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IFACPapersOnLine 4911 (2016) 730–735
Engine Model Calibration Using Extremum Seeking
Qingyuan Tan ^{∗} Prasad Divekar ^{∗} Ying Tan ^{∗}^{∗} Xiang Chen ^{∗} Ming Zheng ^{∗}
^{∗} University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4, Canada (email:
xchen@uwindsor.ca). ^{∗}^{∗} The University of Melbourne, Parkville,VIC, 3010, Australia
Abstract: This work demonstrates the application of the extremum seeking method for model cali bration. A nonlinear, ﬁrstprinciple engine model is simpliﬁed for implementation in realtime control. A semiempirical correlation is used for estimation of the wall heat transfer in the simpliﬁed engine model. The heat transfer coefﬁcient is tuned using the extremum seeking approach to minimize the error between measurement and modeled cylinder pressure. Engine steady state measurement results are used for the demonstration and validation of the proposed technique.
© 2016, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Extremum seeking, engine model, model calibration, measurement, nonlinear system.
1. INTRODUCTION
The increasingly stringent government regulations on tailpipe emissions and the customer demands for higher fuel efﬁciency have become the motivation for the development of present day automotive internal combustion engines. As a result, multiple actuators and sensors as well as new control strategies have been added to the engine system. The current engine system has become an extremely complicated nonlinear multiinput and multioutput system, Zhu et al. (2015).
Engine control unit (ECU) based control strategies have been developed for decades. In addition to the increased hardware integration, engine control has become the key factor in im proving the engine performance and reducing engine output emissions. Presently the dominant engine control strategies are lookup table based. Values of the lookup tables are generated, tuned, and then stored on the ECU during the engine and ve hicle calibration stage. When deployed in a real world appli cation interpolation between the tables is carried out to gen erate actuator control commands. Considering the existence of nonlinearities, as well as the cross multidimensional coupling between all engine hardware and subsystems, the experimental based mapping procedure for lookup table generation is both time and effort intensive, Zhu et al. (2015).
To reduce the development time and the cost involved in the engine calibration process, implementation of closedloop con trol strategies is desirable. However, the number of production level sensors is required to be as low as possible, from the engine cost perspective. Therefore, using modelbased control with calibrated models is preferred. In Ma et al. (2011), model based control is used for engine variable valve actuation (VVA) control. Both the exhaust valve actuator model and engine in cylinder pressure model have been used by the authors. In Wang et al. (2006), an engine airtofuel (AFR) model is developed for the control of stoichiometric AFR inside a gasoline engine. The model is constructed using neural network modeling tech nique and is calibrated online. In Rajaei et al. (2010) a two
stage exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve model is designed for the control of the EGR ratio.
Model accuracy for modelbased control strategies is important. An inaccurate model would usually require the design of a more conservative controller to guarantee the overall system robustness. This would sacriﬁce the system response time and diminish certain system performance indices.
In order to take full advantage of advanced modelbased control strategies the improvement of model accuracy through model calibration is required. To guarantee robustness and shorten the prototyping time of model calibration the authors propose an extremum seeking (ES) based model calibration method for engine model parameter tuning. ES has been applied for engine calibration. In Popovic et al, (2006), ES is used to identify the optimized spark triggering time, intake valve opening time, and exhaust valve closing time to minimized the brake speciﬁc fuel consumption of the test gasoline engine setup. An optimized spark phasing and cam phasing map is generated with the application of ES. In Corti et al. (2013), airfuel ratio and spark timing is calibrated using ES to optimize the exhaust manifold temperature and to reduce the load variation between engine cycles. In these work, the calibration focus were to generate a map which can be used to determine optimized set point for the system. In this work, the calibration focus is to generate model parameters which would make the model performance close to engine performance. To minimize the computation effort a simpliﬁed engine model is ﬁrst described. ES based calibration is then applied using a cost function designed to minimize the difference between model and measurement outputs.
