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Table of Contents
Proceedings of the 27th ITTC

Volume I
Organising committee
Supporting organisations
Report of the Executive Committee

Report of the Advisory Council


Report of the Resistance Committee


Report of the Propulsion Committee


Report of the Manoeuvring Committee


Report of the Seakeeping Committee


Report of the Ocean Engineering Committee


Report of the Stability in Waves Committee


Report of the Quality Systems Group


Appendix 1

Committees of the 27th ITTC


Appendix 2

Tasks and Structure of the 27th ITTC Technical Committees

and Groups


Appendix 3

Tasks and Structure of the 28th ITTC Technical Committees

and Groups


Appendix 4

Description and Rules of the ITTC Proposed for Adoption by

the 27th Full Conference


Appendix 5

Member Organisations


Appendix 6

Designated Representatives (R), Committee Members (M) and

Observers (O) invited to attend the 27th ITTC Conference


Volume II
Report of the Specialist Committee on CFD in Marine Hydrodynamics


Report of the Specialist Committee on Detailed Flow Measurement Techniques


Report of the Specialist Committee on Performance of Ships in Service


Report of the Specialist Committee on Hydrodynamic Noise


Report of the Specialist Committee on Hydrodynamic Modelling of Marine

Renewable Energy Devices


Report of the Specialist Committee on Ice


Specialist Committee on CFD in Marine

Final report and Recommendations to the 27th ITTC


Mr. Ilkka Saisto

VTT, Ship Hydrodynamics, FINLAND



Dr. Ignazio Maria Viola

The University of Edinburgh, UK

Prof. Takanori Hino
Yokohama National University, JAPAN


Prof. Pablo Carrica
The University of Iowa, USA


The committee met 4 times:

26-27 March 2012, Yokohama, Japan
8-9 Nov 2012, Bethesda, MD, USA
10-11 June 2013, Jeju, South Korea
16-17 January 2014, Portsmouth, UK

Dr. Riccardo Broglia
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di
Architettura Navale (INSEAN), ITALY


Mr. Peter Bull

QinetiQ, UK


The purpose of this specialist committee is

to comprehensively review past work on areas
treated separately by previous committees.
General conclusions on the status of practical
applications of CFD and suggestions for future
CFD applications will be beneficial to all
members of ITTC.

Dr. Sung-Eun Kim

Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock
Division, USA
Dr. Da-Qing Li

1. Review,
perspective, the current status of CFD in areas
of importance to ITTC. Include resistance,
propulsion, propulsors, manoeuvring, steep and
breaking wave simulation, seakeeping, ocean
engineering and steady and unsteady flow field
prediction at model and full scale.
2. Review developments and identify need for
research in steady and unsteady CFD at full

Prof. Decheng Wan

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, CHINA
Prof. Shin Hyung Rhee
Seoul National University, SOUTH KOREA


(VOF) are mostly used to resolve complex

topologies resulting from steep and breaking

scale, including real-time CFD for the use in

manoeuvring simulators.
3. Identify benchmark data needed for
validation. List requirements for experiments.
Create a list of benchmark experiments for
validation of different aspects of CFD for ship
hydrodynamics and offshore structures,
including output needed from the experiments
and the level of uncertainty required.
4. Check the need for formal procedures and
guidelines on CFD verification and validation
in specific areas.
5. Update the guidelines 7.5-03-02-03,
6. Review use and validation of CFD for
wake scaling and determination of nominal
full-scale wakes.
7. Develop procedures for RANS simulation
of model and full scale nominal wakes.
8. Review recent developments in techniques
for direct numerical simulation of wakes.


The scales involved in breaking waves

around ships are vast and direct numerical
simulation of all the processes involved in
breaking waves and consequent air entrainment
will be out of reach for the foreseeable future.
Considering a ship of length L and a
computational domain of size 3 L3 where
bubbles down to 50 m in diameter (a size
commonly present in full scale ships, Johansen
et al. 2010) are resolved with 10 grid points.
For L = 100 m a uniform grid would require
2.4 1022 points, still too coarse to properly
resolve bubble coalescence where liquid film
thinning before coalescence can be less than 1
m in thickness. Using 2.4 million points per
core, still 10,000 trillion cores would be
required for such computation, orders of
magnitude more than all the cores available in
all computers ever manufactured on earth


Air entrainment produced by breaking
waves is then simulated using smaller scale
problems and Eulerian approaches with air
entrainment models (Carrica et al. 2012a),
where the breaking wave is resolved using a
Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach but
the bubbles are modelled as a transported field.
A good dataset is available from the
experiments of Tavakolinejad et al. (2010) on a
2D+T breaking wave resembling the bow wave
of DTMB 5415.

Steep and breaking waves are of interest in

the context of producing a seaway for
simulation, to study impact loads of waves
against objects, and to analyze bubble
entrainment and aeration.
Simulation of steep and breaking waves
requires advanced CFD tools to accurately
resolve the air/water interface. Turbulence
production and dissipation, bubble entrainment
and breakup/coalescence and capillary wave
formation all play a role on the dynamics of a
breaking wave. Classical methods, like
boundary integral equation and high-order
spectral, fail when waves get close to
overturning and ignore the presence of air
(Brucker et al. 2010). Immersed interface
methods like level set (LS) and volume of fluid

Direct simulation of breaking waves

ignoring the scales required to fully resolve
bubbles are within the possibilities of current
computational capabilities. In a pioneering
work, Lubin et al. (2006) studied a plunging
breaker using a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES)
approach. Later Lubin and Glockner (2013)
simulated a breaking wave using similar


methodologies with a finer grid with 83 million

cells, analysing the vertical structures produced
during the breaking process. Brucker et al.
(2010) performed simulations of a three
dimensional breaking wave using VOF and an
implicit sub-grid scale stress model on 3
Cartesian grids with up to 134 million points.
A pressure forcing technique was developed
that allows generation of fully nonlinear
progressive waves in a periodic domain. The
authors analysed the different stages of the
breaking process and computed detailed
balances of energy and air entrainment.

applications, with JONSWAP, PiersonMoskowitz or Bretschneider spectra typically

used (Mousaviraad et al. 2008). However,
large-amplitude waves are nonlinear and,
though they deform and evolve significantly
within the computational domain, the domain
size is typically too small and the resolution
too coarse to develop a realistic seaway. Steep
waves are nonlinear and no analytical solutions
exist that can be used as initial and boundary
conditions, and at the same time spectra cannot
be easily generated since linear superposition
of nonlinear waves is not valid.

Massive simulations of a wedge-induced

breaking wave were performed by Wang et al.
(2012) on 2 billion grid points. The authors
used a sharp-interface method to resolve the
interface and LES as turbulence model. Results
were compared with experimental data with
good agreement. Analysis also included bubble
entrainment and filament breakup.

Direct simulations of nonlinear ocean

waves have been performed by Xiao et al.
(2013) using the high-order spectral (HOS)
method, and by Dommermuth et al. (2013) and
Rottman et al. (2013) using VOF. While HOS
enables prediction of large-amplitude rogue
waves, it cannot model wave breaking.
Dommermuth et al. (2013) use a process to
assimilate data from HOS computations of
JOSWAP or Pierson-Moskowitz into VOF
simulations, enabling investigation of turbulent
flows and breaking waves that are not possible
using HOS or field measurements. In the case
of Rottman et al. (2013) computations and
posterior developments by the authors,
extremely fine grids of up to 17.2 billion points
were used on 8192 processors on a Cray XE6
performed for a wind speed of 11.1 m/s and a
peak wavelength of the spectrum of 100 m.
The resulting seaway possesses the most
detailed physics available to date, see Fig. 2.1.
A section of the seaway can then be used as
initial and transient boundary conditions for
CFD computations including a ship to study
seakeeping or stability on a realistic seaway.

Extreme waves can be generated in a

towing tank by focusing linear waves such that
they coincide at a designed time and location,
Mousaviraad et al. (2008) used a similar
technique in CFD to produce a three sisters
wave event and run an auto-piloted ONR
Tumblehome combatant through it. The results
show that survivability studies can be
performed using this methodology to create
transient extreme events at moderate
computational cost.
Of primary interest for seakeeping,
manoeuvring and stability simulations is the
generation of a realistic seaway. Standard CFD
simulation of ships in waves requires initial
and boundary conditions to start and propagate
nonlinear waves inside the computational
domain. Analytical solutions exist to impose
linear waves and linear superposition produces
acceptable oceanic waves for many

In summary, steep and breaking wave

simulations are feasible with todays
computational resources and CFD techniques
to the scale of a few wavelengths and as long


applications of ship hydrodynamics, flow fields

are inherently unsteady.

as direct simulation of bubble entrainment is

not required. Direct simulation of bubble
entrainment is typically limited to small

Unsteadiness comes from ship motions,

ambient waves, or motions of appendages and
propellers. In ocean engineering applications,
the situation is similar to ship applications and
the ambient waves and the motions associated
with them or the vortex shedding and the
vortex induced motions are typical sources of
In the past, CFD applications were focused
on resistance predictions of ships, since it is the
simplest of flow fields. In terms of numerical
procedures, some algorithms are designed to
obtain efficiently a steady state solution. The
artificial compressibility approach is one of
such approaches, in which a flow field does not
satisfy mass conservation until steady state is
achieved. The SIMPLE algorithm is also used
for steady flow simulations in which time
marching is not used and an iterative procedure
is adopted instead of coupling the velocity and
pressure fields to enforce mass conservation.
On the other hand, for unsteady flow
approaches the mass conservation must be
satisfied at each time step, which requires an
iteration process with the pressure Poisson
equation in order to cope with the elliptic
nature of pressure fields and the nonlinearity of
the coupled system of equations. As a result,
unsteady computations require longer CPU
times than steady state computations.

Figure 2.1. Spilling waves on a seaway simulated with

VOF (Rottman et al. 2013)




Most flow fields appearing in practical

marine hydrodynamics are unsteady in nature.
Due to the high-Reynolds numbers involved in
ship flows, both in model and full scale,
unsteadiness will always be present due to
turbulent fluctuations. However, steady flows
in the Reynolds averaged sense are possible,
and we refer to unsteadiness when the averaged
flow field is unsteady. One steady flow field
occurs for the resistance prediction of a ship
running straight ahead with a constant speed in
calm water. Steady flow fields also appear in
other situations such as the steady drift and the
steady turning in manoeuvring applications.
Self-propulsion simulations are time-dependent
due to propeller rotation. However, the body
force propeller models often used in the
simplified hull-propeller interaction analysis
are usually incorporated with time-averaged
flow fields and therefore steady flow
approaches can be applied. In other

Another issue in unsteady approaches is the

discretization in time. As in the case of spatial
discretization, the order of accuracy and the
time step size affect the quality of the
solutions. It is well known that first order time
integration schemes introduce significant errors
both for temporal and spatial accuracy in
unsteady computations. Higher-order schemes
are thus recommended for time discretization.
Sometimes a steady state solution is computed



using unsteady flow codes, and in such cases

first order time schemes can be used safely
since the final steady state solutions do not
depend on the temporal schemes. Time step
size must be, first of all, determined by
stability considerations. Each combination of
temporal and spatial discretization has its own
stability limit and the time step size is
restricted by it. Usually the implicit schemes
such as the Euler backward method or the
three-step backward scheme allow larger time
steps compared with explicit schemes.
Although implicit schemes need additional
numerical operations and longer CPU time per
time step than explicit ones, the gain from
larger time steps is so prominent that implicit
schemes are preferred in practical applications.



Velocity-pressure coupling in most solvers

is accomplished by pressure correction
methods and their variants. The direct method
in which the momentum equations and the
continuity equation are directly coupled is used
by some codes. For steady state solvers,
SIMPLE method or artificial compressibility
are typically used for coupling pressure and
The most used time discretization scheme
is the first-order Euler implicit scheme. In
cases where steady flow solutions are
computed, the Euler implicit scheme is the
natural choice for the unsteady solvers since
time accuracy is not needed and a large time
step is desirable for faster convergence. The
second favored method is the three-step
backward scheme, also referred as the secondorder implicit scheme. For the unsteady flow
problems, this choice of time discretization
scheme seems a good compromise between the
accuracy and the numerical complexity. Other
schemes, (Euler explicit, Runge-Kutta or
Adams-Bashforth) are used by a limited
number of codes.

Time step size must also be determined by

the requirements from the flow physics. For
example, if regular incident waves are present,
the time step size is set in accordance with the
resolution needed for the wave period. Similar
considerations are applied in manoeuvring
motions, propeller rotations, or any other
physical problem that is being solved.
Practical applications of steady and
unsteady flow predictions are reviewed in two
recently held CFD workshops, SIMMAN 2008
Workshop (Stern et al. 2011) for manoeuvring
simulations and Gothenburg 2010 Workshop
on CFD for Ship Hydrodynamics (Larsson et
al. 2014). Although both workshops include
test cases for steady and unsteady flow fields,
the questionnaires regarding numerical
methods are organized in solver by solver base
and give a wide view of CFD codes in ship

In summary, for ship hydrodynamics

applications, unsteady flow solvers are most
frequently adopted with pressure correction
method or direct method for velocity-pressure
coupling. Time discretization schemes
typically used are first-order Euler implicit
scheme for steady flows and the three-step
backward method for unsteady flows. The
other choices for steady flow problems are
steady solvers with SIMPLE or artificial
compressibility approaches.

Approximately 80% of codes participating

in the workshops are designed for unsteady
flow problems, although the majority of the
test cases require steady state solutions.
Unsteady flow solvers seem to be the





New modeling techniques

be resolved determine the numerical mesh size

to be used. LES makes extensive use of
computer power rather than solving a large
number of modeled equations as is the case for
RANS models (Verma and Mahesh 2012). In
this regard it also requires the use of accurate
numerical schemes. LES is perceived as an
effective tool for tackling and capturing the
coherent turbulence structures near the free
surface. The enhanced spreading of the wake
near the free surface can be predicted well by
LES. Much of the uncertainties in turbulence
modeling can be eliminated if LES is extended
modifications (Bhushan et al. 2013).

There have been significant efforts in the

marine industry to integrate CFD simulation
capabilities over past several years. Accurate
and fast simulation of turbulent free surface
flows around surface ships and ocean
structures has a central role in the optimal
design of naval vessels and ocean structures.
The flow problem to be simulated is rich in
complexity and poses many modeling
challenges because of the existence of breaking
waves around the structures, and because of the
interaction of the two-phase flow with the
turbulent boundary layer. Some new numerical
modeling techniques and trends for ship and
ocean engineering flows are reviewed as

DES (Detached-Eddy Simulation)

Validation of closure models for the RANS
equations has been an ongoing effort for
several decades. These validation efforts are
the key to obtaining a good description of the
validity, accuracy, and utility of the various
models over a range of applications. Flows
involving massive separation and/or turbulent
flow structure that scales with ship and ocean
structure size comprise an especially difficult
class of problems for RANS models. As
available computing capacity increases, CFD
researchers and practitioners are moving
towards the use of LES as a higher fidelity
alternative to RANS (Jang and Mahesh 2013).
However, LES suffers from stringent near-wall
spatial resolution requirements, and thus a
practical alternative that seeks to leverage the
best qualities of RANS and LES are the socalled hybrid RANS/LES methods, like DES,
first proposed in 1997 (Spalart 2009).
Generally speaking, a hybrid RANS/LES
model applies a RANS closure model in the
attached boundary layer region and a LES
subgrid-scale model in regions of massively
separated flow. The equations of motion are
usually, but not necessarily, integrated in a
time-accurate way for both the RANS and LES

LES (Large-eddy simulation)

LES is a numerical technique in which
large scale energy containing eddies (those
responsible for the primary transport) are
resolved explicitly and only the small-scale
sub-grid motions are modeled. The LES
technique solves the unsteady threedimensional Navier-Stokes equations with an
appropriate filtering procedure. The filtered
equations involve Reynolds stress type terms
(contributions from the sub-grid scales) which
are modeled by relating them to strain rates
with an eddy viscosity as the proportionality
coefficient. This is referred to as SGS closure
model. The eddy viscosity is usually calculated
as a function of the mesh size. Hence, the finer
the numerical mesh size, the less important is
the effect of the smaller scales that are filtered
out. The three-dimensional time-dependent
details of the largest scales of motion (those
responsible for the primary transport) are
computed. The size of the scales that need to


with weight functions (Khayyer et al. 2011).

MPS can also be applied to incompressible
flow by satisfying the condition of constant
density. In addition, the solution process of the
MPS method differs to that of the original SPH
method as the solutions to the PDEs are
obtained through a semi-implicit predictioncorrection process rather than the fully explicit
one in original SPH method. Improved
versions of the MPS method have been
proposed for enhancement of numerical
stability, momentum conservation, mechanical
energy conservation and pressure calculation
(Gotoh 2012). The Lagrangian particle
methods have proved their ability to capture
physical features of violent fluid motions both
around and on a vessel (Zhang et al. 2013).

regions. The RANS and LES regions may be

detected by a zonal scheme or a blending
parameter (Sebastien 2011, Huang et al. 2012).
The validation of hybrid RANS/LES
models is a difficult subject (Rui et al. 2013).
RANS models are amenable to the usual
verification (grid refinement and iterative
convergence criteria) is performed to assess
numerical error in the solution. Then the model
error may be assessed without complication.
Conventional LES techniques are inherently
difficult to verify and validate. Usually, the
filter width is related to the grid spacing so
that, as the grid is refined, the model and
therefore, the solution, are also refined. This
occurs simultaneously with numerical error
reduction. The grid-refinement limit becomes
direct numerical simulation which is, of course,
impracticable for most flows of interest. Fixing
the filter width and then applying grid
refinement is a possible solution, but this
strategy can be expensive and difficult to apply
to complex geometries.

Open Source Programming

Open source refers to a program or
software in which the source code is available
to the general public for use and/or
modification from its original design free of
charge. Open source code is typically created
as a collaborative effort in which programmers
improve upon the code and share the changes
within the community. Not only the features of
open source codes are comparable to the
commercial CFD software, they also provide a
perfect general and open platform for
developing new numerical methods and tools
(Yang et al. 2011). In recent years, open source
codes such as OpenFOAM, FreeShip, Gerris,
DUNS, have become popular; OpenFOAM is
among the best. OpenFOAM is an object
oriented C++ set of libraries for solving various
partial differential equations using the finite
volume method. It includes pre-processing,
post-processing tools and specialized CFD
solvers. Because of its object-oriented
construction, users can implement codes for
their own applications. Kawamura and
Fujisawa (2013) used OpenFOAM CFD toolkit
to form a new code which can simulate the

Lagrangian Particle Methods

There are two major Lagrangian particle
Hydrodynamics) and MPS (Moving Particle
Semi-implicit) (Amini et al. 2011, Paredes and
Imas 2011). Both methods use particles and
calculate fluid behavior based on NavierStokes equations; however, the basic idea is
different. SPH considers that the physical
parameters in a particle, like mass density,
velocity, etc., do not belong to the particle
itself but are distributed smoothly around the
particle, and a kernel function is used to
calculate the physical properties of each
particle (Kagatsume et al. 2011). On the other
hand, MPS considers that the physical
properties belong to the particle itself, and
calculates the interaction between particles


flow around a self-propelling ship hull.

NavalHydro-Pack is based on OpenFOAM and
integrates core features of naval CFD into a set
of optimized solver applications in ship
hydrodynamics (Christ 2013). Several wavemakers including piston wave maker, flap
wave maker and inlet wave boundary were
implemented in OpenFOAM to numerically
generate regular and irregular waves,
directional waves, freak and rogues waves,
focused waves, etc. (Cao et al. 2014). A
dynamic overset grid capability has also been
implemented in OpenFOAM aiming at ship
flows for seakeeping, manoeuvring and shipship interaction (Wan et al. 2012, Shen et al.
2013, Shen et al. 2014).


Real time CFD

Ship manoeuvring simulators are an

extremely useful tool for training of ships
crews and for research of manoeuvring
characteristics of ships. Usually, ship motions
in the simulators are computed using equations
of motion and hydrodynamic forces and
moments required for these equations are
obtained by experiments, database or prior
computations including CFD.
With the increase of computing power,
CFD analyses become faster than ever before,
which develops the concept of real-time CFD
simulators. Pinkster and Bhawsika (2013)
constructed the system which combines the
real-time potential flow computation and the
manoeuvring simulator for analysis of shipship and ship-port interactions. In the
application, the potential code runs with the
time step of 0.6 to 1.3 sec. while the time step
of the simulator is 0.2 sec. Navier-Stokes
solvers obviously requires more CPU time
even with parallel computation techniques.

GPU Parallel Computations

CFD solvers are among the most important
applications that are run on supercomputers,
consuming countless processing hours per
year. The gap between the capabilities of the
CPU and the complexity of the problems to be
solved continues to widen. GPU has become an
alternative platform for computing. There are a
few codes in the CFD field that can benefit
from GPUs or other similar parallel platforms.
The result is a many-fold improvement in
performance, allowing for more complex
simulations in less time without sacrificing
accuracy. In a potential future it is possible that
CFD solvers can be designed for a GPU
desktop, as well as those that run on the largest
clusters. In some cases, the transition to GPU
parallel computing requires little effort, but in
most cases a full mathematical retooling is
required. Though the potential is enormous,
RANS-based codes have not been able yet of
taking full advantage of GPUs for acceleration
and modest improvements have been achieved.
Compressible solvers and particle-based
methods have seen better improvements. The
limited success on GPU use in CFD is due to
the low memory capacity in all GPUs.

In this section, the feasibility of real-time

CFD analyses linked to manoeuvring
simulators is examined. CPU time of typical
CFD manoeuvring simulations is estimated
using the questionnaire of SIMMAN 2008
workshop (2008). The grid points are 3 - 5
million and time step size is 0.01 - 0.02 sec.
for model scale computations. The average
sec./iteration/points with the machines of 5
GFLOPS to 20 TFLOPS which yields one CFD
iteration (0.02 sec. in real time) with 5 million
grid points requires 50 sec. Therefore, in order
to give the hydrodynamic forces and moments
in real time, CFD must run 2500 times faster
than present. Time step size may vary in full
scale simulations and in case that ship-ship or


Scaling of Wake Field has made extensive

survey in this field.

other interactions are taken into account, CPU

time increases significantly.
It is concluded that the use of real-time
CFD methods linked to manoeuvring
simulators are still beyond the capability of the
present computing environment.






Validation and use of CFD for wake


CFD for wake scaling means the use of

CFD (mainly RANS) methods to aid the
development of a scaling method, as contrary
to the concept of direct prediction of a full
scale wake field using CFD methods. In a strict
sense, the validation of a CFD method for
wake scaling would inevitably involve two
studies: a validation against the measured wake
at model scale and a validation against the
wake data at full scale.

Wake scaling is a procedure or method to

scale up a model scale wake to a full scale one
by taking into account the influence of
Reynolds number scale effects at the two
different ship sizes. Wake scaling is usually
needed in the following two situations:

There are many validations of RANS

methods for wake prediction at model scale.
However, validation at full scale is very rare,
partly due to the fact that too few wake data
from real ships are available and partly because
full scale computations still present some
challenges for RANS solvers.

(1) To extrapolate the measured model

scale nominal wake to full scale, the goal of
which is to provide a realistic wake field for
propeller design;

The results of Gothenburg 2010 Workshop

on CFD in Ship Hydrodynamics (Larsson et al.
2014) are considered as representative of the
state of the art in wake prediction for model
scale ships. A total of 45 computed wake data
at the propeller plane for three ship models
were assessed and validated against the
respective measured wake data, following
established validation procedures. The number
of submissions is by far the largest in the series
of workshops, providing an invaluable
database and statistics for the level of accuracy
achievable for wake prediction by CFD
methods today.

(2) To produce a wake as close as possible

to the full scale one in a cavitation test for
small to medium size cavitation tunnels where
it is impossible to accommodate a complete
ship model, the aim of which is to improve the
accuracy and reliability of experimental
prediction of cavitation extent and pressure
fluctuation in a cavitation test.
Traditionally wake scaling methods may be
divided into two categories. The first is a
simple wake contraction method where the
width of wake is reduced in different
manners. The second involves more
complicated scaling steps based on boundary
layer and potential flow theories, as reported
for example by Tanaka (1979) and Sasajima
(1966). The 26th Specialist Committee on

The assessment (Larsson et al. 2014) of this

workshop results shows that: (a) The overall
experiments in terms of wake patterns at the



The importance of correct prediction of the

wake velocity field in propeller design is

propeller plane was fairly good; (b) The

characteristic features of the bilge vortices
were captured by the majority of CFD solvers;
(c) The turbulence model has a profound
influence on the accuracy of local flow
structures. The flow details predicted by the
advanced turbulence models like Reynolds
Stress Model (RSM) and Explicit Algebraic
Stress Model (EASM) show clearly better
agreement with measured data than those
simpler isotropic eddy-viscosity models, for
the wake field of full form ships that has strong
anisotropy Reynolds stresses and hook shape
iso-contours of the axial velocity; (d) A 3~4
million grid on a half hull with a 2nd order
discretization scheme seems sufficient to make
a good prediction at model scale (without any
appendage and free surface effect). The
workshop organizers and participants seem to
agree on the maturity of RANS methods for
prediction of model scale wake field.

Wake scaling is also utilized to improve the

experimental prediction of propeller cavitation
and induced pressure fluctuations in cavitation
tunnel tests. A recent work is presented by
Schuiling et al. (2011) and Wijngaarden et al.
(2010). They utilized a RANS code to
inversely design a model hull that generates a
wake field closely resembling the full scale
ship wake than does the geometrically similar
(geosim) hull model. As a demonstrator, a
non-geosim scale model of a container vessel
was manufactured and tested in a tank. The
results were compared with available full scale
data for correlation. It was concluded that the
wake scale effects may largely explain the
model to full scale correlation error on the
blade rate hull pressure amplitude, and the use
of a non-geosim afterbody design may correct
for this sort of error to some extent, showing an
improvement in predicting the 1st harmonics
pressure pulses in the cavitation tunnel test.

Some of the trends observed at the

workshop were confirmed again by the later
work of Wang et al. (2010) and Bull (2011).
A good example of use of CFD in wake
scaling for propeller design was presented by
Gaggero et al. (2013), in which the full scale
wake of a research vessel was predicted by
means of Tanaka-Sasajimas semi-empirical
wake scaling method and a RANS solver. The
resulting wake fields were then compared in
terms of velocity values and the propeller
unsteady cavitation behavior predicted by a
panel method. The results revealed that the full
scale wake field scaled by Sasajimas scaling
method is significantly different from the direct
RANS prediction (compare plot (c) with plot
(d) in Fig. 5.1.1). The bilge vortex obtained by
the scaling method is stronger and appears in a
different location as compared with the RANS
method. Study as such allows for exploiting of
the differences that may be expected by the
designer using the two different approaches.

(a) Exp. wake data

(b) RANS model scale

(c) Sasajimas scaling

(d) RANS full scale

Figure 5.1.1. Model/full scale wake predicted by a

RANS method compared to Sasajimas scaling method
and wake measurement data (Gaggero et al. 2013)




draft, when using the RANS-predicted fullscale wake field in the cavitation test.

Determination of full-scale nominal

wake by RANS methods

A new trend in full scale wake prediction is

for ships equipped with Energy Saving Devices
(ESDs). The application is of particular interest
for ITTC society as the scale effects on ESDs
are less explored in routine towing tank tests
and cavitation tunnel tests. Hopefully CFD
studies may provide some invaluable
information on the scaling trends of ESDs.
Heinke et al. (2011) investigated the Reynolds
number scale effect on the flow around a wake
equalizing duct of Schneekluth design (WED)
and vortex generators (VG) and on the inflow
to the propeller. The investigation showed that
knowledge of full-scale wake is necessary for
the accurate design of propeller and the
prognosis of cavitation behaviour and propeller
induced pressure fluctuations for ships with
WED and VG. Kim et al. (2012a) compared
the model and full scale nominal wake
difference for an Aframax product carrier
equipped with Pre-Swirl Stators (PSS) using an
EASM turbulence model.

The maturity of numerical schemes and

advancement of computing power has made it
possible to directly calculate the wake field at
full scale by RANS methods. EU project
EFFORT is a project dedicated to improvement
and validation of RANS methods for prediction
of full scale viscous flow and wake field.
Model and full scale experiment data for seven
ships were made available for the consortium
to study the accuracy level of wake prediction
at full scale and to decide on the best
turbulence models. Main achievements were
reported by e.g. Verkuyl et al. (2003) and
Starke et al. (2006).
Yang et al. (2010) evaluated the
performance difference of a RSM and a
Realizable k- model (RKE) for nominal wake
at model and ship scale for three hull forms. It
was found that the RSM provided much better
agreement with wake measurement data at
model scale in terms of boundary layer
thickness, hook shape and iso-wake contours,
and that the RSM model seems to be better at
full scale as well.

Likely challenges for full scale wake

calculations are the extremely high aspect ratio
of grid cells, large grid size and lack of
validation of turbulence models at full scale.
The latter is partly due to a general lack of full
scale data. The current practice is to perform
some form of validation study at model scale,
then assume that conditions will be similar and
apply the same or similar grid strategy,
discretization scheme and turbulence model for
full scale calculation without further validation.

Choi et al. (2011) compared cavitation

patterns of model tests with those from a fullscale sea trial for a VLCC propeller that
suffered from erosion near the tip region.
Cavitation tests were performed at design and
ballast draft, using model and full scale
nominal wake, respectively. A model ship and
a wire mesh method were used for the
simulation of wake patterns of model nominal
wake. For the prediction of full-scale wake
field, a RANS solver was employed and a wire
mesh method was used for the simulation of
the full scale wake. The results show that
cavitation patterns and the location of cloud
cavity in relation to the eroded area are closer
to those observed in the sea trial at ballast


Full scale wake data

There have been some efforts in measuring

full scale wake, for example, in project
EFFORT (Verkuyl et al. 2003), Euclid 10.12
(Di Mascio et al. 2001) and DALIDA



prediction of effective wakes are expected in

the presence of separated flow.

(Perelman et al. 2012). However, wake data

from these projects are not publically available.
A report containing full scale measurement
data for the Athena Research Vessel (Day et al.
1980) is available.


In Snchez-Caja et al. (2014), special

attention has been paid to the errors in coupling
RANS with potential flow methods. A
correction factor approach is developed
suggesting that the error derived from coupling
a potential flow method for the representation
of the propeller with a RANS solver can be
split into two parts: one that is common to any
propeller potential method due to the fact that
such potential method is or should be a good
approximation to the propeller viscous
solution, and the other one which is dependent
on the particular potential method used. The
first part, represented by the correction factor
approach is a first order correction to the
potential flow solution. It can be calculated in a
simple setup (propeller in uniform flow) and
used in a complex one (propeller in ship wake).
Also the paper proposes a concrete dependence
of such correction on the local induced flow.
Further development of this approach may be a
step forward for the calculation of effective
wakes in extreme situations (for example
propeller under oblique flow or high loadings).

Determination of effective wakes by

RANS/potential-flow coupling

The effective wake is the nominal wake as

deformed by the interaction with the running
propeller with exclusion of the propeller selfinduced velocities. The effective wake is
estimated by coupling a potential-flow method
for the simulation of the propeller with a
RANS solver for the simulation of the bulk
flow around the ship hull.
The literature on the estimation of effective
wakes has grown in the last few years. Villa et
al. (2011), use both an actuator disk model and
a three dimensional body force approach.
Kinnas et al. (2012) present a conservative
interpolation scheme for the body forces and
uses curved zones in front of the propeller
leading edge or blade control points as
locations for the velocity extraction in the
RANS/potential-flow coupling.

Starke & Bosschers (2012) discuss
RANS/BEM coupling errors in the prediction
of the effective wake especially at the propeller
root. They suggest calculating the induced
velocities only from the dipoles, not from the


Model scale nominal wake can be predicted

fairly accurately with more advanced
anisotropic turbulence models (e.g. EASM and
RSM) and the SST k- model with curvature
correction. Full scale wake prediction is
achievable, provided that sufficiently fine grids
are used to resolve the near-wall boundary
layer and appropriate turbulence models are
employed. Experience seems to suggest that
prediction differences between advanced
turbulence models and eddy viscosity models
becomes smaller at full scale because of the
reduction of anisotropic Reynolds stresses (i.e.
disappearance of the hook). Following the

Rijpkema et al. (2013) tackles the problem

of the location of the extraction velocities and
suggests calculating the velocities on two
planes upstream the propeller and extrapolating
them to the propeller plane. Alternatively,
curved axi-symmetric surfaces in front of the
leading edge can be used. Large errors in the



equations. Importantly, verification should be

performed for each quantitative result extracted
from the numerical solution, i.e. the so-called
quantities of interest, such as for instance the
global resistance of the ship, the local pressure
and flow velocity.

27th ITTC Practical Guideline for RANS

Calculation of Nominal Wakes (7.5-03-03-03),
RANS methods can be a useful tool to deal
with scale effects in wake field.




Different verification procedures are
available for the estimate of the numerical
uncertainty. Most of the available procedures
aim at computing the numerical uncertainty
within a 95% confidence level. The probability
functions are assumed to be Gaussian and
centred in the solutions, therefore the
uncertainty is defined as twice the standard
deviation. In other words, there is 95%
probability that the solution is within the range
between the computed value subtracted of the
numerical uncertainty and the computed value
added of the numerical uncertainty.


Assessing the accuracy and uncertainty of

numerical solutions has always been a
challenging task but this has become an
impellent necessity since the dramatic growth
of computational resources and the consequent
increased use of numerical codes as design
tools. Different procedures and standards have
been developed for this purpose; some of these
are applicable to any numerical code while
others are for specific applications. Between
the most popular verification and validation
(V&V) guidelines, there are the ASME guide
for V&V in Computational Solid Mechanics
(ASME V&V10) and the ASME standard for
V&V in CFD and Heat Transfer (V&V20).
Specifically for CFD applications, also
important are the AIAA guides for V&V in
CFD (AIAA G-077-1998) and the various
ITTC guidelines on V&V (7.5-03-01-01, 7.503-01-02, 7.5-03-01-03, 7.5-03-01-04). A
review of research papers in V&V for ship
hydrodynamics can be found for instance in
Roache (1997), Ea and Hoekstra (2012) and
Larsson et al. (2014).


The numerical uncertainty is an amplifying

function of the magnitude of the numerical
error, which is the difference between the
computed result and the exact solution of the
chosen equations. The numerical error is
typically broken down into the errors due to
different sources: a finite time and space
discretisation (as opposite to a continuum), a
finite number of iterations (leading to the
iterative error), the round off of the numbers
and other sources. Assuming that these errors
are independent to each other, the total error is
computed as the mean square root of the errors.
This approach is not universally accepted and,
for instance, Ea and Hoekstra (2006)
recommends that the iterative error is linearly
added to the mean square root of the other
errors because the iterative error is not
independent from the discretisation error.

Verification of calculations

Verification of calculations is the procedure

to estimate the numerical error and uncertainty
of computed results. As proposed by Roache
(1997), verification can be described as
solving the equations right, as opposite to
validation which is solving the right

The estimate of the error is typically based

on the trend of the results for different values
of the parameter that mostly drives the source
of error. The results are extrapolated for the



computed result and the extrapolated value.

The uncertainty is the product of the error and
a factor of safety. Roache recommends a factor
of safety of 3 or 1.25 depending if two or more
values of the parameter are used to compute
the Richardson Extrapolation.

value of the parameter that should lead to a null

error. For instance, assuming that the
discretisation error depends from the mean
node distance, then different mean node
distances are tested and the results are
extrapolated for a null mean node distance.
For each mean node distance, the discretisation
error can be computed as the difference
between the result and the extrapolated value
for a null mean node distance. Similarly, the
round off error can be estimated as the
difference between the result and the
extrapolated value for an infinitely accurate
machine using an infinite number of digits, etc.


The FS method was mostly developed by

Xing and Stern (2010) and it was used to
develop the ITTC guidelines. It shares with the
GCI the limitation of requiring monotonic
convergence in order to perform the
Richardson Extrapolation. This method focuses
on improving the estimate of the factor of
safety which is defined as a function of the
ratio between the effective and the theoretical
order of convergence. Unfortunately the
theoretical order of convergence, which for the
discretisation error is the order of accuracy of
the numerical algorithms implemented in the
code, is not always known. Most of the CFD
codes in ships hydrodynamics are second order
accurate in space when Cartesian grids are
used; and the observed order of convergence is
typically between one and two. The use of the
FS method leads to a minimum factor of safety
of 1.6, which is achieved when the observed
and theoretical orders of convergence coincide.

Different verification methods

The various existing verification methods

differ for how the extrapolation is performed
and for the procedure used to compute the
uncertainty from the error. All the different
extrapolations methods are based on power
series expansions and are equivalent when the
solution monotonically converges toward the
exact solution with the expected order of
convergence and without scatter. Larsson et al.
(2014) grouped the most common verification
methods in ship hydrodynamics into three
groups: the Grid Convergence Index methods
(GCI), the Factor of Safety methods (FS) and
the Least Squared Root methods (LSR). All
these methods have different limitations and
none of them has been recognised as superior
to the others.

The LSR method was proposed by Ea et

al., (2010a, 2010b). It uses a LSR fit for the
extrapolation of the zero error solution. This
approach is very interesting because it allows
estimating the uncertainty also when a
converging trend is not achieved. The
uncertainty is a function of the standard
deviation of the LSR fit, the observed order of
convergence and the distance to the
extrapolated solution. Viola et al. (2013) also
suggested that the uncertainty should decrease
when the number of results used as input to the
LRS fit increases, and when a wider range of
the parameter is explored. Recently Ea and
Hoekstra (2014) expanded further this method
considering different truncated power series

The GCI, mostly developed by Roache

(1998, 2009), requires the solution to converge
extrapolation (Richardson, 1911) is used to
compute the solution with zero error.
Unfortunately the set of results does not always
converge and, in such cases, this method
cannot be used. When convergence occurs, the
error is computed as the difference between the



CFD computations. Unfortunately this seems

far from having been achieved and often these
objectives are incompatible to each other. One
of the most important challenges of V&V is to
become a common practice for the industry.
This can be achieved if V&V will become easy
to perform, inexpensive and its results easy to
be interpreted. In fact V&V is often regarded
as unaffordable from industrial users because it
requires too many resources and provides too
little information. Often, a large number of
simulations are performed and a wide range of
quantitative results is gathered from each
simulation, making impractical to perform
V&V for each of those results. On the contrary,
if few specific quantities of interest are
identified, V&V is an affordable and an
essential tool for the interpretation of the CFD
results and to improve the numerical model. In
fact, being CFD results approximations and not
exact solutions, those are meaningless without
knowledge of the associated uncertainty. While
hopefully future research will allow developing
a more intuitive and less computationally
demanding methods, there is an urgent unmet
need to make the industry more aware of the
potential benefit of V&V and to inform CFD
users on how the V&V results should be

expansions and adopting weights to increase

the influence of those solutions nearer the
extrapolated values, to increase the influence of
those solutions achieved with fine grids.



The validation aims at assessing the choice

of the numerical model as a representation of
the reality. Validation is typically made against
a physical model, where the physical solution
is known within a given experimental
uncertainty, and the input parameters (i.e. the
Reynolds and Froude numbers, the turbulence
intensity, etc.) are known within an input
uncertainty. The experimental input and
numerical uncertainties are combined with the
mean square root in order to compute the
validation uncertainty. The numerical result is
said validated at the level of the validation
uncertainty if the difference between the
numerical and the physical result is smaller
than the validation uncertainty. It should be
noted that the emphasis should not be on the
success of the validation, but on the level of
validation uncertainty. In fact, the higher the
uncertainty (and thus the poorer the quality of
the result), the most likely the result would be
validated, but it would be validated at the level
of a higher validation uncertainty. The user
should verify if the achieved level of validation
uncertainty is sufficiently small compared to
the differences that are objectives of the CFD
investigation, such as for instance the
differences between different design candidates
or the differences between different operating




This chapter summarizes ongoing research

efforts toward the development of efficient
numerical tools in the area of computational
hydrodynamic analysis for ships, submarines
and other water craft, reporting trends in
research and experience in industrial
applications as emerged from the literature of
recent years. The section outlines the trends
that have been observed in each of the
traditional naval architecture areas: Resistance,


The present review shows the significant

effort of researchers to find a reliable, accurate
and robust method to perform V&V studies for



SURF, FINFLO, to name a few), and

commercial codes (FLUENT, STAR-CCM+,
CFX, SHIPFLOW). There were multiple
submissions from different groups using the
same commercial codes, most notably with
FLUENT and STAR-CCM+. This reflects the
popularity of commercial CFD packages.

Manoeuvring, and Ocean Engineering.



The past three years since the 26th ITTC

have seen a continuing progress in the area of
resistance. The trends in use of CFD for
resistance applications discussed in the last
ITTC report are still evolving. Among others,
the size of the computational grids used by
typical CFD practitioners has kept growing,
reaching up to several tens of millions of
elements. High-performance computing (HPC)
on parallel machines with thousands of cores
helps reduce solution turnaround times. We
continue to see proliferation of unstructured
grids for real-worlds ship applications
involving complex geometry. Nonetheless,
complex flow physics carried by turbulent
flows and free-surface flows (waves) still pose
significant challenges.

The majority of the participants used

variants of projection methods or what may
be called pressure-based methods such as
SIMPLE and PISO to satisfy the continuity
equation and to advance the solution in time.
The rest employed coupled solvers based on
discretization, finite-volume method (FVM)
with formally second-order accuracy was
predominantly adopted. However, as in the
past, there were no submissions using finiteelement (FE) codes. More than half of the
participants employed unstructured grids,
although the relatively simple geometries of
KVLCC2, KCS, and DTMB 5415 could be
gridded up as easily using (multi-block)
structured grids. This seems to indicate that an
increasing number of CFD practitioners in ship
hydrodynamics prefer unstructured grids
mainly due to ease of meshing and time-saving
they offer.

