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# EXPERIMENT 2

## Aim: Determination of various parameters of a signal.

Objectives:

Periodicity of a signal
Even and odd components of a signal.
Energy and power associated with the signal

Software: MATLAB
Pre-Lab
Periodic and Aperiodic signal:
An analog signal
is periodic if it is defined for all possible value of
and
there is a positive real value , the period of
such that
for any integer
.
Even and odd component of the signal
Even and odd signals are defined as follows:
and
any signal
is representable as a sum of even and odd
component.
Where the even component and the odd components are:
.
Energy and Power associated with signal
The energy and the power of an analog signal

## support signals as: Energy

, and Power
signal
is then said to be finite Energy or square integrable whenever
signal is said to have finite power if
.
In-Lab:

the
and the

## 1. Consider the analog signal

for
. Determine the
period of the signal, if
and plot the same.
2. Consider the signal
and
for
. Determine if these signals are periodic, and if so find
their periods.
3. Find the power of the signal
4. Find the energy of the signal
5. Find the even and odd components of the signal given in Q. no. 4 and plot the same.

## 6. calculation of power in a full wave rectified signal

Consider the full-wave rectified signal
fig. below. Calculate the power of the signal

Post-Lab

## 1. Check the signal

2. Find the even and odd components of the signal:

is periodic or not.

EXPERIMENT 3

## Aim: Verification of system characteristics.

Objectives:
a. Linearity.
b. Time invariance.
c. Stability
Software Required: MATLAB

Pre-Lab
Linearity
A system is said to be linear if it obeys homogeneity and superposition principle.
(a) Homogeneity:
If

& If

then

1 + 2 1 + 2

Similarly
If
& If

then

1 + 2 1 + 2

## (b) Superposition Principle: if response H is linear then

Discrete domain
Continuous domain
If these relations are not obeyed, then the system is Non linear.

Time Invariance:
A system is time- in variant, if its input-output characteristics do not change with time.

then

= =

In continuous domain
1 1

then

1 0 1 0

Causality:
A system where the output is dependent upon the past and present system inputs but not upon
the future inputs is a causal system. Either a system will be causal or non causal or anti
causal in nature.

## An LTI system represented by its impulse response h(t) is causal if

output of a causal LTI system with a causal input x(t) is
Stability:
A system is stable, if every bounded input produces a bounded output. Discrete
Domain:y(n)

LTI (H)

x(n)

System

## According to the limiting theorem

Now assume bounded input.
i.e

then

<

## i.e impulse response is absolutely summable

let

.
will be bounded only when

the

<

In-Lab

## 1. Consider the system

, where
and
are inputs and outputs
respectively.
i. Determine whether the system is time variant or invariant by considering two inputs
and
where
. Plot
,
,
and
. Check
is same as
or not. If same, then system is TIV,
otherwise not.
ii. Determine whether the system is linear or not by considering same
and
.
iii. Test whether the system is stable or not. Plot x(t) and y(t) for t is between 0 to 10 and
for the decreasing/increasing/constant trend of y(t) and predict the stability.
Test for
and
. Compare and discuss.

2. Zener Diode-MATLAB
A zener diode circuit is such that the output corresponding to an input v s(t)=cos(*t) is a
clipped sinusoid

## 0.5 for vs(t) 0.5

x(t) 0.5
0.5

forvs(t)

vs(t) otherwise

as in the following figure for a few periods. Use MATLAB to generate the input and the
output signals and plot them in the same plot for 0 t 4 at time intervals of 0.001.
(a) Is this system linear? Compare the output obtained from v s(t) with that obtained
from
0.3 v s(t)
(b) Is the system time invariant? Explain.

## Program:Results & Discussion:

Post-Lab
Let
and x(t)=u(t), test whether the system is
linear , causal, time invariant and stable. Plot, calculate and predict.