Sei sulla pagina 1di 6

Fuel 132 (2014) 4752

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Fuel
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/fuel

Effect of dieselmicroalgae biodieselbutanol blends on performance


and emissions of diesel engine
Gkhan Tccar , Tayfun zgr, Kadir Aydn
ukurova University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 01330 Adana, Turkey

h i g h l i g h t s
 The manuscript presents availability of butanolmicroalgae biodieseldiesel blends as fuel in diesel engines.
 Fuel properties of blends were determined.
 The engine performance tests were carried out.
 Microalgae biodiesel was identied as a promising alternative fuel and butanol was identied as a promising additive.

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 20 February 2014
Received in revised form 21 April 2014
Accepted 22 April 2014
Available online 9 May 2014
Keywords:
Microalgae
Butanol
Biodiesel
Fuel properties
Engine performance

a b s t r a c t
In this work, the commercially available diesel fuel (D), diesel (80%)microalgae biodiesel (20%) (by
volume) (D80B20), diesel (70%)microalgae biodiesel (20%)butanol (10%) (D70B20But10) and diesel
(60%)microalgae biodiesel (20%)butanol (20%) (D60B20But20) fuels were tested to evaluate the effects
of the fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. Engine performance
parameters and exhaust gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity
were measured. The results showed that; although butanol addition caused a slight reduction in torque
and brake power values, the emission values of the engine were improved. Therefore, butanol can be used
as a very promising additive to dieselmicroalgae biodiesel blends.
2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Since their exploration, the fossil fuels continued as the major
conventional energy source [1]. However, environmental concerns
and depletion of fossil fuels and their non-renewable nature has
led to a world-wide search for renewable and greener alternatives
for internal combustion engines [2]. In the recent years, serious
efforts have been made by several researchers to use different
sources of energy as fuel in existing diesel engines [38].
Bio-fuels made from agricultural products (oxygenated by nature) reduce the worlds dependence on oil imports, support local
agricultural industries, and enhance farming incomes. Moreover,
they offer benets in terms of reduced smokiness or particulate
matter from diesel engines. Among those, vegetable oils or their
derived bio-diesels (methyl or ethyl esters) are considered as very
promising [9]. Biodiesel is the most used renewable fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines. The advantages of biodiesel as diesel
Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 5052106272; fax: +90 3223386741.
E-mail address: gtuccar@yahoo.com (G. Tccar).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.04.074
0016-2361/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

fuel are the minimal sulfur and aromatic content, and the higher
ash point, lubricity and cetane number. Their disadvantages
include the higher viscosity (though much lower than the vegetable oils one), the higher pour point, the lower caloric value and
volatility, the hygroscopic tendency, and the lower oxidation stability [10]. The majority of the literature agrees that particulate
matter (PM), unburnt total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from biodiesel are lower than from conventional diesel fuel [11]. The global biodiesel market has increased
dramatically over the past 20 years with increasing annual production in order to cater for increasing demand, especially from Europe and the United States which have high levels of biodiesel
use. According to a report from market research reports database,
Axis Research Mind, the market value of biodiesel is expected to
increase 26% reaching $62 million (43.4 million) by 2015 [12].
Most governments are encouraging use of renewable fuels to
decrease fuel imports and boost energy security [13].
Currently, vegetable oils, waste cooking oils and animal fats are
generally used as biodiesel feed stock; however, the limited supply
of these feed stocks limits the further expansion of biodiesel