7.1.1 Review of recent literature

Resistance of a ship is the first and
foremost quantity of interest when speaking of
ship hydrodynamic performance. Resistance
prediction is the most mature of all CFD
applications in ship hydrodynamics.

The majority of the contributions employed

isotropic eddy-viscosity models (EVM),
mainly the family of k- models. Some
contributors opted for EASM. However, their
predictions were only equally good or
marginally better than EVMs in the predictions
of resistance and characteristic features of the
mean axial velocity in the hull boundary layer
and at the propeller plane. There were no
contributions based on differential Reynoldsstress models (DRSM), although the efficacy
of DRSM to accurately capture cross-flow
separation on and ensuing vortices giving
hook-like mean velocity contour at propeller
plane was demonstrated more than a decade

The status of the matter is timely and

concisely exposed in the book recently
published under the title of Numerical Ship
Hydrodynamics (Larsson et al. 2014) that
gives an assessment of the Gothenburg 2010
Workshop results. We here recapitulate the
summary and conclusions in the area of
resistance for KVLCC2, DTMB-5415, and
KCS, the three cases selected for the workshop.
The CFD codes used by the participants
varied widely, including in-house and
academic codes (ISIS, WAVIS, NavyFOAM,



As for the method to resolve the air-water

interface for surface ship applications, the
contributors were found to split almost equally
between VOF and LS approaches. The
strengths and weakness of these two
approaches are well known and discussed in
the literature. In terms of performance
(accuracy and stability), they seems to be
largely on par, as far as resistance applications
are concerned.

ago at the 2000 Gothenburg Workshop (Kim

and Rhee, 2002). In terms of wall boundary
condition, the majority resolved all the way
down to the viscous sublayer, explicitly
applying a no-slip condition at wall. Several
participants, however, relied on wall-functions
approach that alleviates near-wall resolution
requirements, especially for full-scale ships.
The 2010 Gothenburg workshop saw
OpenFOAM). There were also contributions
using RANS/LES hybrid approach (IIHR using
CFDSHIP-IOWA). The rationale behind and
the potential benefits of LES and hybrid
RANS-LES have been recognized by the ship
hydrodynamics community. At a significantly
higher computational cost than RANS, LES
when properly executed can directly resolve
large-scale, turbulent coherent structures. The
main roadblock inhibiting adoption of LES is
the prohibitively high computational cost that
is due to extremely fine resolution of grid
required to properly resolve the length- and
time-scales of the energy-containing eddies
down to the inertial subrange. Thus,
legitimate LES satisfying this resolution
requirement is still beyond the reach for
resistance prediction of ships with largely wellattached, high-Reynolds number turbulent
boundary layers. Under-resolved LES can give
poor prediction of viscous resistance as
demonstrated by Alin et al. (2010). The
prospect is brighter with the RANS/LES hybrid
approach, inasmuch as the hybrid model
supposedly should switch to RANS mode
somewhere in the boundary layer, which will
help retain the ability of RANS to predict
resistance. However, due to the well-known
sensitivity to near-wall grid for some hybrid
RANS-LES methods, precautions and careful
validations are necessary before the hybrid
approaches can be relied upon.

Among the major conclusions of the

Gothenburg 2010 Workshop are:
The mean comparison error, defined as the
average over all three cases and all the
submissions of the difference between the
measured value (D) and the predicted value,
was a mere -0.1%. The mean standard
deviation was 2.1%.
prediction was demonstrated roughly by a
half of the all submissions, mostly by the
participants who adopted structured grids.
There was only one grid convergence study
of all submissions employing unstructured
grids. One concern was that the order-ofaccuracy derived from the computations on
systematically refined grids was found to be
inconsistent with the formal order-ofaccuracy of the discretization schemes
The errors and standard deviations of
sinkage and trim were larger than those for
resistance prediction, particularly in the low
speed range.
The larger errors are
ascribable to both experimental and
numerical difficulties of measuring sinkage
and trim accurately and stably at low speeds.
For Froude numbers above 0.2, the mean
comparison error was found around 4%, and
the standard deviation around 8%.



Wave patterns around all three hulls were

predicted with fair accuracy, with the wave
cuts near the hull better predicted than those
farther away from the body. The accuracy of
the predictions farther away from the hull
varied widely mainly due to the differing
grid resolutions used in the computations.

Haase et al. (2012) used a RANSE-based

method to predict the resistance for mediumspeed catamarans with various hull forms,
speeds and scales using both an open-source
RANS solver and a commercial solver. For the
Froude numbers of interest (0.3 < Fr < 0.5),
they found that mean prediction error of less
than 10% could be achieved compared to the
model- and full-scale test results.

Turbulence modeling has little effect on the

prediction accuracy as far as the resistance
is concerned. The predictions with advanced
turbulence models such as explicit algebraic
Reynolds-stress models did not show
appreciable improvements over those
obtained using two-equation, eddy-viscosity

It is interesting to note the use of smoothed

particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to compute the
free-surface flow around a planing hull
(Dashtimanesh and Ghadimi, 2013). The SPH
approach using sub-particle scale turbulence
model was validated for a transom flow. The
results were in good agreement with
experimental observations in the rooster tail.

Wall function approaches skipping the

viscosity-affected near-wall region did not
seem to compromise the quality of the
solution, doing a commendable job in
predicting resistance and resolving boundary
layer and secondary flows.

Lastly, it is worth noting a new approach

based on a combination of RANS method and
potential-flow theory that shows a potential to
significantly cut down the solution turnaround
time for calm resistance predictions
(Rosemurgy et al., 2011). This method utilizes
a velocity decomposition method, and employs
a combination of potential-flow approach and
RANS method. Savings the computational time
are achieved first due to the fact that a RANS
domain much smaller than the ones used for
traditional RANS computations can be used.
Furthermore, single-phase RANS approach can
be used, since use of linearized free-surface
boundary conditions allow the field
discretization to extend only below the calm
free-surface plane. The method was
demonstrated for the Wigley hull and DTMB
commendably with experiments. The time to
complete computations of the total resistance
on a ship was found to be a small fraction of
that required by full RANS methods.

Better yet, the statistical variance (scatter)

of all the predictions submitted by the
participants was substantially smaller than had
been found in the previous workshops in 2000
and 2005. The smaller scatter might be
attributed to participants collective learning
made over the years on those widely known
test cases. Still, it can be hailed as a progress.
Thus, one can say that, at least for types of
ships and their operating conditions akin to the
ones computed in the workshops mono-hull
without appendages on a straight ahead
operation, the fidelity of CFD for resistance
prediction has now reached a level that
comfortably exceeds, at least, what is
considered sufficient as a design tool.
For unconventional ships such as multihulls, planning boats, and new-concept hulls, it
is a little harder to assess the state of the
matters due to scarcity of relevant publications.



in augmentation of resistance also known as

thrust deduction (See Fig. 7.2.1 illustrating the
effects of a rotating propeller on the hull stern
pressure). A propeller operating in a ship wake
generates unsteady forces (axial and
transverse) and moments due to the effects of
non-uniform wake, a product of the upstream
boundary layer over hull and appendages, and
ensuing vortices emanating therefrom. The
unsteady loading on the propeller exerts
fluctuating pressure on the stern and excite hull
vibration. It can also act as a source of noise.
Interaction between propeller and rudder is
often of concern as well, inasmuch as rudders
are in the propeller slipstream with axially
accelerated flow and added swirl and vortices,
and as the rudder blocks and cuts though the
propeller slipstream.

7.1.2 Benchmark cases

For calm water resistance, KCS, KVLCC2
and DTMB 5415 were used for the Tokyo
2005 and Gothenburg 2010 CFD Workshops.
KCS is a container ship, KVLCC2 represents
low-speed, tanker ship with high blockagecoefficient, whereas DTMB 5415 is a mediumhigh speed surface combatant. Complete
geometries and datasets for these geometries
are available online. A large variety of other
geometries are available with resistance data,
including Wigley hull, Athena (research
vessel), Series60, S175, ONR Tumblehome,
HSVA Tanker and Mystery Tanker (Dyne
Tanker), Ryuko-maru (tanker), Seiun-maru
(training ship), Hamburg test case (container
ship), and Duisburg test case (container ship),
to name a few.

It is useful to note that propeller-hull

interaction is arguably an even more important
issue in maneuvering, inasmuch as it affects
the accuracy of CFD predictions of
maneuvering characteristics.

7.1.3 V&V procedures and needs

For resistance, V&V procedures are well
established (Larsson et al. 2014, Carrica et al.
2011). Some CFD practitioners use their own
V&V procedures tailored to their practices.
Ideally, it would be nice if an ITTC-endorsed
V&V procedure can be developed and used
among the CFD practitioners. No matter what
V&V procedures are followed, we strongly
recommend that they be continued. For ship
designers, uncertainly quantification (UQ)
would be of much interest.


Thus, propulsion involving both hull and

propellers is significantly more complex and
harder to tackle using CFD than resistance,
being compounded mainly by the presence of
rotating propellers behind ship hull.
7.2.1 Review of recent literature
The fidelity with which the details of
propeller-hull interaction can be predicted by
CFD is determined largely by how accurately
the ship wake the inflow to propeller and
the highly complex three-dimensional flow
around rotating propellers can be resolved.
Thus, both minimization of discretization error
and turbulence modeling continue to play
important roles in determining prediction
accuracy, even more than it does for resistance.
Like in other ship applications, RANS
computations are the main workhorse for


Propeller-hull interaction on ships in a

steady, straight-ahead course at or near a selfpropulsion point continues to be the core issue
in the area of ship propulsion. A ship propeller
operating behind a hull alters the flow-field
near its stern, locally accelerating the flow,
which contributes to the effective wake. In
addition, it lowers stern pressure, which results



methods under the banner of body-force

approach differ from one another in the way
the spatial distribution of body-force
(momentum source) is determined. The
simplest body-force method is one in which the
classical actuator disk model and its variants
are used to compute the radial distribution of
body-force in axial and tangential direction.
The most sophisticated body-force approach
today employs boundary-element method
(BEM) to compute the momentum source
distribution in the volume swept by propeller
(Krasilnikov et al., 2013; Queutey et al., 2013;
Chase et al., 2013; Rijpkema et al. 2013). The
body-force approach, with the aid of todays
computing power, should be affordable and
perhaps sufficient for many CFD practitioners
in design offices, model basins, and shipyards.
It should be kept in mind that fidelity of any
body-force approach can be only as good as the
models constituting the approach, and may
significantly degrade for some off-design
conditions that are outside of the region of
validity of the models.

propulsion applications. RANS computations

to study propeller-hull interaction in earnest are
bound to be still quite CPU-intensive, since
accurate resolution of turbulent boundary layer
over entire hull and wake requires a very fine
grid and consequently a large amount of
computational resources especially if timeaccurate solutions are sought.
employed, LES and RANS-LES hybrid
approaches have begun to appear recently in
the literature for propulsion applications
(Liefvendahl and Trong, 2011; Castro et al.,
2011; Chase et al., 2013). The rationale behind
these much costlier approaches is that largescale, turbulent coherent structures ingested
into the propeller can be directly captured by
computations using LES. However, at the time
of writing this report, LES for simulation of
propeller-hull interaction is, at best, at an
exploratory and experimental stage. Legitimate
LES with proper grids resolving down to the
inertial sub-range and near-wall region is still
far from being feasible due to the prohibitively
high cost required to adequately resolve the
length and time scales required, and to extract
stable statistics of engineering quantities such
as resistance and time-averaged flow-fields.
Hybrid RANS-LES approaches are not
foolproof either due to their well-known high
sensitivity to the grid resolution in near-wall
The foremost issue with CFD computations
for propulsion applications is centered around
how to represent the effects of rotating
reviewed in the last ITTC report. Their
complexity, fidelity, and economy vary widely
among the methods.
The body-force approach seems to be the
most popular among CFD practitioners due to
its economy and reasonable accuracy. The



whole, and time-resolved flow-fields (velocity,

pressure) on and near the stern, and in the
vicinity of propellers. The wealth of the flow
data resolved in space and time with this level
of details is also extremely expensive to come
by experimentally. Besides directly simulating
interaction between propeller and hull using
first principles, another important utility of the
extensive dataset from the direct approach is
that it allows us to develop or refine, and
validating simpler models for rotating
propellers. The major hurdle at this point for
CFD practitioners is the lengthy solution time.
With large size of grids commonly used these
days, the solution turnaround time for the
direct approach is largely determined by the
algorithmic constrains such as the allowable
time-step size and computational efficiency of
sliding-grids and overset-grids algorithms,
especially their scalability on multi-core
computers. It is hard to find information in the
literature on the aspect of parallel efficiency of
sliding-grids and overset-grids techniques.
The 2010 Gothenborg CFD Workshop
(Larsson et al, 2013) had selected the KCS
model (Case 2.3a) a Korean container ship
model - as one of the benchmark cases to
evaluate capability of CFD today to predict
propeller-hull interaction at a self-propulsion
point. The contributions, a total of thirteen
submissions for this case are split roughly into
equal halves in adopting either the actual
propeller (direct approach) and modeled
propeller (body-force approach). As far as the
predictions of time-averaged and are
concerned, the mean comparison errors were
0.6% and -2.6%, respectively. The standard
deviations were found to be 7% and 6%,
respectively, which is considerably larger than
that for the resistance predictions. This is not
surprising considering that the additional
uncertainty is introduced by the different
approaches to accounting for the effects of the
rotating propeller. The improvements in the

Figure 7.2.1. Effects of a rotating propeller Top:

Surface pressure with and without a rotating propeller;
Bottom: Schematic view of the stern flow and the
propeller slip stream J = 1.1, = 0.

It has become feasible in recent years to

include a rotating propeller explicitly in CFD
computations using sliding-grids or oversetgrids techniques widely available in many offthe-shelf commercial CFD software packages
and in-house codes (Muscari and Di Mascio,
2011; Carrica et al. 2012b; Gao at al., 2012;
Chase et al., 2013). This direct approach is
far more at least by an order of magnitude compute-intensive and time-consuming than
the body-force approach. And yet, the return
of investment is remarkable, inasmuch as it
provides time-accurate predictions of the flow
interaction including the unsteady loadings on
individual propeller blades and propeller as a



predictions of the time-averaged and

using the direct approach were found to be
marginal, despite the much smaller deviations.

7.2.2 Benchmark cases

The KCS model, which was selected as the
test case for a self-propelled ship in the 2010
Gothenborg CFD Workshop (Larsson et al,
2013), is still considered a good benchmark
case, since a considerable gap exists between
the predictions and the measurements. Since
this case involves complex flow physics
including the free-surface, the turbulent
boundary layer over the hull and the propeller
blades, the swirl and vortices generated by the
propeller, and the propeller-hull interaction. A
systematic grid convergence study is
recommended, for it will help us to separate
numerical discretization error from modeling
error and to understand the main cause for the

The mean velocity fields predicted and

submitted by the participants for Case 2.3a
were also looked at and compared against the
measured ones at the propeller plane (/ =
0.9825 ) and on a plane in the propeller
slipstream (/ = 0.9911,). At the propeller
plane where the measurements indicate
presence of a fairly strong swirl in the mean
flow, notable discrepancies in the axial and the
transverse velocity components were observed
between the predictions and the measurements.
The direct approach did not seem to improve
the predictions. At / = 0.9911, the
asymmetric distribution of the mean axial
velocity with moons crescent-like region of
high velocity apparently caused by the axial
acceleration and swirl generated by the
propeller. Considering the complexity of the
flow, the results obtained by most of the
participants are considered to be in fair
agreement with the experimental data. The
majority of the predictions based on the direct
approach and the body-force approach with the
exception of too simple a body-force model
captured the asymmetry and the region of high
velocity. Again, the predictions based on the
direct approach did not give substantially better
results than those from the simpler approaches.

In addition, the upcoming workshops

dedicated to applications of CFD to ship
hydrodynamics such as the 2015 CFD
workshop in Tokyo may provide useful
benchmark cases. Data collected for the latest
CFD Workshop are also available, but, as
concluded by the organizing committee,
experimental uncertainty analysis, including
facility bias, is still an issue.
7.2.3 V&V procedures and needs
For propulsion applications, V&V can be
done on quantities such as and , thrust
deduction, and effective wake. V&V is then
conducted for these quantities as for the
resistance in calm water (see for example
Larsson et al. 2014, Carrica et al. 2011).

Despite some evidence indicating no

improvement from the direct approach in the
predictions of , , and the mean velocity
distributions near the propeller, one should not
write off the direct approach, because several
factors, including the insufficiently accurate
prediction of the upstream flow over the hull,
are responsible for the discrepancy observed
between the predictions and the measurements.



7.3.1 Review of recent literature

As part of SMP-2011, a CFD-workshop
was held on the computation of non-cavitating



differences were : 4.8% , : 11.1% and

0 : 4.9% and the minimum : 10.5% ,
: 6.9% and 0 : 11.2% . An example of
the relative difference is shown in Fig. 7.3.1.

and cavitating flows. There were two test

cases: the so-called Delft Twist-11 Foil and
Potsdam Propeller Test Case. Five parties
submitted results for the twisted foil and 14
groups the propeller case (Abdel-Maksoud,

In addition to the computations, there was a

questionnaire of the computational non-viscous
and viscous methods. All viscous flow methods
were FV-methods. Unstructured grids were
more popular than structured grids (10/3) and
in coupling of the rotational part to the fixed
part multiple reference frames were more
popular than sliding mesh techniques (9/3). In
the cavitation modelling all groups used mass
transfer models, wheher the Kunzs, Sauers
and Singhals models were the most popular.

Participants of the foil case were requested

to simulate the flow around the foil in the
tunnel under uniform inflow conditions.
Conditions were specified for two cases: flow
with and without cavitation. Hoekstra et al.
(2011) summarise the computational results of
the foil case: Numerical problems in
simulating cavitation of foils with RANS, DES
or LES still remain. This is partly reflected by
the observation that different people with
different codes, but solving essentially the
same mathematical problem (same type of
equations, same turbulence model, same
cavitation model), do not produce similar
For the propeller three different cases were
asked to compute: the open water performance,
the velocity field at various measuring planes
and cavitation at three different working point.
Calculations from 14 groups were obtained for
the evaluation of the open water characteristics,
employing 10 solvers for viscous flow and 5
solvers for potential flow. The total number of
submitted calculations is 19. Calculations from
11 groups were obtained for the evaluation of
the cavitating propeller, employing 7 solvers
for viscous flow and 5 solvers for potential
flow and submitting 15 calculations.

Figure 7.3.1. Relative difference between measurement

and calculation, = 1.2 (Abdel-Maksoud, 2011).

In their work Morgut and Nobile (2012)

analyzed the influence of grid type and
turbulence model on the numerical prediction
of the flow around marine propellers, working
in uniform inflow. The study was carried out
comparing hexa-structured meshes with
hybrid-unstructured meshes using the SST
turbulence model and the BSL-RSM
turbulence model. The simulations were

The open water performance was asked to

calculate at five different advance coefficients.
There were quite large variations on the results.
When comparing the calculated values to the
measured ones the average difference were:
: 2.9% , : 1.0% and 0 : 3.8% . The
standard deviations were : 3.3% , : 3.6%
and 0 : 2.8% . The maximum relative


cavitation patterns and cavitation-driven thrust

breakdown for axial flow waterjets.

carried out with a commercial CFD solver. The

numerical results were compared with the
available experimental data of propeller P5168
and E779A in model scale. The comparison
was carried out comparing the propulsive
characters, evaluating the global field values,
represented by the thrust and torque
coefficients, and also considering some local
field values measured in the propeller wake.
Their computational results suggest that, for
the numerical predictions of the propeller open
water propulsion characteristics, the hexastructured and hybrid-unstructured meshes can
guarantee similar levels of accuracy.
Nevertheless hybrid-unstructured meshes seem
to exhibit a more diffusive character than hexastructured meshes, and thus the former are less
suited for detailed investigations of the flow
field. Finally, the two different turbulence
models behaved similarly on both types of
meshes, with the BSL-RSM turbulence model
providing only slightly better predictions than
the more economical SST turbulence model.

Lu et al (2012) studied the unsteady

cavitating flow around a 10 degree tilted
marine propeller. They simulated the flow field
with three computational methods, ranging
from lifting surface methods and RANS to
LES, to demonstrate the capability of different
simulation tools for this complex flow. Their
results indicated that although potential flow
solver can predict fairly well the thrust and
torque coefficient, and usually captures simple
types of sheet cavitation, it cannot predict more
complex sheets or root cavitation. RANSmethod partly captured the dynamic evolution
of the sheet close to the tip region and the
occurrence of the root cavitation, however it
predicted a leading edge sheet that is not
present in the experiment. The missing of the
vortical structure on blade limits also the use of
RANS in analysis of some of the
understanding and controlling the cavitation
and related noise and erosion. Their LES
computation showed the tendency in filling in
this gap by capturing the correct location and
dynamic behaviour of the vortical structure
mentioned above.

Lindau et al. (2012) have modelled an axial

flow waterjet (AxWJ-2) in water-tunnel test
configuration using a powering iteration
methodology. The flow was modelled over a
range of conditions including cavitation
breakdown. The single- and multiphase flow
solutions appeared to accurately capture the
integrated performance at all conditions. In
addition, the overall cavitation patterns, on
rotor blade suction surface and due to tip-gap
flows, were well captured at a range of
cavitation conditions. For ducted devices, such
as waterjets, it is suspected that flow
breakdown will coincide with cavitation
choking in the rotor passage. This is suspected
in the experimental data and has been
demonstrated in the computational results of
their work. It was shown that the present
computational approach is useful and accurate
when properly applied to the modeling of blade



7.3.2 Benchmark cases

INSEAN E779A: The E779A is a four
blade propeller of modified type Wageningen,
low-skew, with a uniform pitch (P/D = 1.1), a
small forward rake and a diameter of 227.2 mm.
In 1997 INSEAN started a project aimed at
obtaining high quality propeller flow data for
CFD validation. Measurements of velocity
fields, radiated pressure fields cavitation
patterns were performed. The present database
was obtained by using LDV and 2D-PIV
techniques. LDV was used to perform the
survey of the 3 velocity components in
transversal planes, while PIV measurements
were performed along longitudinal planes,
acquiring the axial and the radial velocity
components. All the measurements were
performed in phase with propeller angular
position. Furthermore recently radiated
pressure fluctuation and cavitation pattern has
been measured.

Figure 7.3.2. Comparison of two different turbulent flow

approaches at J = 0.45. Section x-z of axial velocity.
RANSE (top) and DES phase average (bottom).(Muscari
and Di Mascio 2013).

Muscari and Di Mascio (2013) applied two

approaches for the simulation of propeller
turbulent flows, a RANS method and a DES, in
order to assess advantages and limits of the two
different turbulence models, see Fig. 7.3.2. As
far as global quantities are concerned, their
study shows that the two methods perform
equally well. On the contrary, the comparison
between the approaches shows that the RANSE
approach dissipates the local flow features very
quickly and, when all other parameters are
identical to the corresponding DES, this over
dissipation has been caused by the eddy
viscosity modeling. Furthermore, the growth of
turbulent viscosity, strictly connected to the
velocity gradients, is such that the stronger the
tip vortices, the sooner they are dissipated. On
the contrary, the DES method allows to capture
the tip vortices evolution as long as the mesh is
reasonably refined with a good qualitative and
quantitative agreement with experiments.

Propeller geometry, velocity, pressure

fluctuations and cavitation pattern data are
PPTC: The PPTC (Potsdam Propeller Test
Case) was published in the scope of the
Propeller Performance Workshop held at the
SMP-2011 (Abdel-Maksoud, 2011). The five
bladed CP model propeller has a diameter of
250mm and mean pitch of 1.57. The
experimental investigation in a cavitation
tunnel includes open water test, LDV velocity
field measurements at several planes and
cavitation tests in different operation
conditions. The geometry and test results are
published and open to the public. (Barkmann et
al., 2011)



The Propulsion Committee of ITTC is

using PPTC as benchmark case for scaling of
conventional propeller open water data.



The development and the use of numerical

methods for seakeeping related problems
continued at high level over the past three
years. Indeed, it appears that current CFD tools
are mature to provide accurate predictions in
seakeeping related problems. The number of
publications and submissions to workshops
(such as the Gothenburg CFD workshop 2010)
is increasing. However, it is still true that two
primary issues limit the widespread use of
these methods:

P5168: P5168 is a five-bladed CPP

propeller with a design advance ratio of 1.27
and diameter of 402.7 mm. The measurements
were made in The David Taylor Variable
Pressure Water Tunnel using LDV system. The
measurements were made in order to examine
the behaviour of the tip-vortex flow. All
velocity components have been resolved in the
rotating frame of the propeller with sufficient
spatial resolution to reveal detailed flow. In
addition full Reynolds stress tensor was
measured for the primary advance coefficient
(Chesnakas, 1998).

CFD application requires significant CPU

time; this is particularly true for seakeeping
problems, for which the required simulation
times are generally significantly larger than
resistance and many manoeuvring problems.
Therefore, CFD approaches are not efficient
methods for obtaining the Response
Amplitude Operators (RAOs) for a range of
wave headings, frequencies and wave
steepness; similar problems arise when
dealing with irregular waves.

Waterjets: AxWJ-2 Waterjet Pump. An

axial flow waterjet pump (AxWJ-2) has been
designed, fabricated, and tested by researchers
from Johns Hopkins University and NSWCCD.
Measurements of the total head rise and shaft
torque on flow through the pump have been
taken at a range of flow conditions through
cavitation breakdown is reported in (Chesnakas
et al., 2009). These results have been used for
CFD validation in some research studies.

CFD methods are still relatively poor at

simulating the disturbed ship waves in the far
field domain.
Concerning the first issue, the problem can
be partially alleviated by using the procedure
proposed by Mousaviraad et al. (2010), that
computes the RAOs for one Froude number in
a single run, thus reducing significantly the
computational time. The methodology has been
proven to be as accurate as the standard single
wave run, at least within the hypothesis of
linear response (small steepness of the
incoming waves).

7.3.3 V&V procedures and needs

For propeller related problems V&V is
quantities such as thrust and torque coefficient.
An example of the V&V process can be found
from Chase and Carrica (2012). The
verification study was performed for one
advance coefficient on four grids coarseness
and three time step sizes. The study shows that
grid refinement has a weak effect on thrust and
torque but very strong affects on the wake

Nevertheless, use of CFD simulations for

analysis of seakeeping performance of surface
vehicles is becoming common, as indicated by
the research work available in the literature and



particular, comparisons of zeroth and first

harmonic (amplitudes and phase) for both total
resistance coefficient and motions (heave and
pitch) are included. The conclusions are similar
to those reported in Larsson et al. (2014), i.e. it
is observed that pitch and heave are much
better predicted than resistance.

presented at the most important symposiums in

ship hydrodynamics.
7.4.1 Review of recent literature
In the last CFD workshop held in
Gothenburg in 2010 (Larsson et al. 2014),
several seakeeping test cases were included.
Namely, data was made available for three hull
forms (KVLCC2, KCS and DTMB5415) under
different conditions: forward speed diffraction
and roll decay for the DTMB5415, prediction
of motions and wave resistance, including free
to surge and restricted for KCS and KVLCC2.
There were four contributions from several
institutions for the forward speed diffraction
test case, using different CFD codes
FLUENT); four contributions for the roll decay
case (CFDShip-Iowa, COMET, ICARE and
FLUENT); five contributions for heave and
pitch of KCS (CFDShip-Iowa, COMET,
FreSco+, WISDAM); five contributions for
KVLCC2 in head waves free or restrained
surge (ISIS, ICARE, COMET, CFDShip-Iowa
and RIAM-CMEM). Results have been deeply
analyzed in Larsson et al. (2014). The analysis
included comparisons in terms of motions and
forces, as well as wave pattern and flow field at
the nominal wake plane (only for the forward
speed diffraction case). It was highlighted a
total average error of about 25%, equally
distributed among geometries/test cases. Larger
errors have been observed in the prediction of
the wave resistance; however, as reported in
the conclusions, efforts should be also devoted
to a correct estimation of experimental
uncertainty including facility bias.

The same case has been investigated also

by Simonsen et al. (2013), where a
complementary EFD and CFD analysis is
performed. The EFD data was made available
for the Gothenburg 2010 Workshop. CFD
analysis was conducted using two URANS
code (CFDShip-Iowa and Star-CCM+) and a
potential flow tool (AEGIR). In order to
investigate ship response under resonance and
maximum exciting conditions, the study was
pursued for three speeds and several wave
conditions. It has been found that the ship
responds strongly when the resonance and
maximum exciting conditions are met; this
allowed the identification of the speed for
maximum response. A detailed flow field
analysis was conducted, highlighting a very
complex and time-varying flow pattern.
Similar conclusions as drawn at the
Gothenburg workshop were reported. For
integral quantities the numerical/experimental
comparison shows better agreement in calm
water than in waves. Larger errors were
observed for resistance in waves. In particular,
the mean resistance is well predicted, whereas
the first harmonic amplitude is largely underpredicted. Comparing CFD with potential
theory results, it was observed that URANS
codes are in closer agreement with the
experiments compared to inviscid predictions.

computations of the KCS model in head waves,
i.e. one of the cases proposed at the
Gothenburg 2010 CFD Workshop. Results are
compared with other submission to the
workshop and with experimental data; in

The Froude number for maximum

response, resonance conditions and wave
excitation forces were the main topics in the
research by Sadat-Hosseini et al. (2013). In this
paper CFD simulations were used to compute
added resistance and motions of the KVLCC2



same model was considered for uncertainty

quantification of resistance, motions and
slamming loads in variable regular waves
representing a given sea state, and compared
to irregular waves and deterministic regular
wave studies.

model at two speeds. Validation was performed

against experimental data at the lower speed.
Local velocity flow field is compared with PIV
measurements conducted by Osaka University.
In Guo et al. (2012) results for the
KVLCC2 in head wave have been reported; the
paper summarizes tests presented at the
Gothenburg 2010 workshop using the code
ISIS. A comprehensive validation and
verification work demonstrates that reliable
numerical results can be obtained both in calm
water and in head waves. In order to
investigate the contribution to added resistance
from ship motions, the analysis has been
pursued in both free to heave and pitch and
fixed conditions; results show that ship motioninduced added resistance is negligible when the
wavelength is small enough ( < 0.6 ).
Moreover, it has been highlighted that the pitch
and heave motions in regular head waves can
be estimated accurately by both CFD and strip
theory, whereas, added resistance predicted by
CFD simulations are in better agreement than
those based on strip theory. Added resistance
and motions have been computed by Seo et al.
(2013) using a non-viscous Cartesian grid
method; results were compared with
predictions from strip theory and Rankine
panel method as well as experimental data.
Tests have been conducted for three ship
geometries. Fairly good agreement was
obtained for all methods, including the
Cartesian Euler-based methodology.

7.4.2 Benchmark cases

As it was also concluded by the previous
ITTC Specialist Committee on Computational
Fluid Dynamics in Marine Hydrodynamics,
validation data for seakeeping including
motions, hydrodynamic loads, and flow field
are still scarce. Some efforts have been made
during recent years, especially within working
groups (such as the AVT-NATO 216 group)
and in the framework of collaborative research
projects. Seakeeping data for code validation
have been collected for the Delft catamaran in
waves at CNR-INSEAN (Broglia et al. 2011,
Bouscasse et al. 2013). Seakeeping parameters
including motions and time histories of
resistance are available from transient tests,
regular and irregular waves for a range of
speeds, wave lengths, and wave steepness.
Data collected for the latest CFD Workshop
Gothenburg 2010 are also available, but, as
concluded by the organizing committee,
experimental uncertainty analysis, including
facility bias, is still an issue.
Another important group is the Cooperative
Research Ships (CRS), which includes 23
companies with a common interest in research
in ship hydrodynamics. Similarly to one of the
test cases proposed for the Gothenburg 2010
CFD Workshop, the CRS organized a
workshop in which a number of research
groups were invited to carry out seakeeping
predictions for a number of ships. For these
ships, model tests were carried out in the past
and results were made available to workshop
participants. Summary of the workshop is

A CFD analysis of the seakeeping

performance for a fast catamaran has been
conducted by Castiglione et al. (2010). Several
conditions were tested and documented.
Comparisons against experimental tests
conducted at Delft University were performed.
Fairly good agreement has been reported,
indicating that CFD based tools can also be
employed for the analysis of behavior of multi
hull vessels in waves. In He et al. (2013) the



However, nowadays RANS based numerical

simulation of ship manoeuvres at model or full
scale is still a challenge, due to both the
complexity of the physical phenomena
involved and the level of capability and
resources required to perform computations.

reported in Bunnik et al. (2010). Two test cases

were considered: a container ship and a ferry,
advancing at forward speed in regular waves.
The container ship model test data was
available to the participants prior to the start of
the comparative study. The ferry was a blind
test case. Experimental data includes motions
and hydrodynamic loads for several conditions
(wave length/amplitude, ship speed and wave
direction). The comparisons conducted
highlighted the superior accuracy provided by
CFD codes in those cases where either
nonlinear or viscous effects are significant.
Moreover, similarly to the Gothenburg 2010
CFD Workshop conclusions, a general underprediction of the added resistance was
revealed. This, once again, highlights the
difficulties in producing accurate predictions
and measurements of this quantity.

Inviscid techniques are still object of

development and, certainly, of ample use.
However, they are mainly employed for
particular manoeuvring related problems (such
as ship-ship interaction, confined water
manoeuvring). Therefore, this section will
discuss only recent developments and
applications for CFD based methods, i.e.
steady and unsteady RANS based simulations.
7.5.1 Review of recent literature
Recent applications and development can
be divided in simulations of prescribed and free
manoeuvres. Prescribed manoeuvres include
steady drift and dynamic captive model tests;
these simulations are mainly used in lieu of
experiments to obtain coefficients to be
employed in system-based models to predict
actual dynamic manoeuvres. To this class of
CFD applications belong, for example, Planar
Motion Mechanism (PMM) computations and
rotating arm computations, including all
conditions in which one or more degrees or
freedom are prescribed. However, some
degrees of freedom can be free, as in a pure
yaw PMM simulation free to roll.

7.4.3 V&V procedures and needs

For seakeeping related problems (i.e.
regular head waves), V&V is usually
performed considering global quantities such
as first harmonic amplitudes and phases of
motions and forces. V&V is then conducted for
these quantities as for the resistance in calm
water (see for example Larsson et al. 2014,
Carrica et al. 2011).


The development and the use of numerical

methods for manoeuvring related problems
continued at steady pace over the past three
years. The number of publications which deal
with both steady and unsteady RANS-based
manoeuvring simulations is increasing, as well
as the level of complexity, the geometrical
details taken into account (movable
appendages, propellers) and the inclusion of
other important aspects (such as controllers,
influence of the air, occurrence of breaking
wave phenomena, air entrapment and so forth).

Free running simulations comprise all those

cases where the trajectory is one of the
unknowns of the problem, as a result, for
example, of the actuation of one control
surface; in this class of applications all the
classic free running manoeuvres (zig-zag,
turning circle, spiral, etc.) are included.
The state of the art in CFD development
and applications for manoeuvring simulation is



resistance, lateral force and yaw moment)

shows low errors and uncertainty levels for the
straight ahead deep water condition, whereas
higher numerical uncertainty is seen the cases
with drift, steady turn and in shallow water.
This suggests that modeling errors still persist
(experimental conditions, presence of side
walls). The authors also stress the need of well
documented and validated low uncertainty
experimental tests.

summarized in the latest workshops on the

topic, namely the SIMMAN 2008 (Stern and
Augdrup 2008, Stern et al. 2011) and the
Gothenburg 2010 CFD Workshop (Larsson et
al. 2014), by the review by Stern et al. (2012),
and by the following literature review.
Simulation of Prescribed Manoeuvres
Literature dealing with captive motion
computations is extensive. As discussed here,
results mostly show that CFD is mature for this
kind of application.

Steady drift and steady turn computations,

but for underwater vehicles were pursued by
Druet et al. (2011), Kim et al. (2012b) and
Delanay (2011); also for submarines, larger
deviation/uncertainty is observed for large drift
angle or yaw rate. Steady turn computations for
a twin screw ship was studied numerically and
experimentally by Mauro et al. (2012), where
CFD was applied analyze propeller overload
and unbalance during a tight manoeuvre.

In Toxopeus (2011) CFD computations for

KLVCC2 in steady drift and steady turn are
presented. The aim of the study is to verify and
validate the prediction of the influence of the
water depth on flow field and forces and
moments. Several grids were used to
investigate the discretization error. In general,
the uncertainties were found to increase with
increased flow complexity, i.e. for larger drift
angles or yaw rates.

Static drift computations were performed

for a fast semi-displacement catamaran by
Visonneau et al. (2012); results show good
agreement with experiments, including
prediction of air entrapment from bow
breaking waves. It is worth to note the use of
an automatic mesh refinement (AMR)
approach coupled with a sliding grid approach
developed by the authors. The use of AMR has
proven to increase the accuracy of the results.
The capabilities of the methodology were
demonstrated for several cases, including a
ventilated propeller and a self-propelled KCS
in straight ahead motion.

Also for KVLCC2, Toxopeus et al. (2013)

reported the activity of the NATO AVT-161
working group; similar test cases to those
reported in the previous paper were considered.
Comparisons between predictions by different
research groups using several CFD codes
(CFDShip-Iowa, ReFreSco, STAR-CCM+ and
ISIS-CFD) were reported. Detailed verification
and validation studies of the solutions were
conducted, revealing that relatively fine grids
are required to keep uncertainties within
reasonable levels, unless wall functions are
used. Moreover, validation of the flow field
shows that turbulence modeling plays an
important role, especially in the prediction of
the wake of the ship. More advanced
turbulence models such as EASM or ARS-DES
produce wake fields with better resolution of
the hook shape found in the experimental
results. Validation of global quantities (such as

Particular interest has been devoted to the

analysis of a vessel advancing at very large
drift angles, were the simulation of massively
separated flows is a challenging problem.
Indeed, correct prediction of the onset and
progression of the large vortical structures (see
Fig. 7.5.1) shed from the hull and generated
from the wave breaking and the following



model tests, and obtain derivatives needed by

system-based methods to simulate manoeuvres.

splash up phenomena requires not only a very

fine grids but also sophisticated turbulence
models, as it has been shown in Pinto-Heredero
et al. (2010) and Xing et al. (2012). As in Xing
et al. (2012), Ismail et al. (2010) studied
KVLCC2 in steady drift conditions, focusing
on evaluation of linear and nonlinear
convection schemes on non-orthogonal grids.

PMM for the ONR tumblehome was

investigated by Mousaviraad et al. (2012),
where complementary EFD and CFD were
performed for the analysis of head wind effects
on the resistance during straight ahead test and
experimental and virtual PMM tests. It has
been observed that, for static and dynamic
PMM. the wind effects are significant when the
model experiences large drift angles relative to
the wind. The largest wind effects are observed
for yaw & drift followed by pure yaw, while
for pure sway the wind effects are minimal due
to the near zero wind drift angle.

Figure 7.5.1. Vortical structures around KVLCC2 in

steady drift (Xing et al. 2012).

A similar analysis was presented in Di

Mascio et al. (2011) for a twin-screw single
rudder tanker-like ship. Results were used to
obtain coefficients for a system-based
mathematical model, which was then used to
predict zig-zag and turning circle manoeuvres
of the vessel. Also in Simonsen et al. (2012),
some of the coefficients needed by a systembased model were computed from static CFD

Dynamic tests have also become rather

common. However, due to the need of large
computational resources and special techniques
in order to deal with body motions (use of noninertial frames of reference, dynamic overset
grids, 6DoF capabilities in a free surface
environment, if any degree of freedom is left
free) the literature is still relatively scarce.

It is concluded that, in most cases, CFD

methods are a suitable alternative to model
experiments for static and dynamic captive
model tests.

Sakamoto et al. (2012a,b) report a complete

PMM program using the unsteady RANS
solver CFDShip-IOWA. The ship considered is
the surface combatant model DTMB 5415 in
bare hull configuration. The paper is divided in
two parts, the first reporting verification and
validation of force and moment coefficients,
hydrodynamic derivatives, and reconstruction
of force and moment coefficients from
resultant hydrodynamic derivatives. In the
second part, verification and validation of local
flow quantities is presented. The main
conclusion, similar to those from SIMMAN
2008, was that CFD methods are mature
enough to simulate static and dynamic captive

Simulation of Free Manoeuvres.

Direct prediction of ship manoeuvres with
CFD has become possible and its use is
increasing, though still mostly in a research
context. There are many issues that make this
kind of computations challenging. Indeed,
direct manoeuvring prediction of surface ships
or an underwater vehicles requires the use of
special techniques in order to deal with moving
appendages (such as dynamic overset grids,



against experimental data for pitch, roll, yaw,

yaw rate, propeller thrust and torque, and ship
speed. They also analyzed the forces and
moments on the rudder, studying separation
and propeller-rudder interaction during the

sliding grids or re-meshing), full 6DoF and

self-propulsion capabilities. Free running CFD
computations are also very demanding on
computational resources, being presently
possible only on high-performance computing
environments. However, some applications
have been recently presented.
In Broglia et al. (2011a) and Dubbioso et
al. (2012a,b) a turning circle manoeuvre of a
twin screw tanker vessel has been studied. The
vessel was equipped with two different stern
appendage configurations, with single or twin
rudders and altered skeg arrangements, that
experimental trials show to have a strong
influence on the turning ability of the vessel.
CFD computations were able to predict the
turning manoeuvre for both configurations with
satisfactory agreement with free running tests.
The authors perform full 6DoF computations in
a free surface environment including moving
rudders, while the propellers were modeled
using body forces. Durante et al. (2010) show
that accurate prediction of manoeuvres requires
inclusion of the lateral propeller forces. In the
cited papers, the propeller model reported in
Broglia et al. (2012) was used.

