers to a technique using a graphics software program to create
an artwork that is totally virtual. The canvas, brushes, paints, and other tools are all
virtual, existing only within the computer. And the finished work is also stored in
virtual format, to be shared through cyber space.
Ctrl+Paint is an example of an online resource for teaching yourself digital painting
for free, via simple videos and mini tutorials.

Video Technology / Imaging Videos


Social media purposes - Another tremendously powerful and innovative field that
digital technology has revolutionized is that of creating and presenting videos. The
explosion of social media in recent decades has provided a new platform for video
materials targeting the netizens of today. Not only are there online advertisements
that continuously bombard the
users computer screens and
mobile phone displays. But there
are also millions of personally
produced
videos
that
are
constantly uploaded to online
platforms like You Tubefrom
music,
dance,
and
stage
performances to tutorials of all
kinds to recipes to documentaries
to news clips to marriage
proposals.
Again, the digital technology to capture and edit such videos is contained right in
your tablets and android phones. And just as with the still images discussed above,
the raw video clips can be enhanced and modified with a myriad of effects depending
on the particular video application you have installed in your device.
Medical/scientific purposes Another extremely valuable use of todays video
technology is that of imaging videos in the fields of medicine and science. You may
be familiar with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computerized Tomography
(CT scans), and the like which are used to create and record visual images of a
patients internal anatomy in order to diagnose and treat diseases and injuries. There
are also ultrasound tests or sonograms, which translate sound waves bouncing off
physical objects into images that can be studiedwhether a baby developing in the
womb (in 2D, 3D, and 4D options), growths or malformations inside the body,
structural flaws in buildings, as well as objects in outer space, underground, and deep
in the ocean.

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Technology-based Art

WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

How has computer technology contributed to the development of video


games?
Name some of the most popular types of video games today.
On what kinds of devices can such games be played?
Can a young person like you create your own video game? If yes, how?
What is digital painting?
Briefly describe the two different types of digital painting presented.
Briefly explain todays video technology.
How do you use video technology personally? For school purposes?
How is it used in modern life?
What valuable purposes do imaging videos serve in the fields of medicine
and science?

WHAT TO PROCESS
Group Projects: Video Games / Digital Painting
1.

Your Arts teacher will divide the class into groups of five to six students
each.

2.

Half of the groups will be assigned to create their own video games (using
any simple software that they have available or can download from the
internet for free); and the other half of the groups will be assigned to create
works of digital painting.
[Note: Refer to any applicable modules of Technology Livelihood Education
(TLE) for detailed instructions on what programs to use, and how to use
them.]

3.

Due to time constraints, you will need to work on these group projects
outside of class hours.

4.

Save your finished video games or digital paintings in a storage device that
your Arts teacher will hold for safekeeping until the culminating exhibit on
Technology-based Arts.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
1.
2.

Compare your experience in creating your own simple video game with that
of your classmates creating a digital painting; or vice-versa.
Do you think that video games can be considered a form of modern art?
Why or why not?
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ARTS Quarter II

3.

Is digital painting as artistic as the traditional modes of painting? Support


your opinion.
Is there a value to imaging videos apart from the entertainment or even
documentation purposes of regular videos? Give some examples.
Discuss how this shows that technology can serve aesthetic and practical
even vitalpurposes in todays world.

4.
5.

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Quarter II Exhibit of Technology-Based Arts
Prepare your artworks for the culminating exhibit at the end of the quarter.
1.

All the finished artworks should be labelled with original titles, your name or
your group members names, the date, and the technique used.
Your Arts teacher will store the finished artworks for inclusion in the exhibit at
the end of the quarter.
[Note: For the video games and digital paintings created in Session 7, some
form of device with a display capability will need to be prepared prior to the
culminating exhibit. This could be a desktop computer or a laptop/tablet
connected to a large monitor, if available within the school or loaned from a
students family.]

2.

FOR SESSION 8

CULMINATING ACTIVITY FOR QUARTER II:


AN EXHIBIT OF TECHNOLOGY-BASED ARTS

The last session for Quarter II will be devoted to staging An Exhibit of Technology-based
Arts presenting the following categories:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mobile Phone Art


Computer-generated Images
Digital Photography (Pinhole Camera, Point-and-Shoot, DSLR)
Video Games
Digital Painting

You will be assigned to select from among your own works, as well as source photos,
magazine or calendar cutouts, Internet images, etc. of at least two to three representative
artworks each for the above categories.

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Technology-based Art

Curating the Exhibit


Each artwork will be accompanied by a card briefly describing the work as follows:

For student-made artworks:


Title

_________________________________________________

Artist/s

_________________________________________________

Artistic style and medium used

_______________________________

Date of creation ___________________________________________

For reproductions or images of known artworks:


Title

_________________________________________________

Artist ____________________________________________________
Artistic style and medium used

_______________________________

Year or period of creation _____________________________________


Prevailing historical events at that time
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Link between the work and the context in which it was created
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

Invite the school Administration, other faculty members, and your schoolmates to
visit the exhibit. Be prepared to explain the works and how these present the
characteristics of different forms of technology-based art.

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ARTS Quarter II

Critiquing the Exhibit


As a form of self-evaluation, rate the culminating exhibit using the format below:

An Exhibit of Technology-based Arts


Evaluation Form

Criteria
Poor

Very Good

Good

Fair

Selection of artworks to exhibit


(theme and message)
Completeness of exhibit
Presentation
(display, mounting, and
labelling of works)
Assignment of tasks
Cooperation among students
Response of exhibit visitors

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Quarter III: MEDIA-BASED ARTS AND DESIGN


IN THE PHILIPPINES

CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner demonstrates understanding of
1. art elements and processes by synthesizing and applying prior knowledge and
skills.
2. new technologies that allow new expressions in the arts.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
The learner
1. creates artworks using available media and natural resources on local topics,
issues, and concerns such as environmental advocacies, ecotourism, and economic
and livelihood projects.

LEARNING COMPETENCIES
The learner
1. identifies art elements in the various media-based arts in the Philippines.
2. identifies representative artists as well as distinct characteristics of media-based
arts and design in the Philippines.
3. realizes that Filipino ingenuity is distinct, exceptional, and on a par with global
standards.
4. determines the role or function of artworks by evaluating their utilization and
combination of art elements and principles.
5. uses artworks to derive the traditions/history of a community.
6. creates artworks that can be assembled with local materials.
7. describes the characteristics of media-based arts and deign in the Philippines.
8. applies different media techniques and processes to communicate ideas,
experiences, and stories (through the use of software to enhance/animate images
like Flash, Movie Maker, Dreamweaver, etc.).
9. evaluates works of art in terms of artistic concepts and ideas using criteria
appropriate for the style or form of media-based arts and design.
10. mounts a media-based exhibit of completed artworks.
From the Department of Education curriculum for ARTS Grade 10 (2014)

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ARTS Quarter III

Quarter III: Media-based Arts and Design


in the Philippines
INTRODUCTION

he previous quarter provided an overview of the phenomenal capabilities and


possibilities of the electronic or digital media available in todays technologydriven world. These have enabled amazingly innovative art forms to evolve far
beyond traditional painting, sculpture, and architecture. As quickly as technology is
able to develop new devices, gadgets, and techniques, modern artists and designers
adapt them to enhance their creative expression.

Image: logo-kid.com

In this quarter, the modern techniques and trends in photography, film, print media,
digital media, and product and industrial design will be explored. Most notably the
talent, creativity, and quality workmanship of Filipino artists and designers in all
these fields will be recognized and celebrated. Not only have these brought Philippine
artistry to the worlds attention, but they have opened up an entire range of
opportunities for young Filipinos to develop and apply these talentsand earn a
living while doing so.
Technological advances continue to be a major driving force in the directions that
each of these art forms has taken. Among the results have been exciting innovations in
materials manipulation, coloring and embellishment techniques, and creation and
production processes applied to all todays mediawhether physical and tangible, or
virtual in cyber space.
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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

Photography

n its early stages during the late 19th century, photography was viewed as a purely
technical process, that of recording visible images by light action on light-sensitive
materials. In fact, its very namefrom the Greek photos (meaning light) and
graphos (meaning writing)states this process literally.
In comparison to the highly-regarded arts of painting and sculpture, then,
photography was not immediately considered art. But it was not long before the
artistry of 20th century photographers elevated this light writing to an aesthetic
form in its own right.

The Photographer as Artist


Focusing a camera at a subject and clicking the shutter is photography as process.
Discerning a significant moment or a unique expression, framing it in the camera
viewfinder with an eye for composition, and then clicking the shutter is photography
as art. That discernment and that eye for composition are the factors that elevate a
photographer from a mere recorder of images to an artist.
In a pictorial shoot, the photographer
may position lighting, modify the
lens setting, or use filters to create an
effect he or she has conceptualized
beforehand. The tools and techniques
may not be those of the traditional
artist, but the aesthetic principles are
the same.
For todays photographers, the
process goes even further. They may
take the exposed film into a dark
room or subject the digital images to
their photo editing softwareand there manipulate the images with the myriad of
photo enhancement techniques and tools currently available.
Whether left untouched from the instant the image was captured or was digitally or
manually altered, the resulting photographs can be startlingly impactful. It becomes
clear how the photographer has captured the elements of form, color, light and
shadow, texture, and composition to create a true work of art.

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ARTS Quarter III

Photography as Communication
Being a modern art
form means that
photography is now
viewed as being
more
than
just
beautiful. It is also
considered one of
the most powerful
means of communication.

http://s3.freefoto.com/images/1
3/53/13_53_21_prev.jpg

Next to the printed word, the photographic image is todays most important means of
conveying information and ideas, expressing emotions, even championing causes.
This power comes from two distinctive characteristics of photography: immediacy
and detail. An image recorded by a camera has a sense of authenticity. Because the
lens captures the image objectively, the resulting photograph is regarded as true to
life and of the moment. At the same time, the camera takes in every detail of an
image. Thus the photograph has a sense of completeness.
For these reasons, photographs are vital tools in communication fields such as
journalism, advertising, education, and even in courts of law. They have also been
used to eloquently speak out against social and political issues.

Noteworthy Philippine Photographers


The Philippines has joined the rest of the world in applying the wonders of modern
photography to every aspect of lifefrom personal to professional to national to
global. And with our countrys natural beauty, a number of local photographers have
taken on the Philippines and our people as a major focus of their lenses.
Among these are George Tapan, John K. Chua, Manny Librodo
(http://gulfphotoplus.com/workshops/instructors/35/Manny-Librodo), and many other
talented members of the Federation of Philippine Photographers Foundation (FPPF)
(http://www.photoworldmanila.com/about-fppf/).

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

George Tapan is an award-winning travel photographer who has won two Pacific
Asia Tourism Association (PATA) Gold awards, an ASEAN Tourism Association
award, and first place in the 2011 National Geographic Photo Contest. His highlyacclaimed work has been published in five travel photography books.

George Tapan

Into the Green Zone


st
Tapans 1 place-winning image in the 2011 National Geographic Photo Contest

261

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ARTS Quarter III

Other photos by George Tapan

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

John K. Chua is best known as an advertising and


commercial photographer, with over 40 years of
experience in this field and numerous local and
international awards for his work. At the same time, he has
applied his photo artistry to showcasing the beauty of the
Philippines.

Snake Island, Palawan

Gulf of Davao

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ARTS Quarter III

WHAT TO KNOW
1. What two Greek words are the origins of the term photography? What
makes them fitting for this media-based art form?
2. How does technology contribute to the development of an art like
photography?
3. Why is photography truly a modern art form?
4. What special talents and skills does a photographer have that make him or her
an artist?
5. What qualities make photography such a powerful communication tool?
6. Name some noteworthy Filipino photographers presented above, plus others
you may have researched on. Cite a distinctive achievement of each.
7. What type of subjects seems to be among their favorites to photograph?
8. Looking at the sample photographs shown, explain how the principles of art
(rhythm/movement, balance, emphasis, proportion, harmony, unity, variety)
are made use of by the photographer as an artist.