EGR,
ES ,
2. NOMENCLATURE
Exhaust gas recirculation Extremum seeking
[ O _{2} ] _{i}_{n}_{t} , Oxygen concentration at the intake manifold
R , n _{i} , y ,
Molar EGR ratio Number of moles of i of the intake charge Intake molar gas quantity
24058963 © 2016, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Peer review under responsibility of International Federation of Automatic Control.
10.1016/j.ifacol.2016.08.106
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x 
, 
Exhaust molar gas quantity 
expression for the molar concentration of oxygen in the intake, 
z 
, 
Remainder of the intake charge 
denoted by [ O _{2} _{−} _{i}_{n}_{t} ] , is shown in (4) 
n _{f} ,
m _{f} ,
LHV ,
γ ,
Q _{h}_{r} ,
Q _{t} _{f} ,
Fuel molar quantity
Fuel mass quantity Fuel lower heating value Speciﬁc heat ratio
Heat
Heat
released
transferred
p , 
Incylinder pressure 

T 
, 
Incylinder averaged temperature 
W , 
Output work from cylinder 

B, 
Cylinder bore 
T _{w}_{a}_{l}_{l} ,
Cylinder wall temperature
Q 
_{h}_{r}_{M}_{A}_{X} , Peak heat release value within one engine cycle 

V 
, 
Transient cylinder displacement volume 
V _{c} ,
Cylinder clearance volume
V 
_{d} , 
Cylinder total displacement volume 
l , 
Connecting rod length 

a 
, 
Crank radius 
3. SIMPLIFIED ENGINE MODEL
The engine model is divided into two submodels based on the physical system structure: the airpath model and the closed cycle model. The airpath model captures the interaction be tween the intake fresh air and the recirculated engine exhaust gas. It provides the initial gas compositions for the closed cycle model. The closedcycle model represents the incylinder thermodynamic processes including piston work, combustion, and heat transfer.
3.1 AirPath Process
The EGR level is expressed in terms of the mole fraction of the recirculated exhaust gas in the intake manifold. The detailed airpath model has been presented in the authors’ previous work, Divekar et al. (2013). The model is brieﬂy listed here for completeness. An EGR path molar balance is conducted to quantify the mole fractions of the EGR affected intake charge:
_{R} _{=} y − z
(1)
where, z , is the moles of fresh air, y is the total incylinder moles of air and recirculated combustion products, x is total moles of combustion products. In order to evaluate the combustion products for the airpath section of the engine model, the combustion chemistry is expressed solely as conversion of reactants into products:
n _{f} · C _{α} _{1} H _{α} _{2} O _{α} _{3} + n _{O} _{2} · O _{2} + n _{N} _{2} · N _{2} + n _{C}_{O} _{2} · CO _{2} + n _{H} _{2} _{O} · H _{2} O
x
= (n _{C}_{O} _{2} + α _{1} n _{f} ) · CO _{2} + n _{H} _{2} _{O} + ^{α} ^{2} n _{f} · H _{2} O
2
+ n _{N} _{2} · N _{2} + n _{O} _{2} + ^{α} ^{3} ^{n} ^{f} − α _{1} n _{f} − ^{α} ^{2} ^{n} ^{f} · O _{2}
2
4
(2)
and
(3)
Here, n _{f} is the moles of fuel (C _{α} _{1} H _{α} _{2} O _{α} _{3} ), n _{N} _{2} is the moles of nitrogen, n _{O} _{2} is the moles of oxygen, n _{C}_{O} _{2} is the moles of carbondioxide, and n _{H} _{2} _{O} is the moles of water in the intake charge. The derivation of expressions for individual intake charge species can thus be obtained. For instance, the
y = n _{N} _{2} + n _{O} _{2} + n _{C}_{O} _{2} + n _{H} _{2} _{O} .
[
O 2 − int ] =
_{7}_{7} + R · ^{} ^{α} ^{3} − α _{1} − ^{α} ^{2} ^{} · n _{f}
z
4
.
2
4
( 1 − R ) · y
.