Figure 7.5.2. Horizontal overshoot manoeuvre with

discretized propeller (Chase et al. 2013).

Simulations of captive and free manoeuvres

of a submarine were presented by Chase et al.
(2013). In this work the use of dynamic overset
grids allowed direct simulation of the rotating
propeller, which was alternatively modeled
using the propeller code PUF-14. Results are
presented for several manoeuvers, including a
free running 20/10 horizontal overshoot
manoeuvre. In Fig. 7.5.2 a view of the surface
pressure and the vortical structures shed from
the propeller is shown.

Figure 7.5.3. Instantaneous view of zigzag manoeuvre of

KCS with discretized propeller (Mofidi et al. 2014).

Zigzag manoeuvres of KCS with direct

representation of moving rudder and propeller
were performed by Mofidi and Carrica (2014),
see Fig. 7.5.3. The authors computed 10/10 and
15/1 manoeuvres, and compared extensively

Manoeuvring in waves
RANS simulations of manoeuvring in
waves have also become possible. In Carrica et



the occurrence of a broaching event, but the

use of a slightly better autopilot prevents
broaching under identical operating conditions.
A similar analysis was conducted by SadatHosseini et al. (2011) who used a body force
propeller model and focused on comparing
EFD data, CFD results and system based

al. (2013) unsteady RANS computations of

standard manoeuvres in both calm water and in
waves are performed for a surface combatant at
model and full scale. Two types of manoeuvres
are simulated in calm water: steady turn and
zigzag, and a turning circle is considered in
waves. Some calm water computations were
validated against experimental data, showing
comparisons for time histories of kinematical
and dynamic quantities, as well as for integral
variables. Differences between CFD and
experiments were found to be mostly within
10%, which can be considered highly
satisfactory given the degree of complexity of
these computations. Of major interest in this
paper is the study conducted for the turning
ability characteristics of the vessel when
manoeuvring in wave (Fig. 7.5.4 shows an
overview of the solution during the
manoeuvre). The study has shown that when
the ship is manoeuvring in waves (head waves
during the approaching phase) the trajectory
becomes elliptical, due to the difference in the
ship velocity in head and following waves.

Figure 7.5.4. Free surface and axial velocity contour

during a steady turn in waves for the surface combatant
DTMB 5415 (Carrica et al. 2013).

Manoeuvring in calm water and in waves

for an SES vessel was investigated by
Mousaviraad et al. (2012). The simulations
take into consideration the waterjet propulsors,
including nozzles and reverse buckets. Shallow
water and wave effects were studied for turning
circles and zig-zag manoeuvres. The cushion
pressure was modeled (see Bushan et al. 2011).

Dynamic stability problems can be

classified as mixed seakeeping/manoeuvers in
waves. Carrica et al. (2012b) focused on the
mechanisms of broaching in following regular
waves. The vessel considered is the fully
appended ONR Tumblehome model, including
bilge keels, skeg, shafts, struts and rudders.
The movement of the rudders (used to control
the headings) is controlled by means of
autopilots. The propeller is directly gridded.
Results were validated against experiments of
an auto-piloted, self-propelled model ship, the
agreement was rather satisfactory, taking also
in consideration the complexity of the study.
The flow field and forces and moments on the
hull and individual appendages were deeply
analyzed, allowing identification of the
mechanisms leading to the broaching event. It
was found that several reasons contributed to

Finally, it is worth mentioning the use of

manoeuvring coefficient needed in system
based mathematical models. In Araki et al.
(2012) system identification techniques are
used to predict the manoeuvring coefficients
from several EFD, systems based and also
CFD free-running trials. Notably, CFD gives
not only the ship motions but also the total and
component hydrodynamic forces/moments
during the free-running simulations, which is
helpful for estimating the manoeuvring



on cross plane around the DTMB5415

undergoing PMM motions. Measurements
around a similar surface combatant model in
steady turning have been collected by
Atsavapranee et al. (2010), whereas, Irvine et
al. (2013) performed forces measurements as
well as local flow PIV acquisition in forward
speed roll decay motion in calm water.

coefficients. Several types of free-running

(turning circle, zigzag and large angle zigzag)
tests were considered, using both EFD and
CFD, to examine which free-running trial gives
the best manoeuvring coefficients using system
identification. It has been shown that the set of
manoeuvring coefficients estimated by the
constrained least square method using
combined CFD free-running trial data show the
most generalized results covering a wide range
of manoeuvres.

Flow field data was collected in the

framework of the activity of AVT-NATO 183
research group; in particular, stereo PIV
measurements around the Delft catamaran
advancing in steady drift were performed at
CNR-INSEAN (Broglia et al. 2011b). Velocity
measurements were collected for two Froude
number and two drift angles (6 and 9
degrees). Also, as part of the AVT-NATO
group, tomographic PIV data are being
collected around the DTMB5415 in straight
ahead and in steady drift (a large degree angle)
conditions (Egeberg et al. 2014).

7.5.2 Benchmark cases

Some efforts to collect manoeuvring
benchmark data are of note in recent years.
However, as already concluded by the previous
ITTC CFD committee, the main contribution to
benchmark data is still connected to the
Workshop on Verification and Validation of
Ship Manoeuvring Simulation Methods,
SIMMAN 2008 (Stern et al. 2011). New
benchmark data will be released for the next
workshop, SIMMAN 2014, which will be held
in December 2014 in Denmark.

7.5.3 V&V procedures and needs

Little to no literature is available related to
Verification is challenging due to difficulties to
define proper measures and to achieve at least
three grids in the asymptotic range. Validation
assessment is provided for global quantities
such as the trajectory parameters (transfer,
advancement, tactical and turning diameters,
overshoot angle, etc.), dynamical parameters
(speed loss, yaw rate, drift angles, etc.) or by
comparison with the trajectory, see for example
Carrica et al. (2013) and Broglia et al. (2011).

Sanada et al. (2012, 2013) collected

experimental data for the ONR Tumblehome
manoeuvring in calm water and in waves. The
measurements were performed for several
manoeuvres and with comprehensive repeated
tests, making this experimental work a valuable
database for CFD benchmarking.
Availability of velocity measurements is of
paramount importance for CFD validation.
Indeed, these data would allow checks on local
quantities (such as mean velocity, Reynolds
stresses and turbulent kinetic energy). In this
field some progress has been recently made,
mainly using optical measurement techniques
such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).
Flow field measurements are available mainly
for captive model tests; Yoon (2009) provides
stereo PIV measurements of the velocity fields




Buchner et al. (2001) developed a

numerical time domain simulation model for
prediction of the hydrodynamic response of an
LNG FPSO with an alongside moored LNG
carrier. The situation with two floating bodies
in close proximity resulted in a strong and
complex hydrodynamic interaction. Their use
of a free surface lid in the multiple-body
diffraction analysis resulted in an important
improvement of drift force prediction and
resulting relative sway and yaw motions.

Ocean Engineering

7.6.1 Review of recent literature

In the field of ocean engineering, except for
internal flow problems, CFD use has been
limited to applications for which viscous flow
effects are not negligible: free-surface flow
around offshore structures, ocean renewable
energy, and fluid-structure interaction of ocean
structures. Although CFD applications to the
problems are increasingly popular these days,
there is still a lot of room for improvement,
which requires extensive amount of research.

In Kim (2011), a two-dimensional floating

body with a moon pool under forced heave
motion, including a piston mode, was
numerically simulated. A dynamic CFD
simulation was carried out to thoroughly
investigate the flow field around a twodimensional moon pool over various heaving
frequencies. The effects of vortex shedding and
viscosity were investigated by changing the
corner shapes of the floating body and solving
the Euler equations. The flow fields, including
the velocity, vorticity, and pressure fields, were
analyzed to understand and determine the
mechanisms of wave elevation, damping, and
sway force.

There is literature that deals with freesurface flows around offshore structures.
Problems of interest vary from green water
shipping to tidal stream energy conversion
FPSO's are generally operated in a specific
region and positioned to meet mostly head or
bow waves in order to reduce roll motions. In
Lim et al. (2012), experimental results for three
different FPSO bow shapes in regular head
waves were analysed and compared to each
other. Also CFD computations were carried out
as a sample validation case for the database
built for CFD code validation.

Park et al. (2007) carried out numerical

analysis of a moon pool in rough seas. From
hydrodynamic viewpoint, a moon pool of drill
ships can cause various problems. Among
them, there are two major problems such as
increased resistance and overflow on the deck
due to pumping up phenomena. To overcome
these inherent problems, various numerical
analyses to find optimum moon pool shapes
were conducted.

Nielsen and Mayer (2004) investigated two

cases. First, green water on a fixed vessel was
analysed, where resulting water height on deck,
and impact pressure on a deck mounted
structure were computed. Second, a full green
water incident including vessel motions was
modelled. In these computations, the vertical
motion was modelled by the use of transfer
functions for heave and pitch, but the rotational
contribution from the pitch motion was
neglected. The computed water height on deck
was compared to experimental data.

In dealing with VIV problems of risers,

structures are conveniently described by
Lagrangian formulations, while fluids are
usually described by Eulerian formulations. In
other words, FEM is used for the structure
solver, while methods like FVM, FDM, and



FEM are utilized for the fluid solver in the

ALE formulation. The coupling requires tight
integration of those two solvers. Chen and Kim
(2012) successfully applied such a method and
presented the results of the dynamic effect of
internal flow considering FSI for a marine riser
in an external shear current.
In Halkyard et al. (2006), helical strakes
were employed to mitigate VIM. The paper
reported on the results of benchmarking studies
that had been conducted to compare model
tests with CFD. The paper discusses
comparisons of CFD with model tests, "best
practices" for the use of CFD for these classes
of problems and issues related to turbulence
modelling and meshing of problems at large
Reynolds numbers.
Two computational procedures, based on
the blade element momentum theory and CFD,
were developed for open water performance
prediction of horizontal axis tidal stream
turbines (Lee et al. 2012). The developed
procedures were verified by comparison with
other computational results and existing
experimental data and then, applied to a turbine
design process (see Fig. 7.6.1). Malki et al.
(2013) presented a coupling method of the
blade element momentum and CFD, applied to
a horizontal tidal stream turbine.

Figure 7.6.1. Contours of pressure coefficient on the

blade surface of tidal stream turbines (Lee et al. 2012) .

A numerical study of the Savonius type

direct drive turbine incorporated in the rear
bottom of typical chamber geometry of an
oscillating water column chamber (OWC) for
wave energy conversion was presented in
Zullah and Lee (2013). The study dealt with a
numerical modelling devoted to investigate the
effect of wave on the performance and internal
flow of the Savonius turbine in the components
of an oscillating water column (OWC) system
used for the wave energy capture. Another
application to wave energy system is Yu and Li
(2013). They studied the hydrodynamics



performance of a floating-point absorber wave

energy system and found that nonlinear effects,
including wave-overtopping induced forces,
are significant (see Figure 7.6.2).

One of the first and most accepted

benchmark data sets for horizontal axis tidal
stream turbines is provided by Bahaj et al.
(2007). A tidal stream turbine model of the
most popular type was towed in a towing tank.
The tidal turbines performance was measured
and compared with the one predicted by a
theoretical formula.
7.6.3 V&V procedures and needs
V&V for CFD simulations of ocean
engineering problems are still controversial.
Because of the unsteady nature of the
problems, it is difficult to understand how to
quantify errors in the more or less random
temporal variations. Moreover, full 6DOF
motion in response to external environment is
susceptible to various types of uncertainties.

Figure 7.6.2. Free-surface elevation around a two-body

floating-pint absorber (Yu and Li 2013).


Finnegan and Goggins (2012) described a

CFD method to generate linear waves in a
interaction on a floating cylinder was modelled
using the method.


In response to the Terms of Reference, this

report presents reviews of different CFD
applications for marine hydrodynamics with
additional discussion on benchmark data for
validation. Reviews of specific topics
associated with steep and breaking waves,
steady and unsteady flow field predictions and
new directions of developments are also
included. In addition, wake scaling and
verification and validation are addressed for
practical CFD applications.

7.6.2 Benchmark cases

For the wave run-up problem around an
offshore plant-related structure, the most
widely accepted benchmark is the experimental
data adopted by the 27th ITTC Ocean
Engineering Committee. The problem of
interest was the free-surface behaviour around
and pressure acting on a single truncated
circular cylinder in waves. For various wave
conditions, wave elevation ahead of and behind
the cylinder, wave run-up and pressure on the
cylinder were measured. For more details refer
to the ITTC Ocean Engineering Committees
report on the benchmark study.



The Specialist Committee on CFD in

Marine Hydrodynamics recommends to the
Full Conference to



Adopt the revised guideline 7.5-03-02-03

Practical Guidelines for Ship CFD

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to solve fluid-hypo-elastic solid interaction
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Tanimoto, K., Umeda, N., Stern, F.
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Adopt the new guideline 7.5-03-03-01

Practical Guidelines for Ship Self-propulsion
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Practical Guidelines for RANS Calculation
of Nominal Wakes.


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Fry, D. Steady-Turning Experiments and
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Multidirectional Nonlinear Numerical
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Broglia, R., Aloisio, G., Falchi, M., Grizzi, S.,

Zaghi, S., Felli, M., Miozzi, M., Pereira, F.,
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the Velocity Field around the DELFT 372
Catamaran in Steady Drift, 29th Symp.
Naval Hydrodyn., Gothenburg, Sweden,

Carrica, P.M., Ismail, F., Hyman, M., Bhushan,

S., Stern, F. Turn and zigzag maneuvers of
a surface combatant using a URANS
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Specialist Committee on Detailed Flow

Measurement Techniques
Final Report and Recommendations to the 27th ITTC



NSWCCD, USA, November 2012

MARINTEK, Norway, July 2013

Pusan National
February 2014


The 27th ITTC Specialist Committee on

Detailed Flow Measurement Techniques
consisted of:

Dr. Paisan Atsavapranee (Chairman)

Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock
Division (NSWCCD), USA

Dr. Mario Felli (Secretary)


Prof. In-won Lee

Pusan National University, Korea

Dr. Chittiappa Muthanna


Dr. Shigeki Nagaya

IHI, Japan

Dr. Feng Zhao

China Ship Scientific Research Center
(CSSRC), China




The scope of this report is to provide an

update to the review by the 26th ITTC
Specialist Committee on Detailed Flow
Measurements of systems and methods for
flow-field and wave-field measurements and
applications of Particle Image Velocimetry
(PIV), stereoscopic PIV (SPIV), Laser Doppler
Velocimetry (LDV), and other emergent
methods, for the measurements of flow
separation, wake, vortex strength, etc, for ship
problems. Furthermore, an overview of the
guidelines proposed to the 27th ITTC is



The 26th ITTC Specialist Committee on

Detailed Flow Measurements provided a
comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art
for flow-field and wave-field measurements in
ship hydrodynamics and ocean engineering
Furthermore, the committee
recognized that many practical issues and

The committee met four times:


CSSRC, China, March 2012


challenges needed to be addressed before these

measurements can be widely practiced in largescale hydrodynamics facilities. For the 27th
ITTC, the committee was tasked to:



Survey and report on the existing

measurement techniques and data
analysis methods.

Develop a best-practice guideline for

the applications of PIV/SPIV in tow
tanks and cavitation tunnels.

Develop experimental benchmarks for

the verification of PIV/SPIV setup.

Develop a guideline for PIV/SPIV

uncertainty analysis.

Committee on CFD to develop methods
for the validation of CFD codes using
detailed flow measurements.

around and over the rudder surface. The rudder

was manufactured in Perspex to allow the laser
light sheet to pass through, making possible
simultaneous PIV measurements on both sides.
The complex flow evolution was reconstructed
by stitching together six different patches of
PIV measurement planes, allowing a large area
of interest to be covered while at the same time
maintaining a high spatial resolution. The
dataset provides a detailed description of the
complex phenomena associated with the
interaction of the propeller vortices with the
rudder, such as the spiral breakdown and the
rejoining mechanism of the tip vortex filaments,
as well as the different spanwise misalignment
of the tip vortices in the pressure and suction
sides of the appendage. Recently, Felli et al.
(2014) correlated the phase locked distribution
of the vorticity field to the topologies of
pseudo-sound pressure fluctuations and
acoustic radiation over the rudder surface,
emphasizing the fundamental phenomena that
govern the acoustic and hydrodynamic
perturbation in a propeller-rudder system.


Applications of Detailed Flow

Measurements in Ship Propulsion

Since the 26th ITTC conference, there have

been many good examples of detailed flow
measurements in ship propulsion, primarily
dealing with wake flow surveys around isolated
and installed propellers, waterjets and
propeller-rudder configurations. Felli et al.
(2011) presented a comprehensive timeresolved observations and analysis of the
propeller wake/rudder interaction mechanisms
by PIV and LDV measurements. Phase-locked
horizontal-chordwise, vertical-chordwise and
transversal sections of the propeller wake

Figure 1. Phase locked correlation between the

acoustic and hydrodynamic components of the
wall pressure signal (contours) and the vorticity
field measured over the rudder surface (white
lines). (Felli et al., 2014).
A combined numerical and experimental
analysis of the wake flow behind a twin-screw
ship model was conducted by Muscari et al.
(2011). Experiments were performed in the


Large cavitation Channel of CNR INSEAN and

consisted of propeller phase-locked Laser
Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements
along the vertical midplane of the rudder and
two transversal planes behind the propeller and
behind the rudder. Paik et al. (2011a) used PIV
to investigate the wake flow in front of a semispade rudder, placed behind a propeller
operating in a simulated wake. A PIV study to
investigate the propeller singing mechanism is
documented in Paik et al. (2011b) that
measured the trailing wake characteristics of
two hydrofoil geometries with standard and
truncated trailing edge. Pecoraro et al. (2013)
reported a detailed analysis of the flow around
a single-screw ship model by phase-locked
LDV measurements in a large cavitation
channel. The study was focused on the
assessment of the inflow characteristics and
related separation phenomena through the
analysis of the probability density function and
skewness distributions in the propeller plane.

concentrated solution of sodium iodine in water.

Measurements were undertaken at varying
magnifications in a series of meridional planes
that dissected the blade at different rotor phases,
starting from upstream of the leading edge and
ending downstream of the blade.

Figure 3. Phase-averaged circumferential

vorticity at the a) entrance to and (b) exit from
the tip gap of a water-jet blade (Wu et al.,
Figure 2. Distribution of the skewness (isocontours) and the PDF (histograms) at the
propeller plane (Pecoraro et al., 2013)

The use of underwater probes for PIV/SPIV

applications in large facilities such as towing
tanks, hydrodynamic basin and circulating
channels has become standard in many ITTC
organizations. Some examples of towing tank
surveys of the flow around installed propellers
by underwater stereo PIV devices are
documented in Bugalski and Reda (2013).
Comparison of SPIV measurements on target
wake at the propeller plane in the Deep Water
Towing Tank at MARIN and the Large

Wu et al. (2011) performed detailed PIV

measurements in the tip region of a water-jet
pump rotor. In this experiment unobstructed
views of inter-blade region were allowed by
matching the optical refractive index of the
pump blades and casing, made of transparent
acrylic, with that of the fluid, consisting of a


Cavitation Channel at CSSRC (Figure 5) have

been made, results of which (Figure 6) indicate
that much work remains before PIV/SPIV can
be a flexible, efficient, and accurate tools for
commercial tests (Dang et al., 2012).

Figure 5. SPIV measurement setup in the LCC


Figure 4. Semi-submersible system for 3D PIV

measurements: torpedo and PIV wake tests
(Bugalski and Reda, 2013).
















































Figure 6. Comparison of SPIV data between MARIN and CSSRC (Wake of 320k VLCC).

experiments, utilizing SPIV to measure detailed

hull and wake flow, with particular emphasis
on the dynamics of the keel vortices.

Applications of Detailed Flow

Measurements in Ship Hydrodynamics
and Ship-Related Flows

Detailed flow measurements continue to be

an important part of ship hydrodynamics
research within ITTC organizations. Although
many challenges still exist with applications in
tow tanks and maneuvering basins, expanding
use of CFD is increasing demand on detailed
flow data for CFD validation, particularly when
complex viscous hydrodynamics is concerned.
Within this context, a coordinated effort under
the framework of NATO-AVT is focusing on
CFD prediction of separated flow. One of the
benchmark cases utilizes the Delft catamaran
372 in static drift maneuver (vant Veer, 1998a,
1998b). As contribution to this effort, Broglia
et al. (2012) performed a comprehensive set of


Figure 8. PIV measurement around a cross

section of a FPSO (Oliveira et al., 2012).
Zhang et al. (2011) applied PIV and timeresolved PIV (TR-PIV) on an asymmetric
hydrofoil in a water tunnel to determine the
turbulence intensity (TI) and turbulence
integral length scale (TILS), which are closely
related to trailing edge noise. Comparison of
TI results by PIV and TR-PIV measurements
indicates good quantitative agreement. But
TILS results, analysed by different analysis
methods, only agree qualitatively.
anisotropy of the streamwise and vertical
turbulent structures induces the inconsistency
in TILS value between the spatial-correlation
function and temporal-correlation function.
The measurement and analysis method by PIV
is proven to be a feasible way for TI and TILS
measurement in water tunnels, with regular
PIV typically being the preferred method due
to higher accuracy and spatial-resolution.

Figure 7. Vorticity field around a catamaran

model at Fr=0.4 and drift angle of 6 degrees,
(Broglia et al., 2012).
Roll damping remains an active area of
research within the ITTC community. Roll
motion on a surface vessel is lightly damped
and lightly restored and is difficult to predict
due to viscous phenomena such as vortex
separation from the bilge keels. Interest in this
area is expanding beyond naval vessels and
into the commercial arena. Oliveira et al.
(2012) reported on roll damping on FPSOs,
where vortex shedding around the hull and
bilge keels plays a dominant role (vs lift effect
for a ship with forward speed). Experiments
were performed over a range of draft, initial
roll angle, bilge keel width, and roll gyradius.
Avalos et al. (2013) performed a CFD study,
whose results compare well with the
experimental data of Oliveira et al. (2012).


PIV have also been applied to observe

vortical structures, which are also closely
related to hydrodynamic noise. Zhang et al.
(2013) reported on PIV measurements inside
different type of cavities. Based on the PIV
measurement, some cavity has been modified
to reduce hydrodynamic noise.

Figure 9. Measurement setup behind the

trailing edge of a hydrofoil (Zhang et al.,
Figure 12. PIV measurement of flow in a cavity
with straight block.

Figure 10. Turbulence intensity measurement

with PIV behind the trailing edge of a hydrofoil
(Zhang et al., 2011).
Figure 13. PIV measurement of flow in a cavity
with 45 block.


Applications of Detailed Flow

Measurements in Ocean Engineering
and Free-Surface Flows

Applications of detailed flow measurements

within ITTC organizations are rapidly
expanding beyond traditional areas of ship
propulsion and ship hydrodynamics into other
challenging problems.
In recent years,
experimental investigations using PIV/SPIV

Figure 11. Turbulence integral length scale

measurement with PIV behind the trailing edge
of a hydrofoil (Zhang et al., 2011).


The velocity field of breaking waves were

measured using PIV but without the model
present. The area of interest is dominated by
the air-water interface, where the wave surface
is contaminated by air bubbles and droplets.
By carefully adjusting the illumination of the
fluid and seeding particles, and by fine-tuning
the PIV post processing techniques, it was
possible to measure the local velocity field in
the breaking wave region at an acquisition rate
of 200 Hz. The objective was to minimize the
time used in post-processing of the acquired
images as the development of dynamically
moving masks and the corresponding image
processing can be very time consuming and
requires specific expertise. By obtaining good
images, the goal was to make the measurement
technique more efficient and accessible.
Careful adjustments of the laser power, light
sheet angles, and background minimized
reflections in the air-water interface. The
results indicated that using PIV to measure the
kinematics of breaking waves is feasible, but
requires further work to refine the technique.

are becoming more common in ocean

engineering and offshore structures. A widely
studied problem is that of a cylindrical section
subjected to currents and waves. It is wellknown that when a structure such as a riser is
subjected to a current, alternative shedding of
vortices in the near wake leads to oscillating
transverse forces, which could result in vortexinduced vibration (VIV). A large body of
literature exists on this topic (Bearman, 1984;
Blevin, 1990; Chaplin et al., 2005; Gabbai &
Benaroya, 2005; Khalak & Williamson, 1996;
Sarpkaya, 1978, 2004; Williamson &
Govardhan, 2008; Williamson & Roshko,
Other related problems that have been
investigated recently with PIV include the
behaviour of a freely suspended cylinder in a
cross flow (Gao et al., 2013). While most
studies up to date deal with cylinders that are
constrained to oscillate only transversely, many
situations in ocean engineering and offshore
structure (risers, spar buoys, and mooring lines)
involve freely suspended cylinders undergoing
both streamwise and transverse oscillations.
Fernandes et al. (2012) used PIV to investigate
vortex self-induced vibration (VSIV), whereby
transverse oscillations can be excited by the
vertical motion of a structure, a phenomenon
distinct from VIV. Arslan et al. (2012) used
both CFD and PIV to investigate the flow
around a semi-submerged rectangular cylinder,
a prototype to situations such as floating
offshore structures in current or a bridge
section during a critical river flood event.
PIV measurements involving the air-water
interface, especially in the presence of breaking
waves, remain a challenging endeavour.
Recently, Stansberg et al. (2012) performed a
PIV experiment to measure near surface
kinematics of a breaking wave (Figure 14).
The measurements were part of a study on
wave slamming forces on a vertical column.



Guideline on Best Practices for the

Application of PIV/SPIV in Towing
Tanks and Cavitation Tunnels (7.5-0201-04)

Over the past decade, PIV-based techniques

have found broadening use within ITTC
organizations. However, proper application of
these techniques remains non-trivial. Success
generally requires experience, training and, in
some cases, advice from experts. Dedicated
literature (i.e. books, papers) is often too
theoretical, lacking in practical advice and, in
many cases, ineffective in dealing with
practical issues.
The development of a guideline on the use
of PIV/SPIV in hydrodynamic facilities is
intended to provide recommendations and best
practices to support the reader in the design
and conduct of a PIV/SPIV experiment. The
guideline targets a range of practitioners,
especially those still developing their expertise.
The aim is to help these users avoid
beginners errors and obtain good quality
results when employing PIV/SPIV techniques.
Towards this goal, the guideline places strong
emphasis on rules of thumb and examples and
resorts to formulas and theoretical explanations
only as necessary.

Figure 14. PIV measurement of near-surface

velocity field in breaking wave.
Velocity vectors superimposed on video
snapshot. Lower: Contour plot of velocity
magnitude. Model Scale 1:125 (Stansberg et
al., 2012).



In order to facilitate the adoption and

application of PIV/SPIV in large-scale
organizations, the 27th ITTC Specialist
Committee on Detailed Flow Measurement
Techniques was tasked with the creation of
three guidelines. A brief overview of these
guidelines is provided in the following sections.

The guideline is organized into eleven

sections which cover all the major issues
related to a PIV experiment in hydrodynamic
Section 1 provides a brief description of the
purpose of the guideline.
Section 2 provides the reader with a broad
introduction on PIV. The description involves
an overview of the technique and introduces
the major steps and the typical set up of a
PIV/SPIV experiment. A representation of the
entire process of a PIV/SPIV measurement is


Practical advice on standard and

stereoscopic PIV calibration is given in Section

therein provided though a flow chart (Figure

In Section 3, a discussion of why and when
to use PIV, rather than another velocimetry
technique, is presented. As a matter of fact,
PIV is not always the best approach for all
applications. Its pros and cons need to be
carefully considered and compared with those
of the other techniques, both from technical and
practical viewpoints.

Section 8 addresses the relevant issues

associated with the analysis of PIV digital
images. The primary purpose of this section is
to provide practitioners with some guidance
through a general discussion on the choice of
methodologies and parameters.
Section 9 deals with vector validation and
addresses two main topics: the detection and
replacement of outliers and the phenomenon of
peak locking.
The first part includes a
description of the most widespread validation
criteria implemented in PIV software (i.e. local
median-filtering criterion, cross-correlation
signal-to-noise ratio validation criterion.
displacement range validation criterion,
geometric validation criterion) and provides
practical advice on the selection of the
validation parameters.
The second part
contains guideline on how to detect and
minimize errors due to peak locking.

Section 4 introduces all of the essential

aspects of a complete PIV/SPIV setup. Issues
related to the selection of the light source, the
image recording system, the optical
components for the light sheet generation and
image focusing, the synchronization device and
the seed particles are discussed.
Section 5 contains practical operating rules
on the design and preparation of a PIV/SPIV
experiment. Specifically, issues related to
model preparation, light sheet adjustment,
camera focusing and alignment, choice of the
optical configuration in SPIV and water
seeding are addressed here.

Specific problems on the application of

PIV/SPIV in hydrodynamic facilities are
discussed in Section 10.

Section 6 discusses measurement issues

such as the proper timing setting and provides
practical advice such as the estimate of data
amount in a PIV/SPIV experiment.

The last section of the guideline, Section 11,

discusses safety requirements and rules that
must be followed when operating a PIV system.


Figure 15. Flow chart of the PIV measurement procedure.


for 2C PIV and one for 3C PIV. The 2C PIV

benchmark has been developed by the ITTC
Detailed Flow Measurement Committee in the
26th ITTC. The 3C PIV benchmark was
established by the European Network of
Excellence Hydro Testing Alliance (HTA).

Benchmark for PIV (2C) and

SPIV(3C) Setups (7.5-01-03-04)

One area that is critical towards facilitating

the adoption of detailed flow measurements is
the availability of benchmark data for the
purpose of verifying the quality of the
measurement setup. The primary purpose of
using these benchmark cases is to ensure that
the measurement system and the configuration
of the cameras and light sheet meet
specifications and also to give an indication to
the new user of the PIV technique of how
successful the measurement technique has been
Further, the availability of
benchmark data provides the new user with the
ability to evaluate and compare their
measurement setup with other established

The guideline is organized into 5 main

sections and covers all aspects of performing a
benchmark test, i.e. both setup and presentation
of the results.
Sections 1 and 2 of the guidelines present
the purpose and scope of the benchmark tests.
Specifically, Section 2 highlights the situations
where running the benchmark tests may be
advantageous to a participating institution.
Section 3 presents the objectives for
verification of the PIV and SPIV setups. The
main factors are that it has to be simple, cheap
and repeatable, and have the ability to
disseminate the results from the various

The purpose of this procedure is to continue

the establishment of a benchmarking test and
define a set of criteria that a benchmark test
must adhere to and propose two test cases; one


Section 4 presents the two PIV benchmark

setups, the first being the 2C PIV setup which
consists of a splitter plate with a fence as
shown in Figure 16. The second is the 3C PIV
setup which is a piercing surface flat plate
operating at incidence as shown in Figure 17.
Detailed descriptions of the setup are presented
so as to enable participating institutions to
perform the benchmark tests. Results from
institutions that have performed the benchmark
tests are also presented in this section.

Figure 17. SPIV benchmark model in the

INSEAN towing tank.

Section 5 presents the organizational

structure that is required in order to co-ordinate
the benchmark testing between various
institutions that would like to perform the
benchmark test. This includes establishing
clear instructions on performing the tests and
delivering the data. Also, the organization
would have to disseminate to the participants
information pertaining to the tests. Finally, the
organization would also have to handle and
store all the data such that it is accessible to all
ITTC participants.


Guideline on the Uncertainty Analysis

for Particle Image Velocimetry (7.5-0103-03)

The primary purpose of the current

guideline is to outline a method of analysis of
the measurement uncertainty for particle image
velocimetry (PIV) and stereo PIV (SPIV).
Specifically, this guideline addresses error
sources due to practical issues related to the
applications of PIV in hydrodynamic testing
facilities, in addition to error sources inherent
to the PIV technique itself. Uncertainty in the
measurement is considered on different levels.
The measurement system itself exhibits an
inherent level of measurement error, even in
the most ideal condition. In addition, once the
measurement system is utilized as part of an
experiment, other sources of errors specific to
the experimental setup and the flow of interest
will contribute further to the overall
measurement uncertainty.

Figure 16. Flow around splitter plate with fence

(2C PIV benchmark).

One of the most difficult aspects of PIV

uncertainty analysis is the fact that each
application of PIV is made unique by the
particular setup, the flow of interest, and the
intended use of the data. The guideline
presents a pragmatic approach by incorporating
a range of sound and rigorous methodologies to


Section 2 provides a general discussion of

the proposed approach for uncertainty analysis

address various error sources in PIV.

Measurement uncertainties are considered on
three separate levels:

Level 0: error sources inherent to the

PIV technique.

Level 1: error sources inherent to the

particular setup.

Level 2: error sources inherent to the

flow of interest.

Section 3 provides an overview of previous

work performed in the area of uncertainty
analysis of PIV/SPIV and highlights the
practical difficulties with the assessment of the
overall uncertainty level of a PIV system as
implemented in a complex test environment.
Section 4 provides a detailed description of
the proposed approach for uncertainty analysis

Three broad categories of methodologies

are used to consider the uncertainty in the
measurement for PIV:

Section 5 discusses the utilization of the

proposed methodologies to perform the
assessment of the overall uncertainty for PIV

individual error sources are estimated
and propagated into an overall
uncertainty in the measurement.

And finally, Section 6 discusses the

implementation of the proposed framework and
the need for a complete validation of the

System-level approach using a

simulated PIV setup and synthetic
images: individual error sources are not
separately determined.
Rather a
system-level or a sub-system-level
determination of the uncertainty level is
made using a computer model of the
setup and synthetic images of the
particle field.



The 27th ITTC Specialist Committee on

Detailed Flow Measurement Techniques has
considered in details the many challenges
associated with the application of detailed flow
measurements in large-scale hydrodynamic
facilities within the ITTC.
In particular,
Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV) and its
variants (stereo-PIV, PTV, etc) is a class of
optical measurement techniques that is capable
of whole-field instantaneous measurement of
velocity, distribution of vorticity, and the
dynamics of eddy structures in turbulent flows.
Because PIV has matured considerably over the
last decade and is finding increasing use within
the ITTC community, the committee has
focused on three PIV-related areas during the
current term:

System-level approach using the

actual physical PIV setup: individual
error sources are not separately
determined. Rather a system-level or a
sub-system-level determination of the
uncertainty level is made with the actual
PIV setup.

The guideline is organized into 6 main

Section 1 states the purpose of the guideline.


particularly challenging due to the

complexity of the system and the many
sources of errors that need to be
considered for each application. The
proposed approach aims to strike the
right balance between scientific rigor
and practicality to yield an acceptable
estimate of the overall uncertainty
without requiring an unrealistic level of

The committee has compiled a set of

recommendations and best practices
into a guideline for the design and
implementation of PIV experiments in
large-scale hydrodynamic facilities.
The guideline targets a range of
practitioners, especially those still
developing their expertise. Toward this
goal, the guideline places strong
emphasis on rules of thumb and
examples and resorts to formulas and
theoretical explanations only as
The committee has proposed two
experimental benchmark cases (2D and
3D) for the purpose of verifying the
quality of the measurement setup. The
primary purpose of using these
benchmark cases is to ensure that the
configuration of the cameras and light
sheet meet specifications and also to
give an indication to the new user of the
PIV technique of how successful the
measurement technique has been
implemented. Further, the availability
of benchmark data provides the new
user with the ability to evaluate and
compare their measurement setup with
other established institutions.




Recommendations to the Full

The committee recommends that the ITTC:
1. Adopt the best practice guideline (7.502-01-04).
2. Adopt the benchmark guideline (7.501-03-04).
3. Adopt
guideline (7.5-01-03-03).



Proposals for Future Work

The committee recommends that the ITTC:

The committee has outlined a method of

analysis of the measurement uncertainty
for particle image velocimetry (PIV)
and stereo PIV (SPIV). Specifically,
the uncertainty analysis guideline
addresses error sources due to practical
issues related to the applications of PIV
in hydrodynamic testing facilities, in
addition to error sources inherent to the
PIV technique itself. The assessment of
the overall uncertainty of an actual PIV
setup in a demanding environment such
as tow tanks and cavitation tunnels is


Recognizes the need for further

organized efforts to advance the
measurements in the ITTC community
through detailed evaluation and
implementation of the best-practice, the
benchmark, and the uncertainty analysis

Develops a questionnaire to collect

feedback and inputs from the general


ITTC community on how to refine and

update the best-practice guideline. The
guideline should then be revised based
upon those inputs.


Arslan, T., Malavasi, S., Pettersen, B., and

Andersson, H.I., Experimental and
Numerical Study of the Flow Around a
Semi-Submerged Rectangular Cylinder,

Organizes an electronic repository of

information and data on the benchmarks
cases. ITTC member organizations
should then be invited to participate in
the adoption of the benchmark and
contribute to the database.
Implements and evaluates the proposed
uncertainty analysis approach in details.
It is further recommended that an ITTC
case study be performed to assess the
validity of the approach. The case
study would involve PIV measurement
performed on a flow of interest, with
fully detailed uncertainty analysis. The
results can then be compared with
similar measurements done in different
facilities or with high-quality CFD

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Study of Propeller Flows, Proceedings of
the third International Conference on
Advanced Model Measurement
Technology (AMT13), Gdansk, Poland.

Performs a state-of-the-art review on

frontier applications of detailed flow
The state-of-the-art
review performed by the 26th ITTC
Techniques Committee concentrated on
the mainstream applications of detailed
flow measurement techniques in the
ITTC. A review of frontier applications
would provide valuable information on
a broad range of frontier techniques that
can be implemented in demanding

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and Patternden, R.J., M., 2005,
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Paik, B.G., Kim, K.S., Moon, I.S. and Ahn,

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F., and Viviani, M., 2013, Propeller-Hull
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Khalak, A. and Williamson, C.H.K., 1996,

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Journal of Fluid and Structures, Vol. 10,
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Stansberg, C.T., Berget, K., Graczyk, M.,

Muthanna, C., and Pakozdi, C., 2012,
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Williamson, C.H.K., and Govardhan, R., 2008,

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Zhang, J., Xue, Q., Zhang, G., and Zhao, F.,

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Specialist Committee on Performance of Ships in

Final Report and Recommendations to the 27th ITTC




Membership and Meetings

INSEAN, Italy, 6-7 June, 2013

NTUA, Greece, 15-17 January 2014
The AC representative Prof. Gerhard
Strasser attended all the meetings in order to
follow closer the update of the speed/power trial procedure and provide feedback from
IMO/MEPC meetings.

The members of the Specialist Committee

on Performance of Ships in Service (PSS
Committee) of the 27th International Towing
Tank Conference are as follows:
Dr. Anton Minchev (Chairman), Force
Technology (FT), Denmark
Dr. Uwe Hollenbach (Secretary), Hamburg
Ship Model Basin (HSVA), Germany.
Dr. Masaru Tsujimoto, NMRI, Japan
Mr. Michio Takai, Sumitomo Heavy Industries Marine & Engineering, Japan
Dr. Jinbao Wang, MARIC, China
Mr. Heungwon Seo, Hyundai HI, Korea
Mr. Angelo Olivieri, INSEAN, Italy
Prof. G. Grigoropoulos, NTUA, Greece
Mr. Henk van der Boom, MARIN, The
Dr. Sofia Werner, SSPA, Sweden
Dr. W. Gorski, CTO, Poland


Terms of Reference (TOR) Assigned

by the 26th ITTC

The 26th ITTC recommended the following

work for the 27th ITTC Specialized Committee
on Propulsion of Ships in Service:

Five Committee meetings were held as follows:

Force Technology, Denmark, 7-9 December
Vienna Model Basin, Austria, 8-9 March
MARIC, China, 10-12 October 2012,

1. Cooperate directly with the AC and ITTC

representative in IMO with regard to EEDI
(Energy Efficiency Design Index).


9. Review the technologies (hydrodynamic issues) for enhancement of the powering performance, such as speed reduction, energy
saving devices, hull form and propeller design, etc.

2. Liaise with the Resistance, Propulsion and

Sea-keeping Committees as relevant, specifically with regard to estimating fw, in the
3. Monitor and review the state of the art for
EEDI and EEOI (Energy Efficiency Operational Index) prediction and determination
methods, including CFD based ones.

10. Investigate the experimental and numerical

possibilities to estimate the effect of steering and wind to the added resistance.
11. Look for full scale data that will allow improving powering estimation taking into account the surface roughness (hull, appendages and propeller).

4. Review the existing procedures for the ship

model testing with regard to the requirements arising from the EEDI prediction
process, including ITTC Recommended
Procedure 7.5-02-07-02.2, Prediction of
Power Increase in Irregular Waves from
Model Tests, and liaise with the Seakeeping
Committee to decide whether an update of
the procedure is required.

12. Examine the possibilities for numerical

methods in the prediction of the influence
of surface roughness on the shaft power
prediction in full.

5. Identify and describe the practical aspects

of the EEDI prediction process involving
ship model testing, and develop a guideline
for EEDI prediction.


General Remarks

One of the major objectives for establishing

the present Specialist Committee on Performance of Ships in Service was to assist/cooperate
with IMO/MEPC on the practical implementation of the EEDI calculation and verification
process. Therefore, the focus of the Committee
work was the major revision of the
Speed/Power trial procedures:

6. Take into account minimum power requirements for safe and effective manoeuvring with respect to the EEDI formula (sea
7. Describe the type of data (and the quality of
that data) that should be recorded during
full scale monitoring trials, including the issues of surface roughness.

7.5-04-01-01.1:Speed and Power Trials, Part

I Preparation and Conduct
7.5-04-01-01.2: Speed and Power Trials, Part
II Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data

8. Review the existing ITTC trial test procedures in this context. Review the existing
speed correction methods for Full Scale
Trial Measurements including ISO 15016,
and come up with recommendation if the
problems are identified, taking into account
the MARIN report as contained in document MEPC 62/5/5.