48

G. Tccar et al. / Fuel 132 (2014) 4752

production [14]. In addition to, the usage of vegetable oils as biodiesel feedstock has generated a lot of controversy, mainly due to
its impact on global food markets and on food security. Therefore,
non-edible vegetable oils have been considered as prospective
feedstocks for biodiesel production and microalgae are considered
as a second generation feedstock for production of biofuels since
they have ability to synthesize high amount of lipids [15]. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is
capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels [16].
Turkey is a very suitable country for microalgae production
because three sides of it are surrounded by the sea; furthermore
the country is sunny, has a mild climate and for most of the
regions, temperature does not decrease below 15 C throughout
the year. In Turkey, there are also substantial areas of abandoned
agricultural land that are not managed and are becoming overgrown. To use these areas for microalgae biomass production will
help improving Turkeys economy. Moreover, utilization of abandoned areas for microalgae production will increase work power
demand of the country and by this way new job opportunities will
be created.
Biodiesels high viscosity and low volatilities cause problems in
long-period engine performance tests. The higher viscosity in biodiesel affects the fuel droplet size, poor atomization qualities and
fuel penetration in the cylinder which is very important for the
combustion quality [12]. Due to the emission benets derived from
the oxygen in the fuel molecule, the interest in the use of bioalcohols fuel blends in compression ignition engines has been
increased [17]. Butanol is a feasible alternative fuel that has a number of desirable properties for use with diesel engines [18]. Compared to ethanol, butanol has superior fuel properties which
make it more suitable for application in diesel engines, such as
higher heating value, good intersolubility with diesel fuel, and no
corrosion to existing pipelines [19]. Most studies have focused
the use of ethanol as fuel in reciprocating engines. Fewer studies
have reported the use of butanol as fuel, although butanol posses
some better fuel properties than ethanol [2]. Studies about utilization of butanol as fuel in diesel engines found that the soot emissions were effectively reduced [1922]. However, the current
literature concerning the use of butanol/vegetable oil/diesel fuel
blends in diesel engines and the usage of butanol with non-edible
feedstock based biodiesels is nearby absent.
The objective of this study was to evaluate performance characteristics and emissions of a diesel engine which uses microalgae
biodiesel, butanol and diesel blends as fuel. Some of the physical
properties such as density, viscosity were also determined since
they have a signicant impact on these characteristics.

by the help of a magnetic stirrer at about 600 rpm during 1 h. After


completion of the transesterication reaction, the mixture was
cooled to room temperature and then transferred to a separatory
funnel and separation of the ester and glycerin phases was performed by letting them stand for 8 h in the separatory funnel.
The crude ester phase was washed 3 times with hot water at 1/5
water to ester phase ratio. After washing process, the mixture
was waited in separatory funnel during 30 min and by this way
water is separated from methyl ester. Since purity level has strong
effects on fuel properties, in order to provide water content to be
less than 0.1, drying process was conducted by heating the biodiesel to 105 C during 1 h until bright color occurred. Finally, ltering
process was done in order to ensure that the end product is of
excellent quality.
The analysis of test fuels was conducted at the ukurova University Automotive Engineering Laboratories. Fuel properties as
density, viscosity, ash point and pour point of the test fuels were
determined according to standard test methods. Tanaka MPC 102L
type pour point analyzer with an accuracy of 1 C for pour point;
Tanaka AKV-202 type automatic kinematics viscosity meter with
an accuracy of 0.01 mm2/s for determining the viscosity; Kyoto
Electronics DA-130 type density meter with an accuracy of
0.001 g/cm3 for density measurement, Tanaka APM-7 type ash
point analyzer with an accuracy of 0.5 C for ash point measurement was used for analyzing the test fuels.
In this study, experiments were conducted on a four stroke, four
cylinder diesel engine. Specications and the schematic diagram of
the engine are presented in Table 1 and Fig. 1, respectively. Test
fuels were tested at the most common engine working conditions,
from 1200 to 2800 rpm, with an interval of 200 rpm at full load
condition. The engine was coupled to a hydraulic dynamometer
which has torque range of 01700 N m and speed range of
07500 rpm to measure engine torque. Before starting to the
experiment, the engine was operated with the new fuel for sufcient time to clean out the remaining fuel from the previous experiment. Engine performance values were read by the help of a
computer program of dynamometer control unit which can take
values in two second time intervals and exhaust emissions such
as CO and NOx were obtained by Testo 350-XL gas analyzer and
smoke opacity values were measured by MRU OpTrans 1600 which
takes data on optical basis according to the absorption photometry
measurement principle. The accuracy of the measurements and
uncertainties in calculated results are shown in Table 2.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Fuel properties