(4)
Emission performance results from previous studies have sug gested the suitability of indicating the EGR effectiveness by
[ O _{2} _{−} _{i}_{n}_{t} ] , Asad et al. (2013). Moreover, Eq. 4 speciﬁes the EGR ratio in terms of quantities that are typically available in the ECU (Guzzella et al. (1998)). z is measured using the mass air ﬂow (MAF) sensor. y is calculated from the speeddensity equation, (Heywood (1988)), while n _{f} is determined from the precalibrated fuel quantity delivered via the fuel injector.
3.2 Closed Cycle Process
The airpath calculations, that mostly depend on sensor infor mation, determine the initial conditions at ( θ _{I}_{V}_{C} ) for the closed cycle engine process, wherein the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics and the ideal gas law are combined to complete the model, Hey wood (1988). The evolution of temperature ( T ) and pressure ( p ) in the combustion chamber can be developed from the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics (energy balance).
T ( θ _{k} ) = T ( θ _{k} _{−} _{1} ) + A · [Q _{h}_{r} ( θ _{k} ) − Q _{h}_{t} ( θ _{k} ) − W _{p}_{v} ( θ _{k} )] , (5)
_{A} _{=} ^{} γ ( T ) − 1
¯
R · y
,
(6)
γ ( T ( θ _{k} )) γ ( T ( θ _{k} )) − 1 .
p
( θ _{k} ) = p ( θ _{k} _{−} _{1} ) ·
θ k − 1 )
T (
θ
k
)
T (
(7)
The heat transfer Q _{h}_{t} is modeled using Woschni’s correlation as,
Q _{h}_{t} ( θ ) = 
h _{w} ( θ ) · A _{s} ( θ ) · T ( θ ) − T _{w}_{a}_{l}_{l} , 
(8) 
h _{w} ( θ ) = C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} · B ^{−} ^{0} ^{.} ^{2} · p ^{0} ^{.} ^{8} · T ( θ ) ^{−} ^{0} ^{.} ^{5}^{5} · w ( θ ) ^{0} ^{.} ^{8} , 
(9) 
w ( θ ) = C _{1} · S _{p} + C _{2}
V _{d} · T re f
p re f · V re f
p ( θ ) − p _{m}_{o}_{t} ( θ ) . (10)
Q _{h}_{r} , the heat release rate, is approximated using a triangular shape function to simulate the energy addition rate by burning of the fuel mass, m _{f} _{u}_{e}_{l} .
Q hr =
0
2 Q hrMAX
θ
CD
( θ − θ _{S}_{O}_{C} )
− 2 Q hrMAX
θ
CD
( θ − θ CA50 ) + Q hrMAX
0
Q hrMAX = m ^{f} ^{u}^{e}^{l} · LHV
_{θ} CD
W _{p}_{v} , piston work is expressed as:
i
ii
iii
iv
(11)
(12)
W _{p}_{v} ( θ _{k} ) = p ( θ _{k} )[V ( θ _{k} ) − V ( θ _{k} _{−} _{1} )] ,
V is the cylinder volume, which is calculated from the slider crank mechanism.
(13)
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V ( θ ) = V _{c} + ^{V} ^{d} 1 + _{a} − cos( θ ) − _{a} 2 − sin ^{2} ( θ ) .
2
l
l
1
2 ^{}
(14)
γ is the speciﬁc heat ratio. In order to simplify the compu tational load γ is estimated using a cylinder gas temperature dependent linear approximation,
γ (θ ) = γ ( θ _{I}_{V}_{C} ) − ρ T ( θ )
The heat transfer coefﬁcients h _{w} , A _{s} , C _{1} , and C _{2} are pre calibrated to match the engine setup, while the geometry pa rameters V _{d} , V _{c} , l , and a are constants for the test engine. The heat transfer coefﬁcient C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} is a scaling factor which is tuned to match a speciﬁc engine geometry and engine working condition.
(15)
For the model listed above the mean piston speed, S _{p} , and the
reference parameters T _{w}_{a}_{l}_{l} , T _{r}_{e} _{f} , p _{r}_{e} _{f} , V _{r}_{e} _{f} , and p _{m}_{o}_{t} depend on
¯
the external system inputs. R is the universal gas constant. The maximum heat release during combustion is deﬁned as Q _{h}_{r}_{M}_{A}_{X} . θ _{C}_{A} _{5}_{0} is the location of 50% fuel combustion, m _{f} _{u}_{e}_{l} is the total fuel mass, LHV is the lower heating value of the fuel, θ _{S}_{O}_{C} is
the location where combustion starts at, and θ _{C}_{D} is deﬁned as the combustion duration. For the simpliﬁed speciﬁc heat ratio deﬁnition, ρ is the linear ﬁt coefﬁcient.