WHAT TO PROCESS
Photography Group Project: Images with a Message
1. For this group project, your teacher would have asked you to bring to class
any available device for taking photographs (point-and-shoot camera, DSLR
camera, mobile phone, android phone, tablet). Those who do not have their
own device may share with other classmates.
2. The class will be divided into groups of six to eight students. Each group will
be assigned a theme such as:
a) People/Personalities
b) Our School
c) Nature
d) Insights
e) Humor, etc.
(Note: The groups may also think of their own themes, if they wish.)
3. Together with your group, move around the classroom and school grounds on
your own time, taking photographs according to your assigned/chosen theme.
Store the best ones in your devices for group evaluation.
4. As a group, select one photograph taken by each of your group members that
best captures the theme. If there are eight group members, there will be eight
selected photos.
5. Plan with your group how and where to have these selected photos printed on
letter-size paper (8 x 11). Then, turn these over to your Arts teacher for
safekeeping until they will be presented in the culminating exhibit.

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
Whats in a Photo?
1. Cut out three photographs from a magazine, calendar, poster, or brochure
each expressing one of the following:
a) a commercial or business message
b) a social or political statement
c) artistic expression.
2. Label each of your photographs with a creative title, expressing the particular
purpose you think it has.
3. Bring them to class and be ready to explain the purpose of each.
4. Also be ready to discuss what role you believe photography plays in modern
life by carrying out such purposes.

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Quarter III Exhibit on Media-Based Arts and Design
Prepare your photographs for the culminating exhibit at the end of the quarter by
labelling them with original titles, your group members names, the date, and the
camera type used.

Film

nother art form which has risen to tremendous


heights within the last century is film or
cinema. As its early name motion pictures
declared, film brought yet another dimension into
playthat of moving images. The possibilities of
this medium created a new art form that was to
become a powerful social and economic force, and a
legacy of the 20th century to the world.

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ARTS Quarter III

A Technology-driven Art

inema, just as all modern arts, has been greatly influenced by technology. In the
case of cinema, however, it is an art form that came into being because of
technological advances. The transition from still photography came in the late 1800s
with series photography and the invention of celluloid strip film. This allowed
successive still photos of a moving subject to be captured on a strip of film advancing
through a single camera. This was the seed of the highly-advanced film medium we
enjoy today.

The need to view these moving images led to the rise of the Kinetoscope, a peepshow
cabinet with an eyehole through which these earliest movies could be viewed one
person at a time. A motor inside the cabinet moved the film strip along in a loop, with
an electric bulb providing illumination from beneath.
In the meantime, European and American inventors were providing one technological
advancement after another. The French developed the cinematographe, a handcranked camera, printer, and projector all in one that was lightweight enough to bring
outside the studio. By 1901, the earliest motion pictures were rapidly progressing
from one-scene, studio films to multiple-scene narratives filmed outdoors. Driven by
these and many more advances, the art aspect of filmmaking was born.

The Collaborative Art of Filmmaking

ilmmaking, because of its technical complexity, involves entire teams of artists,


writers, and production experts, supported by technicians taking charge of the
cameras, lighting equipment, sets, props, costumes, and the likeall under the
supervision of a film director.
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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

Film directing - It is the director, like the painter and sculptor in traditional art, who
envisions the final effect of the film on its viewers, visually, mentally, and
emotionally. While the painter and sculptor work with physical materials, the film
director works with ideas, images, sounds, and other effects to create this unique
piece of art. He or she conceptualizes the scenes, directs the acting, supervises the
cinematography and finally the editing and sound dubbing in much the same way as a
visual artist composes an artwork. Clearly, however, the director does not do all these
alone.
Through the years, the complexity of filmmaking gave rise to numerous allied arts
that did not previously exist.
Acting - First and foremost, there was the art of acting for film. With live theater as
the only form of acting at that time, film actors had to learn to express themselves
without the exaggerated facial expressions and gestures used on stage. With the
addition of sound in the 1930s, they then had to learn to deliver their lines naturally
and believably.
Cinematography - Behind the scenes, there was cinematography or the art of film
camera work. This captured the directors vision of each scene through camera
placement and movement, lighting, and other special techniques.
Editing - This was joined by film editing, the art of selecting the precise sections of
film, then sequencing and joining them to achieve the directors desired visual and
emotional effect. Sound editing was also developed, as films began to include more
ambitious effects beyond the dialogue and background music.
Production/Set design - Underlying all these was the art of production and set
design. This recreated in physical termsthrough location, scenery, sets, lighting,
costumes, and propsthe mental image that the director had of how each scene
should look, what period it should depict, and what atmosphere it should convey. This
included creating worlds that did not exist as well as worlds that were long gone,
designing each production component down to the very last detail.
.
Again, all these allied arts were made possible through the advances of modern
technology. From cumbersome machines that could barely be moved, todays highlysophisticated cameras and accessories can handle even the most demanding camera
work. From the era of silent films, todays films incorporate a vast range of voice,
music, and sound effects to suit an ever-widening array of film genres. From manual
rendering, todays animated films use the awesome capabilities of computers to
amaze moviegoers of all ages.

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ARTS Quarter III

Film Genres

he public response to motion pictures was immediate and enthusiastic. From


makeshift nickelodeons (movie theaters charging a nickel for entrance) in 1904
to luxurious dream palaces for middle class moviegoers by 1914, public showings
of movies were a big hit. With World War I over and the establishment of Hollywood
as the center of American filmmaking in 1915, the movie industry was on its way to
becoming one of the biggest and most influential of the century. With financial
success came the rush to release more and more films, in an ever-wider variety
leading to the many film genres we know today.
First there were the silent films starring Charlie
Chaplin, and the slapstick comedy films of Buster
Keaton and later Laurel and Hardy. With sound still
unavailable, these films relied on purely visual
comedy that audiences found hilarious. Then, there
emerged the gangster movie genre as well as horror
and fantasy films that took advantage of the sound
technology that was newly available at that time.

Charlie Chaplin in
A Dogs Life, 1918

Sound plus color then allowed for further development of animated feature films, as
well as what became the major American genre of the 1930sthe movie musical.
Here, the spectacle of theater productions was brought to the movie screen,
incorporating singing, dancing, and elaborate production numbers enhanced by
emerging film techniques.
Further developments in cinematic and sound technology led to even more genres:
war and disaster films, westerns or cowboy movies, thrillers or suspense films,
historical or biographical films, film epics, and film adaptations of literary
classics. In a similar way, the tremendous advances in computer technology in recent
decades have fueled the rise of futuristic or science fiction films, as well as special
effects movies featuring live actors, animated characters, or live actors and animated
characters together.
Documentary films, a non-fiction genre, were made using real-life footage as well as
file materials, in many cases to present an issue. Finally, a special genre known as art
films (indie or independent films) caters to a small group of viewers and critics,
consciously concerned with the artistic merits of a motion picture.
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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

Philippine Filmmakers

n the Philippine film scene, the American influence was evident in the pre-World
War II and Liberation years with song-and-dance musicals, romantic dramas, and
comedy films. Beginning with the turbulent 1970s, however, progressive Filipino
directors emerged to make movies dealing with current social issues and examining
the Filipino character.
Among them were Lino Brocka (Tinimbang Ka Ngunit Kulang, 1974; Maynila, Sa
Mga Kuko ng Liwanag, 1975), Mike de Leon (Itim, 1976; Sister Stella L, 1984;
Bayaning 3rd World, 1999), Ishmael Bernal (Himala, 1982), and Peque Gallaga
(Oro, Plata, Mata, 1983).

Lino Brocka

A Mike de Leon film

Ishmael Bernal

Outstanding female directors have likewise made their mark in Philippine cinema.
Among them are Laurice Guillen and Marilou Diaz Abaya.

Marilou Diaz Abaya

Laurice Guillen
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ARTS Quarter III

Laurice Guillens Salome (1981) earned international acclaim at the Toronto


International Film Festival. Her more recent films, such as Tanging Yaman, (2001)
which won Best Picture in the Metro Manila Film Festival, American Adobo (2002),
Santa Santita (2004), and Sa Yo Lamang (2010), all gained her recognition among
the current generation of Filipino moviegoers.

Salome, 1981

Tanging Yaman, 2001

Marilou Diaz Abaya captured the attention and respect of the viewing public with
powerful films such as Jose Rizal (1998), perfectly timed for the centennial
celebration of Philippine independence; Muro-ami (1999), which bravely exposed the
deadly practice of using child-divers to pound for fish in the Philippines coral reefs;
and Bagong Buwan (2001), which dealt with the human cost of the Muslim-Christian
conflict in Mindanao.

Jose Rizal, 1998

Muro-ami, 1999

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

Crossing over easily between projects for television and for the big screen is veteran
film director Maryo J. delos Reyes. The heartwarming drama film Magnifico won
for him the Best Director distinction at the 2003 FAMAS Awards and garnered other
local and international film awards as well. Delos Reyes continues to be active in
both film and television media, having become known for well-loved teleseryes
(television drama series).

Maryo J. delos Reyes

Magnifico, 2003

Another Filipino film director who has brought the country to the cinema worlds
attention is Brillante Mendoza. Mendoza was originally a production designer for
films, commercials, and music videos, and started directing films in 2005. But in just
four years, his film Kinatay (The Execution of P) won for him the Best Director
award at the highly prestigious Cannes Film Festival of 2009.

Brillante Mendoza

Kinatay (The Execution of P), 2009

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ARTS Quarter III

WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.

Why is film making considered a true modern art form?


Explain how the following technological advances contributed to the
evolution of filmmaking:
a. celluloid strip film
b. lighter cameras
c. sound
d. color
e. computer animation and special effects

3.
4.
5.
6.

Explain why the film director is considered an artist.


Describe the allied arts that have emerged as part of the film industry.
Explain the film technique called montage.
What are some of the popular film genres? Name recent movies that are
examples of these different genres.
Explain how film has served as a powerful communication medium from
the 20th century until today.
In the Philippine film industry, name at least three outstanding film
directors.
What do you notice about the topics or subjects of their films?
Cite some distinctive achievements by the Filipino film directors
presented.

7.
8.
9.
10.

WHAT TO PROCESS
Film Group Project: Moving Selfies!
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.

Your teacher will divide the class into groups of eight to 10 students each.
Together with your group mates, arrange for access to at least one of any
of the following devices with video capabilities:
a) a mobile phone with video camera
b) a tablet with video camera
c) a digital video camera
As a group, choose a catchy tune or song of about two minutes in length.
On your own time outside of class hours, create with your group a series
of video selfies of yourselves with that tune as the background music.
Using a video editing program (as discussed in Quarter II), work together
to synchronize the video segments with the beat and lyrics of your chosen
song.
Save the finished video and turn it over to your Arts teacher for
safekeeping until it will be presented as part of the culminating exhibit.

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
Film Viewing
1.

A television and a DVD player will be set up in the classroom to show the
following selected film excerpts on disc; or a laptop computer can be
attached to a large monitor for viewing by the class:
a. one Filipino film by a director discussed in
these Learners Materials
- 5-minute excerpt
b. one American/foreign film
- 5-minute excerpt
(Note: If the foreign film is not in English,
a version with English subtitles should be used.)

2.

After both film viewings have been completed, participate in a class


discussion on the following about each excerpt:
a) title
b) director
c) year
d) lead characters and the actors who played them
e) film genre
f) specific scenes or techniques that show the art of filmmaking

3.

Together with your classmates, compare and contrast the qualities you
observed in the Filipino and the American/foreign films that make each one
unique.