2. Materials and methods


2.1. Test fuels
Three blends were prepared in order to evaluate butanol addition effect on microalgae biodiesel (MB) and diesel mixtures,
namely D70B20But10 (70% diesel, 20% microalgae biodiesel, 10%
butanol), D60B20But20 (60% diesel, 20% microalgae biodiesel,
20% butanol) and D80B20 (80% diesel and 20% microalgae biodiesel). 100% diesel fuel was also used as reference.
The tested fuels were commercial diesel, butanol and microalgae biodiesel. Microalgae oil used in biodiesel production was purchased from Soley Biotechnology Institute and butanol was
provided by Merck. During the microalgae biodiesel production,
the necessary amount of catalyst (NaOH) for the transesterication
reaction (0.4% by weight of the oil) was dissolved in methanol and
added to the reactor after heating the microalgae oil to 65 C; the
reaction was performed at 6061 C and the mixture was stirred

The fuel properties of diesel and MB and test fuels are given in
Table 3 with European Biodiesel Standards (EN 14214). The measured physical properties of microalgae biodiesel like density, viscosity, pour point and heating value are comparable with those of

Table 1
Technical specications of the test engine.
Brand
Model
Conguration
Type
Displacement
Bore
Stroke
Power
Torque
Oil cooler
Weight

Mitsubishi Canter
4D34-2A
In line 4
Direct injection diesel with glow plug
3907 cc
104 mm
115 mm
89 kW@3200 rpm
295Nm@1800 rpm
Water cooled
325 kg

49

G. Tccar et al. / Fuel 132 (2014) 4752


260
240
220

Torque (Nm)

200
180
160
140
Diesel
D80B20
D70B20But10
D60B20But20

120
100
80
60
1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

Engine Speed (rpm)

Fig. 1. Layout of experimental setup.

Fig. 2. Torque output versus engine speed for the test fuels.
Table 2
The accuracy of the measurements and the
uncertainties in the calculated results.
55

Accuracy

Load
Speed
CO
NOx
Smoke
Calculated results
BSFC
Brake power

1%
10 rpm
10 ppm
5 ppm
1%
Uncertainty
2% max
2% max

50

45

Brake Power (kW)

Parameter

diesel fuel. It can also be observed from Table 3 that except its low
cetane number, all other measured properties of microalgae biodiesel are within EN 14214. Cetane number is an indicator of the
ignition quality of a diesel fuel. If a cetane number is too high, combustion can occur before the fuel and air are properly mixed and if
a cetane number is too low ignition delay time increases and
allows limited combustion time duration for complete reaction.
As a result, incomplete combustion and smoke occurs in each cases
[23]. Therefore, low cetane number of MB can create problems.
Although; both neat MB and butanol have low cetane number,
Table 3 shows that cetane number of all fuel mixtures stays within
the EN14214 standards. Biodiesel produced from microalgae oil
was found viscous than diesel fuel, however this viscosity of MB
not exceed EN 14214 standards. The high viscosity of MB was
compensated by mixing it either diesel fuel or butanol.
3.2. Brake power and torque output
The variations torque and brake power with respect to test fuels
at various engine speeds are shown in Figs. 2 and 3, respectively.
Beside, Fig. 4 shows the effect of butanol addition to MB diesel
blends on maximum engine torque values that runs with test fuels

40

35
Diesel
D80B20
D70B20But10
D60B20But20

30

25

20
1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

Engine Speed (rpm)


Fig. 3. Brake power output versus engine speed for the test fuels.