4. EXTREMUM SEEKING FOR MODEL CALIBRATION
4.1 General ES Structure
Extremum seeking (ES) is a model free gradientbased opti mization method which has been used in a number of automo tive related studies Corti et al. (2013), Haskara et al, (2006), Killingsworth et al, (2009), Popovic et al, (2006), Sugihira et al, (2007).
ES runs iteratively and the optimization process is to guide the system output cost function to an extremum (minimum or maximum) by tuning the selected system control input based on the system steadystate response, Young et al, (2002). The general ES structure is shown in Fig. 1. ES would ﬁrst initiate perturbation on the system input by adding a dither signal to it. The output from the system is used to construct a cost function. The gradient of the cost function can be extracted by ES through demodulation and the interaction with a series of embedded ﬁlters.
Fig. 1. Generic ES structure
The ES cost function designed based on system output has been assumed to have an asymptotically stable equilibrium, Young
et al, (2002). The behavior of the cost function is usually
unknown and ES is able to determine the optimum control input from the cost function convergence based on the available measurement from the system.
4.2 Perturbation Based ES for Model Calibration
The current work adopts the modelfree optimization scheme of ES to calibrate model parameters. Calibration of the model parameters is conducted by designing a cost function that evaluates the difference between the measured plant output and the model output. ES is then used to modulate the model parameters such that the cost function reaches a local minimum. Guidelines based on experience and literature review are used to select the initial model parameter value, such that the local minimum identiﬁed by the ES is in fact the global minimum.
The discrete perturbation based ES structure is adopted in this work. For the discrete perturbation based ES three parame ters are usually tuned to improve convergence, the oscillation
frequency of the dither signal ω , the amplitude of the dither signal α , and the adaptive gain γ . Since ES is applicable with steadystate input and output from the system, the choice of the dither signal frequency is related to the system response dynamics. If the system responds quickly the dither ω value can be very large as the system is always working at a ”steadystate” relative to the dynamic of the dither signal. If this is true, the ES iterations would run faster thus less time is needed before the ES can converge. Both the dither amplitude and the adaptive gain values are to determine the ES searching step amplitude ES. If the step sizes are large the ES convergence time can be shortened. However the optimum performance might also be overlooked as it could lie within the range of two consecutive searching steps.
Fig. 2. Model calibration structure
The structure of the perturbation based ES for model calibration is shown in Fig. 2. From the structure it can be seen that
a sinusoidal dither signal a × sin ( ω · kt ) is added on to the
updated system input θ . The cost function is constructed using the system measurement and is determined as J ( θ ) . The cost
function is ﬁrst applied to a high pass ﬁlter ^{z} ^{−} ^{1}
_{+} _{h} and the results is
multiplied by the sinusoidal signal b × sin ( ω · kt ) . This process will generate an estimate of the gradient of the cost function
before the integrator
_{1} . The integrator utilizes this input to
update θ in the tendency of driving the gradient to zero. If
_{z}
− γ
z −
˜
˜
γ is positive θ will drive the cost function to its closest local
˜
minimum, whereas γ is negative θ will make the cost function
to approach its closest local maximum.
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4.3 Cost function design
ES is used for engine model parameter calibration to improve the heat transfer prediction using the simpliﬁed engine model. The difference between engine measurement and model output is used for the cost function design. The engine, in this case, is considered as an unknown system. Since the engine model is ﬁrstprinciple based a ’best ﬁt’ of the model output to the engine output is to be expected given appropriate model parameters. Therefore, under this scenario, the application of ES for engine model calibration is appropriate.
