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Developing Graphic Systems for It

Applications

Student:
Kolegij:
Profesor:dr.sc.
Asistent:
Akademska godina: 2016/2017
Travnik, novembar, 2016.

Contents
1.0

Introduction................................................................................................................................1

2.0 Image analysis..................................................................................................................................2


2.1 Computer Image Analysis.............................................................................................................2
2.2 Techniques....................................................................................................................................2
2.3 Digital Image Analysis.................................................................................................................2
2.4 Object-based Image Analysis.......................................................................................................3
2.5 Land cover mapping.....................................................................................................................3
3.0 Raster graphics editor.......................................................................................................................4
3.1 Comparison to vector graphic editors...........................................................................................4
3.2 Common features..........................................................................................................................4
4.0 Vector graphics editor.......................................................................................................................5
4.1 Vector editors versus bitmap editors.............................................................................................5
4.2 Specialized features......................................................................................................................5
5.0 Graphics software.............................................................................................................................5
6.0 Architectural drawing.......................................................................................................................7
6.1 Size and scale...............................................................................................................................7
6.2 Sketches and diagrams..................................................................................................................8
6.3 Computer-aided design.................................................................................................................8
6.4 Architectural reprographics..........................................................................................................9
7.0 Conclusion......................................................................................................................................10
8.0 References......................................................................................................................................11

1.0 Introduction
Graphic systems refers to any computer device or program that makes a computer capable of
displaying and manipulating pictures. The term also refers to the images themselves. For example,
laser printers and plotters are graphics devices because they permit the computer to output pictures. A
graphics monitor is a display monitor that can display pictures. A graphics board (or graphics card) is a
printed circuit boardthat, when installed in a computer, permits the computer to display pictures.
Many software applications include graphics components. Such programs are said to support graphics.
For example, certain word processors support graphics because they let you draw or import pictures.
All CAD/CAM systems support graphics. Some database management systems and spreadsheet
programs support graphics because they let you display data in the form of graphs and charts. Such
applications are often referred to as business graphics.
The following are also considered graphics applications :
paint programs : Allow you to create rough freehand drawings. The images are stored as bit mapsand
can easily be edited.
illustration/design programs: Supports more advanced features than paint programs, particularly for
drawing curved lines. The images are usually stored in vector-based formats. Illustration/design
programs are often called draw programs.
presentation graphics software : Lets you create bar charts, pie charts, graphics, and other types of
images for slide shows and reports. The charts can be based on data imported from spreadsheet
applications.
animation software: Enables you to chain and sequence a series of images to simulate movement. Each
image is like a framein a movie.
CAD software:Enables architects and engineers to draft designs.
desktop publishing : Provides a full set of word-processing features as well as fine control over
placement of text and graphics, so that you can create newsletters, advertisements, books, and other
types of documents.
In general, applications that support graphics require a powerful CPU and a large amount of memory.
Many graphics applications-for example, computer animation systems-require more computing power
than is available on personal computers and will run only on powerful workstations or specially
designed graphics computers. This is true of all three-dimensional computer graphicsapplications.
In addition to the CPU and memory, graphics software requires a graphics monitor and support for one
of the many graphics standards. Most PC programs, for instance, require VGA graphics. If your
computer does not have built-in support for a specific graphics system, you can insert a video
adaptercard.
The quality of most graphics devices is determined by their resolution-how many points per square
inch they can represent-and their color capabilities.

2.0 Image analysis


Image analysis is the extraction of meaningful information from images; mainly from digital images
by means of digital image processing techniques. Image analysis tasks can be as simple as reading bar
coded tags or as sophisticated as identifying a person from their face.
Computers are indispensable for the analysis of large amounts of data, for tasks that require complex
computation, or for the extraction of quantitative information. On the other hand, the human visual
cortex is an excellent image analysis apparatus, especially for extracting higher-level information, and
for many applications including medicine, security, and remote sensing human analysts still
cannot be replaced by computers. For this reason, many important image analysis tools such as edge
detectors and neural networks are inspired by human visual perception models.

2.1 Computer Image Analysis


Computer Image Analysis largely contains the fields of computer or machine vision, and medical
imaging, and makes heavy use of pattern recognition, digital geometry, and signal processing. This
field of computer science developed in the 1950s at academic institutions such as the MIT A.I. Lab,
originally as a branch of artificial intelligence and robotics.
It is the quantitative or qualitative characterization of two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D)
digital images. 2D images are, for example, to be analyzed in computer vision, and 3D images in
medical imaging. The field was established in the 1950s1970s, for example with pioneering
contributions by Azriel Rosenfeld, Herbert Freeman, Jack E. Bresenham, or King-Sun Fu.