The process of their update, final version

and a practical calculation example are presented in detail under Sections 8 and 9 of the present report.



The SEEMP establishes a mechanism for

operators to improve the energy efficiency of



The Advisory Council (AC) to the 27th

ITTC nominated Prof. Gerhard Strasser (AC
Chair) to act as an ITTC (AC) representative to
IMO/MEPC. Following closely the work of
IMO/MEPC, Prof. Strasser participated in
MEPC63, 64, 65 and 66 sessions with subsequent attendance in I V PSS Committee technical meetings. This close cooperation improved significantly the speed/power trial procedures update, with Prof. Strassers valuable
technical and editorial contributions.

The MEPC also agreed an updated work

plan for the development of further guidelines
and the development of energy efficiency
frameworks for those ships not covered by the
current EEDI regulations.
The MEPC 64th session continued its work
on further developing technical and operational
measures relating to energy-efficiency measures for ships, based on a work plan agreed at
the previous session. This follows the adoption
of the new chapter 4 of MARPOL Annex VI,
which entered into force on 1 January 2013 and
included new requirements mandating the
EEDI for new ships, and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan.

The MEPC 63rd session adopted four sets of

guidelines intended to assist in the implementation of the mandatory Regulations on Energy
Efficiency for Ships in MARPOL Annex VI,
which are expected to enter into force on 1
January 2013:

The 65th session adopted amendments to

resolution MEPC.214(63) 2012 Guidelines on
survey and certification of the energy efficiency design index, to add references to measuring sea conditions in accordance with ITTC
Speed and Power Trials Part 1; 2012 revision 1
or ISO 15016:2002.

2012 Guidelines on the method of calculation of the attained Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for new ships;
2012 Guidelines for the development of a
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
2012 Guidelines on survey and certification
of the Energy Efficiency Design Index
(EEDI); and
Guidelines for calculation of reference lines
for use with the Energy Efficiency Design
Index (EEDI).

More detailed presentation of the IMO

documents related to EEDI and EEOI will be
further elaborated in Section 4.
Following the IMO recommendation, ITTC
started a closer cooperation with the ISO with
the objectives of updating ISO 15016 standard
based on the developed ITTC recommended
procedures 7.5-04-01-01.1 and 7.5-04-01-01.2.

The EEDI is a non-prescriptive, performance-based mechanism that leaves the choice of

technologies to use in a specific ship design to
the industry. As long as the required energyefficiency level is attained, ship designers and
builders would be free to use the most costefficient solutions for the ship to comply with
the regulations.



For low and moderate wave frequencies Rw

is calculated numerically by one of the acceptable methods. In the high wave frequency region, the ship is not excited in
motions, and thus the component due to
ship motions can be negligible. The wave
reflection resistance component can be assumed as wave frequency independent, and
can be derived experimentally, for example.
In order to derive the complete added resistance RAO curve, the two curves are joined
at the point where the low-medium frequency curve meets the high-frequency
In order to promote GHG reduction in actual operational conditions, the procedure
should be able to accommodate the effect of
the special bow shapes above waterline,
which have been developed to reduce added
resistance in waves.
In the present draft the calculation method
for added resistance in regular waves is not
prepared. This is one of the most important
part of the procedure, hence, the Committee
will address this issue in the next ITTC term.



The speed reduction coefficient fw was introduced in the 2012 Guidelines on the method
of calculation of EEDI for new ships, adopted
by MEPC.212(63). fw is a non-dimensional coefficient to compensate for the involuntary
speed loss in a representative sea condition of
wave height, wave frequency and wind speed.
In agreement with the AC as to the required action/deliverables on this task, it was
decided that the Committee should not develop
and deliver its version of fw prediction procedure, but rather just monitor and eventually cooperate with the Resistance, Propulsion and
Sea-keeping committees on this issue.
In this respect the Committee needs to admit that despite numerous attempts, liaison and
cooperation with the above committees was
poor. It seemed that the Sea-keeping committee
encountered difficulties in providing a sound
basis for the pertinent calculations.

Finally the Committee would conclude, that

the procedure for fw prediction prepared by
SKC has not matured yet, and further work is
needed for its finalization, which is presented
in the recommendations for future work.

At its fifth meeting in Athens, the PSS

Committee invited the Sea-keeping committee
(SKC) chairman to present and discuss the latest work on the topic. The latter was summarized in SKC document Process for the Estimation of Ship Speed Reduction Coefficient fw
in Waves, 27th ITTC SKC, February 2014.




Based on the elaborate review of the above

document, the PSS committee formulated the
following comments:


Regulatory Framework

It should be clearly stated in the text that the

added resistance in waves RW is composed
of two parts: the component due to ship motions; and the component due to wave reflection.

The regulatory framework for GHG reduction from international shipping is based on
amendment of Annex VI of MARPOL Convention at IMO/MEPC62 and it started from 1st of
January, 2013 (Resolution MEPC.203(62)).


certification has been adopted, where it prescribes ITTC recommended procedures for
speed/ power trial part1 and part2 as preferable
standard (Resolution MEPC.234 (65)).

The new regulation aims at improving energy

efficiency for ships engaged in international
voyage and it comprises the technical regulation EEDI and operational regulation SEEMP.
Subsequently, at MEPC63, Feb. 2012, four
guidelines required for amendment of Annex
VI of MARPOL Convention have been adopted.
These are Guidelines for EEDI calculation
(Resolution MEPC.212(63)), Guidelines for
SEEMP (Resolution MEPC.213(63)), Guidelines on EEDI survey and certification (Resolution MEPC.214(63)) and Guidelines for Reference Lines (Resolution MEPC.215(63)). ITTC
has submitted an informative paper on existing
recommended procedures and guidelines to
support EEDI prediction and verification



EEDI regulation is applied for new ships of

400GT and above. The number of ship types
for calculating EEDI is eleven, which is listed
in Table 1. Of these ship types, EEDI reduction
is required from 1st of January, 2013: Bulk carrier, Gas carrier, Tanker, Container ship, General cargo ship, Refrigerated cargo carrier and
Combination carrier.
Ship types requiring EEDI reduction will be
extended to Passenger ships having nonconventional propulsion, Ro-ro cargo ships
(vehicle carrier), Ro-ro cargo ships and Ro-ro
passenger ships. At present, EEDI calculation
and reduction rate for Passenger ships having
conventional propulsion has not been proposed
and not yet deliberated.

At MEPC64, Oct. 2012, the Interim Guidelines for fw, non-dimensional coefficient for decrease in ship speed in a representative sea
(MEPC.1/Circ.796). ITTC recommended procedure for speed/power trial analysis is approved as preferable standard (MEPC64/23).

For each ship type, the reduction rate is determined by ship size and phase of application.
The reduction rate is given in Table 2 where the
base of the reduction rate is determined by
Guidelines for reference lines.

Guidelines for determining Minimum Propulsion Power to maintain the manoeuvrability

of ships in adverse conditions have been approved as interim guidelines at MSC91, Nov.
2012, on condition that it would be improved at
next MEPC meeting (MSC-MEPC.2/Circ.11).
Through discussions at Corresponding
Group 2013, Interim Guidelines for Minimum
Propulsion Power, validity of phase 0 of EEDI
regulation has been adopted at MEPC65, May
2013 (Resolution MEPC.232(65)). At MEPC65,
2013 Guidance on Treatment of Innovative
Technology has been approved as well. For
cruise passenger ships having non-conventional
propulsion, Guidelines for reference lines has
been adopted (Resolution MEPC.233(65)).
Amendment to Guidelines on EEDI survey and


Capacity is deadweight except that, for passenger ships and Ro-Ro passenger ships, Capacity is gross tonnage, and for container ships,
Capacity is 70 per cent of the deadweight,

Table 1 EEDI regulation

Ship types for
EEDI calculation*
Bulk carrier
Gas carrier
Container ship
General cargo ship
Refrigerated cargo
Combination carrier
Passenger ship
Ro-ro cargo ship
(vehicle carrier)
Ro-ro cargo ship
Ro-ro passenger

Reduction of EEDI
after 1st,
after 1st,
Jan., 2013 Sep. 2015

fi, fc, fl and fw are correction factors.

EEDI is an index of energy efficiency for
transport work, so that the power which is not
related to propulsion is deducted from the calculation. In addition, there are deduction or correction factors; energy saving due to innovative
technologies in the numerator of attained EEDI,
capacity corrections including ice class (fi), cubic capacity corrections (fc), correction for general cargo ships equipped with cranes and other
cargo-related gears (fl), and speed reduction at a
representative sea condition (fw) in the numerator of attained EEDI.


In the guidelines for EEDI survey and certification, EEDI calculation method based on
CFD may be accepted as equivalent to propeller open water test or used to complement the
tank tests conducted, such as evaluation of the
effect of energy saving device with approval of
verifier (Res. MEPC.214(63), 2012).

* not apply to ships of diesel-electric propulsion, turbine propulsion and hybrid propulsion system
** separate to Gas carrier and LNG carrier
*** only regulated for Passenger ship having
non-conventional propulsion

The CFD based methods for EEDI calculation will be reviewed when they are available.

Attained EEDI formula is given in Eq. (1).

The numerator represents the energy efficiency
of the ship as CO2 emissions in gram. The denominator in Eq. (2) is related to the transport
work in tons times nautical miles.

Attained EEDI =

EEDI Numerator
EEDI Denominator

EEDI Denominator = f i f c f l Capacity f w Vref

Methods for survey and certification are

prescribed at the respective Guidelines for
EEDI. As a supplement to its interpretation, the
industrial guidelines have been developed by
IACS (MEPC64/INF.22, IACS PR No.38).


The ship speed in a calm water (Vref), is

preliminarily verified on the basis of model
tests. The final verification is carried out by
speed/power trials of the ship. It should be
noted that for ships which can undergo
speed/power trials at the draught prescribed in
EEDI Guidelines, such as tankers, the preliminary verification may be excluded.


Vref is ship speed in a calm sea condition on
deep water,


The ITTC PSS Committee developed completely revised speed/power trials recommended procedures and these were proposed at
MEPC64. ITTC contribution to IMO/MEPC
has been acknowledged and the ITTC recommended procedures were denoted as preferable
standard for analysis of speed/power trials
(MEPC64/4/15, MEPC64/INF.6, MEPC65/

Table 2 Reduction rate of EEDI.

Ship Type


Bulk carrier

and above

Gas carrier


and above
and above

Container ship

and above

General cargo ship

and above

Refrigerated cargo

Combination carrier

and above
and above

Ro-ro cargo ship (vehicle 10,000DWT

and above
and above
Ro-ro cargo ship***
Ro-ro passenger ship***

LNG carrier***
Cruise passenger
ship*** having nonconventional propulsion

and above
and above
and above

Phase 0
1, Jan.,
201331, Dec.,

Phase 1
1, Jan.,
201531, Dec.,

Phase 2
1, Jan.,
202031, Dec.,

Phase 3
1, Jan.,



























































0-5* **








0-5* **












0-5* **



ISO15016:2002 taking into account ITTC recommended procedures 2012. Currently ITTC is
cooperating with ISO to revise ISO15016
(MEPC66/4/4, MEPC66/INF.7).



Each ship is obliged to keep on board a

copy of SEEMP. SEEMP provides a possible
approach for monitoring ship and fleet efficiency performance over time and some options to be considered when seeking to optimize the performance of the ship.
SEEMP is composed of a cycle of planning,
implementation, monitoring, self-evaluation,
and improvement.
In the planning stage goals are set. The goal
can take any form, such as the annual fuel consumption or a specific target of EEOI.

* Reduction factor to be linearly interpolated between the two values dependent upon
vessel size. The lower value of the reduction factor is to be applied to the smaller ship size.
** Phase 1 commences for those ships when the amendments to MARPOL Annex VI come
into effect
*** Reduction rate applies those ships constructed on or after [date of entry into force].
Note: n/a means that no required EEDI applies.

Ship speed in calm water (Vref) can not be
directly measured in speed/power trial runs.
Therefore, corrections for wind effect, wave effect, current effect, displacement and shallow
water are performed. At MEPC62 consideration for these corrections in order to reduce the
vagueness and improve the robustness was requested from Norway (MEPC62/5/5).


The existing model testing procedures, related to the EEDI prediction and verification
process are reviewed in more detail in the next
section of the report and will not be discussed
here. The procedure for prediction of power increase in irregular waves from model tests is
developed by the Sea-keeping committee, and


has been a matter of discussion and revision

during the recent ITTC conferences. ITTC/AC
recommended that this procedure requires major update, in view of the latest EEDI developments.

EEDI prediction is carried out at the design

In the Industry Guidelines, Part III
shows the above process in detail. Here, the
EEDI verifications are reviewed briefly.

Due to the very modest feedback from the

SKC, as already noted in section 3, the PSS
committee did not receive a recent update of
the subject procedure; hence the committee was
not in a position to comment.



The model tests should be witnessed by a

nominated verifier. Special attention should be
given to the following items:
(1) Ship Model
(2) Propeller Model
(3) Model Tests
a) Resistance Test
b) Propulsion Test
c) Propeller Open Water Test
(4) Speed Trial Prediction



This task is described in the Industrial

Guidelines written by Joint Working Group
(JWG), formed by the following international
shipping associations and organizations: IACS,
SAJ, WSC and ITTC. The Industry Guidelines
has been submitted to IMO MEPC 64 as MEPC
64/INF.22 First version of industry guidelines
on calculation and verification of the Energy
Efficiency Design Index (EEDI).

Above model test should be performed according to ITTC Recommended Procedure 7.502-02-01, 7.5-02-03-01.1 and 7.5-02-03-02.1.
Numerical calculations may be submitted to
justify derivation of speed power curves, where
only one parent hull form have been verified
with tank tests, in order to evaluate the effect of
additional hull features such as bulb variations,
fins and hydrodynamic energy saving devices.

ITTC, with AC chairman as its representative, and PSS committee contributed to Part III
- Verification of EEDI of the Industry Guidelines. The following sub-sections present the
outline of the Industry Guidelines, model-ship
correlation process and recommendations for
future work on this topic.


Ship Model Testing

These numerical simulations may include

CFD calculation of propulsive efficiency at reference speed Vref as well as hull resistance
variations and propeller open water efficiency.
In order to be accepted, these numerical
simulations should be carried out in accordance
with defined quality and technical standards
(ITTC 7.5-03-01-04 at its latest revision or
equivalent). The comparison of the CFDcomputed values of the unmodified parent hull
form with the results of the tank tests must be
submitted for review.

Verification Process

EEDI verification should be conducted on

two stages:
(1) Preliminary verification at design stage
(2) Final verification at the sea trial



friction deduction by the added resistance (e.g.

wind resistance etc.) and run the selfpropulsion test already at the right load or it can
be achieved by calculation as given in Procedure 7.5-02-03-01.4.

Quality System

The verifier is to familiarize with the tank

test organization test facilities, measuring
equipment and quality system for consideration
of complying with the requirements of section
6.2 prior to the test attendance when the verifier
has none or no recent experience of the tank
test facilities and the tank test organization
quality control system is not certified according
to a recognized scheme (ISO 9001 or equivalent).
In this case, the following additional information relative to the tank test organization is
to be submitted to the verifier:

A wake correction is always necessary for

single screw ships. For twin screw ships it can
be neglected unless the stern shape is of twin
skeg hull type or other special shape.
The performance prediction should always
be based on a resistance, propulsion, and a propeller open water test of the model propeller
used during the tests and the propeller open water characteristics of the final propeller.

1. Descriptions of the tank test facility; this

should include the name of the facility, the
particulars of tanks and towing equipment,
and the records of calibration of each monitoring equipment as described in Appendix
3 of Industry Guidelines.


Basic Principles. EEDI is defined at fully

loaded condition. However for most of the
ship types the speed/power trial cannot be carried out at full load condition.

2. Quality manual containing at least the information listed in the ITTC Sample quality
manual (2002 issue) Records of measuring
equipment calibration as described in Appendix 3 of Industry Guidelines.

It is recommended to use the graphical construction described in Figure 1 that can be described by the following general procedure, applied only to EEDI power reference point (75%
of MCR):

3. Standard model-ship extrapolation and correlation method (applied method and tests
description) .


Model-Ship Correlation

Based on the final corrected measured

power values, the ratios Pmeasured / Ptanktestpredicted
are calculated foe each sea trial speed point.
These ratios are put on the curve obtained from
the model tests for EEDI condition to obtain
the curve of the trial results for EEDI condition.

Speed Trial Prediction

The principal steps of the Speed Trial prediction calculation, are given in ITTC Recommended Procedure 7.5-02-03-01.4 ITTC 1978
Performance Prediction Method (in its latest
reviewed version of 2011). The main issue of a
performance prediction is to get the loading of
the propeller correct and also to assume the
correct full scale wake. The right loading of the
propeller can be achieved by increasing the

This means that the EEDI prediction for

both laden and trial (ballast) conditions is very
important. Only the speed at the trial(ballast)
condition will be confirmed at the sea trial.
The speed at the EEDI (laden) condition will
be confirmed based on the EEDI prediction of
the model test. Therefore the difference of the


requested in Appendix 4 of Industry Guidelines.

In particular, the verifier will compare the differences between experience-based coefficients
Cp andC FC between the EEDI condition
( FULL ) and sea trial condition if different from
EEDI condition ( ) with the indications given
in Figures 2 and 3 extracted from a SAJ-ITTC
study (see below presentation of the study) on a
large number of oil tankers. If the difference is
significantly higher than the values reported in
the figures, a proper justification of the values
should be submitted to the verifier.

model-ship correlation between the fully loaded

condition and trial condition is very important.

Study for The Model-Ship Correlation Between Full and Ballast Condition. This study
was carried out based on the data from SRC,
Shipbuilding Research Centre of Japan. Number of data is 773 of all kind of ships.

Figure 1 Extrapolation from measured

values at sea trial condition to EEDI

- Design Full load condition

- The other condition

Model-ship correlation method followed by

the tank test organization or shipyard should be
properly documented with reference to the
1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Method
(PPM) given in ITTC Recommended Procedure
7.5-02-03-01.4 rev.02 of 2011 or subsequent
revisions, mentioning the differences between
the followed method and the 1978 ITTC PPM
and their global equivalence.


Figure 2 shows the method 1( C P ) versus

displacement ratio. The tendency indicates increasing C P values with decreasing displacement. These values, however, are provided by
clients and most of them are not confirmed at
sea trial or other.
Figure 3 shows the same data in method
2( C FC ). The sea trial data of 59 series of
tanker data also plotted in Figure 3. The variance of the data from sea trial is not small, but
we can conclude that the scatter is distributed
around the SRC data.

The correlation method used should be

based on thrust identity and the correlation factors should be according to method 1 (CP CN)
or method 2 ( C FC wc ) of the 1978 ITTC
PPM. If the standard method used by the tank
test organization does not fulfil these conditions, an additional analysis based on thrust
identity should be submitted to the verifier.

It seems that further study is necessary, because the scatter of the model-ship correlation
is very large. All the model basins and ship
yards should gather their own data. Figure 2
may be the only data which shows the modelship correlation on different displacement. And
the number of the data is not small. Before the

The verifier will check that the power-speed

curves obtained for the EEDI condition and sea
trial condition are obtained using the same calculation process and properly documented as


study each model basin should decide the

model-ship correlation carefully.



EEDI prediction process should follow the

Industry guidelines. Model test and numerical
calculations should be conducted according to
ITTC Recommended Procedures.
In EEDI regulation, model basins are requested to build a quality control system, such
as ISO9000 or equivalent. All the ITTC members should be accredited with such a QA system.
For EEDI verification or confirmation of
the contract between ship owner and ship
builder, the difference of model-ship correlation between full and trial condition is very important. Further studies in this respect are encouraged.

Figure 2 Variation of CP-CPFULL as a function of the displacement ratio.





The IMO MEPC at its 64th session and the

Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), at its 91st
session, approved the Interim Guidelines for
determining minimum propulsion power to
maintain the manoeuvrability of ship in adverse
conditions. The Interim guidelines are presented in detail in document MSCMEPC.2/Circ. 11. Interim Guidelines for Determining Minimum Propulsion Power to
Maintain Manoeuvrability of Ships in Adverse

Figure 3 Variation of C FC as a function of

the displacement ratio.
On the other hand, it is difficult to gather
data of full load condition. Other methods
should be invetigated, such as the feed back of
the performance of the ship after delivery.

According to the above documents, the following definitions, applicability and assessment
procedures apply:


Definition. Adverse condition mean sea

conditions with the following parameters:

a) Assessment level 2 Simplified assessment

Significant wave height Hs = 6.0 m;

Peak wave period Tp = 8.0 to 15.0 sec;
Mean wind speed Vw = 19.0 m/sec

The simplified assessment is applicable

only to ships whose rudder area is not less than
0.9% of the submerged lateral area corrected
for breadth effect.

Applicability. The Guidelines should be

applied in the case of all new ships in unrestricted navigation, required to comply with

The simplified assessment procedure is

based on the principle that, if the ship has sufficient installed power to move with a certain
advance speed in head waves and wind, the
ship will also be able to keep course in waves
and wind from any other direction. The minimum advance speed in head waves and wind is
thus selected depending on ship design in such
a way, that the fulfilment of the advance speed
requirements means fulfilment of coursekeeping requirements.
If the ship under consideration fulfils the
requirements as defined in the simplified assessment, the ship should be considered to have
sufficient power to maintain the manoeuvrability in averse conditions.

Assessment procedure. he assessment can

be carried out at two different levels as listed
a) Assessment level 1 - Minimum power
If the ship under consideration has installed
power not less than the power defined by the
minimum power line for the specific ship type,
the ship should be considered to have sufficient
power to maintain the manoeuvrability in adverse conditions. The minimum power line values, in kW, should be calculated as follows:



Minimum power line value = a x (DWT)+b,

Greece accomplished a study to investigate
the applicability of the guidelines and the assessment procedures for determining the minimum propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability under adverse conditions, as
specified in the aforementioned circular. The
results of this study were based on the interim
guidelines on minimum propulsion power to
maintain the manoeuvrability in adverse conditions, submitted in document MSCMEPC.2/Circ.11, which relates to the procedures proposed for Phase 0 and Phase 1 and
later of EEDI implementation.

Where: DWT is the deadweight of the ship

in metric tons; and a and b are the parameters
given in Table 3
Table 3 Minimum power lines parameters
Ship type
Bulk carriers
Combination carriers

0.0687 2924.4
0.0689 3253.0
See tankers above

If the minimum power lines assessment

is not fulfilled, then the simplified assessment
may be applied.

Meanwhile, IMO/MEPC in Resolution

MEPC 232(65) issued in Annex 16 of the Report of MEPC (65) on 24th May 2013, modified


the sea and wind conditions specified by MEPC

232(65), as well as the associated service speed
under these circumstances. These operational
points (main engine power and propeller revolutions) at the minimum speeds required for
achieving sufficient manoeuvring capabilities
of a ship in a seaway were specified assuming
that the propeller characteristics and the hull propeller interaction coefficients in waves dont
deviate from those in calm water.

the weather and sea conditions for the evaluation of maneuverability to milder ones, especially for the smaller vessels. IMO/MEPC also
modified slightly the minimum power lines for
both tankers and bulk carriers to improve fitting
with the available statistical data. Thus, a
member of the PSS Specialist Committee, updated the original study for four typical bulk
carriers of DWT 30000 (Handy), 57000 (SupraHandy-Max), 79000 (Kamsar-Max) and
176000 T (Cape-Size) and a VLCC 306000 T
to evaluate the most recent requirements. Lines
plans and sea trial data were used to derive the
performance of the aforementioned vessels in
adverse weather conditions. Actual operation
points were derived by matching the power requirements with the propeller characteristics
and the main engine operational diagram.
Long-crested head sea waves (worst case for
added resistance) and the worst peak wave period TP within the range specified by MEPC
232(65) were assumed.

On the basis of these results, useful conclusions with respect to the installed power margin
that is necessary to ensure safe operation of the
ships in the prescribed sea and weather conditions, are drawn, as follows:
All five ships studied, very easily satisfy
level 1 requirement, while some of them
satisfy only marginally the requirements of
level 2 simplified assessment. This constitutes a major failure of rationalism, dictating that level 1 should be the strictest one.
Since either level is sufficient to comply
with the requirement, it follows that the
simplest level 1 should not also be the easiest to fulfill.
The submerged lateral area of the hull, corrected for breadth effect, estimated using
the formulation proposed by IACS and incorporated in MSC-MEPC.2/Circ.11 and
MEPC 232 (65) is 55-70% higher than the
actual one, both at the full load and the
heavy ballast conditions and in the case of
the VLCC more than 80% higher.
The differences between the estimated
power requirements on the basis of MSCMEPC.2 / Circ.11 and the calculated results
are higher in the heavy ballast conditions
than in the full load ones. This can be attributed to the fact that the approximate relations in the supporting document of IACS
(IMO MEPC 64/INF.7, June, 2, 2012) to
the document IMO MEPC 64/4/13 have
been derived mainly on the basis of the full

Furthermore, calculations using the level 1

and 2 assessment methods, as described in
MEPC 232(65), were carried out at two loading
conditions: a fully laden and a heavy ballast
one, both selected from the trim and stability
booklet of each vessel.
To evaluate the Level 1 procedure, the
characteristics of the investigated vessels are
compared with the minimum line for bulk carriers (BCs) and tankers derived on basis of statistics.
To evaluate the Level 2 procedure the performance of each vessel in calm water and in
waves was estimated numerically. On the basis
of the sea trials and the propulsion characteristics the power required to propel the ship in
calm water at various speeds was derived.
Then, using a strip theory method the dynamic
responses are derived and using an energy
method the added resistance was calculated in


load conditions. However, the heavy ballast

condition was found to be more critical with
respect to minimum power requirements
than the full load one in three of the evaluated cases, basically due to the higher seakeeping vertical responses in head waves
contributing to excessive added resistance
in head waves. Furthermore, quite often the
rudder is not fully submerged in the ballast
The minimum power requirements specified
on the basis of IMO MEPC 232 (65), using
Level 1 Minimum Power Lines are exceeded by about 20% for all five cases investigated.
The minimum power requirements specified
on the basis of IMO MSC-MEPC.2/Circ.11
using Level 2 Simplified Assessment are
met only marginally in one of the two tested
conditions for the four investigated BCs.
Taking into account the fouling and the aging of ships, and the fact that the propulsive
performance in waves is reduced compared
to that in calm water, this criterion may be
violated. On the contrary, they are well satisfied in the case of the VLCC in both loading conditions, where the required minimum speed is too low for the installed main
engine propeller configuration. Since all
oceangoing ships regardless of their LOA
size encounter the same weather and sea
conditions in the ocean, which affect more
the smaller ones, the power margin must be
increased in smaller ships. Instead, resolution MEPC. 232(65) - 2013 reduced the requirement for all ships and more so for
ships below 250 m in length (i.e. the
Panamax and Handy-supras workhorses of
the seas) to levels equivalent to Beaufort 67.
The minimum power requirement estimated
on the basis of IMO MEPC 232 (65) ignores the increase of the calm water resistance due to hull and propeller fouling, as
well as that due to ship aging. However,

commercial ships are neither new-buildings

nor just launched from the dry dock.
The regression line for the minimum power
requirements (Level 1) seems to be satisfied
by the 90% of the plotted sample, while only 10% of the plotted sample are below the
curve, implying that the required minimum
installed power is substantially lower than
actual typical current designs for bulk carriers. The same holds true for the tankers.
Even before EEDI some vessels were built
with much smaller engines than appropriate.
These ships were underpowered. It is obvious that these ships constitute the bottom
samples of the scattered data. It does not
seem appropriate, nor conservative, to now
provide an effective IMO stamp of safety
to all ships as long as they are not within the
worst 10% of the data as far as engine size
is concerned.
Thus, the Level 1, simplified method, which
is included in the interim guidelines, adopted by resolution MEPC.232 (65) as the first
level of a two or three-level assessment approach should be the most stringent and
conservative, as a matter of principle.
Based on the results and conclusions of the
above study it could be summarized that the Interim Guidelines seem to be premature and
would need further refinement. Some
recommnedations for future ITTC work on this
topic are formulated in the Conclusions of this





The speed/power characteristics of ships

have always been at the core of ship design. To
prove contractually agreed values, speed trials


Tanaguchi and Tamura method (11th ITTC,


are conducted by the yard prior to delivery of

the ship to the owner. In the past, operational
schedule of the vessel was often the most important factor for the speed requirement. Today, owners and operators are keen to reduce
fuel consumption to decrease operational costs.

In 2004, the STA-Joint Industry Project,

supported by leading ship owners and major
shipyards, investigated the current practice and
developed significant improvements in the trial
procedures, and in the analysis of the measured
results, including new correction methods for
waves and wind.

The IMO brief asked that a transparent, unambiguous and practical method had to be delivered which would be acceptable for all
stakeholders and that could be used for both
contractual agreements between yard and
owner as well as for the assessment of the IMO
EEDI for any new-built ship worldwide. At the
same time, the results of the speed/power trials
should be completely documented and traceable for the EEDI Verifier representing the flag
state of the vessel. This task was conducted by
the ITTC Committee for the Performance of
Ships in Service with the assistance of the
STA-Group which has been working in this
field since 2004.


In December 2011, the PSS Committee invited STA-Group to co-operate on the new
ITTC Guidelines for Speed/Power trials to be
submitted to IMO MEPC for EEDI verification.
STA-Group accepted the invitation and provided access for ITTC to STA-Group data and



The two basic parameters to be measured

during the trials are ship speed and shaft power.
By determining these parameters at different
engine power settings and correcting them for
non-ideal circumstances, the speed/power relation for the ship at trial draught and trim can be


Speed/power trials are conducted to establish the performance of the vessel at design
draught and trim under stipulated weather conditions, usually deep water, no wind and no
waves. As the conditions encountered during
the trials often deviate from the contract conditions, corrections are applied during the analysis and reporting of the trial results. In the past,
institutes such as BSRA, NSMB, SNAME and
ITTC published methods for conducting and
analysing speed/power trials. Shipyards randomly selected and developed their own yard
standard from these methods. In 2002, the International Standard Organisation published
ISO 15016, which included a cumbersome
analysis method based on a wide choice of outdated correction methods and empirical data.
The analysis method is based on the old manual

As illustrated by Figure 4, the speed and

shaft torque of a vessel in realistic weather
conditions is varying constantly, both with
wave frequency and with lower frequencies. It
is obvious that reliable measurements and
analysis methods are required and at the same
time, strict limitations have to be taken into
consideration during the speed/power trials
such as the minimum water depth, maximum
wave heights and maximum wind speed.
Although the speed log is one of the oldest
sensors on board ships, it is still one of the
most inaccurate instruments and it does not
give the speed through water with an accept-


measurement duration of 10 minutes. Each

double run consists of a speed run in head
waves and a counter run in following waves.
The reason for this is that practical wave corrections are only available for those courses
and rolling, steering and course deviations
should be avoided.

able accuracy. The D-GPS, however, is capable

of deriving the speed over ground. To eliminate
the current from the speed over ground, the results of double runs (i.e. speed runs on reciprocal courses), can be averaged according to the
Mean of Means method also referred to as
Pascals triangle, which was already presented by Van Lammeren in 1939 and also recommended by the Principles of Naval Architecture (SNAME, 1988). To account for time
varying currents such as tidal currents, two or
more double runs are required for the same
power setting.

Power corrections are applied for non ideal

conditions such as wind, waves and small deviations in displacement. The propeller loading
due to wind and waves and displacement deviations is accounted for by taking into account
the deviations in propeller efficiency and rpm
as obtained from the load variation model tests.
The above approach is referred to as the Direct
Power Method and is a transparent, reliable and
practical method that can easily be understood
by yards and owners. The method does not
need curve fairing or fitting neither numerical
solvers. The Direct Power Method was selected
by ITTC PSS is the basis for the new Guidelines.
Number and length of speed runs. The
minimum number and length of the speed runs
has been discussed at length by the committee.
The basis for the requirements is the accuracy
in speed and in shaft power measurements in
limiting current, wind and wave conditions as
well as the analysis and correction methods
which are all based on average figures. Not
only current variations but also the low frequency components in the added resistance in
irregular waves and the low frequency wind
gusts have to be accounted for in the averaging

Figure 4 Speed through water and over

ground and shaft torque measured on an 1800
TEU container vessel in 4 m significant wave
height (Courtesy; Vroon)
The Mean of Means is applied after correcting the measured speed/power points for
wind, waves and other deviations from ideal
conditions except the conversion from the (ballast) trial draught to the contract design
draught. All corrections for non-ideal conditions are expressed in shaft power corrections
(except for shallow water) and the propeller efficiency is corrected for non-ideal loads by use
of the results of load-variation model tests.

The required number of double runs at various power settings was specified:

The speed over ground is derived from the

end-positions of the speed run over minimum


two double runs at contract power;

two double runs at EEDI power (75%



one double run at one other power setting

between 65% and 100% of MCR.


For sister ships, the programme can be reduced to one double run at contract power, at
EEDI power and at one other power setting between 65% and 100% of MCR. In adverse environmental conditions, additional double runs
are required. The measurements and recording
of all required signals during speed runs with a
minimum duration of 10 minutes have been
specified in detail in these Guidelines.






Figure 5 Averaging of measured wind vectors over two counter runs to derive the true
wind vector
Wind drag coefficients for ships have been
published by many authors in the past; however
modern vessels are much larger and have a different geometry than ships used in well-known
wind resistance publications. Therefore, it is
important to use recent ship type and size specific data derived from proper wind tunnel
measurements or validated computational tools
such as LES-RANS CFD. For container ships,
it is crucial to distinguish the wind drag in ballast condition without containers on deck but
while taking into account the lashing bridges
(which are exposed to wind during trials) and
the design draught case where the vessel is
loaded with containers. Remarkably the wind
resistance coefficient of the loaded vessel is
normally smaller as the full container pack provides a better flow shape than the wheelhouse
and lashing bridges!

Wind correction. The wind drag on ships

increases quadratically with the relative wind
speed and therefore the actual encountered
wind speed and direction should be measured
as accurately as possible. Wind speed read
from the anemometer on top of the wheelhouse
should be treated with care as the wheelhouse
normally generates over-speed at this location.
For some wind directions the anemometer may
be shielded by masts, funnels or cargo. To
minimise these effects the wind vector is averaged over the results of the two counter runs in
one double run set as illustrated by Figure 5.
As the ship navigates in the boundary layer
of the wind over the sea, it is important to take
the wind velocity profile into account. Wind
speed is normally defined as the average velocity at a height of 10 meters above the surface.
Wind drag coefficients are also normally derived in a wind profile defining the wind speed
at 10 meter. For this reason the wind measured
by the anemometer has to be corrected for the
height of this sensor. When the anemometer is
located 50 meter above water for example, this
height correction results in a 21% reduction in
wind speed and 46% in wind load. When the
forward speed of the ship is included, the effect
on the wind load can be even larger.

The STA-JIP collected systematic wind

tunnel data sets for various ship types and loading conditions. Also, extensive CFD analyses
have been conducted to correlate with wind
tunnel data to arrive at a solid understanding of
wind drag and to establish extensive empirical
data sets for wind drag correction.
ITTC incorporated the wind correction approach from STA. Besides the STA-Wind data
sets for the different ship types, PSS also included the regression method published by Fujiwara et al. in 2005.


motion induced
added resistance

In all cases, it is possible to use the drag coefficients derived by means of qualified wind
tunnel tests or validated CFD analysis for the
specific ship geometry.

ra w

added resistance
due to reflection

More elaborate presentation of the recommended methods for wind drag correction follows in the next chapter.




/ Lpp

Figure 6 Added resistance in waves as function of wave length over ship length.

Wave correction. Even within the trial limits for wave height, the added resistance due to
waves can be a substantial part of the required
shaft power. The added resistance in waves increases quadratically with wave height and thus
even in low sea states the wave correction
method should provide an accurate prediction
of the added resistance for the specific ship and
the actual encountered wind driven sea and
swell conditions. At the same time, the method
should be practical requiring limited input; today, many yards refuse to deliver the body plan
to the shipowner and the encountered wave
spectrum is not normally measured.

The STAwave-1 method is based on the

fact that for todays large ships the head waves
encountered in trial conditions are normally
short compared to ship length and speed. The
added resistance due to the reflection of those
short head waves is mainly dependent on the
shape of the waterline in the bow region. Ship
displacement, draught, trim and speed play a
secondary role. Actually the dominating reflection part in added resistance is a component of
the second order wave forces which can be analytically found from integration over the waterline geometry (Pinkster, 1980). For ship shapes
in head waves this analytical expression was
simplified for practicality to:

The added resistance in waves originates

from two wave systems; firstly the reflection of
short waves on the hull and secondly, the wave
induced ship motions i.e. heave and pitch. The
first component is dominant in short waves, the
second component contributes if the wave
lengths are similar to the ship length (Figure 6).
STA used the horses for courses approach;
STAwave-1 for reflecting irregular head waves
and STAwave-2 for head waves in which the
vessel is pitching and heaving. If desired,
model test results for the specific ship geometry
can be used.

Raw =

gH s2 B

= Beam of the vessel on the waterline[m]
= Distance of the bow to 95% of maximum beam on the waterline [m]
= Significant wave height [m]
The above expression is particularly practical for speed/power trials as only the ships
beam, the length of the bow section and the
significant wave height are required as input.
No other ship particulars such as parametric
coefficients or bluntness factors nor ship speed


or wave spectrum are required. It is simply assumed that the asymptotic short wave value of
the transfer function extends over the complete
range of wave frequencies and thus that the
vessel is not heaving and pitching, which can
be easily checked during trials.

Tanker Lwave/Lship = 0.33

Model test irregular



Added resistance in waves





For small and medium sized vessels or in

case long swells are encountered during the trials, the vessel actually will heave and pitch and
those motions will contribute to the overall resistance. For this purpose STAwave-2 was developed. This is an empirical statistical method
utilising seakeeping model test results from 200
ships. The transfer function of the added resistance in head waves is parameterised to a function of seven input quantities accounting for
ship geometry and ship speed. A wave spectrum shape (Pierson-Moskowitz (PM) for seas
and Jonswap for swells) is assumed in this
method but both significant wave height and
mean period have to be specified.

Tanker loaded high speed

Tanker loaded low speed

Tanker ballast high speed

Tanker ballast low speed

Container Lwave/Lship = 0.33

Model test irregular



Added resistance in waves



Container loaded
high speed

Container loaded
low speed

Container ballast
high speed

Container ballast
low speed

Figure 7 Added resistance in irregular head

waves computed by STAwave 1 & 2 compared
with results of large model tests for different
speeds and loading conditions.

Both STAwave methods were validated

with dedicated model tests for a Panamax containership and an Aframax tanker at scale 1:38
and 1:43 respectively in MARINs Seakeeping
and Manoeuvring Basin. It should be noted that
reliable added resistance measurements at
model scale requires large models (typically 6
8 m.), a dedicated test setup and sufficient run
length in the basin. Only the largest seakeeping
basins in the world offer this capability. As illustrated by Figure 7 both STAwave-1 and
STAwave-2 show an acceptable agreement
with the model test results for both ship types.

As reliable wave corrections can be made

for head waves and if the added resistance in
following waves is negligible for normal trial
conditions, speed runs in head waves and following waves need to be carried out. For wave
directions within the +/- 45 degrees bow sector
STAwave for head waves is applied. However,
if yard and owner want speed/power trials in
other circumstances, they may conduct dedicated seakeeping model tests and measure the
encountered wave spectrum during the
speed/power tests. Measurement of the encountered wave spectrum is also required in case
non-benign sea conditions are encountered during the speed/power trials.
Besides the STA-Wave methods ITTC PSS
adopted also an approximation method utilising
simplified model tests which was published by
Tsujimoto et al in 2008. This method requires


model tests in regular head waves for the specific ship geometry.
Prior to adopting the three wave correction
methods, ITTC PSS subjected these methods to
extensive correlation with model test results
made available for this purpose by HSVA,
MARIN, NMRI and SSPA. Some comparative
results are presented in the next Chapter 9.
Alternative to the use of the above prediction methods, the transfer function of added resistance can also be derived from seakeeping
model tests for the specific ship geometry and
loading conditions. This transfer function can
then be applied to the wave spectrum measured
during the trials.

Figure 8 New limits for significant wave

Corrections for propeller efficiency and
rpm. With the power corrections for the encountered additional resistance due to wind,
waves and possibly small displacement deviations (max. 2%), also the loading variation of
the propeller and thus the propeller rpm and efficiency shall be accounted for. For this purpose the results of the load variation model
tests shall be used. As not all model test facilities have experience with load variation tests,
these test procedures and their analysis have
been specified and documented in detail in Appendix A of ITTC recommended procedure
7.5-04-01-01.2. The load variation test analysis
results in three coefficients which are subsequently used in the speed/power trial data

To ensure the reliability and accuracy of the

wave correction methods, new wave height
limits for speed/power trials have been developed by ITTC PSS. These new limits distinguish trials where the wave spectrum is measured and those where the wave height is derived from observations. In case use is made of
transfer functions for added resistance derived
from dedicated seakeeping model tests for the
specific ship geometry, the wave spectrum has
to be measured during the speed/power trials
unless the waves are below the lower limit. The
new wave height limits are presented in Figure

The fraction of propulsion efficiency as

function of the added resistance fraction.
The fraction of the shaft rate as function of
the fraction of power increase.
The fraction of the shaft rate as function of
the fraction of speed increase (shallow water).