at full load condition. The maximum torque was obtained at about


1800 rpm for all test fuels. Maximum torque value of the test
engine was reduced by 2.7% and 3.8% when butanol was added
to the blends with 10% and 20% volumetric ratios, respectively.
The average torque values are decreased approximately by 5%
and 2.7% compared to diesel fuel; for D70B20But10 and D80B20,
respectively. The maximum brake power was obtained at about
2200 rpm for all of the test fuels. Brake power output values
reduced with both microalgae biodiesel and butanol addition. A
decrease in the brake torque and brake power values of the test
engine was due to the lower energy content of butanol additive
compared to the MB-diesel fuel blends. In addition, oxygen

Table 3
Properties of test fuels.
Properties

MB

Diesel

D70B20But10

D60B20But20

D80B20

European Biodiesel Standard (EN 14214)

Density (kg/m )
Cetane number
Viscosity (mm2/s)
ASTM D 445
Pour point (C)

886
48.3
4.47

833
56.46
2.37

841
52.24
2.85

839
51.6
2.80

843
54.19
2.88

860900
>51
3.55.0

12.0

10

12

Flash point (C)

165.5

58.5

40

78.5

42.5

Summer < 4.0


Winter < 1.0
>120

50

G. Tccar et al. / Fuel 132 (2014) 4752

NOX Emissions

900
800

NOX (ppm)

700
600
500
400
Diesel
D80B20
D70B20But10
D60B20But20

300
200
100
1000

1200

1400

1600

Fig. 4. Comparison of maximum torque values of the engine.

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

Fig. 6. Comparison of NOx emissions for the test fuels.

contents of microalgae biodiesel and butanol also lead to decrease


brake torque and brake power when compared to diesel fuel.
3.3. Brake specic fuel consumption (BSFC)
The BSFC variation with engine speed for diesel, D80B20,
D70B20But10 and D60B20But20 fuels was shown in Fig. 5. The
highest BSFC was for D60B20But20 while the lowest BSFC was
obtained from diesel for all speeds of the engine. The BSFC values
increase about 10.9%, 17.1% and 29.7% for D80B20, D70B20But10
and D60B20But20 compared to diesel fuel, respectively. It is
expected that BSFC at D70B20But10, D60B20But20 is higher when
compared with diesel and D80B20 due to lower caloric value of
butanol. Therefore, butanol addition increases the fuel consumption for biodiesel diesel blends (D70B20But10 and D60B20But20)
compared to diesel and D80B20.
3.4. NOx emission
Thermal NO formation is extremely affected by higher combustion and ame temperatures which are formed via better combustion quality [24]. The variation of NOx emission values for different
test fuels is presented in Fig. 6. There is an increase in NOx value
with MB addition to diesel. This trend may be caused from higher
combustion temperature due to extra oxygen content of MB. However, NOx values are decreased with butanol addition to the blends.

This may be attributed to the engine running overall leaner and


the temperature lowering effect of the butanol (due to its lower
caloric value and its higher heat of evaporation) having the dominant inuence, against the opposing effect of the lower cetane
number (and thus longer ignition delay) of the butanol leading
possibly to higher temperatures during the premixed part of combustion [25]. The literature also shows a slight increase in NOx
emissions with biodiesel fuel usage [2634] and decrease with
butanol addition [3539].
3.5. CO emission
Generally a reduction in CO emission values occur when biodiesel is used instead of diesel fuel since biodiesel contains additional
oxygen and this additional oxygen enhances complete combustion.
CO emissions of blends are lower than diesel for as it is shown in
Fig. 7. This decrease is mainly due to the oxygen content of biodiesel which makes the combustion more complete [26]. In contrast
to D80B20; butanol addition to MB-diesel blend further decreased
CO emissions. This benet in CO emissions using alcohols blends
could be due to the lower C/H ratio of alcohols compared to MB
[40]. With regard to most of the other authors, also a decrease in
CO emissions occurs when substituting diesel fuel with biodiesel
and alcohol [4144].

