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Assessing Water Content

in solid transformer insulation


from dynamic measurement
of moisture in oil
Brian Sparling, SMIEEE
GE Energy, Canada

IEEE PES Seminar


Vancouver BC
April 3rd 2008
1/
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture in insulation

In
Intransformer,
transformer,there
thereisisseveral
severalsources
sourcesof
of
moisture:
moisture:
Residual
Residualmoisture
moisturefrom
frommanufacturing
manufacturing
process:
process:Good
Gooddrying
dryingprocess
processshould
should
result
resultin
inless
lessthan
than0.5%
0.5%moisture
moisturein
inpaper
paper
Leaks:
Leaks:Gasket
Gasketand/or
and/orjoints
jointscould
couldleak
leak
Insufficient
Insufficientmaintenance:
maintenance:ToTobebeeffective,
effective,
Silica
Silicagel
gelsystem
systemneeds
needsconstant
constant
maintenance,
maintenance,any
anylapse
lapsecould
couldresult
resultin
in
large
largeamount
amountofofmoisture
moistureinto
intothe
the
transformer
transformer
2/
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture in insulation

In
Intransformer,
transformer,there
thereisisseveral
severalsources
sourcesof
of
moisture:
moisture:
Paper
Paperdegradation:
degradation:The
Thethermal
thermal
degradation
degradationof
ofpaper
paperdoes
doesgenerate
generatewater
water
This
Thiswater
waterwill
willgenerate
generateyet
yetmore
morepaper
paper
degradation
degradation
Moisture
Moistureisisstrongly
stronglyabsorbed
absorbedby bypaper,
paper,
once
onceinside
insidethe
thetransformer,
transformer,ititisisdifficult
difficultto
to
remove.
remove.

3/
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture in insulation

Moisture
Moisturein
inoil
oil
••Can
Canlead
leadto
towater
watercondensation
condensation

Moisture
Moisturein
inwinding
windingpaper
paperisiscritical
critical
••Reduces
Reducesdielectric
dielectricstrength
strength
••Increased
Increasedrisk
riskof
ofbubbling
bubblingat athigh
highload
load
••Accelerates
Acceleratesthe
therate
rateof
ofinsulation
insulationaging
aging

Moisture
Moisturein
inpressboard
pressboardbarrier
barrierisiscritical
critical
••Reduces
Reducesdielectric
dielectricstrength
strength

Only
Onlymoisture
moisturein
inoil
oilcan
canbe
bemeasured
measured

4/
GE /
April 2, 2008
Paper is found in many forms
in winding insulation
Cross-sectional view of a 400 kV transformer
end insulation (220 kV-side)
Clamping plate Clamping plate

Tube Snout

Cylinder Spacer block

Angle ring Cap

Metalized stress
ring
Moulded lead exit
Paper wrap around
copper wire

Cylinder

5/
GE /
April 2, 2008
Deterioration of oil and cellulose

AGED Cigre Brochure 323, Oct 2007

6/
GE /
April 2, 2008
Paper consist of fibers

Paper structure Paper fibre

Cigre Brochure 323, Oct 2007

7/
GE /
April 2, 2008
Fibers are built from micro fibers -
which consist of cellulose molecules
Micro and submicrofibers Cellulose molecule

DP – Value
Average number of rings in
the cellulose molecule
chain
Cigre Brochure 323, Oct 2007

8/
GE /
April 2, 2008
Where does water come from?
COMPOSITION OF PAPER
- - - - - - - Cellulose - - - - - - -

CH2OH H
OH CH2OH
C O C C C O
H O H H
H H H
C OH H C C OH C C OH C
H O H
H H O H
C C C C C
H H
OH CH2OH OH

Glucose
Where does water come from?

CH2OH

H O
H O
OH H
O H
H OH

Glucose
Where does water come from?

CH2OH

H O
H O
OH H
O H HOH
H OH

80 °C - 300 °C
Where does water come from?

CH2OH

H O
H O
OH H
O H HOH
H +
OH HOH

80 °C - 300 °C
Where does water come from?

HOH
+
CH2OH

H O
H O
OH H
O H HOH
H +
OH HOH

80 °C - 300 °C
Where does water come from?

HOH
+
CH2OH

H O
H O
C OH H
O H HOH
H +
OH HOH
+
CO
80 °C - 300 °C
Where does water come from?

HOH
+
CH2OH O CHO
H

H O
H O H H
C OH H +
O H HOH
H +
OH HOH
+
CO
80 °C - 300 °C
Where does water go?