The method has been validated by a comparison with model tests which were conducted
by SSPA specifically for ITTC PSS.

be cleaned and the propeller polished prior to

Conversion from ballast draught to design
draught. As several ship types such as containerships and dry cargo vessels, due to lack of
cargo, cannot be subjected to speed trials at
their design draught and trim during delivery
trials, results of these trials have to be converted to the contractual design draught and
trim conditions. This conversion is then based
on the difference of calm water model test results for the trial condition and the design condition. This has proven to be one of the largest
causes of deviations and discrepancies in the
results of delivery speed trials.

The documented procedure has been included in the final version of the ITTC recommended procedure 7.5-04-01-01.2. The
speed/power trial analysis thus requires the
load variation tests as a standard procedure to
be included in calm water ship power model
Corrections for temperature & density. The
usual corrections of power for temperature and
deviations are incorporated in the new procedures.
Corrections for Water Depth. In the new
ITTC speed/power trial procedure the speed
corrections for shallow water according to the
method published by Lackenby, 1963 has been
implemented. With the use of CFD analysis it
has been proven by Raven, 2013 that this
method strongly overpredicts the effect of shallow water. The reason for this is that the
method is based on systematic model tests in a
shallow water basin. The resistance of the
model is not only influenced by the water depth
but also by the horizontal restrictions of the
towing tank. Especially in shallow water the
horizontal restriction of the basin has a large
effect on the resistance. Work of the STAGroup is underway to develop and validate new
method by means of speed-power trials at a
range of water depths. This is considered to become one of the important improvements of the
new procedures in the near future.

Model test results are always extrapolated

to full scale on the basis of scaling laws, as well
as correlation coefficients. These statistical
correlation coefficients relate the scaled-up
model test power to the predicted power for the
actual speed/power trials with that vessel. For a
model basin with a sufficiently large trial database for the specific ship type and size, this
practice has proven that it is able to deliver
power predictions with acceptable accuracy
over the years. Model test prediction accuracy
is thus dependent on the experience of the
model basin and, consequently, the availability
of accurate speed/power trial data. For several
ship types, however, design draught trial results
are scarce. This is a particular problem for relatively new ship types, where data related to
modern speed ranges and recent sizes is often
Therefore, strict guidelines for this ballast
speed/power trial results as well as for the extrapolation of model test results towards full
scale have been incorporated in the new ITTC
sea trial procedure. The wording in the Procedure is as follows:

Effect of surface roughness. The added resistance due to (hull/propeller) surface roughness is not addressed in the procedure. It is required that the ship should go on sea trial with
clean hull and propeller. In case some kind of
surface fouling is documented, the hull needs to


cation of correction methods on respective

elements are required in order to reduce the
number of methods adopted in the updated
speed/power trial procedure.

For all draughts and trims, the same

methods, procedures and empirical coefficients shall be used to extrapolate the
model scale values to full scale. In case
different methods, procedures or empirical
coefficients are used for the different
draughts, these shall be documented in full
detail and documentation must include
justification by means of full scale S/P
Trial data for the specific ship type, size,
loading condition, model test facility and
evaluation method.

Wind effect. Using the wind tunnel database of NMRI for 54 ships, the following six
methods are compared in view of practical use.
The database contains contemporary ship
Selected methods are (1) Fujiwara 2005
(Fujiwara et al., 2005), (2) Fujiwara 1998 (Fujiwara et al., 1998), (3) Isherwood (Isherwood,
1973), (4) Yamano (Yamano and Saito, 1997),
(5) Yoneta (Yoneta et al., 1992) and (6) STA
DataSet (Sea Trial Analysis Joint Industry Project, 2006). The methods (1) to (5) are regression formulae and method (6) is dataset for coefficient of wind resistance.

This implicates that model basins can only

deliver reliable speed power predictions for design draught when they derive their extrapolation coefficients from speed/power trials conducted at the design draught of that vessel type
and size.






To validate each method, the averaged

standard error of wind resistance coefficient
( SE EST ) is calculated. SE EST is defined in Eq.
(3). The results of the comparison are shown in
Figures 9 and 10 for each ship type.

The background, history and the major

principles of the work performed by the 27th
ITTC Specialist Committee on Performance of
Ships in Service for updating the speed/power
trial procedure are presented in the previous
chapter. In the current chapter, the different
correction methods suggested will be reviewed
in more detail with emphasis on the verification
work done by the PSS committee.



1 1 ns n
C AAij C AAij
nS n j =1i =1


Where nS is number of ships, n is number

of wind directions, C AAij is the coefficient of
wind resistance tested at wind tunnels and C AAij
is the coefficient of wind resistance estimated.

Correction Methods

At speed/power trials, effects of wind,

waves, current, water temperature, salt content,
shallow water, displacement and trim should be
analysed and corrected for from measured data.
The studied data is summarized below. Verifi-






c) Car Carrier: 8 ships













Figure 9 Averaged standard errors of longitudinal wind force coefficient (54 ships).

Car Carrier

d) Cruise Ferry: 7 ships


a) Tanker: 16 ships

















Cruise Ferry


e) LNG Carrier: 4 ships





b) Container Ship: 9 ships


















Container Ship


LNG Carrier

f) General Cargo Ship: 10 ships





The three methods are: (1) STAWAVE1,

(2) STAWAVE2, and (3) NMRI (Tsujimoto,


STAWAVE1 and STAWAVE2 methods

are presented in the previous chapter.


The NMRI method is a theoretical method

with practical correction, which calculates frequency response function. Two options are
provided to apply the NMRI method to wave
correction. One is a theoretical method combined with simplified tank tests in short waves.
The other is a theoretical method combined
with empirical functions for the required parameters estimation.


General Cargo Ship

Figure 10 Averaged standard errors of longitudinal wind force coefficient for each ship
From the validation, it was found that Fujiwara 2005 method gives the best estimation.

The PSS committee initiated comparison

study for added resistance in regular and long
crested irregular waves to understand which of
the three methods: STAWAVE1, STAWAVE2,
and the NMRI method combined with simplified tank tests in short waves is the best suited
for the estimation of added resistance in waves
for speed/power trial.

As a result of the validation, the following

three possible approaches were recommended
in the updated procedure:
(1) Statistical regression formula for various
ship types developed by Fujiwara et al.

The added resistance response function is

compared for six ships with the results of tank
tests in regular head waves. For reference, the
estimated functions by Maruo (Maruo, 1963)
with Fujii-Takahashi (in the figures F-T) (Fujii
and Takahashi, 1975) and Faltinsen (Faltinsen
et al., 1980) are drawn. These results are presented in Figures 11-16.

(2) STA Dataset see previous chapter

(3) Use of wind tunnel measurements for
the specific ship
Wave Effect. Many calculation methods
for added resistance due to waves have been
developed and these are categorized into empirical method, slender body theory, panel method,
and CFD. For the application to wave correction at speed/power trial, the methods should be
robust, practical and validated in full scale.
Based on these considerations, the following
three methods were selected and compared.

From these results, it is clear that the NMRI

method combined with simplified tank tests in
short waves gives the best estimation, while
Fujii-Takahashi method and Faltinsen method
underpredict added resistance in short waves.
Application of STAWAVE2 in ballast conditions should be carefully checked in short



















































Figure 14 Bulk carrier (L=217m, Fr=0.188;


Figure 11 Container ship (L=300m,

Fr=0.247; Full)




















Figure 15 VLCC (L=324m Fr=0.121; Full)

Figure 12 Car carrier (L=190m,






























Figure 16 VLCC (L=317m Fr=0.141; Bal




Figure 13 Bulk carrier (L=217m, Fr=0.167;


Validation in long crested irregular waves

has been performed by the contribution of
MARIN, HSVA, SSPA and NMRI. Correlation
diagrams are shown in Figures 17 and 18.


RAW prediction (kN)



HSVA tank tests


MARIN tank tests

NMRI tank tests






RAW prediction (kN)

Figure 17 Wave correction methods compared with NMRI model test data; note NMRI
model test results were used for the NMRI prediction method.


500 600 700 800

R AW experiment (kN)


HSVA tank tests

MARIN tank tests
NMRI tank tests
SSPA tank tests






500 600 700 800

R AW experiment (kN)

Figure 18 STAwave-1 and STAwave-2 correlated with model test results for various ship
types, loading conditions and speeds in irregular head waves
Comparison results for the NMRI method
combined with empirical relation for the parameter estimation applied to oblique/beam
waves has been provided by NMRI. Correlation
diagram is shown in Figure 19.


In case CP (longitudinal prismatic coefficient)

and CWP (water plane area coefficient) curves
are available, the NMRI method having two
options can be used.
(4) Use of sea-keeping tests to obtain frequency response function for the specific ship
Current Effect. Current correction by current curves has uncertainty due to the fairing
process of the curve.
To solve the problem, current elimination
by Mean of means method has been proposed.
Since the method requires two or more double
runs (DR) and relates with the requirements for
speed/power trial conduct, extensive discussions on this topic were carried our during the
PSS committee technical meetings. During the
deliberations, it was pointed out that cost increases in proportion to the number of runs.
Therefore, as a compromise, in the final recommended procedures, it was allowed to apply
a combination of two double runs (2DR) and
one double run (1DR).

Figure 19 Comparison results for the NMRI

method combined with empirical relation for
the parameter estimation applied to
oblique/beam waves.
From the validation, it is found that the
NMRI method combined with simplified tank
tests in short waves gives the best estimation.

In case of 2DR, current change is assumed

as a quadratic function of time, while in case of
1DR the current is assumed time independent.

Based on the above validation results, the

treatment of the wave correction method is
summarized as:

It was also pointed out that for large low

speed ships as VLCC, one run needs a time duration of approximately two hours. On the other
hand, current direction changes with a period of
six hours. For such case, 2DR may be insufficient to keep accuracy since quadratic function
is hard to express the tidal changes, as illustrated in Figure 20.

Under the condition that the pitching and heaving are small/missing and head waves, the simplified estimation method can be used.

In case only ship dimensions are available and
head waves, empirical correction method with
frequency response function can be used.
(3) NMRI method


Effect of Water Temperature and Salt Content. The effects of water temperature and salt
content are corrected considering difference of
water density and frictional resistance.

Tidal period is
about 12 hours
2 double runs
take 8 hours

Effect of Shallow Water. In the absence of

a more reliable method, the effect of shallow
water is corrected according to the ship speed
by Lackenby formula (Lackenby, 1963).

Inflection point exists

during the trials

Figure 20 Relation on tidal velocity and trials for large low speed ship as VLCC.
Load Correction. The load variation model
test has been selected to account for the influence of propeller loading on the propulsive efficiency. This method is also more transparent
and straight forward comparing to the previous
method (KT/J2 approach).

Displacement and Trim. Displacement and

trim are, in general, factors that can be adjusted
to stipulated values at the time of the trials, but
there may be substantial reasons for discrepancies. Thus the limit for trim and displacement
to allow speed/power trial is documented. Correction of displacement is carried out under the
concept that Admiralty coefficient is constant.

The example of load variation tests is

shown in Figure 21.


New Recommended Procedure Issued

In June 2012 the ITTC/PSSC submitted its

completely revised speed/power trial procedures:
7.5-04-01-01.1:Speed and Power Trials,
Part I Preparation and Conduct
7.5-04-01-01.2: Speed and Power Trials,
Part II Analysis of Speed/Power Trial Data
to IMO MEPC 64. Part I concerns the preparation and conduct of speed/power trials and was
accepted as an informative paper. Part II concerns the analysis of measured speed/power
trial data and was accepted by IMO MEPC 64
in September for EEDI use. The final wording
of Part I was accepted by IMO MEPC 65 in
March 2013. MEPC 65 stated that the ITTC
2012 (a simplified reference for the combined
two procedures) is the preferred method for deriving the speed/power performance of ships
for EEDI.

Figure 21 Example of load variation tests

relation between propulsion efficiency change
and resistance increase.


vibration and other problems which should be

taken into account.

With the acceptance of these new procedures, the ITTC and IMO have established a
transparent, straightforward best practice and a
level playing field for the delivery of new
ships for all stakeholders.

Jan et al (2010) studied the total operational

cost change curves for the 13,500 TEU Container vessel, see Figure 22. For the 13,500
TEU, the optimum speed is found to be 21.5 kn
rather than the design speed of 25 kn. The cost
reduction at that speed is about 7%, the fuel
consumption reduction 43 %. Up to a speed of
16.7 kn the ship could operate without monetary loss. However, the very low loading of the
engine would likely cause some additional mechanical problems.

Impact on model tests and speed trials. It

should be noted that these Speed/Power Trials
procedures have three direct impacts on the
procedures for model testing, extrapolating the
model scale results to full scale and number of
speed runs:
1. Load variation tests should be part of the
calm water propulsion model test program and
the analysis of these tests should be according
to the described procedure.
2. For extrapolation to full scale the same procedure and empirical coefficients should be
used for all draughts unless these procedures
and coefficients are justified and documented
with results of full scale trials for the specific
ship type, size and loading condition.

Figure 22 Total cost changes by speed reduction

3. Speed trial shall consist of 5 double runs

with minimum 10 minutes for the first ship,
though for sister ships the programme can be
reduced to 3 double runs.


10.2 Hull Form Design and Optimization

Hull form design and optimisation usually
starts with the selection of optimum main dimensions. Depending on the ship type and the
ship size, the difference between optimum
main dimensions from hydrodynamic point of
view and optimum main dimensions from the
manufacturers point of view (lowest building
costs) can easily reach 20-30%.


10.1 Speed Optimization

Speed reduction is an effective way to reduce consumption and emission. However, the
lowest speed is not necessarily the speed where
the amount of fuel consumed per tonne-mile is
the minimum. Further, it should be considered
that slow speed operation may lead to increased

Contemparary hull form design and optimisation is heavily supported by CFD (computational fluid dynamics) tools. Although the potential flow methods neglect all viscous effects
and cannot predict steep, breaking waves these


simple methods are still the working horses in

the optimisation process. Combined with parametric hull form modelling tools several hundred up to some ten-thousand hull form variants can be investigated during the optimisation
process in a reasonable time.

10.3 Propeller Design

There are several high efficiency propeller
types, such as ducted propeller, podded propeller, hybrid contra-rotating pod, tip-plate propeller and composite propeller.

More and more RANS codes are used during the hull form design process giving much
more insight in local flow phenomena, boundary layer details or the complex wave formations emerging from partly submerged bulbous
bows in off-design conditions.

Ducted propeller. The latest research is

from Long Yu et al(2013), who published an
optimization design method for ducted propeller analysis. It combines geometry generation,
auto-meshing, optimization algorithm and CFD
analysis techniques and make the process
automatically operated which helps extend the
CFD analysis to the design process. A ducted
propeller case study is validated and optimized,
which is a propeller substitution and upgrading
for higher thrust force and efficiency. The optimum result can provide better thrust force
than original ducted propeller installed on the
vessel. However, the automatic optimization
process is also time-consuming and very sensitive to the geometry twisting.

Van et al (2010) used a RANS code, coupled with a parametric hull form optimization
tool to develop hull forms that both minimize
resistance and improve the wake quality into
the propeller. In a sample case that examines
the afterbody of a tanker, the significant reduction in resistance was achieved with good
agreement with experimental data. However, it
is insufficient to judge the performance of afterbody on the basis of wake and resistance
only. Self-propulsion simulation and validation
are further needed.
Developments and applications of SBD
(Simulation-based Design to ship design was
also reported. Kim et al(2010) investigate on
the flexibility of use of some choices of design
variables including local and global ones in the
optimization of the KCS containership.

Figure 23 ducted propeller (left: original,

right, optimized )

Li (2012) developed a method to optimize

the ship line automatically considering realgeometry propeller. These efforts should be a
positive step to promote hull form design.

Podded propeller. Raimo2013studied

the energy saving possibilities in twin or triple
propeller cruise liners. The good solutions for
improved ship designs are podded propulsion,
Dual-End CRP, ECO efficient conventional
propulsion concept and hybrid propulsion concept. With careful appendage and propulsion
design, large fuel saving is possible to achieve.
With the aid of CFD tools, new hull form con-

Actually, hull form designers focus no

longer on the optimisation for one draught and
one speed, but they are optimising the hull
shape for a range of speeds and draughts with
remarkable influence of bulbous bow and fore
body designs, especially for container vessels.


the blades. The end plates are positioned so as

to cause a minimum viscous resistance and
therefore are parallel to the incoming flow and
shaped to the relative motion of the water. The
end plate is located at the pressure side of the
blade with the aim to obtain a higher overpressure downstream. All research findings are included in the book Detailled Design of Ship
Propellers. Possible gain in the range of 612% in full scale is claimed. However, reliability and ship owners acceptance may be the
main difficulties to wide use of CLT.

cepts can be developed prior to the modeltesting phase of a project. Yet, podded propeller has the disadvantage of shorter docking interval comparing with normal propeller which
should be taken into account.

Figure 24 Ship model of a Hybrid Cruise

Hybrid contra-rotating pod (CRP). CRP
concept makes use of Pods in combination with
the existing single screw shafting arrangement,
which gains in efficiency caused by the lighter
propeller loading and the contra-rotating effect
of the propellers. Also, the dimensions of the
conventional shafting arrangement can be reduced, and the rudders, headboxes and stern
tunnel thruster can be removed which will lead
to reduced appendage resistance. CRP is expected to have 15% benefit with suitable design.

Figure 26 Tip-plate Prop

Kappel propeller. The Kappel propeller
concept was initially proposed by Jens J. Kappel and Poul Andersen, Poul Andersen et al
(2005). The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft
wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. The
application of a pronounced fin or winglet at
the tip of the propeller blade has led to the
Kappel propeller with blades curved towards
the suction side integrating the winglet into the
propeller blade. The combined theoretical, experimental and practical approach to develop
and design marine propellers with non-planar
lifting surfaces has resulted in propellers with
higher efficiency and lower levels of noise and
vibration excitation compared to conventional
state-of-the-art propellers designed for the same
task. The authors claim efficiency gain in the
order of 4% based on sea trial results.

Figure25 Hybrid CRP

Tip-plate Prop. The Contracted Loaded Tip
propellers (CLT) are screw propellers with
highly loaded blade tips. The fitted end plates
at the blade tips act as a barrier avoiding the
communication of water between both sides of


10.4 Energy-Saving Devices

For both CLT and Kappel propellers, however, a standard procedure for the open water
hydrodynamic characteristics scaling is still
missing. Therefore, a recommendation to the
full Conference could be addressed to look into
this issue.

Energy-saving devices are widely used to

improve the propulsive performance. There are
many kinds of devices. Y.B Choi(2008) summarized the energy-saving devices and their
rates and some are listed below.
John Carlton(2007) classified all hydrodynamics energy-saving devices into 3 categories.
The first category located upstream of the propeller. One solution tries to improve the axial
flow of water reaching certain areas of the propeller, especially the upper region of the disk
(such as the flow equalizer duct). The second
category contains all those devices located
downstream the propeller to recover rotation
energy, including boss cap fin, the fins on the
Costa bulb type and the "Additional thrust
fins", etc. The third category contains all those
devices located near waterline, relatively far
from the propeller, to reduce wave resistance.
These devices include Spray deflector ,Wave
suppression plate etc.

Composite propeller. A. SnchezCaja

(2013) explored combination of Pod, CLT and
CRP propulsion for improving ship efficiency:
EU Project TRIPOD. The main objective of the
TRIPOD project is to develop and validate a
new propulsion concept for improved energy
efficiency of ships which is based on the combination of three existing propulsion technologies. In particular, TRIPOD explores the feasibility of integrating podded propulsors and tip
loaded endplate propellers into energy recovery
systems based on counter rotating propeller
(CRP) principle. A non-rotatable pod unit
called Rudderpod is installed behind the ship
main propeller. CRP units consisting of different combinations of CLT and conventional
propellers are being analyzed in ballast and
load conditions for a retrofit and a new building
scenario. CFD tools and model tests are combined to facilitate the design process. A method
for the extrapolation of model tests to full scale
and another for the accurate estimation of effective wakes by CFD tools have been developed.

Figure 28 Different Energy-saving devices

and gain rates

Figure 27 Composite propeller


With the rapid increase of fuel oil price and

EEDI pressure, more and more interested parties start to investigate the mechanism of energy-saving device both experimentally and
numerically .
Jie (2011) introduced a new Joint Industry
Project (JIP) initiated by MARIN, which aims
to look into the working principles and scale
effects on Energy Saving Devices (ESDs).
Three ESDs have been chosen for the investigations in the first phase. They were a pre-duct
with a supporting stator in the duct, a pre-swirl
stator with asymmetric blade design and Propeller Boss Cap Fins (PBCF). Measurements of
forces and moments on all components of the
ESDs have been carried out in self-propulsion
model tests with dedicated sensors. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique has been used
in the investigation of the detailed flow around
the ESDs. In order to investigate the scale effects in model tests, a full-scale wake field was
approximated by a smart ship model. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations
were carried out both for designing the smart
ship model and also for the detailed flow
around the ESDs.

Figure 30 Configuration of Duct on VLCC

The mechanism of the ducts influence on
the wake field, ships resistance, and propulsive
performance was studied and analyzed in detail. From analysis, the author concluded that
the ships resistance variation induced by the
duct is very limited, the duct produces a beneficial tangential velocity field for propulsive performance. Also, the duct reduces the transverse
pressure difference between two sides of the
ship which is helpful to course-keeping. This is
an additional benefit.
Some more energy-saving devices are
briefly introduced below.
Rudder bulb. This energy-saving device is
installed on rudder. Its used to reduce the hub
vortex, increase wake fraction, reduce contraction of the propeller slipstream, reduce pressure
pulse induced by propeller. HSVA model test
shows that rudder bulb can have up to 2%
benefit, and other tanks such as SSPA gives the
same conclusion.

Figure 29 The sensors used to measure

forces and moments.
Yuhai etal(2013) performed numerical selfpropulsion simulation of a VLCC with realgeometry propeller.

Figure 31 Rudder with bulb


Propeller boss cap fins (PBCF). CAI et al

(2013) introduced an integrative design method
of propeller and PBCF. PBCF and propeller are
considered as a whole system and the design is
an integrative process, in which the concept of
uploading in blade root is merged. The load
wellproportioned due to the uploading in blade root,
and it is advantageous to the depression of
vibratory force and blade tip vortex. The blade
root area has larger thickness and strength,
which is beneficial to noise reducing. The disadvantage of uploading in blade root is the
generation of hub vortex behind boss cap, but
the hub vortex can be absorbed by PBCF.
Therefore, the integrative design method can
provide higher efficiency propellers for the
same design conditions. Yet, whether and how
to perform open-water test with PBCF needs to
be further investigated.

Figure 33 Combined energy-saving devices

10.5 New Idea of Energy Saving

Sasaki (2013) introduced ZEUS(Zero Emission Ultimate Ship) challenging project of
NMRI . The objective of ZEUS project is to
obtain the maximum energy efficiency. Some
innovative ideas are developed. Reaction pod is
quite a new idea for podded propulsion system
and it means the optimum pod arrangement for
the twin skeg hull form.
Weather Adapted Duct(WAD) The system
is composed of a propeller with special pitch
distributions and a front duct placed very close
to the propeller. The size of diameter of the
duct is less than 45% of propeller diameter and
the size is so small that harmful cavitation
hardly occurs.

Figure 32 PBCF
Combined devices. In 2012, an energy saving model test on a VLCC was carried out
in MARIC towing tank. The energy-saving devices consist of Simplified Compensative Nozzle(SCN), Rudder Bulb(RB) and Thrust

Figure 34 Concept of Reaction Pod (left)

and Weather Adapted Duct (right)
Spray Tearing Plate (STEP) is a device to
reduce added resistance in waves to change a
direction of wave dynamic pressure from longi-


one important aspect is to lead escaping air

properly to avoid propeller cavitation.

tudinal direction to lateral direction. Therefore

STEP is very effective if the vessel has sharp
stem and high speed enough to grow bow
waves. The effectiveness is confirmed by onboard measurements and STEP has been installed in some RoRo cargo ships (Kuroda et al.
2012, Kuroda et al. 2013).

Figure 37 Resistance component Fn

The research of resistance reduction by air
injection method have been actively carried out.
Using a 1m-wide-50m-long flat plate model
ship, the effectiveness of the resistance reduction by air injection is shown in a series of experiments in a 400 m long towing tank of
NMRI (Hinatsu et al. 2008). With these results,
full-scale ship experiments using air injection
were performed for a large cement carrier (Kodama et al. 2008).

Figure 35 STEP installed in a RoRo vehicle


10.6 Resistance Reduction by Air Injection

Figure 38 Air injection for full-scale ship

Figure 36 Resistance reduction by air
Since frictional resistance reduction is the
only function of air carpet, slow-full ship will
be more likely to get benefit. Below figure
shows the best Fn range is from 0.05-0.15.
The resistance reduction effect of air tends
to decrease in waves, hence inland navigation
vessels are better suited for this approach. Here,

Figure 39 Wake flow without air injection

(left) and with air injection (right)


Some shipyards developed and engaged

into operation air lubrication systems.

Optimum trim. Most ships are designed to

carry a designated amount of cargo at a certain
speed for a certain fuel consumption. This implies the specification of set trim conditions.
Loaded or unloaded, trim has a significant influence on the resistance of the ship through the
water and optimizing trim can get significant
fuel savings. For any given draft there is a trim
condition that gives minimum resistance. In
some ships, it is possible to assess optimum
trim conditions for fuel efficiency continuously
throughout the voyage.

The first system was installed on two sister

ships of flat bottomed module carrier (Mizokami et al. 2010). Following applications were
on ordinary type of ocean going ships, like a
28,000DWT bulk carrier (Mizojiri et al. 2012)
and a ROPAX (Mizokami 2013).
Recently, a new air lubrication system has
been developed. For a large ship having a deep
draft, the air supply to the ship bottom is one of
critical problems to get net energy saving. In
order to overcome the problem, a new concept
to use bypassed scavenging gas for the air lubrication has been applied to 90,000DWT bulk
carrier (Kaiji Press 2013).

10.8 Conclusion and Suggestions

To enhance the powering performance, such
measures as speed reduction, energy saving devices, hull form and propeller optimization can
be used. However, some challenges/problems
still exist, which need further study.
(1) How to coordinate multi-draft and multispeed optimization
(2) How to correlate energy-saving rate from
model scale to full scale.
(3) Reliability of high efficiency propeller
(4) Wide application of Air-carpet resistance
reduction technology.

Figure 40 Air lubrication system used in

service (90,000DWT bulk carrier).

10.7 Other Measures to Improve Ships

Performance From Resolution
MEPC.213 (63)


Improved voyage planning. The optimum

route and improved efficiency can be achieved
through the careful planning and execution of
the voyages. IMO resolution A.893(21) (25
November 1999) on "Guidelines for voyage
planning" provides essential guidance for the
ship's crew and voyage planners. Better course
control by means of less frequent and smaller
corrections will minimize losses due to rudder



Experimental methods to determine the effect of wind (wind force measurements in the
wind tunnel) and the effect of drift in side wind
conditions (force measurements using computerised planar motion techniques for a range of
specified drift angles, rudder angles and heeling
angles, if necessary) are state of the art and will
not be described in this context.


Yue X-R, et al.(2011) calculated wind

loads on a VLCC, and the calculation results
were compared with the experimental results.

11.1 Wind resistance

Wei Jin-fang, et al. (2010) investigated the
coefficient fw for the decrease of ship speed of
EEDI, and introduced a calculation method for
fw taking into account of added resistance of
wind by empirical formula.

Ma Y. (2009) studied and analyzed the

aerodynamic performance of the sail in the
Olympic Games by use of the numerical simulation and experimental method in a wind tunnel.

Zhu H., et al. (2009) measured the mean

wind pressure distribution and shape factors of
local members of the platform with the steady
gradient wind through wind tunnel tests under
different wind directions.

11.2 Steering effect on resistance

An experimental approach investigating
ship drift and steering in winds and waves freerunning tests at a towing tank is performed using a container ship model of 6.3m length (Fujiwara et al. 2008). Figures 41 and 42 show the
setting of the experiment. For the evaluation of
full-scale ship, the load variation on the propeller and rudder, and difference of wake pattern are to be considered.

A. Mohseni, et al. (2012) presents the effects of waves, wind speed and direction, current speed and direction, and depth of water in
vessel voyage planning which is based on meteorology and satellite data and computer program based in the ISO/DIS 15016. The interpolation between satellite data, historical chart data and observed data can optimize voyage route
and cause reduction in sea passage time and
fuel oil consumption. Various analysis methods
for resistance increase due to ship motion,
wave diffraction, wind, steering, drifting, water
temperature, salt content, deviation of displacement, hull and propeller surface roughness
and shallow water effects are considered and
could be contained in computer program.
With the rapid progress of CFD technique,
numerical simulation has played more and
more important role in predicting wind resistance.
Zhu H., et al. (2009) performed the simulation of mean wind pressure distribution, form
factors and the wind loads of the platform
based on N-S equation.

Figure 41 Force balances acting on the ship

for external forces (wind speed: 4m/s and wave
height: 0.12m, with wave length ship length ratio: 0.9).

Hou L., et al. (2009) calculated the wind

moment of a container ship by N-S equation
based on commercial software.


Figure 43 Longitudinal force due to ship

drift (bulk carrier, Fr=0.15

Figure 42 Photo of free-running model experiment of a container ship (from behind the
Chuang (2013) performed a series of experiments on a model of 8000 DWT tanker in
a large towing tank and ocean basin. The model
was self-propelled and mainly running in moderate long wave conditions. Numerical simulation work was carried out in order to make
comparisons with experimental results. It was
concluded that time domain simulation is the
preferable method for the steering effect evelauation.

Figure 44 Longitudinal force due to ship

drift (container ship, Fr=0.25)

For the empirical formula, longitudinal

force due to ship drift (XH') is conventionally
considered as the difference of ship resistance
(X0U'). To improve the accuracy in the small
range of drift angle, a method has been developed assuming the static motion (Sogihara et al.
2010). This method integrated lift-induced drag
for small aspect ratio into the formula. Comparison between experimental and calculated
results are shown in Figures 43 and 44. These
figures also show the improvement of the estimation in the small range of drift angle.

There have been large improvements in automated heading and steering control systems
technology from Resolution MEPC.213(63).
An integrated Navigation and Command System can achieve significant fuel savings by
simply reducing the distance sailed "off track".
The principle is simple; better course control
through less frequent and smaller corrections
will minimize losses due to rudder resistance.
Retrofitting of a more efficient autopilot to existing ships could be considered.





In order to systematize the search through

the researchers works, reference was made to
the following aspects:

effects of novel coatings application on

the ship hull surface
ship performance data recording and
impact on the power prediction methods
based on model test

Figure 45 Fouling of several commercial

formulations after 180 days static immersion
(Swain, 2011).
Many researchers deal with the problem of
comparison of different surface coating systems
in terms of frictional resistance. Comparative
studies of Tin-free biocide-containing (TF)
Self-polishing copolymer (SPC) and foul release (FR) coatings is provided by Corbett et al.
(2011) where the fuel consumption data gathered in operation of bulk carrier and tanker pre
and post FR coating application as well as data
recorded on newly build sisterships coated with
FR (two ships) and Tributylin (TBT)-free SPC
(three vessels) were analysed. Significant fuel
savings (10% for the tanker, 22% for bulk carrier) were reported due to application of FR
coating. The fuel saving effect was not observed for the case of container vessel however
it was noted that FR coated vessels carried out
approximately 10k metric tons more cargo
comparing to their SPC coated sisters. The paper contains also the fleet-wide extrapolation of
FR coating usage revealing huge potential of
GHG limitation. Although such superior performance was not confirmed by other sources it
was noted by Anderson et al. (2004) and Candries et al. (2003) that 2%-23% drag reduction
may be accounted for FR based on quality of
application and test type (flat plates of different
size and cylinders). In case of similar application procedure the differences in friction are
much smaller and amount to ~2% which is to
some extent confirmed by rotating cylinder

12.1 Effects of Novel Coating Application

on the Ship Hull Surface
Comprehensive review of the research
works within the area of hull surface coatings
can be found in ITTC (2011). It consists of
market based review of available surface treatment methods, discusses the impact of coating
systems on ship performance in terms of hull
resistance, propeller characteristics, cavitation
and noise. Furthermore it provides the review
of the measurement methods used for determination of surface roughness as may be applicable to ship hull and those used for skin friction
measurement both in model and full scale.
It must be stated that although relatively
large database exists within the field some publications are influenced by ship coating systems
producers and may reflect their commercial interest. Although significant reduction (up to
10%) of frictional resistance is claimed it is
hardly supported by verifiable data or reliable
measurement provided by industry (ITTC,
2011). Furthermore, it should be noted that majority of discussed measurements were carried
out at Re below the full scale ship conditions
and require some sort of extrapolation.


Economic impact of the hull fouling was

considered by Schultz et al. (2011) on example
of DDG-51 destroyer class. The special consideration was taken with respect to the hull condition maintenance strategy in comparison to
current US-Navy practice. Introduction of the
effective proactive hull cleaning strategy offers
substantial savings in total cumulative costs per
ship in long term horizon.

tests presented by Abdul Ghani et al. (2010)

where drag benefit of FR coating over SPC reduces with increased speed (Re number).
The drag/fuel consumption increase in time
is discussed by Taylan (2010) for a number of
different coating systems including FR and
SPC confirming previous conclusions regarding the performance of FR systems. A rate of
roughness increase over time was reported to
be between 20 to 40 microns per year depending on the coating type. Some additional information on time dependent surface deterioration
due to fouling may be found in Willsher (2007)
where also the effect of slime growth is indicated. This phenomen reached significant focus
in Candries et al. (2003) where it is indicated
that operational experiences shows little difference between FR and SPC coatings after a period of time. Although significant increases of
drag (reaching 10% after 10 days of immersion
in still water) in flat plate towing tests was reported it was finally stated that eventual ship
drag increase would be within few percents of
clean surface drag. This discrepancy results
from the fact that part of slime layer detaches
from the surface when the ship is in motion,
what explains why FR coating rapidly losses its
initial drag benefit but does not exhibit more
drag than SPCs over longer period of time (after reaching slime growth/detachment equilibrium). These findings were supported by the
measurement of power increase carried out for
two sister ship fleet oilers each painted with
different coating system (FR and SPC) in a period of over 1 year of operation (Logan, 2011).
Similar conclusions of FR and SPC coatings
performance comparison based on static and
dynamic immersion tests were presented by
Swain (2011). Author stressed also the importance of the hull condition control and its
proper maintenance by use of the novel technique of grooming (i.e. gentle, habitual and
frequent mechanical conditioning of hull surface).

Effects of the application of FR coating on

marine propeller was presented by Anderson et
al. (2004) by recalculation of propulsive performance of slow speed tanker. Calculations
were done with use of corrected drag and lift
coefficient of the propeller blade according to
the results laboratory analyses of number of
coated surfaces. The 6% efficiency gain over
the uncoated propeller being in service without
cleaning for one or two years was reported.
Similar range of propeller efficiency enhancement was theoretically determined due to application of the coating generating a hydrophobic (i.e. water repellent) surface as reported by
Schwanecke (2010).
Fouling prevention re-gained the research
focus since mid-1990 due to the restrictions on
use of TBT-based paints. It was however observed that majority of the studies used the barnacles as a model for biofouling. This approach
was criticised by Holm (2012) due to the fact
that fouling community of organisms is extremely diverse and may not be properly described by single specie. Furthermore it was
pointed out that current research made use of
relatively simple assays while more advanced
tools including molecular genetic and atomic
force microscopy could be utilised. Author requested the holistic approach to the biofouling
problem. He concluded that although the studies on barnacles continue to advance the state
of the art, the successful resolution may be only
reached by similar depth of knowledge for other fouling organisms.


white-box model for the purpose of ship routeing with respect to minimisation of emissions
was presented by Prpi-Ori & Faltinsen
(2012). Another example was published in
(Leifsson et al, 2008) where linear and nonlinear regression methods were implemented in
order to tune the general model to fit the characteristics of specific ship. It must be noted that
such models were developed for the purpose of
conceptual design. Therefore, use of white-box
models with their limitations and underlying
assumptions and uncertainties implicitly affects
their accuracies. These limitations were briefly
discussed by Petersen et al. (2012) revealing
that even large changes of ship performance
due to hull surface deterioration over one year
would not be detected. Similar conclusions
were found by Dinham-Peren & Dand (2010)
Some additional information with respect to
accuracy of white-box models were provided
by Leifsson et al. (2008).

12.2 Ship Performance Data Recording and

An ability to build the ship performance
model and therefore predict her performance
under specific operational conditions allows for
efficient ship operation. Whenever the crew or
owner officers attempt the task of ship routing,
selection of fuel efficient combination of speed,
draft and trim or deciding the hull surface conditioning, the adequate ship performance model
allows for making technically justifiable
The need and benefits of ship performance
monitoring has been well recognized in marine
practice (Carlton, 2007) although relatively
simple methods were used. Latest works of
IMO GHG Committee, in particular those connected to mandatory determination of ship's
Energy Efficiency Operational Index (EEOI)
and Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
(SEEMP), directly point out the need of application of onboard performance optimisation
systems as tools for reduction of environmental footprint.

By contradiction, the black-box models do

not require any prior knowledge or consideration about the modelled system. Black-box
model describes the relations between input
and output variables e.g. between ship operational variables and ocean environmental conditions and ship fuel consumption. The application of black-box model for performance monitoring of domestic ferry operating between
Danish islands along with comprehensive set of
full scale data collected onboard for the period
of almost two months is presented by Petersen
et al. (2012). Similar approach was used for
monitoring of 110k DWT tanker performance
(Pedersen & Larsen, 2009). Both cases made
use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for the
purpose of building the model. It was reported
that promising results were obtained indicating
the ability of predicting the fuel consumption
within accuracy of ~2% after proper training of
the system. The resulting accuracy is close to
standard deviation of shaft power determination
onboard the vessel therefore further improve-

The success of performance monitoring

largely depends on incorporating the versatile
ship performance models which allow for
benchmarking the performance data against
reference performance and for selection of operational variables (e.g. speed or trim) in order
to perform the transport task of the ship at
minimum costs and/or environmental impact.
In general, such performance models fall into
three main categories:

white-box models,
black-box models and
grey-box models.

White-box models are based on physical

principles resulting from model and full scale
experiments and observations. Application of


However, as the possible cause of the underperformance, the small range of speed change in
training data was suggested.

ment of the prediction may be only achieved by

more accurate registration of performance data
used for feeding the model. Despite these results the limitations of the proposed approach
were noted. It was found that although the
method copes relatively well with system identification inside the range of measured parameters the extrapolation beyond the identified
boundary fails. Large variation of the parameters which may be a case of determination of
ship performance in ballast and design conditions could not be covered by homogenous

Some authors e.g. Pedersen & Larsen

(2009) and Logan (2011) discussed the influence of data quality on the accuracy of ship
performance prediction model. It was generally
noted that daily log data did not allow for
building the accurate prediction model since
they contain both reliable data (such as GPS
speed or engine rpm) and data which are subject to interpretation (e.g. wave conditions).
Furthermore, ship log data mix instantaneous
data (e.g. wind speed) with time averaged data
(e.g ship speed calculated based on distance
travelled) which may be another source of inaccuracies. Therefore, it was pointed out that
use of automatic data recording systems allows
for improvement of performance prediction.
Further, significant improvement of prediction
quality may be achieved by incorporation of reliable weather data available on systems such
as NOAA (Pedersen & Larsen, 2009).

Use of so called grey-box models i.e. combination of semi-empirical (white) models and
black-box models were proposed in order to
overcome the limitations of pure black-box
models with reference to extrapolation. Both
parallel and serial combination of white and
black box models were tested by (Leifsson et
al, 2008) revealing similar performance. Similarly to Petersen et al. (2012) and Pedersen &
Larsen (2009) the ANN was used as the blackbox model. The white-box model was based on
Holtrop (calm water) and Isherwood (rough
water) methods. The developed model was
used for performance approximation of the 10k
DWT container ship sailing at design speed of
20 knots. The model was trained on the data set
registered during the quasi-static part of the
voyage (port approach and manoeuvres were
filtered) with use of MAREN energy management system installed onboard. Application of
grey-box model performed much better than
white-box model in terms of fuel consumption
prediction. However, it was noted that such result may be achieved due to largely simplified
white-box model used in comparison. Furthermore, it was stated that the same grey-box
model did not reveal satisfactory performance
in predicting the ship speed. Surprisingly, the
achieved results were only slightly better comparing to performance of pure white-box
model. Such results were difficult to explain.

12.3 Impact on the power prediction

methods based on model test
Hull surface roughness can have a significant impact on the vessel propulsive performance thus causing increased fuel consumption
and harmful emissions. As indicated by Swain
(2011) in case of the 280m cruise ship operating at 20kn, an increase of the average hull
roughness (AHR) results in 1% penalty in fuel
consumption for every 15m.
Surface roughness influences a ship power
prediction through the impact on the hull resistance and propeller performance. The standard
method (ITTC-78) of ship model tests extrapolation includes the roughness corrections for
bare hull resistance (roughness allowance CF)
and open water propeller characteristics (differ-


its physical replicas built up with use of rapidprototyping based on two low-order models
(retaining 95% and 71% of the original surface
roughness). In order to trace the similarities and
differences of the replica surfaces, they were
scanned and the streamwise profiles of the
roughness amplitude were analysed with use of
probability density functions (PDFs). Both loworder representations preserved relatively well
flow characteristics outside roughness sublayer.
In case of the flow inside the boundary layer,
the differences are substantial. Only low-order
model, retaining 95% of the roughness details,
allowed to maintain the flow characteristics
close to the wall. It should be noted that in the
study of Mejia-Alvarez and Christensen (2010),
the roughness height was not the only scale
used to describe the surface. Beside the roughness height, the root-mean-square roughness,
skewness, flatness, streamwise and spanwise
surface gradients were presented. The need of
research within the field of correlation between
friction drag characteristics and surface texture
parameters was indicated by Flack and Schultz
(2010). They studied roughness parameters
presented in literature and the common surface
statistical parameters in order to identify hydraulically relevant roughness scales. Results
indicated that root-mean-square roughness
height (krms) and skewness of the surface elevation PDFs (sk) were the most effective parameters in terms of hydraulic performance of
the surface. A correlation between mentioned
parameters and commonly used sandgrain
roughness height (kS) was also provided:

ence in propeller profiles drag coefficient

CD). The appendages resistance is not affected by the roughness in general (except the
bilge keels which area is included in total wetted hull surface and thus influenced by roughness allowance). The recommended methods
for appendages resistance scaling are approximate and therefore implementing the roughness
effects can be considered as unnecessary complication without the visible effect on prediction accuracy.
Surface roughness is represented by a single
parameter referred to as average surface roughness kS (for ship hull) and kP (for propeller).
The average roughness is obtained by numerous measurements performed along the surface
in question with use of roughness analyser. Default values recommended for use in case the
direct roughness measurements are missing are
150m for hull and 30m for propeller.