400

600

Diesel
D80B20
D70B20But10
D60B20But20

380
500
360
Diesel
D80B20
D70MB20But10
D60MB20But20

400

340

CO(ppm)

BSFC (g/kWh)

1800

Engine Speed (rpm)

300

320
300
280

200
260
100
1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

Engine Speed (rpm)


Fig. 5. Comparison of BSFC values for the test fuels.

2400

2600

240
1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

Engine Speed (rpm)


Fig. 7. Comparison of CO emissions for the test fuels.

2800

3000

G. Tccar et al. / Fuel 132 (2014) 4752


12

Diesel
D80B20
D70B20But10
D60B20But20

Smoke Opacity (%)

10

0
1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

Engine Speed (rpm)


Fig. 8. Comparison of smoke opacity values of the test fuels.

3.6. Smoke opacity


Fig. 8 shows the variation of smoke opacity for all fuels. It is
observed that the smoke opacity of all test fuels is less than diesel
for all speeds. D80B20 reduced smoke opacity by 3.1%. This is
consistent with extra oxygen content of MB indicated better and
complete combustion of fuel. Moreover, D70B20But10 and
D60B20But20 have lower reduction in smoke opacity of 27.3%
and 49.5% compared to diesel fuel, respectively. Butanol includes
excess oxygen compared to diesel and MB which results in reducing the smoke by increasing the constituent of oxygen available in
biodiesel diesel blends. Most of the other authors reported that
smoke opacity values decrease with the addition of butanol to
diesel or biodiesel fuel [9,21,25,35,37,39,43,4547].
4. Conclusions
Emission and engine performance experiments were conducted
on a four-cylinder diesel engine. The effects of butanol addition in
diesel/microalgae biodiesel blends on engine performance, nitric
oxides, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity values were investigated. The following major conclusions were drawn from this
study:
The measured physical properties of MBbutanoldiesel mixtures like cetane number, density, viscosity and pour point were
found comparable with those of diesel fuel according to the fuel
properties test.
The engine performance tests showed that; the power and torque output of engine reduced slightly when butanol was added
to the MBdiesel blends.
The exhaust emission tests revealed that CO and NOx emission
and smoke opacity values improved with butanol addition.
Finally, it can be concluded that, butanol can be used as a very
promising additive to dieselmicroalgae biodiesel blends in
conventional diesel engines, by this way exhaust emission values can be improved.
References
[1] Sahoo PK, Das LM, Babu MKG, Naik SN. Biodiesel development from high acid
value polanga seed oil and performance evaluation in a CI engine. Fuel
2007;86:44854.
[2] Siwale L, Lukcs K, Torok A, Akos B, Makame M, Antal P, et al. Combustion and
emission characteristics of n-butanol/diesel fuel blend in a turbo-charged
compression ignition engine. Fuel 2013;107:40918.