HOH
+
CH2OH O CHO
H

H O
H O H H
C OH H +
O H HOH
H +
OH HOH
+
CO
80 °C - 300 °C
The water will also degrade the paper
HOH (water)
CH2OH OH CH2OH
O O O
OH OH O OH
O

OH CH2OH OH
Acids

CH2OH OH CH2OH
O O O
H OH
OH OH O OH
O

OH CH2OH OH
17 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Impact of moisture in oil

Over saturation of oil when WCO > saturation

V. Davydov, EPRI Moisture Management in Transformer Workshop, Nov.2002, Edison, New Jersey
18 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Impact of moisture in oil

Water-in-oil
Sensors saturation curve Output
800

Absolute water
Sensor Relative content
Humidity (RH%) Water content (ppm) 600
in oil (ppm)
5% 20ppm
400

Sensor Condensation
Temperature(°C) 200 temperature (°C)

75°C 10°C
20 5%
0
0 20 40 60 75°80 100
10
Temperature (°C)

19 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Change in water-in-oil concentration
Rectifier Transformer B
21 MVA OFWF
50 15

Top Oil Temp.

Water in Oil (ppm)


40 12
Temperature (oC)

30 9

20
Water in Oil 6

10 3

0 0
Jan-04 Jan-05 Jan-06 Jan-07

Water content in oil varies with Temperature


20 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Most of the water is stored in the solid insulation

Thin
Winding
Thick 2%
3%
5% Oil
1%
Winding
22%

Thick
Thin 55%
22%
Oil
90%

Insulation Weight Distribution Water Distribution

21 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Example of water distribution in a 25 MVA
transformer with 3% moisture in paper

40 °C 80 °C
Oil (25 000litre) 10 ppm 0.25 kg 80 ppm 2.0kg
Paper (2500 kg) 3% 75 kg 2.93% 73.25 kg
Total 75.25 kg 75.25 kg

•Most of the water is in the solid insulation


•Change in water content of oil does not entail a
similar change in the water content of paper
22 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Paper Aging
•Definition, End of life criteria
•Contributing factors

Insulation aging is irreversible


Moisture content in transformer insulation is a
persistent concern

Aging transformers tend to build-up moisture

IEEE Std 62 – 1995:


–Dry 0-2%
–Wet 2-4%
–Very Wet 4.5% +

Only moisture in oil can actually be measured

24 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Impact of moisture in paper

The amount of moisture in paper is a very


important parameter to know, as it directly
affects the following:
z Aging rate of the winding insulation
z Bubbling temperature (limits the amount of
overloading of a transformer)
z Dielectric strength of the barriers at the
bottom of the winding

25 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Water accelerates ageing of Kraft paper

Cigre publication 323 Oct. 2007


26 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Oxygen accelerates ageing of paper

•Presence of oxygen has, in


laboratory experiments
Lampe’s suggestion shown an ageing
acceleration by a factor 2-3
Ageing rate

q
m
uip n
en
•Above 2000 ppm O2 showed
g e erso
a
in
ss esp concentration independent
g al
De s ageing rates
•Oxygen saturated 30 000
Oxygen concentration
ppm O2
•Oxygen free 300 ppm O2
Cigre Brochure 323, October 2007

27 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Example of Winding Paper Degradation

Example of treeing in a wet pressboard barrier


V.Davydov, EPRI moisture Seminar Nov. 2002

Example excessive paper aging

28 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Evolution of fault at weak points

The weak points


are candidates
for a possible
failure

V. Sokolov Cigre Colloquium 1997

29 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Impact of moisture in winding insulation
••Increased
Increasedrisk
riskof
ofreleasing
releasingbubbles
bubblesat
athigh
highload
load

Residual190water in winding insulation can release


water vapor bubbles at highslowtemperature
Kobayashi rapid heating
Kobayashi heating
170

150
Davydov
Temperature

130
Oommen gas free
110
Oommen gas saturated
90

70

50
0 2 4 6 8 10
WCP % w/w
T.V. Oommen et al, Atlanta, 2001
30 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Example of Overheating

Trapped Bubbles

Bubble Emission

V. Davydov EPRI Moisture Seminar 2002


31 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture reduces dielectric strength of
pressboard barriers

Eq
ui p
ote
nti
LV HV
al
Tangential field
Pressboard barrier

Perpendicular
Electric
field
field

32 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture can promote tracking discharges on
pressboard barriers

Surface discharges are


HV
more likely on angle rings
LV

Discharge inception
100

80

voltage (%)
60

40

20

0
0 1 2 3 4

Moisture in paper (%)


Wet Barriers = Strong Discharges
Alstom T&D, Merida, 2003 33 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Assessing Water Content in
Transformer Solid insulation

Fabre & Pichon


Moisture in paper %
1960
Two problems Oommen
: 1983

• Oil saturation curve need to be known


• Transformer must be under thermal
stability condition
Moisture in Oil (ppm)

34 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Determination of water in solid insulation from
water in oil