Figure 46 Ship hull coating condition. Left:

3 year self-polishing copper 70 m AHR.
Right: 11 year hybrid copper 264 m AHR plus
damage (Swain, 2011).
It was, however, suggested by Candries et
al. (2003) that single parameter roughness
characteristics adopted in ITTC extrapolation
procedure may not be sufficient to describe surface characteristics. This finding complies with
works of Mejia-Alvarez and Christensen (2010)
where effects of rough surface simplifications
on the flow quality were presented. The study
consisted of the PIV flow measurement over
the original, damaged turbine blade surface and

kS = f(krms, sk) 4.43krms(1+sk)1.37


It should, however, be applied with caution

since the data used for setting up the correlation
contained only few examples of the negative
skewness (i.e. describing pitted surfaces due to
corrosion, surface wear etc.). Furthermore, it
should be noted that the correlation was done


Roughness can consist of several types of

surfaces such as different coatings, aged or
damaged coating, bio film and bio fouling,
and the severity can vary locally on the hull
Measuring the roughness on the immense
surface of a ship is demanding at best, and
require different techniques (e.g. a roughness analyser for coatings, wet film measurement for bio film and roughness analyser
plus density measurement on, for example,
Quite a decent number of skin friction
measurements on rough surfaces are available and reported in literature but they are
difficult to compare and compile into a larger context since they are based on very different test techniques.
Most measurements reported in literature
have been translated into a single parameter
function such as the equivalent sand roughness, when a two parameter function including also for example density would be appropriate.

for the fully rough flow and may not work in

transitionally rough regime.
Current propeller open water characteristics
scaling procedure was re-evaluated in the recently completed research project PREFUL.
Joint research conducted by HSVA Hamburg
and CTO Gdansk was aimed on development
of the alternative methods of recalculating the
model propeller performance to the full scale.
Two alternative procedures were presented by
Streckwall et al. (2013) and Bugalski et al.
(2013). Both proposals, however, do not incorporate the effect of propeller surface roughness.



13.1 Methods
The task to numerically simulate the effect
of surface roughness can be divided into two
parts: first the translation of a real roughness
condition as it appears in reality into simplified
parameters, like the equivalent sand roughness; and second to introduce the simplified
parameters into the numerical equations describing the near wall flow.

Sand-Grain Roughness in The Flow Equations. Thin boundary layer methods used together with a potential flow solver was until recently commonly used for ship flow simulations and is still relevant for many applications.
Surface roughness can be included in thin
boundary layer methods by introducing a velocity shift function. This applies a decrease in
the log-arithmetic layers mean velocity corresponding to the effect of roughness, see LeerAndersen & Larsson, 2003.

Modelling Real Roughness. Modelling the

real roughness in detail with CFD can be done
for some cases in a small scale, for example the
flow around individual barnacles, whereas
slime and similar biological growth cannot be
properly modelled. Realistically, this step has
to rely on experiments that link certain roughness properties to velocity shifts and skin friction.

RANS methods used for ship application

simulate the flow near a no-slip surface either
by wall functions or by resolving the flow all
the way to the wall near wall resolution.
Roughness, at least in terms of an equivalent
sand roughness, can be introduced in either of
these methods. For example, Eca & Hoekstra
(2011) demonstrated that sand-grain roughness

Measuring real roughness and translating to

one or more parameters is a difficult matter:


The study by Leer-Andersen (2003) show

the possibility to link the coefficients required
in the flow equations to test samples with
roughness of various type and extent via photos
and roughness measurements. This combined
experimental/computational approach could
make it possible to simulate the effect of
roughness with greater accuracy than using
empirical methods. However, the lack of suitable experimental data is troublesome, as described above.

effects can be well simulated with these methods for a flat plate at Reynolds numbers corresponding to full scale ship applications. They
used the turbulence model SST k- which is
relevant and commonly applied in ship hydrodynamics.

13.2 Applications
Trial Speed-Power Prediction. The hull
surface of a newly built ship can be assumed to
be homogenous and well defined in terms of
size, texture and distribution (if we neglect the
fact that bio film growth can occur within a few
weeks in some locations). The step to translate
this kind of roughness to a single or dual parameter to be fed into the flow equations should
be possible, even though no examples thereof
have been found in the open literature. Castro
et al, (2011) demonstrate however how the surface roughness kS appearing in the roughness
allowance CF in the ITTC scaling procedure
can be translated to the surface roughness used
in wall functions and applied to the KRISO
container ship test case with good results.

13.3 Conclusions
Surface roughness is likely to affect not
only the skin friction on hull and propeller but
also the wake flow into the propeller.
roughness into numerical methods for speed/
power prediction in trial condition seems to be
possible and several well documented methods
The possibility to study the effect of nonhomogenous roughness such as bio fouling in
operational condition is still limited. Progress
in this area would be helped by experiments
with consistent test techniques of a large number of realistic surface conditions (preferably
from the same laboratory). This could be used
to formulate models that bridge between real
roughness conditions and the simplified coefficients used in the numerical equations.

Operational Conditions. Numerical simulations of a ship in operation with extensive bio

fouling could be relevant not only for the resistance increase, but also for the effect of hull
roughness on the inflow to the propeller, the
propeller efficiency and the rudder forces. The
ITTC scaling procedures do connect relatively
small skin friction increase with an increase of
the wake. However, if the effect is very large
this method might not be adequate (which can
actually lead to an underestimation of the propulsive efficiency).



14.1 Recommendations to the Full Conference

The hull surface during operational condition is characterised by inhomogeneous roughness; barnacles, slime and corrosion that are
unevenly distributed over the hull and with
large variation in height, texture and density.

The 27th ITTC PSS Committee recommends

to the Full Conference to:


Adopt the revised procedure 7.5-0401-01.1 Speed and Power Trials,

Part I Preparation and Conduct

Adpot the revised procedure 7.5-0401-01.2 Speed and Power Trials,

Part II Analysis of Speed/Power
Trial Data

c. Investigate the monitoring and analysis

of speed/power performance of ships in
d. Investigate EEOI issues originating
from IMO requirements
e. Investigate the influence of ship hull
surface degradation due to fouling and
aging on the speed/power performance
3. Develop new roughness correction methods
for both hull and propeller; this suggestion
could be more applicable for the Resistance/Propulsion committees

14.2 Recommendations for the next PSS

Committee work

4. Develop procedures how model tests with

Energy Saving Devices such as ducts, preswirl fins, hub vanes, hull vanes, rudder fins
and unconventional propellers should be
conducted and how the measured results
should be extrapolated to full scale; this
suggestion is more applicable for the Propulsion committee

1. Refinement of the recommended procedures:

a. Temperature and density correction to
take into account temp/density gradient
b. Investigate ISO proposed iterative
method as an alternative for load variation method and current elimination
c. Investigate statistical results from load
variation tests
d. Investigate new shallow water method
to replace Lackenby
e. Investigate wave limits for the wave
correction methods
f. Investigate application of CFD methods
for wind loads
g. Expand the wind coefficient database
for more ship types
h. More extensive validation of the wave
correction methods (STA1, STA2,
i. Investigate feedback of speed/power
data for correlation purpose especially for the design and EEDI draft

ITTC to develop guidelines for the model

testing community how to deal with the EEDI
verifiers: what are they allowed to see; what
documents to deliver to them; how to secure
data confidentiality of our direct customers, etc.



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sixty-fourth session", Annex 9.

ISO 15016:2002, 2002, "Ships and marine

technology -Guidelines for the assessment
of speed and power performance by analysis of speed trial data", ISO.

MEPC64/INF.6, 2012, "Additional information

on ITTC Recommended Procedure 7.5-0401-01.2, "Speed/power trials, part 2, analysis of speed/power trial data"", Submitted
by ITTC.

ITTC 7.5-04-01-01.1 : Recommended Procedures and Guidelines Speed and Power Trials, Part 1 Preparation and Conduct, 2012.
ITTC 7.5-04-01-01.2 : Recommended Procedures and Guidelines Speed and Power Trials, Part 2 Analysis of Speed/Power Trial
Data, 2012.

MEPC64/INF.22, 2012, "First version of industry guidelines on calculation and verification of the Energy Efficiency Design Index
(EEDI) ", Submitted by BIMCO, CESA,

ITTC SC on Surface Treatment, Final report

and recommendations to the 26th ITTC, Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil, 2011.

MEPC65/INF.7, 2013, "ITTC Recommended

Procedure 7.5-04-01-01.1 Speed and Power
Trials, Part 1, Preparation and Conduct",
Submitted by ITTC.

MEPC.1/Circ.796, 2012, "Interim guidelines

for the calculation of the coefficient fw for
decrease in ship speed in a representative
sea condition for trial use".

MEPC65/22, 2013, "Report of the Ma-rine Environment Protection Committee on its

sixty-fifth session, Annex.13.

MEPC.1-Circ.815, 2013, "2013 guidance on

treatment of Innovative energy efficiency
technologies for calculation and verification
of the attained EEDI".
MEPC62/5/5, 2011, "Verification of the EEDI
and Comments on ISO 15016:2002 and the
equivalent methods for performing sea trials", Submitted by Norway.

MEPC65/WP.10, 2013, "Air pollution and energy efficiency -Report of the working
group on air pollution and energy efficiency", IMO.
MEPC66/4/4, 2014, "Work Progress on revision of ISO 15016:2002", Submitted by ISO
and ITTC.
MEPC66/INF.7, 2014, "Additional information
on revision of ISO 15016:2002", Submitted
by ISO and ITTC.

MEPC63/INF.8, 2011, " Additional information

on the recommended procedures and guidelines of the International Towing Tank Conference", Submitted by ITTC.


Resolution MEPC.233(65), 2013, "2013 guidelines for calculating reference lines for use
with the energy efficiency design index
(EEDI) for cruise passenger ships having
non-conventional propulsion", IMO.

MSC-MEPC.2/Circ.11, 2012, "Interim guidelines for determining minimum propulsion

power to maintain the manoeuvrability of
ships in adverse conditions".
Resolution MEPC.203(62), 2011, "Amendments to the annex of the protocol of 1997
to amend the international convention of
pollution from ships, 1973, as modified by
the protocol of 1978 relating thereto (Inclusion of regulations on energy efficiency for
ships in MARPOL Annex VI) ".

Resolution MEPC.234(65), 2013, "Amendments to the 2012 guidelines on survey and

certification of the energy efficiency design
index (EEDI) (Resolution MEPC.214(63)),
as amended", IMO.
Recommended Practice for Speed Trials,
STA-JIP publication, 2006, available

Resolution MEPC.212(63), 2012, "2012 guidelines on the method of calculation of the attained energy efficiency design index
(EEDI) for new ships".

ANN Artificial Neural Network

Resolution MEPC.213(63), 2012, "2012 guidelines for the development of a ship energy
efficiency management plan (SEEMP)".

BIMCO Baltic and International Maritime


Resolution MEPC.214(63), 2012, "2012 guidelines on survey and certification of the energy efficiency design index (EEDI)".

CANSI China Association of thr National

Shipbuilding Industry
CESA Community of European Shipyards

Resolution MEPC.215(63), 2012, "Guidelines

for calculation of reference lines for use
with the energy efficiency design index

CESS Committee for Expertise of Shipbuilding Specifics

Resolution MEPC.224(64), 2012, "Amendments to the 2012 guidelines on the method

of calculation of the attained energy efficiency design index (EEDI) for new ships",
Resolution MEPC.232(65), 2013, "2013 interim guidelines for determining minimum
propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability of ships in adverse conditions",

CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics

CTO Ship Design and Research Centre (abbreviation from Polish)
DR Double run(s)
EEDI Energy Efficiency Design Index
EEOI Energy Efficiency Operational Index
GHG Greenhouse gas



MARPOL The International Convention for

the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

IACS International Association of Classification Societies

MEPC Marine Environment Protection


ICS International Camber of Shipping

NMRI National Maritime Research Institute

IMO International Maritime Organization

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric




INTERCARGO International Association of

Dry Cargo Shipowners

OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine


INTERTANKO International Association of

Independent Tanker Owners

PDF Probability Density Function

RINA Royal Institution of Naval Architects

ISO International Organization for Standardization

SNAME Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers

JASNAOE Japan Society of Naval Architects

and Ocean Engineers

SAJ The Shipbuilders Association of Japan

JIN Japan Institute of Navigation
SNAJ Society of Naval Architects of Japan
KOSHIPA Korea Offshore & Shipbuilding

SSPA Statens Skepps Provnings Anstalt

SEEMP Ship Energy Efficiency Management

KSNAJ Kansai Society of Naval Architects

MARIC Marine Design and Research Institute of China

VLCC Very large crude oil carrier

WSC World Shipping Council

MARIN Maritime Research Institute Netherlands


Specialist Committee on Hydrodynamic Noise

Final Report and Recommendations to the 27th ITTC

The committee held four meetings at the

following locations:


This report summarizes the work of the

Specialist Committee on Hydrodynamic Noise
for the 27th ITTC.


Rome, Italy at INSEAN on March 1-2,

Wuxi, China at CSSRC on November 6-8,

Membership and Meetings

Ulsan, South Korea at Hyundai HI on September 26-27, 2013

The 26th ITTC appointed the following

members to serve on the Specialist Committee
on Hydrodynamic Noise:

Wageningen, Netherlands at MARIN on

April 29-30, 2014

Herbert Bretschneider
HSVA, Germany
Johan Bosschers (secretary)
MARIN, Netherlands


Recommendations of the 26th ITTC

The 26th ITTC recommended the Specialist

Committee on Hydrodynamic Noise for the
27th ITTC to address the following activities:

Gil Hwan Choi

Hyundai HI, Korea
Elena Ciappi (chair)

(1) Create an overview of the characteristics

of hydrodynamic noise sources (including
machinery and equipment, e.g. sonars) and
its influence to marine environment.

Theodore Farabee

(2) Create an overview of existing national

and international regulations regarding hydrodynamic noise.

Chiharu Kawakita
Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., Japan
Denghai Tang
CSSRC, China

(3) Check the existing methods and develop

relevant guidelines for performing both
model and full scale noise measurements.


Machinery noise comprising propulsion and

auxiliary components.
Propeller noise caused by flow phenomena
related to propeller operation and interaction with the vessel hull.
Hydrodynamic noise caused by flow of
water along the ship hull and behind the

(4) Identify scale effects in prediction of

hydrodynamically generated noise (flow
noise, cavitation noise....).
(5) Examine the possibilities to predict full
scale values (correlation and operational

The noise exciting mechanisms in each

class may be of different kind. Examples of
noise that are of a mechanical origin include
rotating unbalance, gear teeth loading, combustion processes and bearing friction. Fluid flow
phenomena like cavitation, turbulence, vortex
shedding, displacement and lift are a source of
both near field pressure fluctuations and radiated noise.


The underwater radiated noise of ships can

be important for various reasons. For naval
vessels the underwater radiated noise is part of
the signature requirements with respect to
threats. High underwater noise levels may also
influence fish behavior, which has resulted in
noise requirements for fishery research vessels.
Nowadays, there also is an increasing concern
regarding the adverse influence of underwater
noise, including shipping noise, on marine
wildlife. Reduced ship traffic in a bay in Canada, following the events of 11 September 2001,
resulted in a decrease of especially the lowfrequency underwater noise levels while simultaneously a decrease was measured of stress
hormones of whales within that bay (Rolland et
al. 2011). Compared to decades ago, an increase in low-frequency deep-ocean ambient
noise levels has been measured (Andrew et al.
2002, McDonald et al. 2006) which can be related to the increase in number of ships
(Ainslie 2011). This has resulted in a wide variety of scientific, political and technical activities including studies to review measures by
which underwater noise of commercial vessels
can be reduced (Renilson, 2009).

Measurement hydrophones respond to

pressure fluctuations which can be due to underwater sound, propagating with the speed of
sound in water, or due to pseudo sound
caused by the turbulence passing over the hydrophone. Additionally, for flow over sonar
systems, the pseudo sound can be a significant
source of sonar self-noise and for flow over
non-rigid surfaces, the pseudo sound can result
in radiation of sound by exciting flexural vibrations of the surfaces.
With respect to discussions of noise emission from ships, use of the term hydrodynamic
noise is both too restrictive and, more importantly, misleading and will be replaced in
the following by the term underwater radiated
noise or in short noise.

Underwater noise emission of vessels can

be grouped according to Urick (1983) and Ross
(1976) into three major classes:


Table 3.1 Underwater Noise Sources for ships





Noise source

Measured Noise Levels of Ships on

Noise Ranges

A listing of the main underwater noise

sources for ships is provided in Table 3.1. This
listing provides information on the frequency
range and impact to both the ship and environment of each source. A brief summary of noise
sources for large and medium sized commercial vessels is presented below.

Impact to Impact to
environment the ship

Propeller noise
tonal components


Low/ medium

on ship

Singing propeller

100 Hz 2 kHz




1 Hz 20 kHz










Propeller cavitating
Propeller cavitating

Large commercial vessels produce relatively loud and predominately low-frequency

sound. Broadband source levels are generally
in the range of 180 to 195 dB (re: 1Pa) with
maximum levels in the frequency range of 10
to 125 Hz resulting from propulsion system
generated noise. Individual vessels produce
unique acoustic signatures and these signatures
may change with ship speed, vessel load, operational mode and implementation of noisereduction measures.

Frequency range

10Hz - 20kHz


BPFs and
structural NF

Cavitation on

100 Hz 20 kHz



Wave breaking

100 Hz 10 kHz




1 Hz 100 Hz



Sea water cooling


100 Hz 10 kHz



Main engines

1 Hz 500Hz



Driving systems

10 Hz 1 kHz



Auxiliary engines
and systems

10 Hz 2 kHz



Active sonar military

100 Hz 50 kHz



Active sonar

10 Hz 30 kHz



Active sonar

10 Hz 100 kHz



1 Hz 100 Hz




Most of the acoustic field surrounding large

vessels is the result of propeller cavitation
causing ships at their service speed to emit both
low-frequency tonal sounds, which can be
heard over great distance, and high-frequency
noise (up to 20 kHz) close to the vessel. Less
intense, but potentially significant levels of
radiated noise can result from onboard machinery (engine room and auxiliary equipment).
Hydrodynamic flow over the ships hull and
hull attachments is also a potentially important
broadband sound-generating mechanism, especially at higher ship speed. The far field underwater noise levels are furthermore influenced by water depth and the variation of
sound speed with depth which influence propa-


chant ships. The spectral levels of noise generated by the vessel at various speeds and propeller rotation rates are shown in Figure 3.1.

gation losses. The presence of the free surface

leads to the Lloyd-mirror interference pattern
which depends on the submersion of the source.
Large vessels are loud sources in both offshore (in shipping routes and corridors) and
coastal waters (mainly in traffic lanes, waterways/canals or ports). Due to their loud and
low-frequency signatures, large vessels are the
dominant source of low-frequency background
noise in many marine environments worldwide.
Medium sized vessels such as tugboats,
crewboats, supply ships, research vessels, and
many fishing vessels typically have large and
complex propulsion systems, often including
bow-thrusters. Typical broadband source levels
for small to mid-size vessels are generally in
the range of 165 to 180 dB (re: 1Pa). Most
medium-sized ships are similar to large vessels
in that most of the sound energy is lowfrequency (<1 kHz). While broadband source
levels are usually slightly lower for mediumsized vessels than for the larger commercial
vessels, there are some exceptions (e.g., as a
function of age or maintenance of the ship),
and medium-sized ships can produce noise of
sufficient level and frequency to contribute to
marine ambient noise in some areas. There is
concern that mid-sized vessels spend most of
their operational time in coastal or continental
shelf waters, and hence overlap in time and
space with marine animals, many of which
occupy these waters for the important purposes
of breeding and/or feeding.

Figure 3.1 Spectra for a bulk cargo ship at

various speeds and propeller rotation rates
(modified from Arveson and Vendittis, 2000).

Arveson and Vendittis (2000) present a set

of very detailed noise measurements of a modern cargo ship. Extensive radiated noise measurements were made of the M/V Overseas
Harriette, a bulk cargo ship (length 173 m and
displacement of 25,515 tons) powered by a
direct drive low speed diesel engine, which is a
design representative of many modern mer-


Figure 3.3 Broadband ship source level

versus speed for measured ships. Bubble color
signifies ship-type. Bubble size represents the
relative size of the ship, measured as GT.
(modified from McKenna et al., 2012).


Hydrodynamic Noise Sources

3.2.1. Non-cavitating Propeller Noise

The noise radiated from a non-cavitating
propeller is caused by fluctuating hydrodynamic forces generated on the propellers which
can be of two types, discrete frequency (tonal),
and continuous spectrum (broadband). Discrete
frequency forces are caused by the action of a
propeller operating in the presence of upstream
non-uniform wakes. The frequency of discrete
forces correspond to the blade frequencies f=nz
(#blades x shaft rotation rate) and generally do
not exceed 20 Hz (first 3 harmonics). Continuous spectrum forces are generated as a result of
upstream flow disturbances or turbulence generated on the blade surface. Low frequency
continuous spectrum hydroacoustic forces are
caused when the hull turbulent boundary layer
on the vessel surface is ingested into the propulsor. High frequency continuous spectrum
hydroacoustic forces are caused when the local
boundary layer, formed on the blade surface,
passes over the trailing edge of the blade.

Figure 3.2 Typical noise levels for different types of ships (modified from McKenna et
al., 2012).
McKenna et al. (2012) present measured
source levels for several types of ship: (a) container ships and vehicle carriers, (b) bulk carriers and open hatch cargos, and (c) three types
of tankers. Figure 3.2 shows the 1/3 octave
band source levels with mean and standard
errors. Figure 3.3 shows the broadband (20 to
1,000 Hz) source level for these ships as a
function of ship speed. There is significant differences in both source level and spectral characteristics of underwater noise amongst the
ship types for which measurements were made.


cause the dimensions of the cavitation tunnel

test section are limited, there exists a limiting
low frequency below which meaningful acoustic measurements cannot be obtained. Below
this frequency propeller noise can only be
measured, or inferred, using indirect methods.
One method of assessing discrete line (tonal)
noise of a propeller is to measure the fluctuating forces of the propeller and then predict the
noise generated by a force of that magnitude
applied to the water. Investigations of this type
have been conducted in the GTH (Frchou and
Dugu et al., 2000) and at the DTRC laboratories (Jessup, 1990).

The sound pressure level of a noncavitating propeller is less intense and of less
impact compared to a cavitating propeller. The
features of cavitating and non-cavitating propeller noise spectra are illustrated in Figure 3.4
(Frchou and Dugu et al., 2000).

Higher frequency propeller noise can generally be investigated in testing facilities at

model scale providing that the facility has low
enough background noise. A number of similarity conditions have been proposed and
evaluated (Frchou and Dugu et al., 2000, and
Levkovsky, 2002) for predicting full scale
noise levels based on propeller noise measurement made in a cavitation tunnel. For noncavitating propeller trailing edge noise, as
stated in Levkovsky (2002), scaling model test
data to full scale levels will not provide an accurate prediction since the Cauchy number (Ch)
and Reynolds number (Re) cannot be satisfied
in the laboratory tests. According to the empirical relations between sound pressure Ps and
blade tip speed U=nD, a similarity-based scaling method of predicting full scale sound pressure levels based on model scale experiments is
suggested by Levkovsky (2002):

Figure 3.4 Sound pressure level radiated by

cavitating and non-cavitating propeller.
The radiated noise data of Arveson et al.
(2000) discussed earlier show high-level tonal
frequencies from the ships service diesel generator, main engine firing rate, and at harmonics of blade rate due to propeller cavitation. At
low ship speeds, tonal components from the
ships service diesel generator contribute almost all of the radiated noise power of the ship.
At higher speeds, propulsion-related sources
dominate the ships radiated noise. In this case
the propeller is heavily cavitating and blade
rate harmonics are an important sources of radiated noise.

f FS = f M

In order to understand the physics of noncavitating propeller noise, hydroacoustic test

facilities -especially large quiet high speed water tunnels- are essential tools. However, be-

or :











where subscript FS and M mean full scale and

model scale conditions, respectively, and G and
L are power spectral density and spectral levels,
respectively. Further, k=k(f,Re,Ch) is a frequency dependent coefficient to correct for the
discrepancy between model and full scale conditions and is determined from statistical analyses of numerous test results of modern model
scale and full scale propellers. A similar expression is also described by Frchou and
Dugu et al. (2000).
3.2.2. Cavitating Propeller Noise

Figure 3.5 Stylistic power spectral density

of cavitating propeller noise (adapted from
Brown, 1976).

The simplest description of the mechanisms

of propeller cavitation noise is the noise generated by the volume acceleration of a single
bubble of which the dynamic behavior can be
described by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation
(Blake 1986). The equation has been extended
and studied in much detail (Brennen, 1995 and
Leighton, 1994) and the noise spectrum of the
collapse of a single bubble has been described
by Fitzpatrick and Strasberg (1956). Up to the
point of collapse bubble dynamics are well
predicted using potential flow assumptions.
However, the dynamics of bubble collapse are
very complicated with energy dissipated by
sound radiation, heat conduction and viscosity,
and rebounds of the bubble occurring in the
presence of non-condensable gas.

For frequencies below the centre frequency,

Fitzpatrick and Strasbergs (1956) theoretical
analysis for a single bubble which yields a
spectral density increasing with the fourth
power of the frequency is thought to apply. The
high frequency region is determined by the
collapse of individual bubbles and the spectrum
decreases with the reciprocal of the frequency
squared. As bubble collapse is cushioned by the
presence of gas, the magnitude of the spectrum
level in this region also decreases with increasing gas content. Additionally, the compressibility of the fluid influences the radiated noise in
this region. The high frequency slope of the
power spectral density generally decreases ac2
cording to f which corresponds to a decreases of 6 dB/octave (for constant bandwidth). In the stylistic spectrum by Lvik
(1981) several regions are distinguished at high
frequency which are also discussed in the report of the Cavitation Committee of the 18th
ITTC (1987). However, only part of the noise
spectrum of a cavitating propeller can be attributed to single bubble dynamics with an important portion arising due to the collective
behavior of bubbles (Omta, 1987; Wang and

The noise spectrum from a prototypical

cavitating propeller has been described, for
instance, by Lvik (1981) and Brown (1976) as
illustrated in Figure 3.5. The figure shows a
low frequency region in which tonals are present at harmonics of the blade passage frequency. A broadband hump is present of which
the centre frequency is proportional to the reciprocal of the typical duration time of the
large scale cavity dynamics.


Mach number. Gas content will influence the

collapse of cavitation bubbles due to a cushioning effect and, to a smaller effect, has an influence on the speed of sound: increasing the gas
content will lead to reduction in sound speed
which changes the Mach number and the
acoustic impedance of the fluid. The gas content should be kept to a minimum in model
scale testing since too high of a gas content
leads to a reduction of noise levels at high frequencies (Lvik, 1981, Bark, 1985). It is remarked though that at full scale the gas content
may change significantly, due for example to
breaking wind waves and waves generated by
the ship. Mach number expresses the similarity
of compressibility effects which are responsible
for the conversion of hydrodynamic energy to
acoustic energy. While Mach number may influence the high frequency part of the noise
spectrum, the consequences of dissimilarity of
this parameter is unknown. The same holds for
the ratio of acoustic wave length to ship and
propeller length scales (acoustic compactness)
which influence reflection and diffraction.

Brennen, 1994) and, for very high frequencies,

bubble-bubble interaction (Hallander and Bark,
For ships with fully developed propeller
cavitation, the spectral levels scale approximately with the ship speed to a value between
the fifth and sixth power (Ross, 1976),
Ls 10 log10 V 6 . Near cavitation inception, a
higher speed dependency can be found, see e.g.
Blake (1986).
Scale effects relevant for cavitation observations and hull pressure measurements also
apply to cavitation noise measurements. Geometric similarity is usually satisfied but complete kinematic similarity, i.e. similarity of the
velocity vectors, is usually difficult to obtain
due to differences in Reynolds number which
lead to differences in the ship wake. Tests are
performed using kinematic similarity for the
mean velocity implying identical mean thrust
coefficients. The influence of wake scaling on
hull pressure fluctuations has been reported,
see e.g. Schuiling (2011) and Johannsen et al.
(2012), but its influence on the radiated noise
levels is not known.

A detailed description of the extrapolation

procedure for propeller cavitation noise is presented in Section 7.2. The Cavitation Committee of the 19th ITTC (1990) reports that the
mean deviations between predicted noise levels
from model tests and full scale measured levels
are in the order of 3 to 5 dB with the remark
that it is not fully recognized if this is representative for the best agreement obtained.
There is a clear lack of published detailed validation studies between model scale tests and
full scale trials related to propeller cavitation

Hydrostatic pressure variations are only

similar if the Froude number is identical. For
cavitation tunnel testing, this condition is usually not satisfied and similarity of cavitation
number is specified for a selected location in
the propeller disc. Nuclei are required for cavitation inception and while nuclei similarity is
hard to achieve it is not strictly necessary. In
model scale measurements nuclei can be generated through the application of leading edge
roughness, changing the gas content in the
flow, or by bubble injection through electrolysis or injection of supersaturated water.

The inception of tip vortex cavitation is

known to be severely influenced by the size of
the viscous core of the vortex and therefore by
the Reynolds number. Due to the reduced
Reynolds number at model scale, cavitation

Two specific similarity parameters that are

relevant for noise tests are gas content and


inception is delayed by a certain factor, usually

expressed with the ratio of Reynolds numbers:
i , fs

i ,ms

Re fs

Re ms

3.2.3. Singing Propeller

Sometimes propellers produce high-pitch
squeaking noise, mainly in non-cavitating conditions, due to a phenomenon termed singing.
Often the spectra of underwater radiated noise,
hull vibration, and onboard airborne noise exhibit sharp lines belonging to one or more of
the natural propeller blade frequencies, typically in the frequency range from 100 Hz to1.5
kHz. With increasing rotational shaft speed
higher natural frequencies may appear in a
stepwise manner due to the dynamics of a lockin process. Vortex shedding at the trailing edge
excites blade vibration, which can have a feedback on the shedding process (lock-in effect).
Propeller singing is difficult to predict due to
its dependence on unknown parameters, e.g.
mechanical damping factor or details of trailing
edge geometry. For example, not all blades
may sing and it is not uncommon for only one
or two propellers out of a series of geometrically similar ones to exhibit this phenomenon.

Empirical values for the exponent m have

been obtained by comparing model scale experiments with full scale trials and were reviewed by the 21st ITTC Cavitation Committee. The mean value is approximately 0.35.
More recently, Shen et al. (2009) have shown
that the exponent m is a function of Reynolds
number and is smaller with increasing model
scale Reynolds number.
Due to the delayed inception of vortex cavitation, alternative formulations have been proposed for the scaling of tip vortex cavitation
noise. Blake (1986b) proposes a universal
semi-empirical scaling formulation generated
for bubble, sheet, and vortex cavitation. The
formulation is discussed by Baiter (1989) who
concludes that more detailed understanding of
the physics is required in order to understand
the consequences of dissimilarity of cavitation
inception. Oshima (1990) found a good correlation between full scale and model scale predictions for noise levels due to a cavitating vortex
if dissimilarity in cavitation number is applied
using a value that scales with the Reynolds
number to the power 0.15. Bosschers (2010)
suggests that the dissimilarity of cavitation
inception influences the size of the cavitating
vortex for cavitation numbers a bit beyond inception. For well-developed tip vortex cavitation, the cavity size becomes independent of
the viscous core size suggesting that noise
measurements can be performed at cavitation
number identity.

Singing during model testing of propellers

is sometimes visible during cavitation observations (see Figure 3.6). Due to the low pressure
in the core of the shedding vortices, cavitation
starts and visualizes the vortices as white
stripes parallel to the trailing edge of the blade.


Figure 3.7 Surface ship flow noise mechanisms.





The pressure fluctuations due to the turbulent boundary layer is a rather inefficient
(quadrupole) sound source when considered in
isolation, but it can become more efficient in
the presence of a rigid or especially a flexible
surface such as the hull plating of which the
vibrations generate sound (Blake 1986). The
radiation efficiency of the hull plates is strongly influenced by fluid loading and by the presence of ribs and stiffeners. Both spatial and
temporal characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations need to be taken
into account for the excitation of the hull vibrations. Unsteady surface pressure measurements
have been performed by Goody et al. (2007) on
the surface of a ship model hull in a towing
tank. The results compare well with an empirical model and, for low frequencies, with computational results using a Reynolds Averaged
Navier-Stokes Statistical Model. Similar measurements have been performed by Ciappi et al.
(2009) and De Jong et al. (2009). The scaling
parameters are strongly related to Reynolds
number and include the boundary layer displacement thickness and the wall shear stress.
In addition, hull conditions are critical.


Propeller singing is characterized by one (or

more) very high amplitude distinct tones that
cause annoyance for passengers and crew, reduces detection and classification range for
navy vessels, decreases the performance of
seismic and fishery research vessels, and may
lead in extreme cases to propeller fatigue failure. Often the problem can be mitigated by
application of an appropriate modification
(Anti-singing Edge) of the suction side trailing edge geometry of the blades, in the radial
range from 0.5R to 1.0R where R is the propeller radius.
3.2.4. Flow noise, including wave breaking
and slamming
Flow noise is the noise generated by the
flow around the ship hull which includes the
turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations,
wave dynamics and bubble generation, see
Figure 3.7. In general, these sources generate
less noise when compared to cavitation noise
and machinery noise unless extensive noise
mitigation measures have been applied such as
on naval vessels.

Wave breaking with its generation of air

bubbles in water is a noise source which has
been studied in detail for e.g. breaking waves
in a coastal zone (Deane 1997). Most of the
noise is caused by oscillating air bubbles and
clouds of air bubbles with the noise depending
on the amount of air entrained and the bubble


model it is possible to establish a perfect correlation between model and full scale in term of
load bending moments and of the first bending
modes of the ship. A detailed overview of the
method and of the results so far achieved can
be found in Hirdaris et al. (2014). When local
response is considered, hydrodynamic loads
(pressure and acceleration) can be measured on
rigid models and the structural response calculated numerically or theoretically.

size distribution. Individual bubbles will emit

sound when they are formed, due to entrainment, splitting, coalescence, or under influence
of external pressure fluctuations (Leighton,
1994), and the noise is therefore influenced by
Froude number, Weber number, Reynolds
number, turbulence intensity and water quality
which complicate scaled model tests and computational predictions. An example of the noise
generated by a breaking bow wave and stern
wave of a ship model in a towing tank is given
in De Jong et al. (2009).


Bow and stern slamming results from the

impact of the fore or the aft sections of the vessel on the water surface. Speed and sea orientation are the main variables dictating the inception and severity of slamming. Slamming can
cause global vibration (whipping) or local vibration of the part directly impacting the water
surface. The phenomenon is important mainly
for the fatigue life of the ship and for safety of
passengers and crew. Global vibration involves
the modal response of the whole ship, typically
of the order of few Hz. As reference, the lowest order fundamental frequencies of a section
of hull plating (between frames) is on the order
of 100 Hz.

Other Noise Sources

3.3.1. Machinery Noise


Machinery noise originates as mechanical

vibration of many and different parts of a moving vessel. There are three ways of noise
transmission between a vibration/acoustic
source, for example an engine, and the environment (Fischer, 2007). The first, which is the
most important for underwater noise, is by
structure borne noise transmitted via foundations, pipes, and couplings. The second way of
noise transmission is by airborne noise. This is
most important for people working near the
noise source but the effect of this noise outside
of the ship is very low. The last noise transmission way is via the exhaust gas chimney. This
noise is most significant above the water surface.

Although some international organizations

report slamming as one of the sources of underwater noise, no evidence has been found in
the technical literature to support this. It is
worth noting that generally if seaway conditions are such that slamming occurs, a ship will
slow down to prevent slamming and underwater noise will be dominated by noise from the
rough seas.

Machine vibrations can originate in the following ways (Urick, 1983): i) unbalanced rotating shafts, ii) repetitive discontinuities, e.g.
gear teeth, armature slots or turbine blades, iii)
reciprocating parts, e.g. combustion in engine
cylinders (piston slaps), iv) cavitation and turbulence in fluids flowing through pipes,
pumps, valves, condensers, and v) mechanical
friction as in bearings and journals

The phenomenon of slamming can be accurately tested at model scale if the model is
properly scaled to replicate global hydro-elastic
effects and tested at the correct Froude number.
It has been demonstrated that with this physical


Vendittis, 2000). Other main characteristic

vibration frequencies visible in the noise spectrum are those due to the cylinder firing rate,
crankshaft, engine valves, and piston rings.
Because diesel engine rpm varies according to
propulsion demand, these signature components occur at frequencies that depended upon
ship speed.

The first three of these sources produce a

line component rich spectrum in which the
noise is dominated by tonal components occurring at the fundamental frequency and harmonics of the vibration producing process. The
other two give rise to noise having a continuous spectrum.

The majority of large ships are propelled by

a low speed, 2-stroke diesel engine directly
driving a single propeller. These engines work
at low revolutions (70 to 120 - 140 rpm) and
are heavy. Due to the size, the engines are rigidly connected to both the ship hull and the
propeller shaft resulting in significant vibration
below 100 Hz.

With reference to underwater radiated

noise, the machinery onboard a ship can be
divided roughly into 2 categories, namely:

Machinery for the Main Engine Propulsion:

Diesel Engines geared or directly drive,
Diesel-Electric, Steam and Gas Turbines
Gas turbine-electric
For this category noise from reduction
gears, bearing and journals etc. are included. The typical frequency range of noise
from main engine propulsion is from a few
Hz up to 1 KHz.
Auxiliary Machinery:
Pumps, purifiers, electrical generators, fresh
water generators, heaters, coolers, oily water separator, auxiliary steam boilers, steering gears, air conditioning machines, refrigerator machines, cargo winches, cranes, air
compressors, air tanks, oil tanks, water
tanks, bow thrusters, stabilizers, firefighting
installations, lifeboat engines, filters, and
many others
Noise emission from auxiliary machinery
covers the range 10 Hz to 5 KHz.

Other diesel-powered ships employ medium speed, 4-stroke diesel engines, which connect to the propeller shaft via a reduction gear.
Typical speeds of these engines are 300 to
1,000 rpm. The engines can be rigidly or resiliently mounted.
The noise emission of medium speed engines can be separated in two bands. The lower
band covers the range between 6 Hz and approximately 150 Hz. The noise in this range is
generated by mass forces of the moving pistons, conrods and crankshafts and by gas forces
arising from the internal combustion process
and exhibits distinct frequencies which are integer or half integer multiples of the shaft rate
frequency. For the higher frequency band, engine noise is broader band, excited by the internal combustion process, and thump noise of
pistons, gear wheels, and valves.

Characteristics of noise induced by


Vibration levels produced by medium and

high speed diesels are typically higher than that
produced by low speed diesels. Diesel vibration source levels usually scale as (power/weight)2 (Nelson et al. 2000); therefore

Diesel engines direct drive and geared.

Typical propulsion noise contributors included
the diesel engines and the reduction gears. The
dominant noise of diesel engines is normally
due to piston slap (Ross, 1976; Arveson and


heavy low speed diesels have lower source

levels due to their lower power to weight ratio.
Reduction gears of medium speed engines may
generate noise at much higher frequencies, up
to 1 kHz and possibly higher.

tonal and broadband are lower for comparable power-to-weight ratios. Furthermore, the
tones produced by a gas turbine are much higher due to their higher rotation rate, which can
be as high as 3,600 rpm or 60 Hz. A comparison of representative diesel and gas turbine
vibration levels is provided in Figure 3.8.

Diesel Electric. The noise signature of diesel-electric ships typically contain energy contributions from the diesel generators and from
the electric propulsion motors in combination
(synchroconverter or a cycloconverter). The
levels of electric propulsion motor noise, and
the frequencies at which they occur, vary by
ship and with propulsion shaft rpm. Noise
sources for electrical machines can be mechanical (angular and parallel shaft misalignment,
dynamically unbalance rotors, loose stator lamination, bearing), and electromagnetic (phase
unbalanced, slot opening, input current waveform distortion, magnetic saturation etc.). Even
large direct drive electric motors are quiet if
compared with reduction gears and piston engines.

Figure 3.8 Source vibration levels for Diesel and Gas Turbine (Fisher and Brown, 2005).
Auxiliary Machinery. Noise components
from rotating auxiliary machinery and other
shipboard equipment also contributes to a
ships overall noise signature, but usually at
lower levels than the propulsion systems. A
typical frequency range for vibration spectra
for auxiliary machinery is 1 Hz to 5 kHz.

For diesel-electric systems, the diesel generators operate at a constant rpm and therefore
their noise characteristics are not dependent on
ship speed. Moreover when used as a genset
they are usually elastically mounted. The same
consideration holds when a gas turbine is used
as a generator.

