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Modern Algebra

In Exercises 1 through 5, compute the indicated product involving the following

permutations in S6 :
1 2 3 4 5 6

,
3 1 4 5 6 2
1 2 3 4 5 6

,
2 4 1 3 6 5
1 2 3 4 5 6

.
5 2 4 3 1 6

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

10.

7.

8. 100

9.

100

Let A be a set and let S A . For a fixed a A, the set

Oa , { n (a ) | n }
is the orbit of a under . Find the orbit of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 under the
permutation defined prior to Exercise 1.

11.

12.

13.

Consider the group S3 of the following:

Let the set A be {1, 2, 3}. We list the permutations of A and assign to
each a subscripted Greek letter for a name.

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Modern Algebra

1 2 3
0
,
1 2 3

1 2 3
1
,
1 3 2

1 2 3
1
,
2 3 1

1 2 3
2
,
3 2 1

1 2 3
2
,
3 1 2

1 2 3
3
.
2 1 3

a.

b.

Find all subgroups, proper and improper, of S3 and give the

lattice diagram for them.

14.

Show by an example that every proper subgroup of a nonabelian group

may be abelian.

In Exercise 15 through 17, compute the indicated product of cycles that are
permutations of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}.
15.

16.

17.

(1, 2)(4, 7, 8)(2, 1)(1, 2, 7, 8, 5)(8,4)

(1, 3, 2, 7)(4, 2, 3)

In Exercises 18 through 20, express the permutation of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} as

a product of disjoint cycles, and then as a product of transpositions.
18.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8 2 6 3 7 4 5 1

20.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 1 4 7 2 5 8 6

21.

19.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 6 4 1 8 2 5 7

group S8 .
a.

b.

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Modern Algebra

c.

What is the order of (4, 5)(2, 3, 7) ? of

(1, 4)(3, 5, 7, 8) ?
d.

Find the order of each of the permutations given in Exercises 18

through 20 by looking at its decomposition into a product of
disjoint cycles.

e.

State a theorem suggested by parts (c) and (d). [Hint: The

important words you are looking for are least common multiple.]

In Exercises 22 through 26, find the maximum possible order for an element of
S n for the given value of n.
22.

27.

n=5

23.

n6

24.

n7

25.

n 10

26.

n 15

Mark each of the following true or false.

___ a. Every permutation is a cycle.
___ b. Every cycle is a permutation.
___ c. The definition of even and odd permutations could have been
given equally well before the following theorem.
Theorem: No permutation in S n can be expressed both as a
product of an even number of transpositions and as a product of
an odd number of transpositions.
___ d. Every nontrivial subgroup H of S9 containing some odd
permutation contains a transposition.
___ e.

___ f.

S n is not cyclic for any n 1.

___ g.

A3 is a commutative group.

___ h.

S 7 is isomorphic to the subgroup of all those elements of S8

that leave the number 8 fixed.

___ i.

S 7 is isomorphic to the subgroup of all those elements of S8

that leave the number 5 fixed.

___ j.

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Modern Algebra

28.

29.

a.

30.

31.

b.

(147)

c.

(14762)

a.

(124)(357)

b.

(124)(356)

c.

(124)(35)

d.

(124)(3578)

What is the order of each of the following permutations?

a.

32.

(14)

1 2 3 4 5 6
2 1 5 4 6 3

b.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7 6 1 2 3 4 5

What are the possible orders for the elements of S6 and A6 ? What about
S 7 and A7 ?

33.

34.

a.

(135)

b.

(1356)

d.

(12)(134)(152)

e.

(1243)(3521)

c.

(13567)

35.

If is even, prove that 1 is even. If is odd, prove that 1 is odd.

36.

Let
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6

and

.
2 1 3 5 4 6
6 1 2 4 3 5
Compute each of the following.
a.

b.

c.

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Modern Algebra

37.

Let
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

and

.
2 1 3 5 4 7 6 8
1 3 8 7 6 5 2 4
Write and as
a.

products of disjoint cycles,

b.

products of 2-cycles,

c.

38.

39.

permutation.

40.

a.

b.

Table 5.1

The Alternating Group A4 of Even Permutations of {1, 2, 3, 4}

(In this table, the permutations of A4 are designated as 1 , 2 , ..., 12 and an entry
k inside the table represents k . For example, 3 8 6 .)

10

11

12

(1) 1

10

11

12

(12)(34) 2

10

12

11

(13)(24) 3

11

12

10

(14)(23) 4

12

11

10

(123) 5

12

10

11

(243) 6

10

11

12

(142) 7

11

10

12

(134) 8

12

11

10

(132) 9

11

12

10

(143) 10

10

12

11

(234) 11

11

10

12

(124) 12

12

10

11

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Modern Algebra

41.

42.

S5 .

43.

order 4.

44.

45.

Show that A5 has 24 elements of order 5, 20 elements of order 3, and 15

elements of order 2.

90