The problem:
z Should we use absolute water content in oil
(ppm) or Relative Saturation (RS)?
z Is water content uniform through the
transformer solid insulation?
z How do we handle the diffusion time
between paper and oil?
35 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Oil saturation characteristics

600
ƒ Water content in oil can be

Water content at saturation (ppm)


expressed in ppm
ƒ This value must be related to oil
400
saturation characteristics
Old oil
ƒ But saturation characteristic Oxidize
vary with type of oil and oil
200
condition
New oil
ƒ Therefore it is more convenient
to consider Relative Saturation 0
(RS) 0 20 40 60 80 100
Temperature
36 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Relative Saturation (RS)
800
ƒ Relative saturation is the

Water content at saturation (ppm)


moisture content relative
to the saturation value at a 600
given temperature 500 ppm

ƒ At equilibrium, 400
RS in oil = RS in paper
ƒ It varies within the
200
transformer
100 ppm
50 ppm
ƒ Example:
0
Sensor: 40°C, RS =50% 0 20 40 60 80 100

Hot spot: 85°C, RS =10% Temperature (°C)

37 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture Migration Summary

z Equilibrium curve exist to relate moisture in


paper to relative saturation in oil.
z These curves assume Equilibrium exists (the
moisture has stopped moving between the
oil and paper)
z But this is never the case.
z Many people make errors in using these
charts, ‘blindly’ without considering
equilibrium conditions which must exist, and
their mistakes can be costly
38 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Assessing Water Content in
Transformer Solid insulation

Jeffries 30°C
Jeffries 30°C
8 Jeffries 30°C
Jeffries 90°C
7
Jeffries 90°C
90°C
Moisture in paper (%)

Jeffries
Oommen 30°C
6
Oommen 90°C
5 Oommen 30°C

Fessler 30°C
4
Oommen 90°C
Fessler 90°C
3

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Moisture relative saturation (%)

39 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture in paper

16

Equilibrium curves are 14


now available to convert

Absolute Humidity (%)


12
moisture in oil into
10
moisture in paper without 0 °C
20 °C
considering oil saturation 8
40 °C
characteristics 6 60 °C
But we still need: 4
80 °C
100 °C
• Temperature of oil-paper interface
2
• Diffusion time constant
0
• Facility for integrating results over
0 20long 40 period
60 80 of 100
time Relative Humidity (%RH)
40 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture Migration Summary

z Paper at different temperatures inside the


transformer will will have different moisture
levels
z Different areas of the insulation system have
different thickness (winding insulation versus
barrier insulation)
z The Equilibrium condition therefore will take
much longer for barrier insulation versus
winding insulation
41 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Typical diffusion time constant (in days)

Insulation Thickness
Temperature 1mm 2mm 4mm
80 °C 0.9 3.6 14
60 °C 4.2 17 67
40 °C 20 79 317
20 °C 93 373 1493

42 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture in paper
varies within the transformer
Area of Interest
for moisture in paper

Win

Th
ding

in b
ing
l
Oi

ins
nd

arr
Wi

ulati

iers
on
44 56 64 76 1.2%
1.2 1.7 2.2 3.3%
3.3
Guided convection flow Temperature ( oC) Moisture content (%)
through disk windings at equilibrium condition

43 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Migration of moisture in transformers

• Moisture content in solid insulation, is not a single


value
• It appears impractical to assess the moisture content
of the thick insulation
• Lowest part of pressboard barriers is the most critical
location and should determine needs for dying
• Sensitivity analysis indicates that the value assigned to
diffusion time constant is not critical

44 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Migration of moisture in transformers

• There is a correlation between the amount of water


in the oil and in the paper

• However, this correlation is dynamic and is changing


as a function of transformer loading

• The dynamics of the distribution of water in the


transformer is quite complex and changing

45 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture inside the transformer moves back and forth
between the oil and paper by diffusion as a function of
temperature
100 10

90 9
84 ppm 80 8
Temperature oC, RH%

70 7

60 6

Load (MVA)
50 5

40 4

30 3

20 2
32 ppm
10 1

0 0
0 5 10 15 20
Time (days)

Sensor Temperature Sensor RH%


Hot spot temp. Hot spot RH%
Load (MVA)

46 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
What to do?