As mentioned previously, the simpliﬁcation of the incylinder submodel would introduce uncertainty to the overall engine model. The incylinder process is the duration when the com plicated thermodynamic processes take place. It determines the amount and species of tailpipe emissions. Therefore the capability of the model to accurately estimate this process is important. Certain model parameters need to be tuned to close the gap between the model and the real engine. In this work the C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} is the chosen parameter to tune using ES, as it adjusts the model wall heat transfer performance which affects the in cylinder temperature and pressure changes.
The engine incylinder process is reﬂected by the engine in cylinder pressure. Therefore the calibration target is to match the pressure traces acquired from the measurement and the model. Due to the simpliﬁcation of the heat release process, the matching of the pressure traces during the combustion process (from θ _{S}_{O}_{C} to θ _{S}_{O}_{C} + θ _{C}_{D} ) is very difﬁcult. Furthermore the heat released during combustion (usually lasts for 1030 crank angle degrees) contributes a relatively small portion of the total heat transfer compared to the total heat transferred within one engine cycle. Therefore the pressure matching during this period is inferior to the pressure matching of the rest of the in cylinder pressure trace. For the cost function design, to diminish the inﬂuence of the incylinder pressure during combustion, the difference between measured and modeled pressure are divided by the corresponding measured pressure value. As the absolute pressure values are usually higher during combustion, the amplitude ratio contributed by this portion of data to the cost function will be of a smaller value. In this work, the cost function is deﬁned as:
θ
EVO
∑
θ = θ IVC

P mea − P model  P mea
(16)
.
An elastic coefﬁcients is used to adjust the amplitude of the cost function values during the calibration as to cope with the ES parameters.
J ( θ ) =
4.4 Experimental setup
The engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder Ford Puma commonrail diesel engine. The original four cylinder production engine was modiﬁed to run in a three motoring and one research cylinder conﬁguration. The speciﬁcation of the research cylinder can be found in Table 1. The three motoring cylinders operate in the traditional diesel combustion mode to motor the research cylinder. Independent intake, exhaust, and fuel supply paths have been setup in the laboratory for the research cylinder. An eddy current dynamometer dissipates the engine load and regulates the engine speed. During the engine test, the engine speed is held constant at 1500 rpm. An AVL
Table 1. 4Cylinder Ford DuraTorq ”Puma” Diesel Engine
Displacement 
1998 cm ^{3} 
Bore x Stroke 
86 mm x 86 mm 
Compression ratio 
18.2 : 1 
Max cylinder pressure 
180 bar 
Injection system 
Commonrail system (up to 1600 bar) 
Intake valve open 
690 ^{o} CA 
Intake valve close 
250 ^{o} CA 
Exhaust valve open 
498 ^{o} CA 
Exhaust valve close 
68 ^{o} CA 
pressure transducer is mounted on the research cylinder head for incylinder pressure recording.
5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this work, to demonstrate the effectiveness of ES for engine model calibration, a single input ES study is presented. More sophisticated multiple input ES can be expanded from this work using a similar idea for the cost function design. In this study, the engine model has all the model parameters precalibrated except for the heat transfer scaling factor (C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} ).
Engine cyclic injected fuel quantity, fuel injection timing, en gine speed, boost pressure, intake manifold temperature, and EGR are used as the external user deﬁned input which are ap plied to the model directly. The external inputs are held constant during the ES calibration to create an engine steadystate input output condition for the ES.
Cylinder pressure traces are selected for the ES cost function design, (16). As demonstrated in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 two sets of engine test data are shown here to present the process of ES model calibration. The data sets are obtained from measurements conducted under two different conditions: one is under motoring condition and the other running at 6.6 bar IMEP. The cost function values plotted in the two ﬁgures have been modulated by the elastic coefﬁcient.
In Fig. 3 the model C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} was adjusted by ES from its initial value to a value around 5.9 (average value of the converged
C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} trace). To achieve fast convergence, the dither signal
amplitude is set relatively high in this study. One downside of this setting is that it would cause a large residual error once ES converges. The cost function constructed by the difference ratio between the measurement and modeled output would decrease as C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} converges, Fig. 3.