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Quarter III Exhibit on Media-Based Arts and Design
Prepare your short videos for the culminating exhibit at the end of the quarter by
labelling them with original titles, your group members names, the date, and the
film editing software used.

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ARTS Quarter III

Animation

n recent decades, a whole new career opportunity has emerged for creative
Filipinos via the field of animation. In fact, Filipino animators have been involved
in the creation of some of the best-lovedand technically challenginganimated
feature films produced in the last few years. Among these are Toy Story, Up, The
Incredibles, Monsters University, Cars, Finding Nemo, Planes, Brave, Shrek, Kung
Fu Panda, and more. Such recognition of Philippine talent abroad has, in fact,
spurred the development of the local animation industry as well.

Animation Council of the Philippines


The Animation Council of the Philippines, Inc. (ACPI) is a non-stock, non-profit
organization that aims to create an identity for the Philippines within the animation
industry, making it one of the preferred sources for animation services worldwide.
The organization works hand in hand with participating colleges and universities, the
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) and other
government agencies, and local government units to develop animation as a
promising career option for Filipinos. In 2013,
TESDA and ACPI began offering 2D and 3D
Animation Scholarships to interested high school
graduates, between the ages of 18 and 45.
The showpiece of the ACPI is Animahensayon, an
annual festival and competition featuring the
works of Filipino animators. Apart from this
major project, the ACPI grants the annual
Outstanding Emerging Artist in Animation
Award for outstanding young and fast-rising
cartoonists and animators in the country. It also
confers the Animahenasyon's Lifetime Achievement Award on notable animators and other
contributors to the Philippine animation industry.

Philippine Animation Studio, Inc.


The Philippine Animation Studio, Inc. (PASI) was established in 1991 and has
since collaborated on numerous animation projects and series with foreign partners.
Among these have been Captain Flamingo, Producing Parker, Groove High, and
Space Heroes Universe. For this last cartoon, PASI was tapped by a childrens
entertainment company based in Sydney, Australia and went on to win the Best
Animation Category in the 2012 Pixel Awards.
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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

Captain Flamingo

Producing Parker

Groove High

Space Heroes Universe

Among the other exciting milestones in the fast-emerging Philippine animation


industry was the creation in 2008 of Urduja, an animated film adaptation of the
legend of the warrior princess of Pangasinan. Produced by APT Entertainment,
Seventoon, and Imaginary Friends, Urduja is recognized as the first fully-animated
Filipino film, created by an all-Filipino group of animators using the traditional
(hand-drawn) animation process with some 3D effects. The characters were voiced by
an all-star cast of actors from Philippine cinema and television, with the screenplay
written in Filipino.

Urduja

Dayo: Sa Mundo ng Elementalia


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ARTS Quarter III

Also released in 2008 was Dayo: Sa Mundo ng Elementalia, said to be the countrys
first all-digital full-length animated feature film. Produced by Cutting Edge
Productions, the film presents Philippine mythical creatures as heartwarming
characters in a young boy's adventure. The production involved over 500 local
animators and featured a tra-digital animation technique. Its characters were
rendered in 2D animation, while the backdrops were
created using 3D animation. Dayo was also the firstever animated movie to be screened during the
Metro Manila Film Festival, as it was entered in the
34th MMFF in December 2008.
Another breakthrough was the first Filipino full 3Danimated film, RPG Metanoia, co-produced by
Ambient Media, Thaumatrope Animation, and Star
Cinema in 2010.

RPG Metanoia

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

Research on the meaning of the word animate or animation. How does


it describe the qualities and capabilities of this art form?

2.

What is the contribution of animation to the art of film making?

3.

Briefly discuss some significant achievements of the animation industry in


the Philippinesboth for foreign animated films and cartoon series.

4.

What role does the Animation Council of the Philippines (ACPI) play in
equipping young Filipinos for a career in animation?

5.

How has the Philippine Animation Studio, Inc. (PASI) helped gain
recognition for Filipino animators in the field of international childrens
cartoons?

6.

Based on the examples presented, for what audience are our local
animators creating their works?

7.

In general, what themes and subject matter have our local animators been
focusing on in recent years?

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

WHAT TO PROCESS

NOTE: Considering the time needed to complete all the media-based group projects
for Quarter III, your Arts teacher will have the class members choose one from
among the projects for:
a) A Stop-action Cartoon presented below
b) Promoting Products/Services for a Cause presented in the section on
Advertising
c) Kool Komiks presented in the section on Comics Illustration
d) Making a Story Book presented in the section on Book Design/Illustration
Once the groups have been formed, they will work on their projects together outside
of class hours.

Animation Group Project: A Stop-Action Cartoon


1.

The group members will make use of a mobile phone, tablet, or digital
camera to do this most simple and basic process for creating what is
known as stop-action animation.

2.

The members will think of an action that will be captured as a series of


still images lasting a total of 10 to 15 seconds. It can be an action to be
done by a human or a movement of an object.

3.

They will then carry out the action or movement, while taking a still image
of each progressive step in that action or movement.

4.

The still images will then be made to move using a digital animation
program (as discussed in Quarter II). If the program allows the inclusion
of a music clip or sound effects, the group may opt to add this as well.

5.

The finished stop-action cartoons will be saved and turned over to the Arts
teacher for safekeeping until they will be presented as part of the
culminating exhibit.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
1.
2.

What role does animation play in the various media you see daily?
What do you think of the reputation of Filipino artists in the world of
animated feature films and cartoon series?
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ARTS Quarter III

3.

4.

Do you think animation is an effective medium for promoting awareness


among young Filipinos about Philippine history, literature, and folk lore?
Why or why not?
Would you consider animation as a possible career option in the future?

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Quarter III Exhibit on Media-Based Arts and Design
Note: This is to be done simultaneously with the artworks from the projects for
advertising, comics illustration, and book design and illustration.
Prepare your artworks for the culminating exhibit at the end of the quarter. All the
finished artworks should be labelled with original titles, your group members
names, the date, and the technique used.

Print Media

longside the digital media forms discussed above, there remains the more
conventional form known as print media. Included here are large-scale
publications such as newspapers, magazines, journals, books of all kinds, as well as
smaller-scale posters, brochures, flyers, menus, and the like. Of course, all of these
now have their digital counterparts that may be accessed and read on the internet.
However, there continues to be a demand and a purpose for the actual printed forms
of these materials. And whether printed on paper or viewed on the web, these
materials once again involve and showcase Filipino artistry.

Advertising

ne major field that still relies heavily on


print media is advertising. Despite the
soaring popularity and seemingly limitless
possibilities of online advertising and social
media, Philippine artists are still called upon to
create advertisements that will be physically
printed. These appear in newspapers, magazines, posters, brochures, and flyerseach with
their specific target readerships and markets,
and highly-specialized approaches for reaching these target groups.

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

Along with the advertising copywriters who provide the text for titles, taglines, and
body copy, an entire team of modern-day art professionals creates the look of each ad.
These range from art directors to photographers to graphic designers to illustrators. If
the ad subject requires it, the team may further include food and product stylists,
fashion stylists, hair and makeup artists, set and lighting designers. All for the
purpose of creating an advertisement that will appear on a printed page or in a format
that will be handed out to potential customers.

WHAT TO KNOW
1. What forms does print media take in the field of advertising? Name five
examples.
2. What does the advertising copywriter do?
3. Name the other art professionals who work together to create a print
advertisement.

WHAT TO PROCESS
Advertising Group Project: Presenting Products/Services with a Cause
1. The group members will decide on original products or services, as well as
special causes that these products or services can be presented as supporting
or advocating.
2. Using image capture and manipulation programs discussed in Quarter II, the
group members will create their choice of posters, banners/streamers,
brochures, or print advertisements to present these products/services with a
cause. (Note: The Arts teacher will guide the group members in selecting the
final format for these projects, as the cost and the accessibility of printing or
output services must be considered.)
3. The finished print advertisements will be turned over to the Arts teacher for
safekeeping until they will be presented as part of the culminating exhibit.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
1. Is there still a place for print advertising along with other forms like
television, radio, and online advertising? Why do you say so?
2. Would you consider the visual aspects of advertising as a form of media-based
art? Support your answer.
3. Does advertising have certain responsibilities to the public? If yes, what do
you think these are?
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ARTS Quarter III

4. Cite a specific print advertisement that you find particularly effective. Explain
the elements or techniques that you believe contribute to its impact.
5. As a consumer of certain products for personal use or for school, do you find
yourself influenced by print advertisements in choosing which products to
buy? What factors in the advertisements influence you most, and why?

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Quarter III Exhibit on Media-Based Arts and Design
Note: This is to be done simultaneously with the artworks from the projects for
animation, comics illustration, and book design and illustration.
Prepare your advertisements for the culminating exhibit at the end of the quarter.
All the finished artworks should be labelled with original titles, your group
members names, the date, and the technique used.

Comic Books

nother field of print media that highlights the artistic gifts of Filipinos is that of
comic books, or komiks as they are referred to locally. The popularity of
Philippine comics began in the 1920s when Liwayway magazine started featuring
comic strips, such as Mga Kabalbalan ni Kenkoy (The Misadventures of Kenkoy)
created by Tony Velasquez. Velasquez went on to be recognized as the Father of
Filipino Comics.

Mga Kabalbalan ni Kenkoy

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

With the coming of the Americans to the country, local comics were clearly
influenced by popular U.S. comics with superheroes as the main characters
resulting in local counterparts such as Darna and Captain Barbell.

Darna

Captain Barbell

Even decades before, however, komiks creators had already introduced characters,
themes, and story lines from Philippine folklore, mythology, and history. With books
and libraries not yet readily accessible to a majority of the Filipino public, comics
became a major form of reading material around the country, avidly read and shared
by young and old alike.

Pilipino Komiks, Lapu-lapu cover


By Francisco V. Coching (1954)

Tagalog Klasiks

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ARTS Quarter III

Filipino comics artists also became recognized for their talents, both locally and
overseas. Thus, from the 1960s to the 1980s, Filipino artists were recruited to work
for foreign comics publishersamong them the highly popular DC Comics.
A more recent development in the Philippine
comics scene has been the rise of comics series
reflecting or commenting on current political and
social issues or on the Filipino character in a
humorous way. One such series is the longrunning Pugad Baboy, created by Pol Medina, Jr.

Pugad Baboy

With the phenomenal rise of digital media in recent


decades, however, the local comics industry seemed
to take a backseat. But there is a current resurgence
of interest, not only among comics readers and
collectors, but among Filipino artists and illustrators
creating original concepts and experimenting with
exciting new styles.
There is now an entire range of subjects, characters,
formats, and artistic treatments available for aspiring
young comics artists to bring to life. The following
are just a sampling of the possibilities.

The Filipino Heroes League,


created by Paolo Fabregas

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

Trese, created by Budjette Tan and Kajo Baldisimo

Skyworld: Safe Passage, created by Ian Sta. Maria

Kiko Machine, created by Manix Abrera


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ARTS Quarter III

Kuting Magiting, created by Robert Magnuson

Mythspace, created by Paolo Chikiamco and Borg Sinaban

WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

The popularity of comics began in the Philippines through what


magazine?
What was one of the first comic strips that appeared there?
Who became known as the Father of Filipino Comics?
What popular U.S. comics publisher hired many Filipino illustrators in
the 1960s to the 1980s?
How were early Filipino comics creators influenced by American
comics? Yet how did local comics remain distinctly Philippine?
With the limited access to books and libraries in the 1960s, what role
did comics play?
What trends in style and subject matter do you see in todays local
comics?

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

WHAT TO PROCESS
Comics Group Project: Kool Komiks
1.

The group members will decide upon a subject matter and main character
(or characters) for a simple 5-frame comic strip that they will create.

2.