47 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Hydran M2

Advanced Gas and Moisture monitor


¾H2 and CO
¾Moisture in oil
¾Trending
¾4 analog inputs
¾Data Logging
¾Networking
¾Integrated Modem/TCP-IP
48 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Typical HYDRAN M2 Installation

49 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
The Hydran M2 as Advanced Transformer Monitor
• Incipient Fault • Moisture in Oil, in Windings and in Barriers
• Apparent Power • Cooling Status and tracking
• Winding Hot Spot • Aging Rate
• OLTC Fault • Bubbling Margin
• Cooling Efficiency • Cumulative aging

Dissolved Moisture
Top Oil Temperature
Hydran M2
Dissolved Gases

With OLTC Temperature

Load Current
Models

Cooling Fan/Pumps Status

Alarms

50 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Temperature and Load

Top oil Ambient


Temperature
Sensor
OLTC

Magnetically
Mounted
Temperature
sensor
Clip-On load sensor
51 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
GE Company - Proprietary & Confidential
Field experience with on-line moisture
monitoring

US Western Utility

50MVA, Core type,


230 / 13.8 kV
55°C rise
Hydran M2 mounted
on spare cooler outlet

52 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Field data recording for moisture assessment - 50
MVA transformer

50 1.2
Top-oil Temp.
40 1.0
Temperature, RH%

30 0.8
Sensor Temp.
20 0.6
Load

Load Factor.
10 0.4

RH% at Sensor
0 0.2
Sep-03 Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec-03 Jan-04 Feb-04 Mar-04

53 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture content in winding insulation - 50 MVA
transformer

60 5.0
Hot-Spot Temperature
50 4.5
Diffusion Time Constant (days)

40 4.0
Temperature (oC),

30 3.5
20 3.0

Moisture in Paper (%)


Diffusion Time Constant
10 2.5
0 Ultimate Moisture Content 2.0
-10 1.5
Averaged Moisture Content
-20 1.0
Sep-03 Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec-03 Jan-04 Feb-04 Mar-04

54 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture content in pressboard barrier - 50 MVA
transformer

100 5.5
Diffusion Time Constant (days)

Diffusion Time Constant


80 5.0
Temperature (oC),

60 4.5

Moisture in Barrier (%)


40 4.0
Bottom oil temperature
20 3.5
Ultimate Moisture
0 3.0
in barrier
-20 2.5
Averaged moisture in barrier
-40 2.0
Sep-03 Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec-03 Jan-04 Feb-04 Mar-04

55 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Analog
Analog Set-up
Set-up
Screens
Screens

56 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture and Bubbling Model

Water condensation temperature

Winding bubbling temperature

Bubbling temperature margin,


alarm point

Absolute water content in oil

57 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Moisture and Bubbling Model

58 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
HYDRAN M2– Communications, real time survey

59 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Winding Hot Spot
Cooling Efficiency

Aging

Cooling Status
Gas Level
Water Level
Moisture in Paper
Load

60 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
How degraded is my insulation?

61 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Detection of paper degradation
CO2 / CO

• CO2/CO ratios < 3 indicate fault


involving paper degradation
• CO2 can also come from atmosphere in
open breathing transformers
• CO can come from oil oxidation, paint,
varnishes and phenolic resins

62 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Detection of paper degradation
from furanic compounds

Several furanic
compounds are
generated during
paper decomposition
2FAL is the most
stable and most
abundant compound

63 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Detection of paper degradation
from furanic compounds

Increasing furanic compound content correlate with falling DP


Cigre Brochure 323, October 2007 64 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Reduction of DP with time

1000
Example of DP reduction
800
with time for
• Kraft paper
• 3% water content
DP-value

600
• 110°C
400
Note that rate of DP reduction
reduces with time; aging is not
200
a linear function

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000

Time (hours)

65 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Mechanical strength is reduces with DP

ƒMechanical strength is a
120
function of length of
cellulose chains in fibres
Tensile index [Nm/g]

ƒDegree of polymerisation
80 (DP) in cellulose fibres
describes ageing condition

40
ƒDP of 200 correspond
to remaining strength
of about 30%
0
1250 1000 750 500 250 0
DP-value
Cigre Publication 323, Oct. 2007

66 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
DEGRADATION OF PAPER
CORRELATION BETWEEN 2-FAL and DPV
0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Residual Life

10000
2-FURALDEHYDE (ppb, microg/L)

VIT ST2

PAL T3
ALK 1-2B
ALK 7-8A

1000 ALK 3-4B ALK 5-6B

KLY 2RX2

PAL T2 KLY SP5RX


ASH T-1

RYL SPT1
100 RLY SPT3

10 MCA TX

200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

DEGREE OF POLYMERISATION
In Conclusion

z As temperature and load change, so does the


movement of water inside the transformer,
between the paper and the oil
z In Practice, the perfect equilibrium needed to
use the published curves almost never exist in a
transformer
z Only a dynamic model, computed online in real
time, can make a good evaluation of the
amount of moisture in the paper, in the areas of
interest
68 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Trademarks

• © 2008 General Electric Canada. All rights


reserved.
• All brand and product names mentioned in
this document are trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective companies.

69 /
GE /
April 2, 2008
Thank you

70 /
GE /
April 2, 2008