2.2 Techniques
There are many different techniques used in automatically analysing images. Each technique may be
useful for a small range of tasks, however there still aren't any known methods of image analysis that
are generic enough for wide ranges of tasks, compared to the abilities of a human's image analysing
capabilities. Examples of image analysis techniques in different fields include:
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2D and 3D object recognition,


image segmentation,
motion detection e.g. Single particle tracking,
video tracking,
optical flow,
medical scan analysis,
3D Pose Estimation,
automatic number plate recognition.

2.3 Digital Image Analysis


Digital Image Analysis is when a computer or electrical device automatically studies an image to
obtain useful information from it. Note that the device is often a computer but may also be an
electrical circuit, a digital camera or a mobile phone. The applications of digital image analysis are
continuously expanding through all areas of science and industry, including:

assay micro plate reading, such as detecting where a chemical was manufactured.
astronomy, such as calculating the size of a planet.
Defense
Filtering
machine vision, such as to automatically count items in a factory conveyor belt.
materials science, such as determining if a metal weld has cracks.
medicine, such as detecting cancer in a mammography scan.
metallography, such as determining the mineral content of a rock sample.
microscopy, such as counting the germs in a swab.
optical character recognition, such as automatic license plate detection.
remote sensing, such as detecting intruders in a house, and producing land cover/land use
maps.
robotics, such as to avoid steering into an obstacle.
security, such as detecting a person's eye color or hair color.

2.4 Object-based Image Analysis


Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) employs two main processes, segmentation and classification.
Traditional image segmentation is on a per-pixel basis. However, OBIA groups pixels into
homogeneous objects. These objects can have different shapes and scale. Objects also have statistics
associated with them which can be used to classify objects. Statistics can include geometry, context
and texture of image objects. The analyst defines statistics in the classification process to generate for
example land cover. The technique is implemented in software such as eCognition.
When applied to earth images, OBIA is known as Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis
(GEOBIA), defined as "a sub-discipline of geoinformation science devoted to (...) partitioning remote
sensing (RS) imagery into meaningful image-objects, and assessing their characteristics through
spatial, spectral and temporal scale". The international GEOBIA conference has been held biannually
since 2006.

2.5 Land cover mapping


Land cover and land use change detection using remote sensing and geospatial data provides baseline
information for assessing the climate change impacts on habitats and biodiversity, as well as natural
resources, in the target areas.
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Application of land cover mapping


Local and regional planning
Disaster management
Vulnerability and Risk Assessments
Ecological management
Monitoring the effects of climate change
Wildlife management.
Alternative landscape futures and conservation
Environmental forecasting
Environmental impact assessment
Policy development

3.0 Raster graphics editor


A raster graphics mobile program that allows users to create and edit images interactively on the
computer screen and save them in one of many popular "bitmap" or "raster" formats such as JPEG,
PNG, GIF and TIFF.
A raster graphics editor supports a certain repertoire of image editing operations. Depending on the
program, the capabilities may be extended by use of plug-in software.
Some editors specialize in the editing of (digital) photographs, such as Adobe Photoshop or
RawTherapee, while others are more geared to artist-created illustrations, like Adobe Fireworks.
An image viewer program is usually preferred over a raster graphics editor for viewing images.

3.1 Comparison to vector graphic editors


Vector graphics editors are often contrasted with raster graphics editors, yet their capabilities
complement each other. The technical difference between vector and raster editors stem from the
difference between vector and raster images. Vector graphics are created mathematically, using
geometric formulas. Each element is created and manipulated numerically; essentially using Cartesian
coordinates for the placement of key points, and then a mathematical algorithm to connect the dots and
define the colors.
Raster images include digital photos. A raster image is made up of rows and columns of dots, called
pixels, and is generally more photo-realistic. This is the standard form for digital cameras; whether it
be a .raw file or .jpg file, the concept is the same. The image is represented pixel by pixel, like a
microscopic jigsaw puzzle.
Vector editors tend to be better suited for graphic design, page layout, typography, logos, sharp-edged
artistic illustrations, e.g., cartoons, clip art, complex geometric patterns, technical illustrations,
diagramming and flowcharting.
Advanced raster editors, like GIMP and Adobe Photoshop, use vector methods (mathematics) for
general layout and elements such as text, but are equipped to deal with raster images down to the pixel
and often have special capabilities in doing so, such as brightness/contrast, and even adding "lighting"
to a raster image or photograph.