The members will volunteer to take on different aspects of producing the


comic strip:
a. conceptualizing and creating the story board for the comic strip
frames
b. writing the text and/or dialogue that will appear in each frame
c. rendering the main characters and the background details using an
illustration program of the groups choice
d. outputting the finished frames (since this will be for exhibit purposes,
each frame shall be approximately 5 x 7 in size; which means the
entire strip will be a total of 35 long)

3.

The finished comic strip will be mounted on illustration board or


chipboard cut to size.

4.

The group will turn over the finished comic strip to the Arts teacher for
safekeeping until this will be presented as part of the culminating exhibit.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
1.
2.
3.
4.

Do you consider comics illustration a modern form of art? Why or why


not?
How are todays Philippine comics different from those of the 1960s to the
1980s?
Are you a comics readerwhether of American or Filipino comic books
or series? If not, what is the reason? If yes, what attracts you to them?
Among the current generation of local comics writers and artists presented
here, whose style appeals to you most? Briefly explain why.

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Quarter III Exhibit on Media-Based Arts and Design
Note: This is to be done simultaneously with the artworks from the projects for
animation, advertising, and book design and illustration.

285

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ARTS Quarter III

Prepare your artworks for the culminating exhibit at the end of the quarter. All
the finished artworks should be labelled with original titles, your group
members names, the date, and the technique used.

Book Design and Illustration

et another extremely rich and promising area for young Filipino artists is the
field of book design and illustration. Thanks to the visionary mindsets of
progressive Philippine book publishers such as Bookmark, Anvil Publishing, Adarna
Books, and Tahanan Books for Young Readers (now Ilaw ng Tahanan Publishing),
local book designers and illustrators have been given the professional stature they
deserve and the creative freedom they need to truly showcase their talents.

Ang Tuta ni Noe, by Virgilio S. Almario, illustrated by Sergio Bumatay III


How Long Till September, by Tanya Sevilla-Simon, illustrated by Jill Arwen Posadas
Whuush! by Glenda Oris, illustrated by Aldy Aguirre
Mahabang-Mahabang-Mahaba, by Genaro Gojo Cruz, illustrated by Ghani Madueo
But That Wont Wake Me Up!, by Annie Dennise Lumbao and Anelka Lumbao,
illustrated by Liza Flores
Published by Adarna Books

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

Why the Pia Has


a Hundred Eyes
By Neni Sta. Romana-Cruz
Illustrated by Felix Mago Miguel
Published by Bookmark

Ningning
By Gilda Cordero-Fernando
Published by Bookmark

A Sea of Stories
By Carla M. Pacis
Illustrated by Ruben de Jesus
Published by Bookmark
Gotita de Dragon
and Other Stories
By Nick Joaquin
Illustrated by Beth Parrocha
Published by Anvil Publishing

Alpabetong Filipino
By Nicanor G. Tiongson
Illustrated by Crispin Dayao, Jr.
Published by Tahanan Books
for Young Readers

The Mats
By Francisco Arcellana
Illustrated by Hermes Alegre
Published by Tahanan Books for Young Readers

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ARTS Quarter III

Digital Media

ll the artistic skills and techniques that go into producing books like those just
presented, of course have their counterpart in the ever-growing world of digital
media. This means that books that were originally available only in print are being
gradually converted to digital format, while new books are now conceptualized,
written, designed, and illustrated precisely for these online media.
This also means that the manner by which todays readers can find, access, and enjoy
these electronic books (or ebooks) is via digital media tablets, ebook readers, and
other handheld reading devices. One such device that is available locally is the ebook
reader called Kobo, which features international as well as Philippine titles.
Likewise gaining in popularity are social media-based publishing sites, like Wattpad,
that serve as communities for millions of budding writers to share their original
stories online. This phenomenon, along with the rise of electronic distribution
platforms, such as Flipreads, which provide access to the works of Filipino authors
and publishers, is also opening up exciting new opportunities for young artists to do
the digital design and illustrations for all these upcoming titles.
WHAT TO KNOW
1.
2.
3.
4.

In the book publishing industry in the Philippines, how has the profession
of book design evolved?
What trends or styles do you notice in the examples of book design
presented?
What is the digital counterpart of print media now available to authors and
publishers? Briefly explain this.
Describe how this affects the publishing and printing industry.

WHAT TO PROCESS
Book Illustration Group Project: Creating a Story Book
1.

The group members will decide upon a subject matter and characters for a
simple 10-page storybook that they will create.

2.

The members will volunteer to take on different aspects of producing the


book:
a. conceptualizing and writing the storyline
b. encoding the text of the story into a word processing or book layout
program
c. rendering the artwork for the book cover using an illustration software

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

d. rendering the illustrations using an illustration software, and


incorporating these into the book layout
e. outputting the finished cover and inside pages of the book
f. binding the cover and inside pages into book form
3.

The group will turn over the finished book to the Arts teacher for
safekeeping until this will be presented as part of the culminating exhibit.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Looking at the sample book covers shown, would you consider book
design and illustration an art form? Why or why not?
Are book design and illustration possible options as a profession for
artistic young Filipinos? Explain your opinion.
With books now being available online, explain how this new
development affects the buying and reading public.
Do you view this as a positive development? Why do you say so?
Do you yourself access books online? What do you find to be the pros and
cons of this new form of reading experience?

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Quarter III Exhibit on Media-Based Arts and Design
Note: This is to be done simultaneously with the artworks from the projects for
animation, advertising, and comics illustration.
Prepare your story book for the culminating exhibit at the end of the quarter. It
should be labelled with the original title, your group members names, the date,
and the technique(s)/software used.

Innovation in Product and Industrial Design

et another breakthrough arena for Filipino imagination, ingenuity, and


innovativeness in recent decades has been that of design. Specifically, this
encompasses product and industrial design as applied to furniture, lighting, and
interior accessories, as well as fashion from haute couture to bridal ensembles to
casual wear. As a result, a number of Filipino designers have risen to superstardom
both locally and internationally.
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ARTS Quarter III

Kenneth Cobonpue
Cebu-based Kenneth Cobonpue is a multiawarded designer and the creative director of
Hive, a design and manufacturing facility for
designers of interior accessories and lighting.
Cobonpues fresh and exciting concepts and
excellent craftsmanship have earned him the
acclaim and the patronage of discerning clientele
the world overincluding prominent Hollywood
celebrities.

Yoda
chair

Carousel lamps

Trame
chairs

290

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

Monique Lhuillier
Also hailing from Cebu City, Filipina fashion
designer Monique Lhuillier first rose to
prominence for her exquisite wedding gowns. But
she has since become one of the darlings of the
Hollywood celebrity set, with several A-list stars
having worn her couture creations to gala events
and award shows, as well as to their own
weddings.
Lhuillier studied at the Fashion Institute of Design
& Merchandising in Los Angeles, and now has her
own retail boutiques in that city and in New York.
Her collections include bridal and bridesmaids dresses, ready-to-wear, evening
gowns, linens, tableware, stationery, and home fragrances.

Josie Natori
Another name that has a prestigious place in the New
York fashion industry is that of Josie Natori.
Born Josephina Almeda Cruz in Manila, this FilipinoAmerican fashion designer began her career as an
investment banker, before she made the dramatic shift
to creating her own lines of lingerie, resort and
lounge wear, as well as semi-formal and casual attire.
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ARTS Quarter III

She went on to establish The Natori Company that has built up a lifestyle brand that
today includes four lingerie lines, the Josie Natori ready-to-wear collection, home
accessories, fragrance, and eyewear.

Rajo Laurel
Probably best known to the general public as a judge on the television series Project
Runway Philippines, Rajo Laurel is a much-admired Filipino fashion designer with a
number of national and international awards to his name. He trained at New Yorks
Fashion Institute of Technology and at Central Saint Martins in London.

Laurel is also a savvy entrepreneur, establishing House of Laurel and Rajo Laurel
Enterprise. His creations maintain a Filipino sensibility, incorporating embroidery,
beadwork, and hand-painted prints, while also offering the prestige of limited edition
pieces. Thus, he has gained a loyal local following and the attention of the
international market.

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

Rajo Laurels
2014
Palawan
collection

Laurel also co-pioneered the social enterprise known as Rags2Riches. This


organization enables women from poor communities across the country to earn
through creating fashion and home accessories out of up-cycled scrap cloth, organic
materials, and indigenous fabrics. Today, Rags2Riches has evolved into an ecoethical lifestyle brand.

Lulu Tan Gan


Known for her fashionable knitwear lines
since 1985, Lulu Tan-Gan had been dubbed
The Queen of Knitwear in the country.
That specialty has since evolved into a new
hand-woven line, called Indigenous Couture,
that blends Philippine artisan crafts, fabrics,
fibers, and other local materials with TanGans signature contemporary lifestyle
dressing.
Photo by Vito Studios
The designers vision is to encourage the use of
stylized indigenous and traditional wear, as she draws
inspiration from the rich textile and embroidery
traditions of the Philippines and interprets these in
modern styles and silhouettes. Further, each Tan-Gan
creation is 95% hand-madehand-loomed (knitted
and woven) by Philippine artisans.

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ARTS Quarter III

Dita Sandico-Ong
Another Philippine designer who has been
advocating the use of local weaving techniques and
natural fibers is Dita Sandico-Ong. Known as the
Wrap Artiste of the Philippines for her famous
bold-colored wraps, Sandico-Ong first experimented
with the local weave of Ilocos Sur, known as inabel,
as well as with pineapple fibers blended with Irish
linen, dubbed pialino.
Photo: Philippine
Embassy, Rome

From there, she tried other local fibers, particularly


abaca which she was introduced to by weaver and
entrepreneur Virgilio Apanti. Sandico-Ong has
since been working with a multipurpose
cooperative in Catanduanes, training them in
natural dye extraction and advanced weaving
techniques for abaca.
Today, her collection includes wraps or panuelos,
as well as boleros, jackets, and long tunics of
banana fiber and abaca. Her designs are presented
in fashion shows around the world and are sold in
high-end shops in major international cities.

Photo: Philippine International Aid

WHAT TO KNOW
1.

How does technology drive the applied arts such as product design,
fashion design, and industrial design?

2.

Who is an acclaimed Filipino designer who has become known globally


for his innovative furniture pieces, lighting accessories, and interior
accents?

3.

Who is hailed as the Wrap Artiste of the Philippines? Why is this so?
What unique materials does she use in her creations?

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

4.

Who is the Filipino investment banker turned fashion designer, worldrenowned for luxury lingerie and lounge wear?

5.

Which Filipino fashion designer is popularly recognized for being a judge


on the TV series Project Runway Philippines and a major name in the
local and international fashion scene? What other commendable efforts is
he involved in?

6.

What is the new fashion line of designer Lulu Tan-Gan, known as The
Queen of Knitwear? What makes her creations interesting and unique?

7.

Who is the Cebu-born Filipina designer who has become the darling of the
international celebrity set from her beginnings as a wedding dress
designer?

8.

Do you note a common vision among these Filipino artists? What do you
think it is? Explain briefly.

WHAT TO PROCESS
Applied Arts Group Projects: Project Runway / Project Interior
1.

Your teachers will divide the class into two large groups. Group A will
create fashion-related pieces; while Group B will create interior designrelated pieces.

2.

The key here is for each group to make use of locally and readily-available
materials in very innovative and imaginative ways.

3.

The suggested target output for each group is listed below. However,
group members may have their own, even more creative ideas that they
are free to implement.
Group A Fashion-related Pieces
Head piece or hair accessory
Bag, tote, or pouch
Belt or sash
Fashion accessories bangles, buckles, buttons, a scarf, etc.
Group B Interior Design-related Pieces
Vase, basket, or decorative bowl
Seat cushion or throw pillow
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ARTS Quarter III

Lamp shade or lighting accessory


Door mat or small area rug

4.

Ideally, the group members will use Session 8 to work on their particular
products together in the classroom. Anything left undone by the end of the
session will be completed on their own time outside of class hours.

5.