Problems of underwater noise radiation

from auxiliary machinery is only reported from
navy surface vessels and submarines which
have very low noise levels and requirements.

Turbines gear drive. Propulsion turbines,

turbine generators, and reduction gears are the
dominant sources of propulsion system noise
on steam turbine equipped ships. Propulsion
turbine and reduction gear related noise components occur at frequencies related to propulsion shaft rpm (typically up to 1 kHz). Gas
turbine driven vessels are generally quieter
than their diesel counterparts. This is primarily
because this machinery is rotary instead of reciprocating and hence vibration levels both

Sea water cooling pumps. Sea water cooling pumps are mainly of a centrifugal type and
the impellers cause tonals at impeller blade
passage rate and related harmonics. Source
levels in the pipes close to the pump reach up
to 180 dB (re: 1Pa) for non-cavitating condition and can be more that 200 dB in cases of
impeller cavitation.
Mitigation of blade tonals can be achieved
within the pump by increasing the tip clearance


Provide elastic coupling between engine

and gear box;
Use double hulls outboard of the engine
Place noisier equipment towards the centerline of the ship;
Provide high quality mechanical finishing
and perform maintenance regularly;
Use high quality diesel-electric motors;
Use flexible pipe and hose.

of the impeller and accepting a reduced efficiency. Another measure is to introduce fluid
silencers up- and down-stream of the pump.
Bow and Stern Thrusters. Bow and stern
thrusters are mainly horizontal axis tunnel type
impeller systems and are strong noise sources.
Most of the noise from thrusters is caused by
cavitation on the impeller blades. The cavitation causes direct radiated noise and also structure-borne noise which propagates through the
hull structure and can radiate as underwater
noise. The spectrum of thruster noise is broadband with energy covering a very wide frequency range. Specialized thruster types such
as azimuths, pumpjets etc. have different noise
characteristics compared to conventional
thrusters. (Lloyds Register Consulting 2013).

3.3.2. Sonars

Active military sonars (AMS) pose perhaps

the most significant acoustic impact to the
ocean environment and receive the most press
and public discourse. The environmental impact of an AMS depends significantly on the
sonars purpose since this determines the sonars frequency range, source strength, and
mode of operation (pulse duration, etc.).

Both blade form design modifications and

improved inflow to the impellers can reduce
the cavitation volume. However, due to design
limitations, such as support structures and rather high loadings of conventional thrusters,
cavitation is nearly inevitable.

Active Military Sonars

The NRDC report (Jasney, et al.) titled

Sounding the Depths II: The Rising Toll of
Sonar, Shipping and Industrial Ocean Noise on
Marine Life provides a thorough listing of
AMS systems in use, or in development, by
NATO countries which includes information
on the military name of the sonar system, a
general categorization of the sonar frequency
range, and the platform carrying the sonar. Although information on source strength and
mode of operation is not provided it can generally be deduced based on the purpose of the
sonar system. While a similar listing for nonNATO countries was not found, it is reasonable
to assume comparable systems are employed.

Solutions and recommendations

for machinery noise reduction

It is generally recommended that structuralacoustic measurements be made onboard to

identify the main noise sources and associated
transmission paths. Some solutions that should
be adopted to reduce machinery vibration and
noise, derived from the technical literature and
discussed in the IMO/MEPC.1/Circ.833, are
hereafter summarized:
Provide passive modification of the engine
bed section in order to change the mobility
at the source location;
Decouple machinery from the hull by proper design of resilient mounting and use of
two stage isolation systems;

The operational purpose of the AMS dictates the sonars frequency range and source
strength. A majority of active military sonars
are used for anti-submarine warfare purposes
and thus operate in the low (~100 to 1kHz) to
medium (~1kHz to 8 kHz) frequency range so
that signal strength is not significantly impacted by acoustic absorption which increases with
frequency. Sonars operating in the high frequency range (~ 8 kHz and higher) are generally used as navigational aids or for mine hunting
where interest is in detecting the presence of
objects at shorter ranges and where higher (spatial) resolution is needed.

Active Sonar Echo-Sounder &

Active Navigation Sonar

Active sonar echo-sounder and navigation

sonar systems are discussed together since they
are closely related and are part of a broader
group of general purpose active sonar systems.
These sonars typically operate at lower power
levels and in the medium to high frequency
range and are not considered to pose environmental issues.
Active sonar echo-sounders include sonars
termed depth sounders and fathometers. Such
sonars operate in the medium to high frequency
range depending on where and how they are
used. The method of operation is generally to
emit an acoustic pulse downward and measure
water depth based on time of flight of the bottom reflected return pulse. They generally operate at relatively low source levels to reduce
issues with multiple reflections and at higher
frequencies to provide higher accuracy in determining depth.

In terms of environmental impact, those

that pose the greatest impact are ones operating
at low frequency (nominally 100 to 1 kHz) for
which there is little propagation loss other than
that due to spreading from the source. An important issue regarding potential environmental
impact is the purpose of the sonar and the platform on which it operates. For example, while
submarines carry powerful sonars that operate
at low frequency, they are seldom used since
they serve as a beacon indicating its presence
and location. This is in contrast to sonars on
military surface ships which are used more
often since operation does not significantly
increase knowledge of the ships position beyond what is readily determined by other
means. For example, SURTASS is a sonar system that includes a low frequency active capability that can be continuously operated as the
ship sweeps the ocean searching for underwater vehicles. It is reported that this system
operates in the 100 to 500 Hz frequency range
with an effective source strength of up to
235 dB. Additionally, active sonar systems can
be deployed from helicopters (dipping sonars)
and can be dropped from various types of aircraft (sonobuoy).

Fish finders operate similarly to echosounders except that the intent is for the acoustic pulses to reflect off fish instead of the ocean
bottom. They also operate at higher frequencies
to provide discrimination and at low source
levels as to not adversely disturb the fish that
are trying to be located. It is noted that the frequency of operation is potentially set at a frequency that provides maximum acoustic reflection for the fish of interest. Fish finders are
used both commercially and recreationally.
Searchlight sonars, which includes sidescan sonars, and acoustic cameras are examples
of high frequency sonar systems used for the
purpose of imaging underwater objects. These
sonars generally operate at lower source levels
to reduce issues with multiple reflections and at
quite high frequencies to provide high resolu-


tion capabilities. Acoustic Doppler current profilers have become common instruments for
high accuracy measurement of speed, either of
vehicles on which they are mounted or of currents passing over them. Water speed is measured based on the Doppler frequency shift of
pulses reflected back from particulates in the
water. To obtain highly accurate measurements
of speed, they typically operate at high frequencies.



Influence of




The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime

Organisation (IMO) stated the following.
Most marine animals produce and receive
sounds for critical life functions such as communicating, foraging, evading predators, and
navigating. Much as human rely heavily on
their vision for most activities, most marine
animals rely on sound for survival and reproduction. Scientific investigations of many marine animals (including mammals, fish, and
even some invertebrates) have shown that the
production and reception of sounds are critical
to various aspects of their life histories. Human-produced sound has the potential to interfere with various important biological functions of marine animals. The range of resulting
adverse impacts is highly dependent on characteristics of the sound source, the environment
where the sound occurs, and the animals receiving the sounds. Marine animals such as
large whales, many fish, and some seals and
sea lions are particularly vulnerable to adverse
impacts from incidental shipping noise because
they primarily use the same low frequency
sounds as that generated by commercial ships
for such things as communication and/or to
perceive their environments (IMO/MEPC

A final type of ship-board sonar system includes those used for underwater acoustic
communications. They typically operate in the
medium frequency range and have low to medium source strengths. This category includes
systems used for voice communication or as
underwater acoustic modems. Most often these
systems are used for communication between
surface vessels and submerged vehicles.
3.3.3. Airguns
Currently almost all marine seismic surveys
use arrays of airguns as a noise source for
seismic signals. An airgun is a twin piston steel
cylinder charged with high-pressure air (up to
200 bar). After triggering by an electric signal
the airgun suddenly releases the compressed air
to the lower outside pressure causing a transient high pressure peak like from explosives.
The peak pressure reaches values of about
230 dB (re: 1Pa at 1m), with a spectrum that
is of broadband type. Most airgun noise occurs
in the range below 1 kHz with increasing levels
at lower frequencies with a maximum typically
below 100 Hz.


At the beginning of a seismic survey the

airgun arrays are initially operated from low
pressures and stepwise increase pressure to the
operating pressure - so called soft start - to
ward of marine animals.

Noise regulation

The problem of anthropogenic noise emissions in the sea has been assessed only in recent years. This problem has been analysed
mainly at a regional level, in particular for re-


ly or jointly as appropriate, all measures consistent with this Convention that are necessary
to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the
marine environment from any source, using for
this purpose the best practicable means at their
disposal and in accordance with their capabilities, and they shall endeavor to harmonize their
policies in this connection. Hence, by recognizing underwater sound as a pollutant by virtue of the substances or energy wording in
Article 1(1)(4), then Article 192 grants each
nation the authority to prevent, reduce and control such pollution, etc.

stricted areas where there is a higher concentration of species of marine mammals or fishes.
The national and international regulations reviewed to date often do not address underwater
noise quantitatively in the sense of specifying
acceptable underwater source levels but instead
restrict activities that are determined to harass
or harm marine animals.
4.2.1. International Framework
At an international level there are several
associations which deal with the protection of
marine mammals. In some of their regulations
or treaties they cover underwater sound. In the
following a short review of some of these regulations as they relate to underwater noise is

The International Maritime Organization

(IMO). The IMO /MEPC approved the inclusion of noise from commercial shipping and
its adverse impacts on marine life as a new
high-priority item (IMO/MEPC 58/19, 2008)
and established a Correspondence Group with
the specific task to: identify and address ways
to minimize the introduction of incidental noise
into the marine environment from commercial
shipping (...) and, in particular, develop voluntary technical guidelines for ship-quieting
technologies as well as navigation and operational practices. Hence, the work of the Correspondence Group is confined to the development of non-mandatory technical guidelines
but was not instructed to develop a regulatory
framework for this issue.

United Nations Convention on the Law of

the Sea (UNCLOS). The most widely recognized set of international regulations that can
be applied to underwater noise are those derived from the United Nations Convention on
the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Although this
document (UNCLOS, 1982) is more than 200
pages and addresses a very wide range of lawof-the-sea issues, neither the word noise nor
sound (as in underwater sound) appear. Invoking that UNCLOS grants the right of individual governments (states) to regulate anthropogenic underwater noise within their sovereign waters derives from careful inference of
wording of Articles 1(1)(4) and 192. Article 1(1)(4) defines pollution of the marine
environment as .. the introduction by man,
directly or indirectly, of substances or energy
into the marine environment, including estuaries, which results or is likely to result in such
deleterious effects as harm to living resources
and marine life. Article 192, under the subheading of Measures to prevent, reduce and
control pollution of the marine environment
states in part that States shall take, individual-

In the reports IMO/MEPC 59/19 (2009) and

60/18 (2009), the Corresponding Group stated
that noise in the low frequency range of 10 Hz
to 1 kHz has the biggest impact on the marine
biodiversity. Great interest also existed regarding the 50 Hz peak of ship noise, which is always present and especially notable at low
speeds although the main source of this peak
was not fully clear. Different noise control
technologies were discussed for propeller, machinery and hull silencing and it was estimated
that an overall reduction of about 20 dB in


noise can be achieved through optimization of

machinery and propeller noise mechanisms.

Society (WDCS), and the International Ocean

Noise Coalition.

The IMO/MEPC.1/Circ. 833 (7 April

2014), with a view to providing guidance on
the reduction of underwater noise from commercial shipping, and following a recommendation made by the Sub Committee on Ship
Design and Equipment, approved the annexed
Guidelines for the reduction of underwater
noise from commercial shipping to address
adverse impacts on marine life, MEPC 66/17

4.2.2. Regional and National Framework

The European Union (EU). In 2004 the
European Parliament adopted a Resolution on
the environmental effects of high-intensity active naval sonar. This Resolution calls upon the
European Union (EU) and its Member States to
adopt a moratorium on the deployment of high
intensity active naval sonar until a global assessment of their cumulative environmental
impact on marine mammals, fish and other
marine life has been completed.

These non-mandatory Guidelines are intended to provide general advice about reduction of underwater noise and focus on the primary sources of underwater noise such as associated with propellers, hull form, onboard machinery, and operational aspects. Moreover, a
specific section addresses the use of numerical
tools for noise prediction indicating that CFD
can be used to predict the flow characteristics
around the hull and appendages, thus providing
the wake field in which the propeller operates
and propeller analysis methods, such as lifting
surface theory, or CFD, can be used for predicting cavitation. Finally, mention is made
that Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Finite Element (FE) methods can be used to solve
the vibro-acoustic problem at high and low
frequency, respectively.

The recent EU Marine Strategy Framework

Directive (2008/56/EC) specifically mentions
the problem of noise pollution and provides a
legal framework for addressing this issue. The
Directive represents the first international legal
instrument to explicitly include anthropogenic
underwater noise within the definition of pollution (Article 3 (8)), which needs to be properly
mitigated in order to achieve the good environmental status (GES) of European marine
waters by 2020 (Article 1).
The Directive identifies 11 environmental
descriptors to achieve the GES, and the 11th
reads: the introduction of energy, including
underwater noise, is at levels that do not adversely affect the marine environment. Moreover, the EU Commission Decision of September 2010 provides the following descriptor
(11.2) for continuous low frequency noise (as
generated by shipping): Trends in the ambient
noise level within the 1/3 octave bands 63 and
125 Hz (centre frequency) (re 1a RMS; average noise level in these octave bands over a
year) measured by observation stations and/or
with the use of models if appropriate. With
this Directive, enforced from 2014, underwater
noise is an issue of great relevance and all

Other Organizations. Declarations regarding the impact of shipping noise have also been
made by many other international organizations, among them, the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), the International Union for the
Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the International Whaling Commission (IWC), the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
(ICES), the International Fund for Animal
Welfare, the Whale and Dolphin Conservation


member states are obliged to provide an

evaluation of the good status of their seas
based on those descriptors. The directive is
discussed in detail by Tasker (2010), Piha
(2012) and VanderGraaf et al. (2012).

(ASCOBANS). ASCOBANS was concluded

in 1991 under the auspices of the Convention
on Migratory Species and entered into force in
1994. In February 2008, an extension of the
agreement area came into force which changed
the name to "Agreement on the Conservation
of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic, North East
Atlantic, Irish and North Seas".

Starting in 2012, two multinational collaborative projects are partly funded by the 7th
Framework Programme of the European
Commission with the goal to develop tools to
investigate and mitigate the effects of underwater noise generated by shipping. These projects
are SONIC ( and AQUO

In Resolution N. 5 Effects of Noise and of

Vessels (4th meeting of the parties to ASCOBANS 2003), Parties and Range States are requested to introduce guidelines on measures
and procedures for seismic surveys, and invited
to conduct further research into the effects on
small cetaceans of: vessels, particularly high
speed ferries; acoustic harassment devices such
as those used in fish farms and elsewhere; offshore extractive; and, other acoustic disturbances.

The Convention for the Protection of the

Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic
(the OSPAR Convention). The OSPAR
Convention is the current legal instrument
guiding international cooperation on the protection of the marine environment of the NorthEast Atlantic. Work under the Convention is
managed by the OSPAR Commission, made up
of representatives of the Governments of 15
Contracting Parties and the European Commission, representing the European Community.
While programs and measures relating to questions of fisheries management and shipping
cannot be adopted by the OSPAR Commission,
issues concerned with the impact on biodiversity are drawn to the attention of the competent
authorities and relevant international bodies. In
particular, the OSPAR Commission has an
Agreement of Cooperation with the IMO.

The Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea
and Contiguous Atlantic Area (ACCOBAMS).
The ACCOBAMS is a cooperative tool for the
conservation of marine biodiversity in the
Mediterranean and Black Seas. Its purpose is to
reduce threats to cetaceans in Mediterranean
and Black Sea waters and improve our knowledge of these animals. ACCOBAMS was concluded in the auspices of Convention on Migratory Species in 1996 and entered into force in
In 2010, under resolution 4.17, guidelines
to address the impact of anthropogenic noise
on cetaceans in the ACCOBAMS area were
adopted and a working group was established
that will focus on the mitigation of noise impact issues resulting from sonar, seismic surveys, coastal and construction works, and maritime traffic including commercial shipping.

OSPAR published a report (OSPAR,

2009a) on the impact of noise considering
many different noise sources. Specific publications refer to shipping noise (OSPAR, 2009b;
OSPAR, 2011) and to the impact of small touristic vessels (OSPAR, 2008).
The Agreement on the Conservation of
Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas


In 2012 the ACCOBAMS and ASCOBAMS noise working groups joined. The
working group has produced among other
things a review of various international guidelines (Maglio, 2013).

The NEPA requires full disclosure of possible environmental impact, alternatives and
mitigation measures for any federal actions and
thus has direct impact on military activities in
the ocean.

United States. The United States (US)

Congress passed three cardinal pieces of legislation that form the framework for protecting
marine mammals and marine ecosystems from,
in part, the harmful effects of anthropogenic
noise. These are the Marine Mammals Protection Act (MMPA, 1972), the Endangered Species Act (ESA, 1973), and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA, 1969). While
each piece of legislation is intended to address
separate environmental issues, the actions taken to implement them are often overlapping
contributing greatly to a complex mosaic of
legal requirements.

Other US agencies that also have a regulatory or enforcement role related to anthropogenic sound include: the Marine Mammals
Commission (MMC); the Minerals and Management Service (MMS, under Department of
Commerce) and the US Navy.
Moreover, the US Coast Guard is one of the
five Armed Services of the US and enforces a
wide range of maritime safety, security and
environmental policies of the US. Issues related to habitability concerns due to ship-borne
noise levels would in part be handled by the
Coast Guard.

The MMPA established a moratorium on

the taking of marine mammals in U.S. waters
and explicitly defines take to mean to hunt,
harass, capture, or kill any marine mammal or
attempt to do so. The inclusion of harassment
in the definition is wide reaching and includes
potential adverse effects due to anthropogenic
noise. However, exceptions to the moratorium
can be made for particular activities. Enforcement of the MMPA is divided between the Department of Interiors US Fish and Wildlife
Service (UWFWS) and the Department of
Commerces National Marine Fisheries Service
(NMFS), which is under the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

It is noted that while there are numerous

and wide ranging environmental laws within
the US that can be used to regulate underwater
anthropogenic noise, enforcement of these laws
is greatly hampered by the lack of quantifiable
metrics. Wording of regulatory laws are necessarily in the form of phrases such as to take
and to hunt, harass, capture, or kill. As related to enforcement of underwater noise regulations the terms harass and kill are most
applicable but to date there is no clear definition, or even understanding, of the character of
anthropogenic noise that results in harassment,
or even at times resulting in death. For example, the reason(s) for the mass beaching of
mammals that is often observed is strongly
debated one group attributing the cause to military activities (sonar use) and another to biological irregularities due to either natural
events or presence of (other) oceanic pollutants.

The ESA provides for the conservation of

species that are endangered or threatened
throughout all or a significant portion of their
range, and the conservation of the ecosystems
on which they depend. Similar to the MMPA,
the NMFS and the USFWS share responsibility
for implementing the ESA.



Hz-to-1 kHz and the higher covers from 1 kHzto-100 kHz and are given as:

Noise standards of ICES and DNV

ICES methodology.
The International
Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)
derived noise limits for research vessels
(Mitson, 1995). The ICES proposal considers
the cod audiogram and selects the noise limit
by considering the lowest point of the curve at
30 dB over the threshold sensitivity. The curve
was interpreted as the limit over which behavioral effects (escaping) started to appear. The
selected point at 200 Hz represents the frequency of maximum sensibility for cod, the
corresponding level was set as the limit for
radiated underwater sound from a research vessel, free running at 11 knots, at a target distance
of about 20 m. The noise limit at 1 m was obtained applying the spherical dispersion law.

= 135 1.66 log10

1 Hz

for 1 Hz 1 kHz, and

= 130 22 log10

1 kHz

for 1 kHz < 100 kHz

where, SL is the underwater noise source level

given in dB re: 1 Pa/Hz at 1 m.
DNV SILENT Class Notation.
(DNV, 2010) has recently issued new rules to
ensure low underwater sound emissions from
ships. This is the first attempt made by a Classification Society to fix limits for underwater
noise radiated from commercial ships.The rules
apply to vessels which need a low environmental impact and/or to ships which operate with
hydro-acoustic equipment. In particular five
cases are taken into account, each with a different limit curve: i) Acoustic (ships involved in
hydro-acoustic measures); ii) Seismic (ships
involved in seismic surveys); iii) Fishery; iv)
Research; and, v) Environmental (any vessel
which require controlled environmental noise

Figure 4.1 Proposed underwater radiated

noise limit at 11 knots free running for all vessels used in fisheries research (from Mitson,

The curves for the mentioned categories report maximum allowable noise levels (in dB re:
1Pa at 1m) versus frequency (1/3 octave resolution). In the case of the acoustic, fishery and
environmental categories two different curves
are given depending on the operational conditions of the ship. The curve relative to research
vessels corresponds to the ICES one except for
the format (third octave bands instead of narrowband (1 Hz) and the shape of the curve for
frequencies below 25 Hz, which contains less

To provide an allowable underwater noise

source level (SL) spectrum the ICES procedure
uses the prior discussed level at 200 Hz as a
reference value and provides two simple power-law relationships, one for lower frequencies
that passes through the 200 Hz value and one
for higher frequencies (see Figure 4.1). The
slope of these lines is selected to generally follow the frequency dependency of measured
underwater ship noise. The lower frequency
relationship covers the frequency range of 1


time-dependent pressure is used as input to the

Ffowcs WilliamsHawkings (FW-H) formulation to predict the far-field acoustics. In the
study, the dominant noise sources of the propeller are identified and used as the basis for
proper noise control strategies. In a similar
way, Sharma and Chen (2013) put forward a
numerical approach for predicting tonal noise
for counter-rotating rotors. In this study, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are used to obtain near field description of
the noise sources.

restrictive limits.



The noise produced by a propeller has been

of considerable importance to warship designers and military strategists for many years. In
recent years this subject has been of more importance for merchant shipping and is likely to
maintain increased importance in the future
with the consideration of its influence to marine environment. Propeller noise comprises a
series of periodic components, or tones, at
blade rate and its multiples, together with a
spectrum of high-frequency noise due to cavitation and various edge effects. With the development of computer capabilities, more efforts
are paid in recent years to developing computational prediction methods.


Gennaretti, Testa, and Bernardini (2012)

proposed a novel frequency-domain formulation for the prediction of tonal noise emitted by
rotors. It is derived from the Farassat (boundary integral) Formulation 1A for the timedomain solution of the FW-H equation, and
represents noise as harmonic responses to body
kinematics and hydrodynamic loads via frequency-response-function
method has been used to analyze a marine propeller working in non-uniform inflow. This
approach is particularly suitable for noise control purposes in view of the definition of the
relationship between noise harmonics and
blade control variables.

Propeller non-cavitating noise

5.1.1. Prediction Methods

Discrete Noise



Predicting the low-frequency discrete spectrum of non-cavitating propeller noise has been
the subject of research for many years. Most of
the prediction methods are focused on obtaining the unsteady propeller forces or fluctuating
pressures of the flow field using CFD calculations. In turn, these pressures and forces are
used as the sources to acoustic methods of predicting the discrete tonal noise of a propeller.

Most methods for predicting marine propeller noise are for far field and as such various
higher-order terms are neglected in the numerical solutions. However, in the near field, the
higherorder terms play important roles. The
solutions of blade rate underwater noise induced by the unsteady force of a marine propeller in the time domain is described in the
paper by Kehr and Kao (2004). The method
can be used not only for computing far field
acoustic pressure, but also for near field pressures.

Seol, Suh and Lee (2002, 2004, 2005) present a numerical method to predict noncavitating tonal noise of an underwater propeller. The noise is predicted using a time-domain
acoustic analogy. The flow field is analyzed
with a potential-based panel method and the

Tonal noise of a propeller can also be assessed using the measured fluctuating forces of


Casper and Farassat (2002, 2004) proposed

a trailing edge noise prediction method Formulation 1B, which is a solution of the loading source term of the FW-H equation, and
validated it against measurements from a
NACA 0012 aerofoil in a low Mach number
flow. Such time domain methods allow a total
decoupling of the acoustic signal from the
aerodynamics. As such, the input for acoustic
predictions can use experimental measurements
or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions. The authors (Farassat and Casper, 2012)
also derived a new formula named Formulation
2B for the prediction of broadband noise that
can be applied to rotating blades and airframes,

the propeller. In GTH (Frchou et al., 2000), an

unsteady thrust dynamometer is integrated in
the shaft close to the propeller hub. The sensor
is a piezoelectric crystal that provides a high
stiffness and mounts on the shaft centreline
with steel hemisphere to be insensitive to side
forces and bending. The system is able to
measure very low thrust fluctuations (
Jessup (1990) conducted unsteady force
measurements in the DTRC 24-inch water tunnel. Three-bladed propellers were operated
behind 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-cycle wake screens
generating blade rate and multiple axial wake
inflow harmonics. A six-component unsteady
propeller dynamometer was used. The upper
limit of frequency response of the measurement
system was around 800 Hz in thrust and torque
and around 200 Hz for the side force components.

For prediction of propeller broadband noncavitating noise, CFD simulations combined

with acoustic methods can be applied. Kato
(2011) applied calculations from a Dynamic
Smagorinky Model (DSM) of a Large Eddy
Simulation (LES) to the Helmholtz equation to
solve for the acoustical pressure. Both solvers
are designed for parallel computations with up
to one million processing cores. Validation
studies for basic flows show that the fullyresolved LES can predict fluid flow with an
accepted level of accuracy. Sound pressure
spectra radiated from a small seven bladed industrial fan was reasonably predicted with such
methods as compared with experimental results.

5.1.2. Prediction Methods on Propeller

Broadband Noise
Propeller broadband noise has been an extensive aeroacoustic research topic for decades,
both experimentally and theoretically. In recent
years, the increasing computational capabilities
led to the extension and application of various
approaches to marine propellers.
Howe (1978) presented a detailed review of
the various theories of predicting trailing edge
noise and categorized the methods into three
groups: (1) theories based on the Lighthills
acoustic analogy; (2) theories based on the solution of special problems approximated by the
linearized hydrodynamics equations; and, (3)
ad hoc models involving postulated source distributions for which strengths and types are
empirically determined.

Chen et al. (2012) developed a method for

broadband noise prediction for hydrofoils or
marine propellers. The turbulent flow around a
propeller is calculated as a time series by LES
and then the broadband noise is predicted using
the FW-H equations. The method was validated against measurements for a hydrofoil and
a model propeller (210 mm diameter). The predicted propeller broadband noise showed reasonable agreement with the measurements.
Chen et al. (2013) used the method to calculate


the broadband noise of five different hydrofoils.

The relationship between hydrofoil broadband
noise and the hydrofoil thickness and camber
distributions were discussed. An optimized
hydrofoil was presented for which the broadband noise is about 4 dB lower than for a foil
of the NACA series.


Propeller cavitating noise

Propeller cavitation noise is generated by

two kinds of acoustical mechanisms. The low
frequency range is characterised by tonals at
harmonics of the blade rate frequency and a
broadband hump due to the large scale cavity
dynamics whereas the noise in the high frequency range is due to the collapse of bubbles.
Moreover, the noise level depends on the type
of cavitation on a propeller. For example, back
sheet cavitation and tip vortex cavitation have
different noise signatures. Great effort has been
put into predicting cavitation itself using computational methods and significant advances
have been made of which some are already
being applied in industry. However, up to now,
computational prediction of cavitating flows is
still a difficult problem in hydrodynamics, especially for the cases of instantaneously cavitating vortices or for the process of cavitation
collapse. Computational methods are being
applied to translate the cavitation dynamics to
radiated noise but the possibilities and limitations for accurate noise predictions needs to be
further assessed.

Kellett, Turan and Incecik (2013) used a

CFD-based unsteady RANS hydrodynamic
prediction approach, coupled with the FW-H
equation for ship radiated underwater flow
noise modelling. The commercial CFD software StarCCM+ was used for flow field simulation. In the paper a variety of modelling setups were considered, such as propeller representation modelling, with or without free surface etc., to ascertain which should be modelled for different applications and required
levels of prediction accuracy. The hydroacoustic behaviour of a marine propeller in a noncavitating open water condition is examined in
Ianniello et al. (2013), by coupling a RANS
hydrodynamic solver to a hydroacoustic code
designed to implement different solution forms
of the FW-H equation. The numerical results
suggest that the underwater pressure field
seems to be significantly affected by flow
nonlinearities, while the contribution from the
linear terms (the thickness and loading noise
components) is dominant only in very limited
region of space. Similar conclusions are drawn
in Ianniello et al. (2014a) when considering the
underwater radiated noise from a complete ship
scaled model in a steady course. Moreover, the
effect of scattering from the hull surface is also
highlighted. In Ianniello et al. (2014b) the
methodology has been applied to a large ferry
and satisfactory validation by comparison with
full scale data was obtained.

5.2.1. Prediction Methods of Propeller

Sheet/Cloud Cavitating Noise
Kamiirisa (1998) developed a simulation
method on the basis of bubble dynamics for
predicting sheet cavitation noise of a marine
propeller. For the low frequency range, after
obtaining the variation of cavitation volume
during one revolution of a propeller by applying computing techniques such as lifting surface theory, the sound pressure level is calculated using the FW-H equation. In the paper the
cavitation is considered as a large spherical
bubble. The high frequency range is constructed by summing up radiated noise from
each cavitation bubble which occurs at the end


lence model is applied. Overall, the simulated

pressures agreed well to measurement.

of cavitation after the collapse of sheet cavitation. The size distribution of cavitation bubbles
is proposed to be represented by the beta distribution. The trailing thickness of sheet cavitation is treated as uniform along a radial direction of the propeller blade. The simulation result compares favourably to full scale measurement for the SEIUN MARU full scale propeller.

Salvatore et al. (2009) presented a numerical prediction method for non-cavitating and
cavitating noise of propellers operating in a
wake field. Propeller hydrodynamics is described by a BEM coupled with a nonlinear
unsteady sheet cavitation model. Hydroacoustic
models are based on a standard Bernoulli equation for incompressible flows and on the FW-H
equation with a Transpiration Velocity Model
to account for blade cavitation effects. While
fair agreement between results from the two
formulations is found for a non-cavitating propeller configuration, quantitative differences
are observed for cavitating flow noise predictions between the Bernoulli and FW-H models.
Numerical uncertainty in the evaluation of cavity pattern could have a strong impact on prediction of radiated noise levels.

Salvatore and Testa (2006) developed an integrated hydrodynamics/hydroacoustics approach for marine propeller sheet cavitation
noise. The hydrodynamics model is based on a
boundary element method (BEM) that is a potential flow formulation. A sheet cavitation
model using a surface tracking approach is
applied to estimate the transient cavity pattern
on the surface of propeller blades. Propeller
cavitation noise is studied through a general
hydroacoustics formulation based on the FW-H
equation. Hallander et al. (2012) presented
work of the EU project SILENV and compared results of underwater radiated noise of a
propeller obtained from different prediction
methods, including URANS/FW-H, SYSNOISE/BEM, lifting-surface/FW-H, and a
semi-empirical approach with sea trial data for
an LNG ship under cavitating conditions.

5.2.2. Prediction Methods of Propeller Tip

Vortex Cavitating Noise
With the hypotheses that: 1) there is strong
dependence between averaged diameter of tip
vortex and propeller noise emission, and 2) tip
vortex diameter is a function of blade tip loading and static pressure (cavitation number),
researchers at DNV use a tip vortex index TVI
for predicting tip vortex noise and acoustic
pressure (Raestad, 1996). The acoustic pressure
is assumed to be a function of the volume acceleration of the tip vortex cavities from each
blade. DNV established a database for inboard
propeller noise on twin-screw passenger ships,
including ferries and cruise liners (Raestad,
1996). Using the TVI method, predicted results
gave quite good agreement with measured inboard noise data. The experience of DNV from
high-powered cruise ships indicates that the
noise generated by propeller tip vortices is
much more important for inboard noise than

Seo and Lele (2009) investigated cloud

cavitation and cavitation noise on a hydrofoil
section. The density based homogeneous equilibrium model and high-order numerical methods based on a central compact scheme were
employed to resolve the cloud cavitation phenomena and the pressure waves generated by
cloud cavitation. The governing equations are
the compressible RANS equations for the
gas/vapour-liquid mixture. Two-phase flow
physics is treated by a linearly combined equation of state allowing the compressibility effects in liquid and gas phases, and application
of the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbu-


inception of smaller nuclei is more sensitive to

the change of cavitation number, and cavitation
noise level due to cavitated smallest nuclei has
the most influence on overall tip vortex cavitation noise.

was previously realized. A semi-empirical

method similar to the TVI method has been
developed by Bosschers (2013) for the prediction of the low frequency broadband hull pressures and far field underwater radiated noise of
twin screw vessels. In general, acceptable
agreement with experimental data of model
scale tests and full scale trials is obtained.

Pustoshnyy et al. (2012) discussed the

physical aspects of marine propeller broadband
noise based on available publications, as well
as experimental data obtained by KSRI. From
the research, the authors discussed the TVI
method and the effect of parameters used in
TVI. The paper proposed that cavitating tip
vortex in non-uniform flow may be a source of
broadband pressures, especially when vortex
bursting takes place, and that circulation gradients at the blade tip during its motion in nonuniform velocity field may be considered an
important parameter of broadband pressure


As a means to understand the activity of

ITTC members and associated industries in
hydrodynamic noise as it relates to the shipping
industry, the committee developed a questionnaire designed to survey activity in the areas of
full scale and model scale noise measurement
methods. As the work in this area is principally empirical, it was felt soliciting information related to measurement methods would
best establish the baseline for activities related
to hydrodynamic noise.
The questionnaire, Questionnaire on Noise
Measurements Methods, consisted of two
parts: questions related to full scale measurements, and questions related to model scale
measurements. The Full Scale Noise Measurement Methods section consisted of five major
groups: Site Information, Full Scale Propeller,
Hydrophone Information, Data Acquisition and
Processing, and Correction Methods. The
Model Scale Measurement Methods section
was divided into six major groups: Facility
Information, Model Setup, Hydrophone Information, Definition of Test Conditions, Data
Acquisition and Processing, and Scaling Methods. The responses that were received to the
questionnaire are provided in tabular form at
the end of this report. The survey was conducted on-line by posting the questionnaire to a
common survey webpage which provided results in various collated forms. It is noted that a
few responses were received as scanned versions of hand annotated questionnaires.

Park et al. (2009) numerically analyzed tip

vortex cavitation behaviour and sound generation of a hydrofoil. A numerical scheme combining an Eulerian flow field computation and
Lagrangian particle trace approach was applied
to simulate tip vortex cavitation. The flow field
was computed using a hybrid method which
combines a RANS solver with a Dissipation
Vortex Model. The trajectory and behaviour of
each cavitation bubble were computed by Newtons second law and the Rayleigh Plesset
equation, respectively. Calculated volumes of
the cavitation bubble and the trajectory were
used as input to noise prediction methods. A
bubble noise model, which assumes that cavitation bubbles behave as monopole sources, was
used to calculate the noise. The relationship of
cavitation inception, sound pressure level, and
nuclei size was studied at several cavitation
numbers. The study showed that cavitation


there is a nominally even number who deploy

the measurement hydrophones from the sea
bottom, from a buoy, or from a vessel. Four
organisations reported measurements capabilities in water depth exceeding 100 m which may
(arbitrarily) be considered deep water.

Summary of Responses. All ITTC member

organizations along with industrial and academic groups known to be involved in hydrodynamic noise work were invited to participate
in responding to the questionnaire. Organizations from a total of 14 countries provided
completed responses for at least one of the two
parts to the questionnaire resulting in a total of
11 responses to the full scale measurements
section and 18 responses to the model scale
measurements section. Following is a listing of
the countries from which completed responses
were received with the number of responses
provided in brackets following the country
name with the first number being the number
of responses to the model scale measurements
portion and the second number the number of
responses to the full scale measurements portion: China (2,0), France (0,1), Germany (1,1),
Iran ( 1,0), Italy (2,1 ), Japan (3,2), Korea (2,2),
Netherlands (1,2), Norway (1,0), Russia (1,0),
Spain (0,1), Sweden (2,0), Turkey (1,0), and
USA (1,1)


Full Scale


Attention to hull and propeller surface conditions in support of acoustic testing varied
amongst organisations. Nominally half report
that hull conditions are checked, that propeller
conditions are checked and that the propeller
surface is polished prior to testing.
All organisations use commercially available omni-directional hydrophones that generally provide measurement capabilities to a frequency of 100 kHz or greater. Each organisation but one reports the type of hydrophone
calibration procedures used. Hydrophone arrays generally amounted to the use of 3 hydrophones with two organisations reporting using
arrays consisting of 10 or more hydrophones.
Nearly all organisations report making
noise measurements up to a frequency of approximately 50 kHz and as low as 10 Hz. All
but two report performing instrumentation
calibrations either and/or before testing. The
definition of acoustic source used during testing varied amongst the organisations and only
4 organisations reported using some type of
source localisation technique. A number of
different data reporting formats are used with
many organisations using multiple formats.
The formats ranged from one-third octave band
levels to narrow-band levels, each with or
without being range corrected. For the question of expected uncertainty for measurements, all 5 who provided an answer gave a
value of 3 dB or less. And, for the question on
confidence level on the quality of the test results, based on a scale of 1-to-10 (10 being


A total of 11 responders from 8 countries

completed the Full Scale Noise Measurement
Methods portion of the questionnaire.
Testing is generally done using either fixed
and/or mobile measurement equipment with
the majority being of the latter. It is noted that
the three fixed sites also employ mobile
equipment and were those that predominantly
support measurements of military ships. Additionally, five organisations reported using onboard measurement equipment, four of which
use such equipment in addition to fixed and/or
mobile range equipment. Approximately half
of the facilities utilize a hydrophone array and


very confident) all 9 responses were at a level

of 7 or greater with none being higher than 9.

uncertainties given for the measurements or


Regarding whether measured levels are corrected for background noise and propagationrelated issues, 6 out of 10 reported measurements are corrected for background noise, 8 out
of 10 do not correct for environment-related
propagation losses (i.e., absorption), 8 report
that a 20log10(r/1m) adjustment for range correction is made. Only 3 report making an adjustment to correct for free-surface reflection.
For the question of expected uncertainty for
predicted noise source level the 5 who responded gave a value of 3 dB or less. And,
for the question of confidence level on the
quality of correction methods based on a scale
of 1-to-10, of the 8 who responded the highest
value was 9, the lowest 5, and the median being 7.

It is felt that the questionnaire related to full

scale noise measurement methods provided a
good review of the activities within the shipping community. There is clearly a wide range
of approaches, methods and procedures for
making underwater noise measurements with
the variations being driven in large part by the
objectives of the testing and the ocean site
available for such measurements.


Model Scale



In total 18 model basins from 12 countries

responded to the questionnaire. The distribution of the type of facility used for noise measurements is shown in Figure 6.1. The majority
operate a closed jet-type cavitation tunnel of
which the length and width of the test-sections
are presented in Figure 6.2. The large size facilities (width 2 m or larger) use a full ship
model for the wake generation while the smaller size use a dummy model with wire screen or
a wire screen alone.

While relatively low values of uncertainty

were given for both the measurement of full
scale sound pressure levels and prediction of
noise levels, as would be expected from a
properly implemented measurement regime, a
few notes of caution are warranted regarding
estimates of ship noise levels for conditions
other than those for which measurements are
made. Specifically, the physics of underwater
noise generation is critically dependent on issues related to the ship condition and its performance in a given seaway. Additionally,
propagation of ship noise to a specific observation point is dictated by propagation issues
related to the condition of the free-surface,
sound speed variations in the water column,
and conditions of the sea bottom. The combination of these generation and propagation issues
make estimations of ship noise in other locations, based on measurements at an acoustic
range, subject to an uncertainty bound appreciably greater than the combined individual

The ship wake distributions used is presented in Figure 6.3. Almost half of the organisations are simulating both a model scale wake
and a full scale wake in their facility. The wake
field is measured by pitot tubes and/or LDV
while 5 respondents use PIV as well.


phones (frequency range, dimensions, operating pressure and temperature range) developed
for full scale measurements easily comply with
the requirements of a cavitation test facility.


open-jet type cavitation

closed-jet type cavitation
free-surface cavitation

Most of the organizations (16) have specific

hydrophone calibration procedures and conduct
calibration before and/or after measurements,
or regularly using a hydrophone calibrator.
Only 2 organizations practice the more elaborate water tank calibration. During noise measurements the hydrophones are located mainly
in acoustic chambers (7), outside walls or windows (4), flush mounted to walls or windows
(4), on a rake respective in the flow (3) or
mounted at the bottom of a basin (1). The dimensions of the location where hydrophones
are mounted vary with the test section dimensions from small or medium sized to large scale

depressurized towing tank


Figure 6.1 Distribution in [%] of facility


Width [m]




The purpose of noise measurements is predominantly the determination of cavitation

noise (17), but includes non-cavitating noise
(13) and cavitation inception (10). Typically
one or two hydrophones (7) are used, but in
case where array measurements are made (3)
up to 56 hydrophones are used. The hydrophones are generally located at the propeller
plane (11), downstream (8) and/or upstream
(6). Noise measurements of nearly all model
basins (17) are supported by background noise
measurements to determine, and allow correction for, facility dependent noise levels and by
supplementary investigations like cavitation
observation (17), cavitation inception (13), hull
pressure pulses (10) and others (3).