3.2 Common features


-

Select a region for editing


Draw lines with simulated brushes of different color, size, shape and pressure
Fill a region with a single color, gradient of colors, or a texture
Select a color using different color models, e.g., RGB, HSV, or by using a color dropper
Edit and convert between various color models.
Add typed letters in various font styles
Remove imperfections from photo images
Composite editing using layers
Apply filters for effects including sharpening and blurring
Convert between various image file formats

4.0 Vector graphics editor


A vector graphics editor is a computer program that allows users to compose and edit vector graphics
images interactively on a computer and save them in one of many popular vector graphics formats,
such as EPS, PDF, WMF, SVG, or VML.

4.1 Vector editors versus bitmap editors


Vector editors are often contrasted with bitmap editors, and their capabilities complement each other.
Vector editors are often better for page layout, typography, logos, sharp-edged artistic illustrations (e.g.
cartoons, clip art, complex geometric patterns), technical illustrations, diagramming and flowcharting.
Bitmap editors are more suitable for retouching, photo processing, photorealistic illustrations, collage,
and illustrations drawn by hand with a pen tablet. Recent versions of bitmap editors such as GIMP and
Adobe Photoshop support vector tools (e.g. editable paths), and vector editors such as Adobe
Fireworks, Adobe FreeHand, Adobe Illustrator, Affinity Designer, Animatron, Artboard, Autodesk
Graphic (formerly iDraw), CorelDRAW, Inkscape, Vectr, sK1 or Xara Photo & Graphic Designer have
adopted raster effects that were once limited to bitmap editors (e.g. blurring).

4.2 Specialized features


Some vector editors support animation, while others (e.g. Adobe Flash, Animatron or Synfig Studio)
are specifically geared towards producing animated graphics. Generally, vector graphics are more
suitable for animation, though there are raster-based animation tools as well.
Vector editors are closely related to desktop publishing software such as Adobe InDesign or Scribus,
which also usually include some vector drawing tools (usually less powerful than those in standalone
vector editors). Modern vector editors are capable of, and often preferable for, designing unique
documents (like flyers or brochures) of up to a few pages; it's only for longer or more standardized
documents that the page layout programs are more suitable.
Special vector editors are used for computer-assisted drafting. These are not suitable for artistic or
decorative graphics, but are rich in tools and object libraries used to ensure precision and standards
compliance of drawings and blueprints.
Finally, 3D computer graphics software such as Maya, Blender or 3D Studio Max can also be thought
of as an extension of the traditional 2D vector editors, as they share some common concepts and tools.

5.0 Graphics software

In computer graphics, graphics software refers to a program or collection of programs that enable a
person to manipulate images or models visually on a computer. These are the application software
which lets the user to create and manipulate any type of computer graphics with the use of an
operating system.
Computer graphics can be classified into distinct categories: raster graphics and vector graphics, with
further 2D and 3d variants. Many graphics programs focus exclusively on either vector or raster
graphics, but there are a few that combine them in interesting ways. It is simple to convert from vector
graphics to raster graphics, but going the other way is harder. Some software attempts to do this.
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In addition to static graphics, there are animation and video editing software. Different types of
software are often designed to edit different types of graphics such as video, photos, and drawings.
The exact sources of graphics may vary for different tasks, but most can read and write files.
Most graphics programs have the ability to import and export one or more graphics file formats,
including those formats written for a particular computer graphics program. Examples of such
programs include Vectr, GIMP, Adobe Photoshop, Pizap, Microsoft Publisher, Picasa, etc.
The use of a swatch is a palette of active colours that are selected and rearranged by the preference of
the user. A swatch may be used in a program or be part of the universal palette on an operating system.
It is used to change the colour of a text or image and in video editing. Vector graphics animation can
be described as a series of mathematical transformations that are applied in sequence to one or more
shapes in a scene. Raster graphics animation works in a similar fashion to film-based animation, where
a series of still images produces the illusion of continuous movement.