Each finished piece will be labeled with a creative name highlighting its
distinct qualities; and the names of the group members. The pieces will be
turned over to the Arts teacher for safekeeping until they will be presented
as part of the culminating exhibit.

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
1.

Seeing the Filipino achievers in this field, both locally and internationally,
how do you view the potential of our people in terms of the applied arts?
Explain your opinion.

2.

What realizations do you have about Philippine raw materials and how
they can be incorporated into creations for interior design, furniture,
decorative accent pieces, clothing, and fashion accessories?

3.

What do you think about combining our traditional crafts and indigenous
materials with world-wide trends in color, texture, design, and even
function?

4.

What is your reaction to the creations of the Filipino designers presented?


Which one/s particularly impressed or appealed to you?

5.

Would you consider these designers as role models for young Filipinos
like yourselves looking ahead to your future careers? Explain briefly.

WHAT TO PERFORM
Preparing for the Quarter III Exhibit on Media-Based Arts and Design
Prepare your fashion and/or interior design creations for the culminating exhibit at
the end of the quarter. All the finished pieces should be labelled with original
titles, your group members names, the date, and the technique and materials used.

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Media-based Arts and Design in the Philippines

CULMINATING ACTIVITY FOR QUARTER III:


AN EXHIBIT OF MEDIA-BASED ARTS AND DESIGN

The last session for Quarter III will be devoted to staging An Exhibit of Mediabased Arts and Design presenting the following categories:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Photography
Film
Animation
Advertising
Comics Illustration
Book Design and Illustration
Interior Design / Fashion / Industrial Design

You will be assigned to select from among your own works, as well as source photos,
magazine or calendar cutouts, Internet images, etc. of at least two to three
representative artworks each for the above categories.

Curating the Exhibit


Each artwork will be accompanied by a card briefly describing the work as follows:

Title

_________________________________________________

Artist/s _________________________________________________
Artistic style and medium used _______________________________
Date of creation ___________________________________________

Invite the school Administration, other faculty members, and your schoolmates to
visit the exhibit. Be prepared to explain the works and how these present the
characteristics, techniques, and trends of media-based arts and design.

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ARTS Quarter III

Critiquing the Exhibit


As a form of self-evaluation, rate the culminating exhibit using the format below:

AN EXHIBIT ON MEDIA-BASED ARTS AND DESIGN


Evaluation Form

Criteria

Very Good

Good

Fair

Poor

Selection of artworks/products
(theme and message)
Completeness of exhibit
Presentation
(display, mounting, and
labelling of works)
Assignment of tasks
Cooperation among students
Response of exhibit visitors

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Quarter IV: ORIGINAL PERFORMANCE


WITH THE USE OF MEDIA

CONTENT STANDARDS
The learner demonstrates understanding of
1. how theatrical elements (sound, music, gesture, movement, and costume) affect the creation
and communication of meaning in a theater play/performance incorporated with media.
2. theater and performance as a synthesis of arts.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
The learner
1. creates appropriate costumes, props, set accessories, improvised lighting, and other dcor for
Philippine plays.
2. creates/improvises appropriate sound, music, gesture, and movements for a chosen theatrical
composition.
3. participates in an original performance inspired by local Philippine stories, myths, and events
relevant to current issues.

LEARNING COMPETENCIES
The learner
1. explains how an idea or theme is communicated in a selected performance through the
integration of musical sounds, songs, dialogue, and dance.
2. analyzes examples of plays based on theatrical forms, and elements of art as applied to
performance.
3. illustrates how the different elements are used to communicate the meaning.
4. defines the uniqueness of each original performance.
5. designs with a group the visual components of a school play (stage design, costumes, props,
etc.).
6. assumes the role of a character as an actor/performer, or production staff (director,
choreographer, lighting designer, stage manager).
7. analyzes the uniqueness of the group that was given recognition for its performance and
explains what components contributed to its selection.
8. contributes to the conceptualization of an original performance
9. choreographs the movements and gestures needed in the effective delivery of an original
performance with the use of media.
10. improvises accompanying sound and rhythm needed in the effective delivery of an original
performance with the use of different media.
From the Department of Education curriculum for ARTS Grade 10 (2014)

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ARTS Quarter IV

Quarter IV: Original Performance


With the Use of Media
INTRODUCTION

heater is the one major art form that brings together all the other art formsfrom painting
and sculpture, to installation art, to music, to dance, to literature, even to computer artsin a
single production. A story is acted out on stage (or other performance area) by actors portraying
the characters, bringing them to life and developing the plot through dialogue and actions, and
sometimes through song and/or dance.
Contributing to the vivid theater experience are the stage sets and props, the lighting, the
background music and sound effects, the costumes and accessories. In recent decades, computergenerated visual effects and mechanized sets have been incorporated as well.
All of these components draw from the various art forms and call upon the artistic skills and
techniques that you have been exposed to over the last three quarters. In this fourth quarter, you
will get to experience the complex and exciting process of mounting an original performance
together with your classmatescombining most, if not all, of these skills and techniques.

Philippine Theater and Performing Groups

he Philippines has a rich and thriving theater industry that you may be interested to venture
into in the future. Productions range from original plays with Philippine themes and settings,
to renowned theater classics from past centuries, to contemporary musicals from Broadway or
Londons West End. Below is an overview of some of the more prominent theater and
performing groups in the country and their major productions.

PETA and Tanghalang Pilipino


With the American presence in the Philippines for the first half of the 20th century, it was
inevitable that many U.S. and European theater forms and scripts found their way here. Among
them were the classics, such as the plays of William Shakespeare, as well as the works of great
American playwrights. At the same time, local theater groups staged original Philippine
zarzuelas which were plays performed in song, similar to the European opera.
In the past few decades, modern theater groups have continued to express the distinctly
Philippine interpretation of both originally-written plays as well as adaptations of foreign works
translated into Filipino.

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Original Performance With the Use of Media

At the forefront of these are the Philippine Educational


Theater Association (PETA), founded in 1967 by Cecile
Guidote-Alvarez, and Tanghalang Pilipino, the resident
theater company of the Cultural Center of the Philippines,
founded in 1987.

Himala
Tanghalang Pilipino, 2004

Caredivas
PETA, 2011

The productions of these groups span the range from daring


new presentations of classical works, to the spectacle of
Philippine myths and legends, to commentaries on current
social and political issues.

Haring Lear
PETA, 2012

Pamana
PETA, 2013
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ARTS Quarter IV

Ibalong
Tanghalang Pilipino, 2012

Noli
Tanghalang Pilipino, 2011

William
Tanghalang Pilipino, 2011

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Original Performance With the Use of Media

eanwhile, other Philippine theater groups are also staging original and adapted plays and
musical productions, primarily in English. Best known among these are Repertory
Philippines, Trumpets, and New Voice Company. More recently, Theater Down South has been
added to their roster. And championing the cause of the more classical form of musical
performances is the Philippine Opera Company.
Repertory Philippines
In 1967, theater director Zenaida Amador fulfilled her dream of bringing the best of Broadway
and Londons West End to Filipino audiences. Together with actress Baby Barredo, Amador
established Repertory Philippines, a company that not only staged English-language plays and
musicals year-round but trained actors and actresses as well. The company continues with this
vision to this day.
Multi-awarded theater actress and singer, Lea Salonga, in fact, began her career as a child lead
in productions of Repertory Philippines. From there, she went on to become an international
stage superstar in the lead role of Kim in Miss Saigonputting the Philippines on the world map
in terms of theater talent.

Lea Salonga in the lead roles of Repertorys production of Annie, and Londons Miss Saigon

Also among Repertorys many notable achievements was the 1993 staging of the international
hit musical Les Miserables in Manila with an all-Filipino cast and production team.

Repertory Philippines founder, Zenaida Amador,


with Les Miserables composer Claude Michel Schonberg

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ARTS Quarter IV

In its 2009 season, Repertory added a Filipino classic in English to its productionsA Portrait of
the Artist as Filipino, by National Artist Nick Joaquin. To date, it continues to offer a mix of
productions ranging from literary classics to contemporary satires, comedies, and musicals.

A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino


Repertory Philippines, 2009

Alice in Wonderland
Repertory Philippines, 2013

Little Women
Repertory Philippines, 2010

The Producers
Repertory Philippines, 2013

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Original Performance With the Use of Media

Trumpets
In the 1990s, the Philippine theater group Trumpets also began mounting grand productions of
originally-written musicals with a slant towards good values for children and the whole family.
Among their plays have been Joseph the Dreamer; First Name; The Lion, the Witch, and the
Wardrobe; Little Mermaid; Honk; N.O.A.H.; and The Bluebird of Happiness. The intention of
Trumpets is to provide wholesome theater experiences for Filipino youth while also building up
the Philippine theater-going public.

The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe


Trumpets, 1997

N.O.A.H.
Trumpets, 2009

The Bluebird of Happiness


Trumpets, 2013

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ARTS Quarter IV

New Voice Company


Also making its own distinct contribution to the Philippine theater scene is New Voice
Company, established in 1994 by Monique Wilsonalso a Repertory Philippines protge who
went on to star on the international stage. New Voice has earned a reputation for staging thoughtprovoking productions on daring and deep topics.

Aspects of Love
New Voice Company, 2006

The Male Voice


New Voice Company, 2009

My Name is Rachel Corrie


New Voice Company, 2010

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Original Performance With the Use of Media

Philippine Opera Company


The Philippine Opera Company (POC) was founded in 1999 by a group of dedicated
classically-trained singers, led by soprano Karla Gutierrez as artistic directress. The POC seeks
to develop performers as well as audiences for classical music performances, both foreign and
Filipino.

Harana
Philippine Opera Company, 2009

Master Class
Philippine Opera Company, 2010

The Mikado
Philippine Opera Company, 2013

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ARTS Quarter IV

Theater Down South


In 2007, Theater Down South was founded, with Philippine theater mainstay Michael Williams
as artistic director. The vision of the company is to widen the reach of stage productions beyond
the traditional centers within Metro Manila, and therefore develop a broader audience base.

A Midsummer Nights Dream


Theater Down South, 2007

The Red Carp


Theater Down South, 2009

DEPED COPY
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
Theater Down South, 2010

Roles in a Stage Production

ost visible on stage in a theater production are the actors and actresses playing their roles.
However, behind the scenes is an entire team whose work begins months in advance of the
actual performance. It is they who support the actors and enable them to truly bring the play to
life. While the members of this team may vary depending on how complex or simple the
production is, below are the basic roles that most plays require:
Producer In a professional stage production, this is the person who takes the play from a mere
concept to an actual finished presentation. He or she chooses all the team members and assigns
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Original Performance With the Use of Media

them their functions, and oversees the casting of the actors and actresses for the different roles.
He or she also decides on major logistical matters like when and where the play will be staged,
the production schedule, and in most cases either finances all the production costs or else sources
the funds needed.
Note: In a school or class play, the role of the producer is normally fulfilled by the Drama Club
moderator, the classroom teacher, or by the school itself.

Director The director is the overall artistic coordinator of the entire production. Like a
conductor of an orchestra, he or she has a vision of the desired total effect and impact of the
performance. With the plays script serving as a musical score, the director ensures that each
one in the production hits all the right notes to create a cohesive, seamless performance that
will engage the audience.
Throughout the plays rehearsals, the director instructs and guides the actors as to the delivery of
their lines of dialogue; their positions and movements on stage (called blocking); the thoughts
or feelings they are to convey through tone of voice, facial expression, and gestures. By the time
of the actual performance, all these should be second nature to the actors as they portray their
characters on stage. The director also coordinates closely with the set, lighting, sound,
costume/makeup designers, and the choreographer (if the play involves dance) to create the
envisioned total effect.