51

[3] Xue J. Combustion characteristics, engine performances and emissions of


waste edible oil biodiesel in diesel engine. Renew Sustain Energy Rev
2013;23:35065.
[4] Liaquat AM, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Rizwanul Fattah IM, Hazrat MA, Varman
M, et al. Effect of coconut biodiesel blended fuels on engine performance and
emission characteristics. Procedia Eng 2013;56:58390.
[5] Tccar G, Aydn K. Evaluation of methyl ester of microalgae oil as fuel in a
diesel engine. Fuel 2013;112:2037.
[6] Behet R. Performance and emission study of waste anchovy sh biodiesel in a
diesel engine. Fuel Process Technol 2011;92:118794.
[7] Koc AB, Abdullah M. Performance and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled
with biodieseldieselwater nanoemulsions. Fuel Process Technol
2013;109:707.
[8] Muralidharan K, Vasudevan D, Sheeba KN. Performance, emission and
combustion characteristics of biodiesel fuelled variable compression ratio
engine. Energy 2011;36:538593.
[9] Rakopoulos CD, Dimaratos AM, Giakoumis EG, Rakopoulos DC. Study of
turbocharged diesel engine operation, pollutant emissions and combustion
noise radiation during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends.
Appl Energy 2011;88:390516.
[10] Rakopoulos DC. Combustion and emissions of cottonseed oil and its bio-diesel
in blends with either n-butanol or diethyl ether in HSDI diesel engine. Fuel
2013;105:60313.
[11] Sukjit E, Herreros JM, Dearn KD, Tsolakis A, Theinnoi K. Effect of hydrogen on
butanolbiodiesel blends in compression ignition engines. Int J Hydrogen
Energy 2013;38:162435.
[12] Mat Yasin MH, Yusaf T, Mamat R, Fitri Yusop A. Characterization of a diesel
engine operating with a small proportion of methanol as a fuel additive in
biodiesel blend. Appl Energy http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.06.
012.
[13] Lee WJ, La Yi-Cheng, Francis KM, Wei-Hsin C, Sheng-Lun L, Yasuhiro F, et al.
Assessment of energy performance and air pollutant emissions in a diesel
engine generator fueled with water-containing ethanolbiodieseldiesel
blend of fuels. Energy 2011;36:55919.
[14] Canakci M, Sanli H. Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their
effects on the fuel properties. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2008;35:43141.
[15] Chisti Y. Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol. Trends Biotechnol
2008;26:12631.
[16] Demirbas A. Biodiesel from oilgae, bioxation of carbon dioxide by
microalgae: a solution to pollution problems. Appl Energy 2011;88:35417.
[17] Yilmaz N, Vigil FM, Donaldson AB, Darabseh T. Investigation of CI engine
emissions in biodieselethanoldiesel blends as a function of ethanol
concentration. Fuel 2014;115:7903.
[18] Chang Y-C, Lee W-J, Lin S-L, Wang L-C. Green energy: water-containing
acetonebutanolethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines. Appl Energy
2013;109:18291.
[19] Liu H, Li S, Zheng Z, Xu J, Yao M. Effects of n-butanol, 2-butanol, and methyl
octynoate addition to diesel fuel on combustion and emissions over a wide
range of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. Appl Energy 2013;112:24656.
[20] Lujaji F, Kristf L, Bereczky A, Mbarawa M. Experimental investigation of fuel
properties, engine performance, combustion and emissions of blends
containing croton oil, butanol, and diesel on a CI engine. Fuel 2011;90:50510.
[21] Rakopoulos CD, Dimaratos AM, Giakoumis EG, Rakopoulos DC. Investigating
the emissions during acceleration of a turbocharged diesel engine operating
with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends. Energy 2010;35:517384.
[22] Altun S, Oner C, Yasar F, Adin H. Effect of n-butanol blending with a blend of
diesel and biodiesel on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine.
Ind Eng Chem Res 2011;50:942530.
[23] Knothe G, Krahl J. The Biodiesel Handbook. AOCS Press; 2010.
_
E. Experimental investigation of the effect of diesel
[24] Atmanl A, Yksel B, Ileri
cotton oiln-butanol ternary blends on phase stability, engine performance
and exhaust emission parameters in a diesel engine. Fuel 2013;109:50311.
[25] Rakopoulos DC, Rakopoulos CD, Hountalas DT, Kakaras EC, Giakoumis EG,
Papagiannakis RG. Investigation of the performance and emissions of bus
engine operating on butanol/diesel fuel blends. Fuel 2010;89:278190.
[26] Zhu L, Zhang W, Liu W, Huang Z. Experimental study on particulate and NOx
emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel
blends and PME-diesel blends. Sci Total Environ 2010;408:10508.
[27] Celikten I, Koca A, Arslan M. Comparison of performance and emissions of
diesel fuel, rapeseed and soybean oil methyl esters injected at different
pressures. Renew Energy 2010;35:81420.
[28] Ghai S, Das L, Babu G. Emissions and performance study with sunower
methyl ester as diesel engine fuel. J Eng Appl Sci 2008;3(5):7580.
[29] Sugozu I, Oner C, Altun S. The performance and emissions characteristics of a
diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel fuel. Int J Eng Res Dev
2010;2(1):503.
[30] Nabi M, Rahman M, Akhter M. Biodiesel from cotton seed oil and its effect on
engine performance and exhaust emissions. Appl Therm Eng 2009;29:226570.
[31] Tan P, Hu Z, Lou D, Li Z. Exhaust emissions from a light-duty diesel engine with
Jatropha biodiesel fuel. Energy 2012;39:35662.
[32] Keskin A, Abdulkadir Y, Guru M, Altparmak D. Usage of methyl ester of tall oil
fatty acids and resinic acids as alternative diesel fuel. Energy Convers Manage
2010;51:28638.
[33] Ragu R, Ramadoss G, Sairam K, Arulkumar A. Experimental investigation on
the performance and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with
preheated rice bran oil. Eur J Sci Res 2011;64(3):40014.