6.0 Architectural drawing


An architectural drawing or architect's drawing is a technical drawing of a building (or building
project) that falls within the definition of architecture. Architectural drawings are used by architects
and others for a number of purposes: to develop a design idea into a coherent proposal, to
communicate ideas and concepts, to convince clients of the merits of a design, to enable a building
contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed work, and to make a record of a building that
already exists.
Architectural drawings are made according to a set of conventions, which include particular views
(floor plan, section etc.), sheet sizes, units of measurement and scales, annotation and cross
referencing. Conventionally, drawings were made in ink on paper or a similar material, and any copies
required had to be laboriously made by hand. The twentieth century saw a shift to drawing on tracing
paper, so that mechanical copies could be run off efficiently.
The development of the computer had a major impact on the methods used to design and create
technical drawings, making manual drawing almost obsolete, and opening up new possibilities of form
using organic shapes and complex geometry. Today the vast majority of drawings are created using
CAD software.

6.1 Size and scale


The size of drawings reflects the materials available and the size that is convenient to transport
rolled up or folded, laid out on a table, or pinned up on a wall. The draughting process may impose
limitations on the size that is realistically workable. Sizes are determined by a consistent paper size
system, according to local usage. Normally the largest paper size used in modern architectural practice
is ISO A0 (841 mm 1,189 mm or 33.1 in 46.8 in) or in the USA Arch E (762 mm 1,067 mm or
30 in 42 in) or Large E size (915 mm 1,220 mm or 36 in 48 in).
Architectural drawings are drawn to scale, so that relative sizes are correctly represented. The scale is
chosen both to ensure the whole building will fit on the chosen sheet size, and to show the required
amount of detail. At the scale of one eighth of an inch to one foot (1:96) or the metric equivalent 1 to
100, walls are typically shown as simple outlines corresponding to the overall thickness. At a larger
scale, half an inch to one foot (1:24) or the nearest common metric equivalent 1 to 20, the layers of
different materials that make up the wall construction are shown. Construction details are drawn to a
larger scale, in some cases full size (1 to 1 scale).
Scale drawings enable dimensions to be "read" off the drawing, i.e. measured directly. Imperial scales
(feet and inches) are equally readable using an ordinary ruler. On a one-eighth inch to one foot scale
drawing, the one-eighth divisions on the ruler can be read off as feet. Architects normally use a scale
ruler with different scales marked on each edge. A third method, used by builders in estimating, is to
measure directly off the drawing and multiply by the scale factor.
Dimensions can be measured off drawings made on a stable medium such as vellum. All processes of
reproduction introduce small errors, especially now that different copying methods mean that the same
drawing may be re-copied, or copies made in several different ways. Consequently, dimensions need
to be written ("figured") on the drawing. The disclaimer "Do not scale off dimensions" is commonly
inscribed on architects drawings, to guard against errors arising in the copying process.

6.2 Sketches and diagrams


A sketch is a rapidly executed freehand drawing, a quick way to record and develop an idea, not
intended as a finished work. A diagram may also be drawn freehand but deals with symbols, to
develop the logic of a design. Both may be worked up into a more presentable form and used to
communicate the principles of a design.
In architecture, the finished work is expensive and time consuming, so it is important to resolve the
design as fully as possible before construction work begins. Complex modern buildings involve a large
team of different specialist disciplines, and communication at the early design stages is essential to
keep the design moving towards a coordinated outcome. Architects (and other designers) start
investigating a new design with sketches and diagrams, to develop a rough design that provides an
adequate response to the particular design problems.
There are two basic elements to a building design, the aesthetic and the practical. The aesthetic
element includes the layout and visual appearance, the anticipated feel of the materials, and cultural
references that will influence the way people perceive the building. Practical concerns include space
allocated for different activities, how people enter and move around the building, daylight and
artificial lighting, acoustics, traffic noise, legal matters and building codes, and many other issues.
While both aspects are partly a matter of customary practice, every site is different. Many architects
actively seek innovation, thereby increasing the number of problems to be resolved.
Architectural legend often refers to designs made on the back of an envelope/napkin/cigarette packet.
Initial thoughts are important, even if they have to be discarded along the way, because they provide
the central idea around which the design can develop. Although a sketch is inaccurate, it is disposable
and allows for freedom of thought, for trying different ideas quickly. Choice becomes sharply reduced
once the design is committed to a scale drawing, and the sketch stage is almost always essential.
Diagrams are mainly used to resolve practical matters. In the early phases of the design architects use
diagrams to develop, explore, and communicate ideas and solutions. They are essential tools for
thinking, problem solving, and communication in the design disciplines. Diagrams can be used to
resolve spatial relationships, but they can also represent forces and flows, e.g. the forces of sun and
wind, or the flows of people and materials through a building.
An exploded view diagram shows component parts dis-assembled in some way, so that each can be
seen on its own. These views are common in technical manuals, but are also used in architecture,
either in conceptual diagrams or to illustrate technical details. In a cutaway view parts of the exterior
are omitted to show the interior, or details of internal construction. Although common in technical
illustration, including many building products and systems, the cutaway is in fact little-used in
architectural drawing.