Playwright For a script intended for stage performance, the writer of the script is more
specifically called a playwright. The initial concept or plot may be original, and then developed
into a play script. Or it may be based on an existing story or another play which the playwright
will then adapt to present in a new way.
The script forms the basis of the entire production. It contains the exact lines of dialogue that
each character will memorize and deliver on stage, often with notes on tone of voice, facial
expression, and even movement or blocking. It also provides a clear description of the set, props,
and lighting to be used in each scene. In some cases, the director may collaborate with the
playwright on making some script adjustments in the course of the rehearsals to better achieve
the desired effect.

Set designer The concept and creation of the physical stage setup is the task of the set
designer. He or she builds the set (or sets) that will simulate the world that the plays characters
are supposed to live in. The set may be realistic and filled with authentic details; or it may be
minimalist, merely suggesting the setting with a few pieces of furniture or props and a simple
backdrop. In either case, the set designer ensures that the set will enable the actors to move about
easily and naturally to make their roles believable, and will truly provide the ambiance on stage
that the director and the playwright intend.

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ARTS Quarter IV

Lighting designer Coordinating closely with the set designer is the lighting designer. Lighting
is critical in creating the mood of each scene in the play, highlighting a dramatic moment,
signalling the entrance of a character, focusing attention on a specific spot on stage, or even
providing the blanket of darkness for set and prop changes. Colored lights or filters may be used,
as well as special effects such as gradual dimming or brightening, a speckled effect like sunlight
through leaves, or flickering lights. The lighting designer plans all these and adds detailed notes
on the script for the lighting crew to follow during rehearsals and the actual performance.

Costume designer The actors and actresses must look believable in their roles, and much of
this is owed to the costume designer. He or she studies the general setting (time and place) that
the play is meant to take place in, as well as each character in the script. He or she then decides
what attire will not only give the audience a clear sense of the setting, but will also express each
characters personality and distinct qualities.
The costumes may need to be designed and sewn to meet these requirements. Or they may
simply be assembled from available clothes and accessories, with some additional touches
created as needed. For a modern or avant-garde play, the actors sometimes wear regular street
clothes with a simple prop, a mask, or headgear to denote the characters they are playing.
Sound designer Similar to the lighting designer, the sound designer serves a vital role in
creating and enhancing the atmosphere of the performance. Sound, in this case, includes music
both on stage and as background, which the sound designer may need to source to suit the
general time and place of the play, as well as particular scenes. Also involved are special sound
effects like thunder, birds chirping, rushing water, gunfire, passing cars, approaching footsteps,
and the like. The sound designer works with all these to support the action and interaction taking
place on stage. He or she adds detailed notes to the script to serve as a guide for the sound crew
during rehearsals and the actual performance.
Note: In large scale productions where live musicians or even a full orchestra are involved, a
separate musical director is responsible for coordinating the plays music.

Production manager Coordinating all the complex behind-the-scenes details of staging a play
is the production manager. He or she is tasked with overseeing the crews for the sets and props,
the sound and music, the lighting, and the costumes. This includes ensuring that all the needed
elements, facilities, and equipment are not only available, but are in good working order,
properly catalogued and labelled, and safely stored from one rehearsal to the next, up until the
time of the performance.

Technical director The technical director shadows the plays director throughout the entire
production process. From the time the director presents his or her vision for the play and issues
instructions at every rehearsal, the technical director carefully notes how each actor and every
member of the stage, sound, lighting, and costume crews need to be coordinated to bring the
directors vision to lifeensuring that every instruction is properly executed.
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Original Performance With the Use of Media

By the time of the final technical rehearsal (sometimes called the dress rehearsal, since it is
performed in full costume and makeup), the director focuses on assessing the total effect of the
performance and how it might still be improved. It is then the technical director who takes over
to closely monitor the individual details, and again ensure that these work together seamlessly in
the actual performance.

Choreographer In cases where a play involves dance in certain scenes, a choreographer is


included in the production team. He or she not only plans out all the dance steps to suit the
music, but also rehearses the actors until they are able to perform the dance skillfullywhile
remaining in character on stage. Should the play happen to involve fight scenes, the
choreographer will likewise program the moves of the opposing sides so these can be executed
not only believably, but safely as well.

Makeup designer As the costume designer deliberates on the characters main attire, the
makeup designer is brought in to plan the hairstyles and makeup to complement the costumes.
The work of the makeup designer may be as simple as making the actors look natural for their
respective rolesbased on their characters age and personality, and the time and place of the
story. But it may also be far more challenging, such as transforming the actors into mythical
creatures, animals, a different nationality, or futuristic beings.
Thus, the makeup designer works his or her magic through the wonders of makeup, face and
body painting, and hair coloring. Other accessories may be employed, like masks, wigs and hair
extensions, headdresses, and even prosthetics to alter certain facial features or body parts.

WHAT TO KNOW
A.

Philippine Theater Groups


1. What are the active theater groups in the Philippines specializing in original plays
written in Filipino?
2. Name two performing groups that present adaptations of foreign plays, primarily in
English.
3. Which theater company has produced a number of actors and actresses who have
gone on to become stars on the international stage?
4. Which theater company tends to present productions with thought-provoking content?
5. Name the production group that focuses on family-oriented and values-rich
performances.
6. Which performance company aims to develop both performers and audiences for
classical music theater?
7. What do you note as two of the main objectives that Philippine theater groups have in
common? Explain these briefly.

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ARTS Quarter IV

B.

Roles in a Stage Production


1. How is the director of a play similar to an orchestra conductor? Explain briefly.
2. Which member of the production team shadows the director? Briefly describe his or
her role.
3. What is the creator of the script for stage performance called?
4. Out of the many roles required in a stage production, name three that are involved
with the physical setup and mood of the performance area.
5. Name two other roles that are responsible for the physical appearance of the different
characters on stage.
6. What is another name for the technical rehearsal? Why was it given this name?

WHAT TO PROCESS
Experiencing Theater
1.

Your teacher will schedule a time within Quarter IV for the class to watch a live
play. Depending on what is available or accessible in your area within that period,
any of the following may be considered:
Option 1: a live performance of a production by any Philippine
theater group (whether discussed above or others)
Option 2: a recorded performance of a production by any of
these groups to be viewed in school
Option 3: a school or community play
Option 4: a classroom play

2.

Watch the play very attentively. Observe how the plot is developed and take note
of the artistic elements and principles used.

3.

Afterwards, write a reaction paper using the following outline:


Title of the play

______________________________________________

Scriptwriter

______________________________________________

Director

______________________________________________

Stage Designer

______________________________________________

Setting

______________________________________________

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Original Performance With the Use of Media

Main characters

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

Main story line (a 1-paragraph summary)


______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
Personal reaction ______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

WHAT TO UNDERSTAND
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is your impression of the theater industry in the Philippines?


Would you like to attend a stage production of the various theater groups? What type
of play most interests you, and why?
How do you feel about the Philippine theater performers who have become stars on
both the local and international stage?
Can you envision yourself being involved in the theater arts in some way?
Would you consider a full-time (or part-time) career in this field?

WHAT TO PERFORM

CULMINATING ACTIVITY FOR QUARTER IV:


STAGING AN ORIGINAL PERFORMANCE
Assigned Theme: A Philippine Myth, Legend, or Folk Tale
Or a Current Issue

At the start of Quarter IV, your teacher would already have oriented the class on this culminating
activity of staging an original theater performance. Every class member would already have been
assigned his or her specific role in the production process, which each one should have been
carrying out in the course of the quarter.

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ARTS Quarter IV

A.

Start of the Quarter: Pre-Production


1. Sourcing/Writing the Script
-

A group of class members will be tasked with sourcing an existing script on a


Philippine myth, legend, or folk tale; or dealing with a current issue.
If an existing script is not available or not suitable for school use, this group will
create an original script. Note: Guidelines for effective scriptwriting would have
been taken up in your English classes.

2. Casting the Actors


-

Based on the script that has been sourced or written, the characters will be cast
from among the class members.

3. Forming the Production Team


-

B.

The remaining class members will be assigned the following roles that are
typically required for a school or class play:
a) Director
b) Technical/Assistant Director
c) Set Designer, with a team of 4-5 students as production crew
d) Lighting Designer, with a team of 4-5 students as lighting crew
e) Sound Designer, with a team of 4-5 students as sound crew
f) Production Manager, with a team of 6-8 students as stage crew
g) Costume Designer, with a team of 3-4 students as wardrobe crew
h) Makeup Designer, with a team of 2-3 students as makeup crew
i) Choreographer, with an Assistant Choreographer

Mid-Quarter: Production of Sets, Costumes, and Props


Design of Lighting and Sound, Using Different Media
Start of Acting Rehearsals and Blocking
As mentioned at the start of this Quarter, theater is an art form that brings together an
entire range of art formsalong with their corresponding elements and principles.
As the entire class begins production of the plays sets, costumes, and props; the design
of the lighting and sound; and the acting rehearsals, all class members should maintain a
clear intent to apply the following elements of art in this particular class production.

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Original Performance With the Use of Media

Elements of Art as Applied to an Original Performance


1. Sound and Music incorporating sound recording and editing techniques available
using applications for desktop or laptop computers, tablets, and android phones
2. Gesture, Movement, and Dance incorporating appropriate dance styles and
techniques learned in Physical Education classes
3. Costume, Mask, Makeup, and Accessories incorporating art techniques such as
painting, papier mache, assemblage, simple sculpture and industrial design
4. Spectacle creating a striking, even awe-inspiring effect on stage through the use of
lighting, sound, music, costumes, dance, and special effects

Principles of Art as Applied to an Original Performance


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

C.

D.

Rhythm, Movement
Balance
Emphasis
Harmony, Unity, and Variety
Proportion

Last Weeks of the Quarter: Technical Rehearsal


-

Schedule a technical rehearsal at least a week before the intended performance date of
your play.

With the guidance of your Music and Arts teachers, and perhaps your Drama Club
moderator, assess what components of the play may still need improvement.

End of the Quarter: Performance Proper


-

This is the culmination of your months of hard work and preparation. Invite the other
sections of Grade 10, other grade levels, and the school administration to be your
audience.

Execute each of your roleswhether as an actor or a member of the production


teamto the best of your ability.

Your Arts teacher will schedule a critiquing session after the performance (see guide
on the following page) to discuss the various learnings that took place in the course of
staging an original theater performance.