Similarly, the ES calibration using engine test data obtained under 6.6 bar IMEP is also shown in Fig. 4. Once converged, the average of the model C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} identiﬁed by ES is 3 . 9. The departure of the C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} value from the one obtained in the previous ES calibration is the result of the simpliﬁcation of the heat release submodel and speciﬁc heat ratio as well as the uncertainty of other model parameters.
In Table 2 model calibration results are shown for engine pres sure measurement conducted under different loads (as illus trated of differences in IMEP values), boost level, and EGR ratios. The table lists the cost function values obtained after convergence has been achieved during the calibration. The number of ES searching cycles required for achieving the con vergence have also been presented. The actual time of conver gence depends on both the computational resources and the
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Qingyuan Tan et al. / IFACPapersOnLine 4911 (2016) 730–735
Table 2. Model calibration results
Speed (rpm) 
IMEP (bar) 
EGR (%) 
Boost (kpa) 
C scaling 
Cost function (ES) 
Cost function (Ref.) 
ES cycles to convergence 
1500 
1.7 
0 
74.2 
5.9 
17.2 
19.6 
150 
1500 
6.6 
0 
99.8 
3.9 
10.2 
10.8 
50 
1500 
9.9 
15 
87.3 
2.9 
13.4 
12.9 
20 
1500 
10.0 
21 
100.7 
3.8 
9.8 
10.5 
80 
1500 
10.0 
45 
101.3 
3.1 
13.6 
11.6 
170 
1500 
7.3 
59 
102.4 
2.9 
10.8 
9.9 
240 
Fig. 3. Calibrated heat release proﬁle using ES, motoring trace.The cost function values have been modulated by an elastic coefﬁcient.
Fig. 4. Calibrated heat release proﬁle using ES, 6.6 bar IMEP. The cost function values have been modulated by an elastic coefﬁcient.
Qingyuan Tan et al. / IFACPapersOnLine 4911 (2016) 730–735
735
number of cycles to converge. In general, the time consumption
is proportional to the number of ES convergence cycles.
A heuristic approach has been adopted in parallel to the ES cali
bration to evaluate the validity of the ES results. In the heuristic model calibration, one C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} is selected to best ﬁt the cylinder pressure trace at motoring conditions for varying intake boost conditions. Combustion conditions are not considered during this approach as it introduces several degrees of complexity and the manual model calibration would be extremely tedious. For the test engine and for intake boost ranging from 0.3 bar abs to 1.3 bar abs, it was observed that a C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} of 3.5 yields
acceptable model performance. The cost function values ob tained (16) using the heuristic approach are also listed in Table 2 in the Cost function (Ref.) column. It was observed that the automated ES calibration method was able to obtain similar results by adopting a different C _{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} for different operating points and the converged cost function value is comparable to those obtained using the heuristic approach, Table 2. However, since the ES tuning requires only limited or no knowledge of the system, the overall parameter calibration effort has been signiﬁcantly reduced.
To make the model perform more accurately, multiple model parameters can be introduced to the ES calibration structure shown in Fig. 2 as ES output. A multiple parameter ES can
be applied to replace the single parameter ES structure used
in the current study. Moreover due to the datadriven nature of
ES, the model calibration process can also be applied online
in realtime. In the authors’ lab, the time consumption for one
iteration of the simpliﬁed engine model calculation is around 10 ms, each iteration of ES searching consumes less than 0.1 ms to complete. From the model calibration results shown in Table 2 all the calibration examples converge within 170 ES cycles. This further demonstrates a positive potential to adopt this technique for realtime model calibration.
6. CONCLUSION
This paper presents a engine model calibration technique using ES. A ﬁrstprinciple based simpliﬁed engine model is proposed as the target model to approximate the thermodynamic pro cesses of the engine setup built in the authors’ lab. A cost function designed using both measurement and modeled data is used for the ES structure to locate the optimum model parame ter. Expanding the ES structure adaptable to multiple parameter
tuning is also proposed as a future prospect for the development
of this technique.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The research at the Clean Diesel Engine Laboratory is spon sored by the Canada Research Chair program, NSERC, CFI, OIT, AUTO21, the University of Windsor, Ford Motor Com pany, and other OEMs.
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