6.3 Computer-aided design


Computer-aided design is the use of computer software to create drawings. Today the vast majority of
technical drawings of all kinds are made using CAD. Instead of drawing lines on paper, the computer
records equivalent information electronically. There are many advantages to this system: repetition is
reduced because complex elements can be copied, duplicated and stored for re-use. Errors can be
deleted, and the speed of draughting allows many permutations to be tried before the design is
finalised. On the other hand, CAD drawing encourages a proliferation of detail and increased
expectations of accuracy, aspects which reduce the efficiency originally expected from the move to
computerisation.

Professional CAD software such as AutoCAD is complex and requires both training and experience
before the operator becomes fully productive. Consequently, skilled CAD operators are often divorced
from the design process. Simpler software such as SketchUp and Vectorworks allows for more
intuitive drawing and is intended as a design tool.
CAD is used to create all kinds of drawings, from working drawings to photorealistic perspective
views. Architectural renderings (also called visualisations) are made by creating a three-dimensional
model using CAD. The model can be viewed from any direction to find the most useful viewpoints.
Different software (for example Autodesk 3ds Max) is then used to apply colour and texture to
surfaces, and to represent shadows and reflections. The result can be accurately combined with
photographic elements: people, cars, background landscape.
Building information modeling (BIM) is the logical development of CAD drawing, a relatively new
technology but fast becoming mainstream. The design team collaborates to create a three-dimensional
computer model, and all plans and other two-dimensional views are generated directly from the model,
ensuring spatial consistency. The key innovation here is to share the model via the internet, so that all
the design functions (site survey, architecture, structure and services) can be integrated into a single
model, or as a series of models associated with each specialism that are shared throughout the design
development process. Some form of management, not necessarily by the architect, needs to be in place
to resolve conflicting priorities. The starting point of BIM is spatial design, but it also enables
components to be quantified and scheduled directly from the information embedded in the model.
An architectural animation is a short film showing how a proposed building will look: the moving
image makes three-dimensional forms much easier to understand. An animation is generated from a
series of hundreds or even thousands of still images, each made in the same way as an architectural
visualisation. A computer-generated building is created using a CAD programme, and that is used to
create more or less realistic views from a sequence of viewpoints. The simplest animations use a
moving viewpoint, while more complex animations can include moving objects: people, vehicles and
so on.

6.4 Architectural reprographics


Reprographics or reprography covers a variety of technologies, media, and support services used to
make multiple copies of original drawings. Prints of architectural drawings are still sometimes called
blueprints, after one of the early processes which produced a white line on blue paper. The process was
superseded by the dye-line print system which prints black on white coated paper (Whiteprint). The
standard modern processes are the ink-jet printer, laser printer and photocopier, of which the ink-jet
and laser printers are commonly used for large-format printing. Although colour printing is now
commonplace, it remains expensive above A3 size, and architect's working drawings still tend to
adhere to the black and white / greyscale aesthetic.

7.0 Conclusion
This paper has presented the development and some features of graphical system usage in
applications.
In the future, we can expect that development of graphical system will get to next level. Thanks to new
generations of GPU and new better softwares we surely can expect great progress. Today usage of
applications with graphical system is priority. Engineering, medicine, arhitecture, weather prediction
and other fields of science now depends on applications which use graphical system.Thanks to large
investments the future of development graphical systems for it applications is bright.

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8.0 References
1.)

https://www.opengl.org/about/

2.)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphical_system_design

3.)

http://www2.hrp.no/procsee/papers/scs94.pdf

4.)

http://www.ti.com/lit/wp/spry110/spry110.pdf

5.)

L. Ammeraal and K. Zhang (2007). Computer Graphics for Java Programmers, Second
Edition, John-Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-03160-5.

6.)

M. Slater, A. Steed, Y. Chrysantho (2002). Computer graphics and virtual environments: from
realism to real-time. Addison-Wesley.

7.)

Gary R. Bertoline et al. (2002) Technical Graphics Communication. p.12.

8.)

Arthur Thompson, Architectural Design Procedures, Second Edition. Architectural Press:


Elsevier 2007. ISBN 978-0-340-71941-1

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