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ARTS Quarter IV

Critiquing the Performance


As a form of self-evaluation, rate the class performance using the format below:

STAGING AN ORIGINAL PERFORMANCE


Evaluation Form

Criteria

Very Good

Good

Fair

Poor

Choice of play subject


(theme and message)
Casting of characters
Assignment of tasks
Rehearsal process
Production process
Cooperation among students
Carrying out of roles:
Scriptwriting
Direction
Stage management
Acting
Stage design
Lighting
Music
Choreography
Sound effects
Costumes
Makeup
Audience response

316
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MUSIC GLOSSARY
absolute music Music with no extra-musical association such as words, visual imagery, or emotion;
the opposite of program music
a cappella A Latin term, applied to choral music without accompaniment
aerophone Any musical instrument that produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate,
without the use of strings or membranes
alternative music An underground independent form in the 1980s that became widely popular in the
1990s for defying the excesses of mainstream rock music, Alternative Music became known for
its unconventional practices such as distorted guitar sounds, oppressive lyrics, and defiant
attitudes.
alto 1 A female voice with a range lower than a soprano, but higher than the male tenor
2 A term used for an instrument whose range is analogous to the alto voice
aria An air or song for solo voice with orchestra, usually part of an opera, cantata, or oratorio
art song Short stylized song dealing with such subjects as love, nature, and life. It is usually written
for one voice with piano accompaniment
atonality A term used for music without a central key, thereby producing dissonant harmonies and
disjunct melodies
avant-garde A French term used to describe composers (also artists and writers) whose works are
radical and advanced
ballad Is an expressive folksong in narrative verse whose text deals typically about love.
ballet An artistic dance form performed to music, using precise and highly formalized set steps and
gestures
beat Regular, current pulsation that divides music into equal units of time
bebop It is a modernist jazz style of music during World War II whose jazz spirit is coupled with the
harmonic standard structure as a new pattern to base its improvisation.
big band A large ensemble form originating in the United States in the mid 1920s closely associated
with the Swing Era with jazz elements. Relying heavily on percussion (drums), wind, rhythm section
(guitar, piano, double bass, vibes), and brass instruments (saxophones), with a lyrical string section
(violins and other string instruments) to accompany a lyrical melody.
bodabil A genre of various entertainment composed of songs, dances, comedy routines, magic acts,
and chorus girls
bossa nova originated in 1958-b9 as a movement effecting a radical change in the classic Cuban
samba. The word bossa comes from the Brazilian capital of Rio de Janeiro, which means either
trend or something charming, integrating melody, harmony, and rhythm into a swaying feel,
where the vocal production is often nasal.
blues A type of black American folk music of the 20th century related to jazz, and associated with
ones state of mind
blues ballad A fusion of Anglo-American and Afro-American styles from the 19th century that
deals with the anti-heroes resisting authority.
call and response method It is a succession of two distinct musical phrases usually rendered by
different musicians, where the second phrase acts as a direct commentary on or response to the
first. Much like the question and answer sequence in human communication, it also forms a strong
resemblance to the verse-chorus form in many vocal compositions.
cha cha A ballroom dance originating in Cuba in 1953, derived from mambo and its characteristic
rhythm of 2 crochets 3 quavers quaver rest with a syncopation on the 4th beat.
chamber music Music for a chamber (or small room) rather than a hall; hence music played by small
groupsduos, trios, quarters, etc.
chance music Music in which chance or randomness of performance is an element of the composition.
chord The simultaneous sounding of two or more tones
chordophone Any musical instrument that produces sound primarily by vibrating strings
chromatic An interval based on an octave of 12 semitones rather than a diatonic scale
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concerto Originally, a work (vocal or instrumental) with effects of contrast, but now a work in which
a solo instrument performs with a large ensemble or orchestra
counterpoint The simultaneous combination of two or more melodies, or polyphony
countersubject A subsidiary theme played in response to the subject of a figure
cumbia An African courtship dance with European and African instrumentation and characteristics,
which became popular in Panama and Colombia
disco Music pertained to rock music that was more danceable, which led to the establishment of
venues bearing the same name as a place for public dancing
dissonance An interval or chord that is not harmonious like a consonance
dynamics Variations in the volume of musical sounds
electronic music Music which uses electronic equipments
ensemble A small group of performers
expressionism A term borrowed from painting and literature for music designed to express a state of
mind
folksongs Songs by the people handed down from generation to generation
form Organization of musical ideas in time; structure of a musical composition
foxtrot A 20th century social dance in the USA that was executed as a one step, two step and
syncopated rhythmic pattern
harmony The combination of simultaneous tones to produce chords, and the relationship of successive
chords
idiophones A musical instrument that creates sound through its own vibration, without the use of
strings or membranes
impressionism A term borrowed from painting to describe music that is intended to convey an
impression (often of natural phenomena) rather than a dramatic or narrative idea
incidental music Music composed as a background in a stage production
interval The distance between two pitches, traditionally measured in terms of the steps in the diatonic
scale
jazz Music originated from African-American people characterization by improvisation, syncopation,
and usually a regular or forceful rhythm
jazz ballad A blues style built from a single verse of 16 bars ending on the dominant or half-cadence,
followed by a refrain/chorus part of 16 or 32 bars in AABA form
J pop Japanese popular music
jazz rock The music of the 1960s and 1970s bands that inserted jazz elements in its rock music. A
synonym for jazz fusion, jazz rock is a mix of funk and R & B rhythms
K pop Korean popular music
maracatu A form of Latin-American music that first surfaced in the African state of Pernambuco,
combining the strong rhythms of African percussion instruments with Portuguese melodies.
melody A succession of notes of varying pitch with a recognizable shape or tune
meter Organization of beats into regular groups
musique concrete Music in which real (or concrete) sounds are electronically recorded
neo-classical A term describing the music of some twentieth-century composers whose techniques
draw on those of the Baroque and Classical periods
note Symbol used to indicate pitch
opera A drama set to music, with costumes and scenery to complement the musicians
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opus The Latin word for work used with a number to identify a work in a composers output
paso doble (meaning double step) A theatrical Spanish dance used in bullfights, where the music
was played as the matador enters (paseo) and during passes just before the kill
pitch Relative highness or lowness of a sound
polyphony A texture in which two or more independent melodic lines are combined, as opposed to
heterophony, homophony, monophony
prelude A short instrumental work originally intended to precede another, but from the nineteenth
century a short, self-contained piece usually for piano
program music Instrumental music that is narrative or descriptive of some non-musical idea, often
literary or pictorial
progression A musically logical succession of chords
ragtime An American popular musical style mainly for piano, originating in the red light districts of
the Afro-American communities in St. Louis and New Orleans. Its style was said to be a
modification of the marching mode made popular by John Philip Sousa, where the effect is
generated by an internally syncopated melodic line pitted against a rhythmically straightforward
bass line.
reggae An urban popular music and dance style that originated in Jamaica in the mid 1960s,
containing an English text coupled with Creole expressions that were not so intelligible to the nonJamaican.
rhythm The distribution of sounds into groups with a perceptible meter or pulse
rock ballad It is an emotional love song with suggestions of folk music, as in the Beatles
composition The Ballad of John and Yoko and Billy Joels The Ballad of Billy. This
style is sometimes applied to strophic story-songs such as Don McLeans American Pie.
rock and roll Popular song form in the United States during the late 1940s to the 1950s that
combines Afro-American forms such as the blues, jump blues, jazz, and gospel music with
the Western swing and country music.
rumba A popular recreational dance of Afro-Cuban origin, performed in a complex duple meter
pattern and tresillo, which is a dotted quaver dotted quaver dotted semiquaver rhythm. It is
normally used as a ballroom dance
scale A sequence of notes going upwards or downwards by step
score The music-copy of a piece for several performers; hence full score, containing complete details
of every participating voice and instrument
serialism A method of composing using a series of tones (usually all 12 of the chromatic scale), or
other musical elements, which are heard only in a particular order
soprano 1 The highest female voice 2 A term used for an instrument of high range
soul music was a popular music genre of the 1950s and 1960s. It originated in the United States. It
combines elements of African-American gospel music, rhythm and blues, and often jazz
sound Vibrations which are transmitted, usually through air, to the eardrum, which sends impulses to
the ear that we hear
spiritual Normally associated with a deeply religious person, it refers here to a Negro spiritual, a song
form by African migrants to America who became enslaved by its white communities.
staff The set of lines on and between which music is written
standard It is a song of established popularity by virtue of its enduring and recurring power.
subject A theme or a group of themes on which work is based
suite An instrumental work in several movements, usually a set of dances, which in the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries often took the form allemande-courante-sarabande-optional dance
movements-gigue
syncopation The stressing of beats of a meter that are normally unstressed
synthesizer A machine that produces and alters sounds electronically

319

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tablature A system of notation by symbols that represent the position of a performers fingers (e.g., on
a guitar) rather than the tone to be played
tango A Latin-American dance form whose name may have been of African origin meaning African
Dance or from the Spanish word taner meaning to play (an instrument).
tempo The speed of a piece of music
tenor The highest normal male voice
theme A musical idea on which a work is based, usually with a recognizable melody
timbre Quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or one voice from another
time signature Two numbers, one above the other, appearing at the beginning of a staff, or the start of
the piece, indicating the meter of a piece; the number above refers to the number of beats per
measure, and the number below represents the note that gets one beat
tonality The feeling of gravitational pull towards a particular tone, determined by the key of the music
tone Sound that has a definite pitch or frequency
tone-color The quality of the sound of a particular instrument or voice, or a combination of them
triad A three-note common chord consisting of a fundamental tone with tones at the intervals of a
3rd and 5th above
twelve-tone A term used to describe a technique of composition (serialism) in which all 12 notes of
the chromatic scale are treated equally
variation A varied (elaborated, embellished, etc.) version of a given theme or tune
waltz A nineteenth-century dance in triple meter
whole tone The interval of two semitones
zarzuela A musical stage performance popularized in the Philippines during the Spanish period

MUSIC PRONUNCIATION GUIDE


Music Terms

Pronunciation

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

ah kuh-pel-uh; Italian ah kahp-pel-lah


ahr-ee-uh; air-ee-uh; ahr-ee-uh; uh-rahy-uh
uh-vahnt-gahrd; uh-vant-, av-ahnt-, ah-vahnt-; French a-vahn-gard
bee-bop
bos-uh noh-vuh
kYn chirt
chah-chah
koo m-bee-uh; Spanish koom-byah
ahn-sahmb; French ahn-sahn-bluh
ey-tood, ey-tyood, ey-tood, ey-tyood;French ey-tyd
jahyv
marakatu
French pronunciation: [myzik k.kt]
op-er-uh, op-ruh
oh-puh s
pah-soh doh-bley; Spanish pah-sawdaw-vle
prel-yood, preyl-, prey-lood, preereg-ey
sahl-suh; Spanish sahl-sah]
sam-buh, sahmtang-goh
tab-luh-cher, -choo r
trahy-ad, -uh d

a capella
aria
avant-garde
bebop
bossa nova
concerto
cha cha
cumbia
ensemble
etude
jive
maracatu
musique concrete
opera
opus
paso doble
prelude
reggae
salsa
samba
tango
tablature
triad

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Musicians Names

Pronunciation

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Claude [kld), Debussy [db byoo see]


Schoenberg [shrn brg]
Bartk [bar twk]
Stravinsky [strY vn skee]
Prokofieff [prY kwfee ef]
Poulenc [pol angk]
Bernstein [brn steen]
Stockhausen [stk howzn]

Claude Debussy
Arnold Schoenberg
Bela Bartok
Igor Stravinsky
Sergey Prokofieff
Francis Poulenc
Leonard Bernstein
Karlheinz Stockhausen

ARTS GLOSSARY
abstractionism An artistic style in which the natural appearance of objects becomes unimportant, and
images are reduced to geometrical shapes, patterns, lines, angles, textures, and colors
acrylic A fast-drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion
action painting A style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled, splashed, or smeared on
the canvas, rather than being carefully applied
aesthetic Relating to or dealing with the beautiful; pleasing in appearance
airbrush A device that is used to spray a liquid (such as paint) onto a surface
android A mobile operating system (OS) developed for use on electronic devices such as a mobile
phone or tablet; sometimes also used to refer to the device itself using such an OS
animation The process of creating the illusion of motion or shape change by means of the rapid
display of a sequence of static images that are minimally different from one another
avant-garde Experimental or innovative, particularly in art and culture
balance A principle of art having to do with visual equilibrium, or two parts or sides of an artwork
having equal visual weight
celluloid A colorless flammable material used to make photographic film
cinematography The art of making motion pictures
collage An artistic composition of materials and objects pasted over a surface, often with unifying
lines and color
composition An organization or arrangement imposed upon the elements within a work of art
conceptual art Art that is intended to convey an idea or concept to the perceiver, and need not involve
the creation or appreciation of a traditional art object such as a painting or sculpture
contemporary art Art subjects, styles, and forms that are prevalent at the current time
contrast The use of opposing elements, such as colors, forms, or lines, in proximity to produce an
intensified effect in a work of art
copywriter The creator of text, normally for use in advertising in magazines, brochures, posters
cubism A style of art that stresses abstract structure at the expense of other pictorial elements,
especially by displaying several aspects of the same object simultaneously and by fragmenting the
form of depicted objects
dadaism A movement in art and literature based on deliberate irrationality and negation of traditional
artistic values
dark room A room from which all light is excluded, so that photographs can be developed in it
digital Referring to data (including images) that are created, stored, and transmitted through electronic
means
digital camera A camera that encodes images and videos through electronic means (rather than
through traditional film) and stores them for later retrieval and use

