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Modern Algebra

Chapter 5: Permutation Groups

Exercises 5: (Permutation Groups)

In Exercises 1 through 5, compute the indicated product involving the following


permutations in S6 :
1 2 3 4 5 6

,
3 1 4 5 6 2
1 2 3 4 5 6

,
2 4 1 3 6 5
1 2 3 4 5 6

.
5 2 4 3 1 6

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

In Exercises 6 through 9, compute the expressions shown for the permutations

, , and defined prior to Exercise 1.


6.

10.

7.

8. 100

9.

100

Let A be a set and let S A . For a fixed a A, the set

Oa , { n (a ) | n }
is the orbit of a under . Find the orbit of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 under the
permutation defined prior to Exercise 1.

11.

Find the number of elements in the set { S 4 | (3) 3}.

12.

Find the number of elements in the set { S5 | (2) 5}.

13.

Consider the group S3 of the following:

Let the set A be {1, 2, 3}. We list the permutations of A and assign to
each a subscripted Greek letter for a name.

85

Modern Algebra

Chapter 5: Permutation Groups

1 2 3
0
,
1 2 3

1 2 3
1
,
1 3 2

1 2 3
1
,
2 3 1

1 2 3
2
,
3 2 1

1 2 3
2
,
3 1 2

1 2 3
3
.
2 1 3

a.

Find all cyclic subgroups 1 , 2 , and 1 of S3 .

b.

Find all subgroups, proper and improper, of S3 and give the


lattice diagram for them.

14.

Show by an example that every proper subgroup of a nonabelian group


may be abelian.

In Exercise 15 through 17, compute the indicated product of cycles that are
permutations of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}.
15.

(1, 4, 5)(7, 8)(2, 5, 7)

16.

17.

(1, 2)(4, 7, 8)(2, 1)(1, 2, 7, 8, 5)(8,4)

(1, 3, 2, 7)(4, 2, 3)

In Exercises 18 through 20, express the permutation of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} as


a product of disjoint cycles, and then as a product of transpositions.
18.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8 2 6 3 7 4 5 1

20.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 1 4 7 2 5 8 6

21.

Recall that element a of a group G with identity e has order r > 0 if

19.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 6 4 1 8 2 5 7

a r e and no smaller positive power of a is the identity. Consider the

group S8 .
a.

What is the order of the cycle (1, 4, 5, 7)?

b.

State a theorem suggested by part (a).

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Modern Algebra

c.

Chapter 5: Permutation Groups

What is the order of (4, 5)(2, 3, 7) ? of

(1, 4)(3, 5, 7, 8) ?
d.

Find the order of each of the permutations given in Exercises 18


through 20 by looking at its decomposition into a product of
disjoint cycles.

e.

State a theorem suggested by parts (c) and (d). [Hint: The


important words you are looking for are least common multiple.]

In Exercises 22 through 26, find the maximum possible order for an element of
S n for the given value of n.
22.

27.

n=5

23.

n6

24.

n7

25.

n 10

26.

n 15

Mark each of the following true or false.


___ a. Every permutation is a cycle.
___ b. Every cycle is a permutation.
___ c. The definition of even and odd permutations could have been
given equally well before the following theorem.
Theorem: No permutation in S n can be expressed both as a
product of an even number of transpositions and as a product of
an odd number of transpositions.
___ d. Every nontrivial subgroup H of S9 containing some odd
permutation contains a transposition.
___ e.

A5 has 120 elements.

___ f.

S n is not cyclic for any n 1.

___ g.

A3 is a commutative group.

___ h.

S 7 is isomorphic to the subgroup of all those elements of S8


that leave the number 8 fixed.

___ i.

S 7 is isomorphic to the subgroup of all those elements of S8


that leave the number 5 fixed.

___ j.

The odd permutations in S8 form a subgroup of S8 .

87

Modern Algebra

Chapter 5: Permutation Groups

28.

Show that if is a cycle of odd length, then 2 is a cycle.

29.

Find the order of each of the following permutations.


a.

30.

31.

b.

(147)

c.

(14762)

What is the order of each of the following permutations?


a.

(124)(357)

b.

(124)(356)

c.

(124)(35)

d.

(124)(3578)

What is the order of each of the following permutations?


a.

32.

(14)

1 2 3 4 5 6
2 1 5 4 6 3

b.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7 6 1 2 3 4 5

What are the possible orders for the elements of S6 and A6 ? What about
S 7 and A7 ?

33.

Show that A8 contains an element of order 15.

34.

Determine whether the following permutations are even or odd.


a.

(135)

b.

(1356)

d.

(12)(134)(152)

e.

(1243)(3521)

c.

(13567)

35.

If is even, prove that 1 is even. If is odd, prove that 1 is odd.

36.

Let
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6

and

.
2 1 3 5 4 6
6 1 2 4 3 5
Compute each of the following.
a.

b.

c.

88

Modern Algebra

37.

Chapter 5: Permutation Groups

Let
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

and

.
2 1 3 5 4 7 6 8
1 3 8 7 6 5 2 4
Write and as
a.

products of disjoint cycles,

b.

products of 2-cycles,

(write all answers in cycle notation)


c.

determine whether and are odd or even.

38.

Do the odd permutations in S n form a group? Why?

39.

Let and belong to S n . Prove that 1 1 is an even


permutation.

40.

Use Table 5.1 to compute the following.


a.

The centralizer of 3 (13)(24).

b.

The centralizer of 12 (124).

Table 5.1

The Alternating Group A4 of Even Permutations of {1, 2, 3, 4}

(In this table, the permutations of A4 are designated as 1 , 2 , ..., 12 and an entry
k inside the table represents k . For example, 3 8 6 .)

10

11

12

(1) 1

10

11

12

(12)(34) 2

10

12

11

(13)(24) 3

11

12

10

(14)(23) 4

12

11

10

(123) 5

12

10

11

(243) 6

10

11

12

(142) 7

11

10

12

(134) 8

12

11

10

(132) 9

11

12

10

(143) 10

10

12

11

(234) 11

11

10

12

(124) 12

12

10

11

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Modern Algebra

Chapter 5: Permutation Groups

41.

What cycle is (1 2 ... n ) 1 ?

42.

Let H { S5 | (1) 1 and (3) 3}. Prove that H is a subgroup of


S5 .

43.

In S4 , find a cyclic subgroup of order 4 and a noncyclic subgroup of


order 4.

44.

In S3 , find elements and so that 2, 2, and 3.

45.

Show that A5 has 24 elements of order 5, 20 elements of order 3, and 15


elements of order 2.

90