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# Modern Algebra

## In Exercises 1 through 5, compute the indicated product involving the following

permutations in S6 :
1 2 3 4 5 6

,
3 1 4 5 6 2
1 2 3 4 5 6

,
2 4 1 3 6 5
1 2 3 4 5 6

.
5 2 4 3 1 6

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

10.

7.

8. 100

9.

100

## Let A be a set and let S A . For a fixed a A, the set

Oa , { n (a ) | n }
is the orbit of a under . Find the orbit of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 under the
permutation defined prior to Exercise 1.

11.

12.

13.

## Consider the group S3 of the following:

Let the set A be {1, 2, 3}. We list the permutations of A and assign to
each a subscripted Greek letter for a name.

85

Modern Algebra

1 2 3
0
,
1 2 3

1 2 3
1
,
1 3 2

1 2 3
1
,
2 3 1

1 2 3
2
,
3 2 1

1 2 3
2
,
3 1 2

1 2 3
3
.
2 1 3

a.

b.

## Find all subgroups, proper and improper, of S3 and give the

lattice diagram for them.

14.

## Show by an example that every proper subgroup of a nonabelian group

may be abelian.

In Exercise 15 through 17, compute the indicated product of cycles that are
permutations of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}.
15.

16.

17.

## (1, 2)(4, 7, 8)(2, 1)(1, 2, 7, 8, 5)(8,4)

(1, 3, 2, 7)(4, 2, 3)

## In Exercises 18 through 20, express the permutation of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} as

a product of disjoint cycles, and then as a product of transpositions.
18.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8 2 6 3 7 4 5 1

20.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 1 4 7 2 5 8 6

21.

19.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 6 4 1 8 2 5 7

group S8 .
a.

b.

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Modern Algebra

c.

## What is the order of (4, 5)(2, 3, 7) ? of

(1, 4)(3, 5, 7, 8) ?
d.

## Find the order of each of the permutations given in Exercises 18

through 20 by looking at its decomposition into a product of
disjoint cycles.

e.

## State a theorem suggested by parts (c) and (d). [Hint: The

important words you are looking for are least common multiple.]

In Exercises 22 through 26, find the maximum possible order for an element of
S n for the given value of n.
22.

27.

n=5

23.

n6

24.

n7

25.

n 10

26.

n 15

## Mark each of the following true or false.

___ a. Every permutation is a cycle.
___ b. Every cycle is a permutation.
___ c. The definition of even and odd permutations could have been
given equally well before the following theorem.
Theorem: No permutation in S n can be expressed both as a
product of an even number of transpositions and as a product of
an odd number of transpositions.
___ d. Every nontrivial subgroup H of S9 containing some odd
permutation contains a transposition.
___ e.

___ f.

## S n is not cyclic for any n 1.

___ g.

A3 is a commutative group.

___ h.

## S 7 is isomorphic to the subgroup of all those elements of S8

that leave the number 8 fixed.

___ i.

## S 7 is isomorphic to the subgroup of all those elements of S8

that leave the number 5 fixed.

___ j.

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Modern Algebra

28.

29.

a.

30.

31.

b.

(147)

c.

(14762)

a.

(124)(357)

b.

(124)(356)

c.

(124)(35)

d.

(124)(3578)

## What is the order of each of the following permutations?

a.

32.

(14)

1 2 3 4 5 6
2 1 5 4 6 3

b.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7 6 1 2 3 4 5

What are the possible orders for the elements of S6 and A6 ? What about
S 7 and A7 ?

33.

34.

a.

(135)

b.

(1356)

d.

(12)(134)(152)

e.

(1243)(3521)

c.

(13567)

35.

## If is even, prove that 1 is even. If is odd, prove that 1 is odd.

36.

Let
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6

and

.
2 1 3 5 4 6
6 1 2 4 3 5
Compute each of the following.
a.

b.

c.

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Modern Algebra

37.

Let
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

and

.
2 1 3 5 4 7 6 8
1 3 8 7 6 5 2 4
Write and as
a.

## products of disjoint cycles,

b.

products of 2-cycles,

c.

38.

39.

permutation.

40.

a.

b.

Table 5.1

## The Alternating Group A4 of Even Permutations of {1, 2, 3, 4}

(In this table, the permutations of A4 are designated as 1 , 2 , ..., 12 and an entry
k inside the table represents k . For example, 3 8 6 .)

10

11

12

(1) 1

10

11

12

(12)(34) 2

10

12

11

(13)(24) 3

11

12

10

(14)(23) 4

12

11

10

(123) 5

12

10

11

(243) 6

10

11

12

(142) 7

11

10

12

(134) 8

12

11

10

(132) 9

11

12

10

(143) 10

10

12

11

(234) 11

11

10

12

(124) 12

12

10

11

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Modern Algebra

41.

42.

S5 .

43.

order 4.

44.

45.

## Show that A5 has 24 elements of order 5, 20 elements of order 3, and 15

elements of order 2.

90