52

G. Tccar et al. / Fuel 132 (2014) 4752

[34] Nabi M, Hoque N. Biodiesel production from linseed oil and performance study
of a diesel engine with diesel bio-diesel. JME 2008;39(1):404.
[35] Rakopoulos DC, Rakopoulos CD, Papagiannakis RG, Kyritsis DC. Combustion
heat release analysis of ethanol or n-butanol diesel fuel blends in heavy-duty
DI diesel engine. Fuel 2011;90:185567.
[36] Asfar KR, Al-Rabadi TH. Fuel blends in compression ignition engines, American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA2003-6027). In: Proceedings of
the 1st international energy conversion engineering conference, 1721
August, 2003, 432 Portsmouth, Virginia, USA. p. 433.
[37] Ozsezen AN, Turkcan A, Sayin C, Canakci M. Comparison of performance and
combustion parameters in a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with isobutanol/
diesel fuel blends. Energy Explor Exploit 2011;29:52541.
[38] Yao M, Zhang Q, Liu H, Zheng Z, Zhang P. Diesel engine combustion control:
medium or heavy EGR. SAE Paper No. 2010-01-1125.
[39] Tornatore C, Marchitto L, Mazzei A, Valentine G, Corcione FE, Merola SS. Effect
of butanol blend on in-cylinder combustion process, part2: compression
ignition engine. J KONES Powertrain Transport 2011;18(2):47383.
[40] Sukjit E, Herreros JM, Dearn KD, Garca-Contreras R, Tsolakis A. The effect of
the addition of individual methyl esters on the combustion and emissions of
ethanol and butanoldiesel blends. Energy 2012;42:36474.

[41] Yao M, Wang H, Zheng Z, Yue Y. Experimental study of n-butanol additive and
multi injection on HD diesel engine performance and emissions. Fuel
2010;89(9):2191201.
[42] Karabektas M, Hosoz M. Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel
engine
using
iso-butanoldiesel
fuel
blends.
Renew
Energy
2009;34(6):15549.
[43] Dogan O. The inuence of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends utilization on a small
diesel engine performance and emissions. Fuel 2011;90(7):246772.
[44] Rakopoulos CD, Rakopoulos DC, Giakoumis EG, Kyritsis DC. The combustion of
n-butanol/diesel fuel blends and its cyclic variability in a direct injection diesel
engine. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part A: J Power Energy 2011;225:289308.
[45] Lujaji F, Kristf L, Bereczky A, Mbarawa M. Experimental investigation of fuel
properties, engine performance, combustion and emissions of blends containing
croton oil, butanol, and diesel on a CI engine. Fuel 2011;90(2):50510.
[46] Yosimoto Y, Onodera M, Tamaki H. Performance and emission characteristics
of a diesel engine fueled by vegetable oils. SAE Paper No. 2001-01-1807/4227.
[47] Yosimoto Y, Onodera M. Performance of a diesel engine fueled by rapeseed oil
blended with oxygenated organic compounds. SAE Paper No. 2002-01-2854.