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digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera A camera that combines the features of a traditional singlelens reflex camera with a digital imaging sensor, eliminating the use of film
distortion / distorted The alteration of the original shape of something, such as an object or image
documentary A film or TV program presenting the facts about a person or event
dubbing The act or process of furnishing a film or tape with a new sound track or adding music,
sound effects, etc. to an existing one
embellishment Anything that adds design interest to a piece, usually in sewing, arts, and crafts
entrepreneur A person who conceptualizes and develops a business
expressionism A theory or practice in art of seeking to depict the subjective emotions and responses
that objects and events arouse in the artist
fauvism A movement in painting characterized by vivid colors, free treatment of form, and a resulting
vibrant and decorative effect
filter In photography, a device that partially or completely absorbs certain light rays
fish eye A visual distortion, usually in a photographic image, created by a special lens resulting in a
convex, hemisphere-shaped image
focal Placed at or measured from a focus
footage Film that has been shot
foreground The part of a scene or picture that is nearest to and in front of the viewer
form The element of art pertaining to the three dimensions (height, width, and depth) of art objects; or
the appearance or illusion of these three dimensions, as in a painting
futurism A movement in art, music, and literature begun in Italy about 1909 and marked especially
by an effort to give formal expression to the dynamic energy and movement of mechanical
processes
genre A type, style, or category of art
haute couture High fashion or the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing
hue The property of color that distinguishes one color from another as red, green, violet, etc.

impasto An art technique involving heavy application of paint to canvas, often with a spatula or knife
instead of a paintbrush, and sometimes directly from the tubes of paint
impressionism A school of late 19th century French painters who depicted the appearance of images
by using strokes of unmixed colors to give the impression of the reflected light
improvised Created or devised with the use of whatever is on hand
installation art Art that is created, constructed, or installed on the site where it is exhibited, often
incorporating materials or physical features on the site
kinetic Relating to or exhibiting motion
kinetoscope An early motion picture exhibition device, designed for viewing films by one individual
at a time through a peephole viewer window in the top of the device
landscape In art, the depiction of natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, forests, and rivers as the
main subject of the artwork
mechanical style An artistic movement in which figures and images were reduced to basic elements,
such as planes, cones, spheres, cylinders, and other mechanical components; even human figures
were mere outlines without expression
mime The art or technique of portraying a character, mood, idea, or narration by gestures and bodily
movements
minimalism A style or technique (as in music, literature, or design) that is characterized by extreme
spareness and simplicity

322

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mixed media Varied artistic materials and processes used in combination in one artwork
monochromatic Having only a single color
montage In filmmaking, the process of editing the film footage
monumental Huge, imposing, great
mythical Referring to a creature, character, or place that is found in myths, legends, and fantasy
stories
neodadaism A minor movement chiefly of the 1960s reviving some of the objectives of dada but
placing emphasis on the importance of the work of art produced rather than on the concept
generating the work
neoprimitivism An early 20th century art movement inspired by the native arts of Africa and the
South Sea Islands
neo-realism Any movement seeking to incorporate a modified form of realism, as in art, cinema,
literature, or philosophy
nickelodeon In the early 1900s, a motion-picture theater, variety show, etc. where admission was a
nickel (five cents)
nonobjectivism An artistic style that had no reference to recognizable objects; lines, shapes, and
colors were used in a cool, impersonal approach that aimed for balance, unity, and stability
op art Optical art, a style of abstractionism popular in the 1960s which made use of precisely
planned and positioned lines, spaces, and colors to create the illusion of movement
palette In art, a wooden board used for mixing colors for painting
performance art A form of theatrical art featuring the activity of the artist and works presented in a
variety of media
perspective The art of picturing objects or a scene in such a way as to show them as they appear to the
eye with reference to relative distance or depth
photomontage A combination of several photographs joined together for artistic effect or to show
more of the subject than can be shown in a single photograph
pictograph A written or drawn symbol that conveys its meaning through its visual resemblance to a
physical object
pigment A dry insoluble substance, usually pulverized, which when suspended in a liquid becomes a
paint, ink, etc.
playwright A writer of plays; dramatist
plotter A computer printer for printing vector graphics
pop art A form of art that depicts objects or scenes from everyday life and employs techniques of
commercial art and popular illustration
proportion A principle of art having to do with the relative size and positions of components in an
artwork; also called scale
rhythm A principle of art resulting from the repetition of elements or components of an artwork in a
specific pattern
satire A genre of literature, visual art, and performing arts in which shortcomings, vices, and abuses
of a certain segment of society are presented humorously in order to urge improvement
shutter In photography, a device for opening and closing the lens of a camera to expose the film
inside it to light
slapstick comedy Broad comedy characterized by boisterous action
snapshot A photograph, usually taken quickly and spontaneously
social realism Art used to comment on or protest against social ills such as injustice, inequality, war,
poverty, industrial hazards, environmental destruction, etc.
stencil A sheet of material that has been perforated with a pattern; ink or paint can pass through the
perforations to create the printed pattern on the surface below

323

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still life A work of art in which ordinary household objects such as vases of flowers, plates, fruit,
food, and the like are depicted as the main subject
street theater The presentation of plays or other entertainment by traveling companies on the streets,
in parks, etc.
stucco A material made of lime, sand, and water used as a decorative coating for walls and ceilings
surrealism A style of painting depicting strange subjects like those seen in dreams and fantasies
symmetrical Having both sides of an object identical or very similar to one another, creating a sense
of balance
tablet A mobile computer with a touch screen display, circuitry, and battery in a single unit
tactile Perceptible to the sense of touch; tangible
texture An element of art having to do with the roughness or smoothness of an artworks surface
three-dimensional Having three dimensions: length, width, and depth
two-dimensional Having two dimensions: length and width
unity A principle of art referring to the integration of all the components of an artwork to create a
meaningful whole
value An element of art referring to the lightness or darkness of a color
variety A principle of art referring to the use of differences or modifications to create visual interest
viewfinder A device on a camera that indicates, either optically or electronically, what will appear in
the field of view of the lens
virtual Existing in the mind or the imagination, or in electronic data form
zarzuela A Philippine adaptation of the European opera, highly popular during the late 1800s to the
early 1900s

ARTS PRONUNCIATION GUIDE


Artists Names
Cezanne say-ZAHN
Delacroix deh-lah-KRWAH
Manet mah-NAY
Monet moe-NAY
Renoir ruhn-WAR
Van Gogh van-GO

Art Terms
aesthetic - esthetic
celluloid - selluloyd
cubism - kyubism
fauvism - fovism
genre - zhonr
montage - montzh
surrealism - surrealism

324

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MUSIC BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
Abraham, Gerald. The Concise Oxford History of Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1990.
Ainsley, Robert (ed). Classical Music. New York: Smithmark Publishers, 1995.
Alberti, Luciano. Music of the Western World. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc. 1974.
Bartok, Bela . Album of Selected Pieces for the Piano, Volumes I and II. Compiled and
Arranged by Katherine K. Davis. Copyright by E. C. Schirmer Music Co.,
Boston,Massachusetts, USA.
Bonis, Ferenc. Bela Bartok. Budapest: Kossuth Printing House, 1981.
Burrows, John. (general editor). Classical Music. Introduction by Lady Solti. London:
Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2005.
Cultural Center of the Philippines. Encyclopedia of Music,
Cultural Center of the Philippines Library. Souvenir programmes.
Debussy, Claude. Preludes pour Piano. France: Durand et Cie, 1910..
Gershwin, George. Rhapsody in Blue. London, England: Chappel and Co., Ltd.
Guevara, Amelita D and Sternberg, Kathy (co-ed). Pag-ibig Song Book. Manila: The Manila
Symphony Society, 1986.
Miller, Hugh M. Introduction to Music. New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc. 1971.
Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth-Century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern Europe and
America. New York/London: W.W. Norton and Company, 1991.
Prokofieff, Serge. 3 Concerto pour Piano, Op. 26. New York: Boosey and Hawkes, Inc., 1947.
Randel, Don Michael (compiled). Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music. London, England:
The Belknop Press of Harvard University Press, 2000.
Rimm, Robert (introduction). Twentieth Century Piano Classics. New York: Dover
Publications, Inc., 1999.
Romualdez, Norberto (ed.). The Philippine Progressive Music Series. New York: Silver
Burnett Company, 1950.
Sadie, Stanley and Alison Lathan (eds.). The Cambridge Music Guide. New York: The Press
Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1985.
Salzman, Eric. Twentieth-Century Music: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:
Prentice Hall, 1967.
Siegmeister, Erie. Invitation to Music. New York: Harvey House, Inc., 1962.
Schoenberg, Harold C. The Lives of the Great Composers. New York: W.W. Norton and
Company, 1981.
Slonimsky, Nicolas. The Concise Bakers Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. New York:
Schirmer Books, 1986.
The Best of Broadway Songs Ever. Wisconsin: Hal Leonard Corporation.
University of the Philippines College of Music Library.

Online references
www.everynote.com
www.imlsp.com
www.naxosmusiclibrary.com
www.icking-music-archive.org
www.filipinaslibrary.org.ph

325

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ARTS BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
Duldulao, Manuel D. Contemporary Philippine Art. Vera-Reyes, Inc. Quezon City, Philippines.
1972.
Fleming, William. Arts and Ideas. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York. 1980.
Gatbonton, Juan T., Jeannie E. Javelosa, Lourdes Ruth R. Roa, eds. Art Philippines.
The Crucible Workshop. Pasig City, Philippines. 1992.
Time-Life Library of Art. The World of Cezanne. Time Inc., U.S.A. 1971
Time-Life Library of Art. The World of Delacroix. Time Inc., U.S.A. 1971
Time-Life Library of Art. The World of Manet. Time Inc., U.S.A. 1972
Time-Life Library of Art. The World of Monet. Time Inc., U.S.A. 1972
Time-Life Library of Art. The World of Picasso. Time Inc., U.S.A. 1972
Time-Life Library of Art. The World of Van Gogh. Time Inc., U.S.A. 1971

Online references
The Ateneo Art Gallery http://www.ateneoartgallery.org/
The Center for Art and Thought http://www.centerforartandthought.org/
Deviant Art http://www.deviantart.com/browse/all/digitalart/
Yuchengco Museum http://yuchengcomuseum.org/
Animation Council of the Philippines http://www.animationcouncil.org/
Philippine Animation Studio Inc. http://www.pasi.com.ph/flash/
Kenneth Cobonpue - www.kennethcobonpue.com/
Rajo Laurel http://www.rajolaurel.com/
Monique Lhuillier https://www.moniquelhuillier.com/
Josie Natori http://www.natori.com/
Dita Sandico-Ong http://dittachannel.com/intro/
Lulu Tan-Gan http://www.tan-gan.com/
George Tapan https://www.facebook.com/georgetapan
John K. Chua http://adphoto.com.ph/photographer_profile/id/2
Federation of Philippine Photographers Foundation (FPPF)
http://www.photoworldmanila.com/about-fppf/
Twine http://twinery.org/
Stencyl https://www.udemy.com/create-your-first-computer-game-with-stencyl/
GameMaker https://www.yoyogames.com/learn
http://www.instructables.com/id/How-To-Make-A-Pinhole-Camera/
http://www.digitalcamerareview.com/default.asp?newsID=5464&news=how+to+take+great+pictu
res+with+your+point+and+shoot+camera
http://digital-photography-school.com/megapost-learning-how-to-use-your-first-dslr/
http://www.wikihow.com/Use-Your-Digital-Camera%27s-ISO-Setting

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