Length [m]

# respondents (18 total)

Figure 6.2 Variation in length and width of

the test-section of the cavitation tunnels.
Model scale Model scale Model scale
Full scale
wake using full
wake obtained
measured at ship model in calculated
towing tank
using CFD extrapolation
of measured
model scale

Full scale
using CFD

Figure 6.3 Ship wake distribution used

(more than one answer possible).

The propeller load condition is chosen according to the design point (11) or the model
test result (8) corrected to full scale (16). The
test condition is mostly adjusted by the thrust
coefficient KT (14) and rarely by the advance
ratio J (3) or torque coefficient KQ (1). The

All model basins use similar commercially

available omnidirectional hydrophones of piezoelectric type from Brel & Kjaer or Reson.
Flush mounted hydrophones are used only supplementary. The specifications of these hydro-



reference point of the cavitation number varies

from shaft center line to 0.95R at 12:00. Depending on the type of test facility the typical
water speeds are in the range of 1 to 3.5m/s
(free surface) or 4 to 8m/s (closed jet). Most of
the organisations monitor the water quality
(14), mainly by measurement of the dissolved
oxygen content (10).

Figure 6.4 The distribution of corrections.

For data acquisition, the measuring time is

mostly more than 20 seconds (10), or 10 seconds (4). For the computation of spherical
spreading loss or distance normalisation, most
model basins (12) take the shaft centre as the
location of the acoustical source of a propeller,
while others use 0.7R (2), 0.8R (1) or 1.0R (1)
at 12:00. The majority of the facilities (15) use
anti-aliasing filters for signal conditioning.

Thirteen organizations make full scale noise

predictions using the model scale measurement,
and most of them (8) use the ITTC-1987 extrapolation procedure or something similar.
Only one facility reported to have a scaling
method for tip vortex cavitation noise. Compared to the measured model scale noise data,
there is a larger level of uncertainty for the
scaling method which is in the range 2 to 10 dB.

The reported results of measurements are

presented in the format of 1/3 octave bandwidth (14), narrowband normalized to 1 Hz
bandwidth (13), 1/3 octave converted to 1 Hz
bandwidth (4), normalization to 1 m distance (9)
and harmonics (3).

The questionnaire related to model scale

noise measurement provided a good review of
the activities of the different facilities within
ITTC members. For cavitation noise measurement at model scale, each facility has its own
noise test procedure whiles similar methods for
installation, test condition, data acquisition and
scaling are used depending on the size and
conditions of the facility. Some new approaches have been reported such as full scale wake
simulation. While the limitations of the test
facility in capturing the dynamics and noise of
cavitation are acknowledged, there is a larger
level of uncertainty in the noise scaling procedure than in the measured noise data. This implies that more validation against full scale data
is necessary.

(%) of respondents


Free surface

About half of the organizations (7) perform

uncertainty analysis of the noise signals according to ITTC general guidelines, while 2
organizations use their own uncertainty analysis method, and 8 organizations do not as yet
perform uncertainty analysis.
More than half of the organizations (10) investigated the reverberation of their facility.
Corrections for background noise are commonly applied. The distribution of signal corrections due to facilities is shown in Figure 6.4.
The uncertainty level for model scale noise
measurements is in the range 1 to 5 dB, while
the confidence level is in the range of 5 to 10 (1
very uncertain, 10 very confident).


due to wall

Background Reverberation




Full Scale Guidelines

Considering the international interest and

activities regarding measurement of underwater
ship noise it is recommended that the Recommended Procedures and Guidelines developed
by this Committee (7.5-04-04-01: Underwater
Noise from Ships, Full Scale Measurements)
be revisited and updated as necessary when
further International Standards are established.


Based on responses to the full scale measurements questionnaire and a review of existing full scale guidelines, both established and
in development, it is recommended that the
ITTC guideline for underwater noise measurement of full scale ships follow the standard
ISO/PAS 17208-1:2012(E). This standard was
drafted by international experts in the field of
underwater ship noise measurements and provides general requirements for measurements
in deep water. It is noted that guidelines for
measurement of ship underwater noise in shallow water are currently being pursued by numerous international organizations but such
standards will be slower to finalize due to the
much more complex nature of measurements in
shallow water where noise propagation issues
related to bottom affects must be accounted for.


Model Scale Guidelines

The guidelines for model scale measurement of propeller cavitation noise are included
in the ITTC Quality Manual as guideline no.
Many aspects of cavitation noise measurements are related to other procedures such as:
Procedure 7.5-02-03-03.1 on Model-scale
cavitation tests. Part of this procedure is
discussed by the Specialist Committee on
Wake Fields of the 25th ITTC, 2008 and
the Specialist Committee on Scaling of
Wake Field of the 26th ITTC, 2011.
Procedure 7.5-02-03-03.3 on Cavitation
induced pressure fluctuations, model scale
experiments. This procedure is discussed by
the Specialist Committee on Cavitation Induced Pressures of the 23rd ITTC, 2002.

The ISO standard provides guidelines based

on the Grade of measurement that is needed.
Three Grades are addressed: Grade A
Precision Method, Grade BEngineering
Method, and Grade CSurvey Method. Following the guidelines for each Grade result in an
achievable measurement uncertainty of 1.5 dB,
3.0 dB, and 4.0 dB for Grades A, B, and C,
respectively and measurement repeatability of
1.0 dB, 2.0 dB, and 3.0 dB, for each
Grade, respectively. The standard specifically
addresses the topics of: Instrumentation, Measurement Requirements & Procedures, Post
Processing, Measurement Uncertainty, and
Reporting, each as related to the Grade of
measurement to be obtained.

In the following only those aspects that are

particularly related to noise measurements will
be discussed. The noise measurements shall be
supported by additional investigations like cavitation observation, cavitation inception and
hull pressure pulse measurement.
Noise measurements in a test facility should
in general be performed by means of hydrophones of piezoelectric and omnidirectional
type. A compromise has to be found for sensi-


vane noise, test section turbulent boundary

layer noise, impeller blade trailing edge noise
and of course the propeller driving train (Etter
and Wilson 1993). As reference, the speed dependency of the overall integrated background
noise levels reported by Doolan et al. (2013)
shows that at higher tunnel speeds the noise
levels scale with tunnel speed to the power
eight. Bosschers et al. (2013) provides a discussion of background noise mechanisms of a
towing tank. It is noted that reductions in
background noise of the propeller driving train
can be achieved using a hydraulic turbine
(Briancon et al., 2013).

tivity, usable frequency range, dimensions and

directivity. The high pressure resistance of
most hydrophones is higher than required in
model test facilities, but only limited information is available for sub atmospheric pressure application. The measurement frequency
range shall start below propeller blade rate and
extend up to several 10 kHz, depending on the
purpose of the noise measurement.
Typically at least one hydrophone should
be located at the propeller plane. Additional
hydrophone positions up- and down-stream, as
well as abeam, should be included if feasible to
augment acoustic testing. Hydrophones should
preferably be installed one of the following
In a large or medium sized acoustic chamber below the test section
Outside from walls or windows
Flush to walls or windows
To a rake in the flow
Inside the basin

The influence of testing environment on the

noise transfer function needs to be determined
in order to properly relate measured sound
pressure levels to source levels at a normalized
distance of 1 m. The noise transfer function can
be measured by replacing the propeller with a
calibrated noise source and examples are given
by Briancon et al. (2013) and Seol et al. (2013).
For reference, a detailed analysis of the noise
field at 1, 5 and 10 kHz inside a small cavitation tunnel is given by Yamaguchi et al.
(1996), showing that the noise distribution becomes more complicated with increasing frequency. An acceptable agreement from a qualitative point of view was obtained for the overall noise patterns between measurements and
computational results obtained with a 2-D
boundary element method.

Hydrophone arrays enable noise measurements with high directivity to scan the model to
identify local noise source regions and should
be used if permitted by facility capabilities and
testing budget. Examples of the setup of an
array are provided by Abott et al. (1993),
Chang and Dowling (2009), Park et al.
(2009b), and Lee et al. (2012).
For every test condition the background
noise of the facility has to be determined to
check the quality of the acquired noise data and
to correct the cavitation noise data if the difference between the two is less than 10 dB. Two
procedures to measure background noise can
be applied: Replacement of the propeller by a
dummy boss, or increase of tunnel pressure to
suppress propeller cavitation. Examples of
background noise sources in a cavitation tunnel
are pump cavitation, non-cavitating turning

The low frequency limit for valid acoustic

measurements needs to be determined. It is
typically defined as the frequency below which
the noise field is determined by separate acoustic modes in the test facility. In the report of the
15th ITTC a formula is given for the number of
modes in a test-section. A minimum mode
number of one in each 1/3 octave band is required although other references suggest a minimum of three modes. While in room acoustics


one defines the so-called Schroeder frequency

which can be computed from the reverberation
time, no similar information has been found in
the literature for the reverberation time in cavitation test facilities.

Table 7.1 Coefficients used in the cavitation

noise extrapolation for proportional band

The measured cavitation noise at model

scale needs to be extrapolated to full scale.
Frequency scaling is based on the Rayleigh
formula for the collapse time and is given by:

As a note of caution in the use of the above

scaling procedure, due to the complex mechanism of propeller cavitation noise and the limitations of test facilities, it is impossible to
achieve all similarities between model test and
full scale. At the same time the environmental
conditions of the test are often quite different
from the full scale conditions. For example,
there exist wall effects, blockage effects etc. in
the model experiments. All these will result in
errors in the measurement and are difficult to
quantify. In order to quantify the uncertainty of
the measurements and scaling procedure, further investigations and validations of such influences on the noise results are necessary.

fs fs

ms ms ms

For the noise levels, different scaling formula have been derived which have been presented by the Cavitation Committee of the 18th
ITTC (1987) as:
fs ms
fs ms = 20 log10


fs fs fs
fs 2

ms ms

This formula is valid for noise in proportional band widths. For the case of constant
band width, frequency scaling should be included as well and the powers of cavitation
number and shaft rotation rate change. Assuming spherical spreading loss, we find for the
above, that x= 1 is generally applied. For the
other parameters in this equation, two different
approaches for determining their values have
been reported. One approach is based on linear
acoustics (e.g. Strasberg 1977) while the other
approach assumes constant acoustic efficiency
which is considered to be more valid for higher
frequencies (De Bruijn and Ten Wolde 1974,
Levkovskii 1980). The corresponding parameters are given in Table 7.1. As the cavitation
number is usually kept constant, it is only the
scaling of the tip speed that is relevant.


It is well established that shipping noise is

the major contributor to the increase of lowfrequency ambient noise levels in the oceans
over the last 40 years.
Various ship noise sources have been reviewed including equipment like sonar. Even
though sonar is a very loud noise source it can
be controlled by switching it off. Cavitation of
marine propellers is recognised to be a very
important source of underwater noise from
ships. At high frequencies propeller cavitation
is usually the most dominant noise source
while low frequencies are dominated by machinery noise and cavitation noise. Which noise


noise. Potential flow methods are capable of

predicting the blade rate tonals of sheet cavitation while semi-empirical models have been
developed for the broadband part of both sheet
and tip vortex cavitation. Computational prediction of cavitation on propellers using CFD is
getting more mature and is being applied in
industry. CFD has the capability to capture all
kinds of cavitation although the accurate prediction of, for instance, cavitating vortices is
still very demanding. Predicting the resulting
radiated noise using acoustic analogies is a
promising approach. However, the possibilities
and limitations for accurate noise predictions,
which requires proper accounting for the collapse process of the cavitation need to be further assessed. This includes the upper frequency limit for which such predictions are
valid. The full frequency range of interest for
cavitation noise can be as high as 20 kHz.

mechanism is most dominant depends on the

amount of cavitation, type of machinery and
applied noise reduction measures. Below the
cavitation inception speed, ship noise is generally due to vibration and noise from main and
auxiliary machinery equipment and the gearing
box. Full scale noise measurements revealed
that the broadband source levels of commercial
ship noise spectra vary from around 165 dB for
smaller size vessels to 195 dB for the larger
vessels with the maximum amplitude concentrated in the frequency range between 10 and
125 Hz.
Because of these high levels, regulations
are being considered or imposed. Most of the
regulations regarding shipping noise are at a
regional level and concern restricted areas
where there is a higher concentration of species
of marine mammals or fishes. At an international level, the Committee for the Protection
of the Marine Environment (MEPC) of the
IMO, had a correspondence group working on
the topic, which developed a document recommending non-mandatory guidelines for the
reduction of underwater noise from commercial
shipping. The EU Marine Strategy Framework
Directive specifically mentions underwater
noise in its definition of good environmental
status and requires that ambient noise levels
are monitored starting from 2014.

As a means to understand the activity of

ITTC members and associated industries in
hydrodynamic noise as it relates to the shipping
industry, the committee developed a questionnaire designed to survey activity in the areas of
full scale and model scale noise measurement
Standards do exist for deep water noise
measurements and the committee recommends
that the ITTC guideline on ship underwater
noise measurement follows the standard
ISO/PAS 17208-1:2012(E). Standards for shallow water measurements are currently being
pursued by various international organisations.
The accurate prediction of ship source levels
from shallow water measurements is difficult
because the acoustic propagation from the
source to the far field cannot easily be quantified. It is recommended that the ITTC guideline be revisited and updated when international standards for shallow water are established.

This increased interest in shipping noise has

resulted in a commensurate increase in research
on full scale measurements and model scale
testing and computational prediction methods.
For shipping noise prediction, the committee has focussed on propeller noise prediction.
Non-cavitating propeller noise can adequately
be predicted by CFD methods like Large Eddy
Simulation in combination with acoustic analogy. However, for commercial shipping, it is
more important to predict propeller cavitation


Check the existing methodologies regarding

full scale noise measurements in shallow
water and provide, if possible, guidelines.
Establish communication with ISO working
groups active on this topic.
Update the overview of national and international regulations and standards regarding underwater radiated noise.
Review the developments of prediction
methods (experimental, theoretical and numerical) for propeller cavitation noise and
of numerical prediction methods for noise
Review uncertainties associated with model
scale noise measurements and full scale
noise measurements.
Define a benchmarking test for numerical
prediction methods and model scale noise
measurements, preferably for a ship for
which detailed full scale noise data is available to validate the results.

With respect to model scale measurements,

several large cavitation tunnels have been built
in the last few decades (or are being built) with
specific requirements for noise measurements
and which include the presence of an acoustic
chamber. Progress has been made in model
scale propeller cavitation tests, for instance in
the use of full scale wake fields to improve the
prediction of hull pressure fluctuations. However, few reports deal with the topic of model
scale testing of cavitation noise. Specifically
there is a lack of information on the accuracy
of cavitation noise measurements and its extrapolation to full scale. The majority of the
facilities apply the extrapolation procedure as
published in the 1987 ITTC proceedings although coefficients vary. No specific extrapolation procedures are available for vortex cavitation noise. There is a large uncertainty in the
extrapolated noise levels.
To evaluate the accuracy of numerical prediction methods and model scale tests in combination with extrapolation procedures, accurate full scale data is required in which the contribution of cavitation noise can be well distinguished from other noise sources.



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The acoustic characteristics of the naval
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7.5-04-04-01: Underwater Noise from
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Unsteady pressures on the surface of a
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Hirdaris, S.E., Bai W., Dessi, D., Ergin, A.,

Gu, X., Hermundstad, O.A., Huijsmans, R.,
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Ianniello, S., Muscari, R., Di Mascio, A.,

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Johannsen, C., van Wijngaarden, E., Lucke, T.,

Streckwall, H., Bosschers, J., 2012, Investigation of hull pressure pulses, making use
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Ianniello, S., Muscari, R., Di Mascio, A.,

2014b, Ship underwater noise assessment
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IMO/MEPC 58/19, 2008, Minimizing the

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depend on









on a trestle 1 m
above bottom


water depth



Vertical distance (m)







over 200

5, 20

Horizontal distance (m)



max 150

100 m or ship



no limit for system

deployed on sea

From vessel



14, 20, 60




Max. 150

14, 400

18- 22

*: depends on ship and signature level of ship






hull above the


Sea State
A9: Typical Closest Distance between Noise Source and Reference Hydrophone (cpa).


Mitsui Lab.










Questionnaire on Full Scale Noise Measurements



WTD 71


A7: Minimum Sea-depth for

Noise Measurements (m)
A8: Maximum Allowable Beaufort and Sea State numbers


A6: Depth Position Measurement

Pressure gauge
Tape measure

A5:Depth of Hydrophones (m)


Water depth (m)

A4: Hydrophones Deployment
Mounted on seabed
Deployed from buoy
Deployed from vessel



A2: Do you have a hydrophone

A3: Facility Information




A1: Measurement Methods

Fixed location
On board system
Mobile equipment



200 for Beam aspect,

0 for Keel aspect
varies; typically 15 to 45
degree slant range



Permanent bottom
anchor, depth tide


Bottom anchored vertical

string of omnihydrophones

600, 1400, 500, 1400

Santa Cruz, Autec, Seafac,

California, Andros Island
(Bahamas), Ketchikan
(Alaska), Andros Island


Various methods and






WTD 71



Hydrophone diameter (m)

Hydrophone length (m)

Vertical directivity dB at kHz

Max. operating pressure level

(atm or m)
Operating temperature range
C3: Sensitivity + Dimensions
Hydrophone sensitivity
(dB re V/Pa)
Horizontal directivity dB
at kHz

Frequency range (Hz)

C2:Hydrophone Operation
Omnidirectional (O),
flush mounted (F)


before meas.
by the ship







at 100kHz

Omni; +/- 2dB

at 50 kHz

270; +/2dB
at 15 kHz





Omni; +/-1.5dB
at 50kHz




B&K 8103,


B&K 8103,


B&K 8105







+ 50





Mitsui Lab.









B&K 8104






RESON TC B&K 8106,



B3:Do you polish the propeller

surface before noise

C1:Hydrophone Manufacturer
and Type


Yes (Please specify when) / No

B2: Do you check the hull surface condition?

Yes (specify when)

B1: Do you check the surface condition of full scale propeller?

A10: What kind of environmental factors are measured during noise measurements?
Water depth

Water density
Current velocity
Water temperature
Temperature distributions

Sea state

Wind direction and velocity

Air temperature

Wave height and direction

Others (specify)



-174, -205


150 m












According to

According to

GPS location




+/- 1dB
at 10 kHz

+/- 0.5dB
at 56 kHz,

- 186


up to 400 m

56 k

ITC (proprietary design for

arrays). No. 8201


Dockside prior to acoustic


Dockside prior to acoustic




10 10 k

Others (specify)

D5: When do you calibrate

Instrumentation ? Beginning /End
meas, Beginning/End each meas.
D6: Acquire phase signal of the
D7: Type of Signal Processing Filters
Anti-aliasing filter

Others (specify)
D8: Type of Sound Source Localization Methods
Crosspower spectrum

D4: Minimum Dynamic Range of

Instrumentation (dB)

D3: Frequency Range of Noise

Measurements (Hz)





10 50 k


Max. 3






4 k - 80 k

1.6 - 10 kHz


Hydrophone lake, own

calibrator procedure

D1: Measurement Reporting Unit

dB ref 1Pa/Hz at 1m
D2: Acoustical Source Center on Propeller
0.7r above the shaft center in
propeller disc
Ship center
Propeller center
Halfway between engine room
and propeller

C5: Hydrophone Array

Number of hydrophones
Design frequency of hydrophone
array if available (kHz)

How do you calibrate?


WTD 71





C4: Calibration
Do you have hydrophone calibration
How often do you calibrate? Before /
After measurements, Regularly





100 80 k




- 20k

Depends on


1 - 100k


Parallel with
over side test
at sea









10 - 80 k

Depends on

typically 3
(more possible)




One or more if










Hydrophone Hydrophone
calibrator biannual factory


Mitsui Lab.



Water tank





20-100 k






Hull scans (signal amplitude

versus time or distance as
ship passes)

Selected band-pass filtering



Can resolve 1 dB SNR (do

not report / use data w/less
SNR< 3 dB

5 - 56 k

Depends on application

(for cavitation)

1/3 octave band levels at 1 m

10 (can vary depending on

testing to be done)
is that of the hydrophone 56

Acoustic at calibration facility; insitu certification w/ acoustic

source; electrical before/after








Mitsui Lab.









Time signal






























depends on
Conversion to
'dipole source










WTD 71




E6: Correction for Bottom Mounted

E7: Expected Uncertainty (dB) for
+/- 3
Predicted Noise Source Level
E8: Confidence Level on the Quality of Correction Methods
Scale of 1~10: 1 very uncertain,
10 very confident

E5: Correction for Free Surface


Others (specify)

E1: Do you correct the radiated noise

measurement for ambient noise?
E2: Do you consider environmental
parameters to predict the
propagation loss?
E3: Do you measure propagation
losses between sources and
measurement location?
E4: Adjustment Factor for Propagation Loss
20 log10(r/r1m)

D9:Do you measure the vibration

/acceleration of the
hydrophone mount structure?
D10: Do you consider vibration
/acceleration measurements
during the evaluation of the
noise signals?
D11: Presentation of Results
1/3 octave
Narrowband normalized to 1 Hz

1/3 octave converted to 1Hz

Normalization to 1 m distance

D12: Expected Uncertainty (dB)
for Full Scale Sound Pressure
+/- 1
Level Measurements
D13: Confidence Level on the Quality of Test Results
Scale of 1~10: 1 very uncertain,
10 very confident










+/- 3

Average of levels from

vertical string of hydrophones

standard high frequency





+/- 1.5 accuracy

+/- 0.5 repeatability

Various requested formats




















U. Genova




U. Sharif

































NB. A5b was introduced later following comment from HSVA and SSPA, answers correspond to answer a) in question A4.

A1: Type of Facility

(a) Closed jet tunnel
(b) Free surface tunnel
(c) Depressurized towing tank
A2: Test Section Size
Length (m)
Width (m)
Height (m)
Diameter (for circular type) (m)
Max. acceptable blockage (%)
A3: Velocity and Pressure
Maximum velocity (m/s)
Minimum pressure (kPa)
Maximum pressure (kPa)
A4: Wake Generation
(a) Full ship model without additional
flush mounted wire screen
(b) Dummy model without additional
flush mounted wire screen
(c) Combination of full hull model and
flow liners
(d) Flow liners
(e) Full ship model with additional
flush mounted wire screen
(f) Dummy model with additional
flush mounted wire screen
(g) Wire screen
(h) Shaft brackets and inclined shaft
for twin screw ships
A5: Wake Distribution
(a) Model scale wake measured at
towing tank
(b) Model scale wake using full ship
model in tunnel
(c) Model scale wake calculated
using CFD
(d) Full scale wake obtained by
extrapolation of measured model
scale wake
(e) Full scale wake calculated using


























Istanbul TU

Questionnaire on Model Scale Noise Measurements


B2: Appendages
Stabilizer fins
Thruster openings
Energy saving devices
Shaft brackets
Bilge keels
Sonar dome
B3: Turbulence Stimulators
Ship hull (None, Studs, Trip Wire,
Propeller (None, Carborundum,
B4: Propeller Manufacturing
Method (NC+ hands, NC only)
Accuracy (, mm)
B5: RPM measurement
Location (Dynamometer,Motor,
Number of pulses / rev

Propeller Model Material

B1: Ship and Propeller Model

Ship model size (m)
Ship Model Material (FRP, GRP,
Wood, Divinycell, Foam with rion
Propeller model size (mm)

A6: Wake Measurement

Do you perform wake field
(a) Routinely
(b) only on sponsors request
A7: Methodology
(a) Pitot tubes
(b) LDV
(c) PIV
A8: Components
1 component (axial)
2 components
3 components















Bro, Al









6 - 10

U. Genova





U. Sharif



































7 - 12

















200300 200250
duralumi Bro.




















Istanbul TU

15 or 60





6.1 - 12.2


C4: Calibration
Do you have hydrophone calibration
How often do you calibrate? Before
/After measurements, Regularly
How do you calibrate?
Hydrophone calibrator / water tank
C5: Hydrophone Location
Acoustic chamber (AC)
Outside wall or windows
Flushed wall or windows
Rake / in flow
Inside basin
C6: Dimensions of Location
Height (m)
Width (m)
Depth (m)
Stand-off distance (mm)
C7: Number + Position
How many hydrophones are
Upstream of the propeller plane
At propeller plane
Downstream of the propeller plane
C8: Hydrophone Array
Do you use an array?
Planar type, combo random, spiral
arm log spaced
Hydrophone spacing (mm)
What is the design frequency of the
hydrophone array (kHz)
What is the half power spatial
What is the aperture size? (m)

















Hydrophone type


C1: Hydrophone Type

Hydrophone manufacturer









TC 4032








U. Genova





TC 4013





U. Sharif




B, A


















to 5

1.6 x 1.6

to 100

random 120170














B, A












TC 4014various























B, A








B, A





to 50








TC 4056


Istanbul TU




D1: Test Conditions

Noise test procedure is facilities own
/ others
The purpose of noise test is:
(a) Cavitation Noise

(b) Cavitation inception

(c) Non-cavitating noise

D2: Loading Condition

Design point / Model test result
Are the propulsion test data corrected
to full scale?
Which parameters do you use to
define the test condition?
Does the cav. number account for
the stern wave height?
What is the reference point of the
cavitation number?
Do you correct the tunnel pressure for
the test section pressure drop?
Do you account for trim and sinkage?
D3: Typical Operational Range
Range of water speed (m/s)
Range of propeller speed (rev/s)
Range of pressure at SCL (atm)
D4: Water Quality
Do you monitor water quality?
What do you monitor?
(a) Total oxygen content
(b) Dissolved oxygen content
(c) Nuclei size
(d) Total air content

(e) Dissolved air content

Range of dissolved/total air or oxygen
< 85
content (% Sat.,1.0atm)
Range of water temperature during
noise tests? (C)
D5: Vibration Measurements
Do you measure vibration during
noise tests?
Before / Parallel / After the test
Above propeller / at shaft / at hull (H) /
on the Tunnel (T)









































U. Genova









U. Sharif





































D, M





































0.42.5 0.30.6 0.050.1 0.20.3




























































Istanbul TU
















D, +





D, +




near wake measurements with sound/pseudo sound filtering techniques

U. Sharif




B, A


20 s

30 revs









B, A

R, I


B, A

R, I

D, +

B, A

R, I


B, A





D, +



3060 s




10 s




20 s




30 s


1 000





7.530 s







> 10 s






R, I


Istanbul TU

1Pa/Hz 1Pa/Hz 1Pa/Hz 1Pa/Hz 1Pa/Hz 1Pa/Hz 1Pa/Hz 1Pa/Hz 1Pa/Hz







R, I







U. Genova

E1: Measurement Reporting Unit

in dB ref.
1Pa/Hz 1Pa/Hz 1Pa/Hz 1Pa/Hz various
RMS / Peak
at 1m
E2: Acoustical Source Center on Propeller
Shaft center line

0.7R 12:00 o'clock

0.8R 12:00 o'clock

1.0R 12:00 o'clock

E3: Frequency Range of Noise Signals
Lower frequency (Hz)
Upper frequency (kHz)
E4: Acquire Phase Signal of the Propeller?
Acquire phase signal of the propeller
E5: Time Length of Model Noise Measurement?
How many revs or seconds do you
20 s
30 s
10 s
> 500s
10 s
E6: Check Reproducibility of the Noise Signals?
Check reproducibility of the noise
E7: Type of Signal Processing Filters
Anti-aliasing filter

Others (specify)
E8: Sound Source Localization Method

(b)Matched-filter array processing
(c)Crosspower spectrum

(e)Others (specify)

D6: Test Conditions

Design condition(D), more than 1 (+)
D7: Background Noise Tests
Replacement of propeller by dummy
boss, Increase of pressure
Before / After noise test
For every test condition?
D8: Supporting Investigations
(a) Cavitation observation
(b) Cavitation inception
(c) Hull pressure pulses
(d) Others
















Generally uncertainty analysis based on standard procedures for signal processing

**: Evaluate vibration influence using coherence measurements (subtract coherent power)
***: Correction to far-field based on calculations or in-situ reciprocity measurement

(i.e., Bendat & Piersol's books on random signals).





U. Sharif


*: Uncertainty analysis depends on type of measurements (cavitating/non-cavitating).

1/3 octave

Narrowband normalized to 1 Hz

1/3 octave converted to 1Hz

Normalization to 1 m distance
Others: time signal (TS),
narrowband (NB)
E12: The Reverberation of Facility
Have you investigated the

reverberation of facility
E13: What Corrections
(a) Free surface
(b) Reflections due to wall

(c) Background noise

(d) Reverberation

(e) Others (specify)

E14: Uncertainty
Uncertainty (in dB) for model scale
noise measurements
E15: Confidence Level on the Quality of Test Results
Scale of 1~10: 1 very uncertain,
10 very confident

E11: Presentation of Results

U. Genova





E9: Uncertainty Analysis

(a) ITTC (general guideline)

(b) Facilitys own (specify)

(c) None

E10: Consider the Results of the Vibration/Acceleration Measurements?

Do you consider the results of the


y noise









Istanbul TU










U. Genova



U. Sharif



similar to


*: Depends on type of noise mechanism. In-house cavitation relationships & non-cavitating scaling relationship



























de Bruijn own
and ten facility facility
Wolde scaling scaling
(1974) method method






F3: Scaling Methods for Tip Vortex Cavitation Noise

Do you have special scaling methods
for tip vortex cavitation noise?
F4: w, x, y and z Exponents for Scaling in ITTC 1987 (or similar) Formulation
F5: Uncertainty
Uncertainty (in dB) for your noise
scaling procedure
F6: Confidence Level on the Quality of Scaling Method
Scale of 1~10: 1 very uncertain,
10 very confident

Others (specify)

F1: Full Scale Noise Prediction

Do you carry out full scale noise
prediction after noise measurements
at model scale?
F2: Scaling Procedures
ITTC 1987











Istanbul TU



Specialist Committee on Hydrodynamic

Testing of Marine Renewable Energy Devices
Final Report and Recommendations to the 27th ITTC

di Architecttura Navale (CNR-INSEAN)



The 27th ITTC Specialist Committee on

Hydrodynamic Testing of Marine Renewable
Energy Devices consisted of:


Prof Hyun Kyoung Shin,

University of Ulsan, Korea
The committee met four times:

Prof Sandy Day (Chairman)

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow,

February 2012

Australian Maritime College, Australia

December 2012

Dr Irene Penesis (Secretary)

Australian Maritime College, Launceston,

Dr Aurlien Babarit,
cole Centrale de Nantes, France

University of Ulsan, Korea,

November 2013

Dr Arnold Fontaine,
Pennsylvania State University, USA

Pennsylvania State University, USA,

April 2014

Prof Yanping He
Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, China


Dr Marek Kraskowski,
Centrum Techniki Okrtowej (CTO),

Prof Motohiko Murai,

Yokohama National University, Japan

Dr Francesco Salvatore,
Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze

This report addresses a number of key issues in the physical and numerical testing of
marine renewable energy systems, including
wave energy devices, current turbines, and offshore wind turbines. The report starts with an
overview of the types of devices considered,
and introduces some key studies in marine renewable energy research. The development of
new ITTC guidelines for testing these devices
is placed in the context of guidelines developed


or under development by other international

bodies as well as via research projects. Sites
developed around the world for full-scale testing of Marine Renewable Energy Devices are
discussed. Some particular challenges are introduced in the experimental and numerical
modelling and testing of these devices, including the simulation of Power-Take-Off systems
(PTOs) for physical models of all devices, approaches for numerical modelling of devices,
and the correct modelling of wind load on offshore wind turbines. Finally issues related to
the uncertainty in performance prediction from
test results are discussed.



Wave Energy Converters

Device Types. Wave Energy Converters

(WECs) are devices designed to convert wave
energy into another useful form of energy. In
most cases the target is electricity generation
but other uses have been proposed, such as
fresh water production by desalination.
Wave energy is characterised by a wide diversity of concepts and technologies. At present, more than one hundred projects are in
development around the world. More than one
thousand patents have been filed, the earliest
being as old as 1799 by Girard and Sons. Excellent reviews of wave energy technologies
can be found in Falcao (2009) and Falnes
(2007). The majority of devices use one of
three following working principles:

Technology Readiness Level

Overtopping Devices: In these devices,

waves run over a ramp in order to fill a reservoir in which mean water level is higher than
the mean sea water level. Potential energy in
the reservoir is then converted into electricity
using conventional low head turbines. Figure 1
shows two examples of prototypes.

The stages of development of marine renewable devices are commonly described in

the industry in terms of Technology Readiness
Levels (TRLs). These provide a consistent
process enabling identification of the stage of
development of a device and identification of
suitable test procedures for evaluating device
performance at a defined stage of development.
This information can then be used to provide
an unbiased assessment of a device for investment/development purposes independent of
device type or scale.

Oscillating Water Columns: Oscillating

Water Columns (OWCs) have a partly submerged structure with an inner chamber with
an internal free surface. Pressure variations in
the incident waves excite the internal free surface to oscillate via a submerged opening in the
chamber. The free surface oscillation forces the
air above to flow through an air turbine that
drives a generator. Examples of well-known
prototypes are shown in figure 2.

In the case of the renewable energy industry, the following stages of Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) are commonly considered
(e.g. Mankins (2009)). TRL 1-3 correspond to
research stages up to and including proof of
concept, TRL 4-5 correspond to component,
sub-system and system validation in laboratories and/or simulated operational environments
and TRL 6-9 correspond to prototype demonstration in operational environment through to
system proving via successful deployment.



Low head turbine

Figure 1. Overtopping Devices: (a) Schematic Diagram; (b) TAPCHAN built onshore in Norway
in the 1980s; (c) 1/4.5 scale model of floating device Wavedragon deployed in Denmark in 2003.

Incident waves


Figure 2. Oscillating Water Column Devices: (a) Schematic; (b) Pico shore-based OWC built in
the Azores in 1999; (c) Oceanlinx floating OWC deployed in 2010 in New South Wales Australia




Figure 3. Oscillating Body Devices: (a) Schematic; (b) Carnegies Ceto heaving buoy; (c)
Aquamarines Oyster device; (d) Pelamis Wave Powers P2 device. Devices c) and d) have
been tested at the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) full-scale test site in the UK.


Figure 4. Classification of wave energy technologies (from Falcao (2009))

Oscillating Bodies: In these devices, incident waves make one or several bodies oscillate. Relative motions between the bodies and
the sea bottom or between the bodies themselves are used to drive a Power Take Off system (PTO), often based on hydraulic components. The working principles and examples of
well-known prototypes are shown in figure 3.

WECs may also be classified using the location of installation. Some wave energy converters are designed to be installed at the shoreline, some in near-shore shallow-water regions
while other can be installed in deep water offshore.
A final approach to classification of WECs
uses considerations of size. Devices of small
dimensions with respect to wavelength are
called point absorbers. Examples are Carnegies Ceto device or the Aquamarines Oyster.
Large devices with the longest dimension parallel to the wave crests are called terminators, whereas devices with the longest dimension parallel to the wave propagation direction
are called attenuators. The Wavedragon is an
example of a terminator and the Pelamis is an
example of an attenuator.

Other Devices: Some devices may use

other working principles. Wave turbines have
been proposed for instance, in which wave induced flow velocity is used with lifting surfaces in order to drive rotary generators (Siegel
et al., 2013). Partly or even fully flexible devices have also been considered (Bellamy et
al., 1986, Farley et al., 2011).
WEC Classification. WECs may be classified in a number of ways. One approach often
used is to classify by the working principle;
Figure 4, taken from Falcao (2009), shows a
well-known example.

Landmark Studies. Modern studies in wave

energy can be traced back to the 1974 paper by
Salter and the 1975 paper by Budal and Falnes
in Nature, and the 1976 paper by Evans in
Journal of Fluid Mechanics. This pioneering


work initiated a considerable amount of research on wave energy until the mid-1980s,
when funding stopped partly because of the
decline in the oil price. References to many
interesting studies which were conducted at
that time can be found in the review paper by
Falnes (2007) and in McCormick (1981), Berge
(1982) and Evans & Falcao (1985).


Current Energy

Device types. Marine current devices are

designed to convert the kinetic energy of flowing water into electrical energy by means of
mechanical parts that undergo rotational or
oscillatory motions in reaction to currentinduced hydrodynamic forces. Electric generators typically convert motions into electric

Interest in wave energy started again in the

mid-1990s, due to increasing awareness of issues associated with climate change and thus
the need for renewable energy. From 1998 to
2002, an experimental program investigated
several wave energy concepts in Denmark
(Meyer et al., 2002). A techno-economic study
of the deployment of WEC arrays based on
early 2000s technologies was carried out in the
US in 2004 (Previsic, 2004). Books were published by Falnes (2002) and Cruz (2008). In
addition to device-specific R&D, scientific
research has been carried out on assessment of
wave energy resource (Kerbiriou et al., 2007,
Folley & Whittaker, 2009, Saulnier et al.,
2011), on device control for maximising power
capture (Hals et al., 2002, Babarit & Clment,
2006, Babarit et al., 2009, Crtel, 2011, Clment & Babarit, 2012, Fusco & Ringwood,
2012), on device performance (Babarit et al.,
2012) and on array interactions (Folley et al.,
2012, Babarit, 2013).

Devices can be classified as turbine systems

when moving parts consist of rotor blades and
non-turbine systems. Marine current turbines
are further classified according to the orientation of the turbine axis with respect to the
dominant direction of the current. Turbines
operating with the axis aligned with the current
are referred to as horizontal axis turbines to
distinguish from cross-flow turbines in which
the axis is orthogonal to the current direction.
Vertical-axis turbines represent a particular
case of cross-flow turbines. Non-turbine devices present a variety of configurations. The
most common cases utilise moving parts consisting of oscillating lifting surfaces such as
foils, sails or kites. Other systems are based on
the VIV (Vortex-Induced Vibrating) cylinder
In some cases, marine current devices are
also divided between systems designed for unidirectional currents (ocean current devices) and
those specific for bi-directional tidal currents
(tidal devices). The present discussion is limited to devices converting the kinetic energy
associated with flowing water masses (hydrokinetic devices). A further type of tidal device,
not considered here, is designed to exploit potential energy from tidal range (rise and fall);
these devices, sometimes described as tidal
barrages, are considered as hydropower systems and are not addressed here.

Many device concepts have been proposed

and developed to moderate TRLs; however,
while a few have been demonstrated at full
scale at sea for several years, there are still no
commercial wave farms in operation due to the
high cost of wave energy in comparison with
other renewable energy sources. Much work is
still required before achieving economicallycompetitive energy from wave power.


Energy conversion mechanisms are generally fully submerged and may be positioned at
various depths from the free surface. Existing
technologies include bottom-fixed devices as
well as floating and mid-water devices in
which one or more turbines or equivalent
mechanisms are fitted to surface platforms or
submerged moored structures. Figure 5 shows
some examples of turbine and non-turbine concepts. A review of marine current device technologies can be found in Khan et al. (2009).


Operational Aspects. In spite of the large

number of concepts proposed over the last decades and the extensive analysis and design
studies carried out by numerical modelling,
laboratory tests and field trials of large-scale
prototypes, marine current device technology is
still at an early stage of maturity.










Figure 5 Examples of current energy devices: a) three-bladed bottom-fixed turbine b) floating

single turbine device, c) floating dual turbine device, d) dual turbine bottom-fixed device, e) dual
turbine mid-water device f) contra-rotating mid-water device g) ducted turbine (h) Vertical-axis
Darrieus turbine cluster (i) Gorlov turbine (j) Oscillating foil device


canes) which pose a lesser threat to submerged


Recent state-of-art surveys by international

organizations (e.g. Ocean Energy Systems Annual Report 2012, Brito e Melo & Huckerby
(2012)) highlight that turbine systems are considered as the most promising technology, in
parallel with developments in wind energy devices. In particular, Horizontal Axis Current
Turbines (HACTs) and Vertical Axis Current
Turbines (VACTs) are to date the most widelyadopted solutions.

Turbines operating inside a converging/diverging nozzle or duct are sometimes

introduced as means to increase the power output of similarly sized rotor devices deployed in
relatively low-speed/low-energy currents. The
geometry of ducts can be designed to accelerate
the water flow incoming to the turbine. Ducting
solutions exist for both HACTs, VACTs and
other cross-flow devices, as shown in Figure 6;
Khan et al. (2009) gives a literature review on
the subject.

Each of these two layouts presents advantages and disadvantages. In terms of power
efficiency, that is the amount of power that is
produced for given momentum of the water
mass processed by the device, HACTs have in
general higher performance than VACTs. Conversely, HACT power capturing capability is
very sensitive to the alignment of turbine axis
and current direction, whereas VACTs are insensitive to the direction of the onset flow in a
plane normal to the turbine axis.

In general, the addition of a duct or nozzle

increases device drag thus increasing support
structure complexity. In an open environment
where the size of the device is small relative to
the available open area of flow in the deployment site (low blockage of the device), the increased drag of the device will effectively deflect more incoming flow around the device
rather than through it. Thus the overall power
capacity of the device may be comparable to or
worse than a similarly sized HACT with a rotor
diameter equal to the duct diameter, (van Bussel et al. (2007)). A duct or shroud may be
beneficial in more confined deployment sites or
sites with debris as the duct may offer a level
of protection to the rotor. Some device designs
use a duct or shroud to house a rim drive generator unit. Figure 5(g) shows a commercial
device of this type.

For this reason, the latter are frequently preferred in case of bidirectional tidal currents,
whereas the operation of HACTs in tidal current sites implies that suitable blade/turbine
orientation solutions are implemented. A simple solution for HACTs is to adopt blades with
bidirectional profiles that, at a price of reduced
hydrodynamic efficiency, do not require to be
oriented according to tide direction.
In the case of deployment in shallow water
sites, bottom-fixed installations of HACTs are
preferred, but many examples of floating turbines exist. VACTs are typically appended to
floating platforms with the advantage that generation set and power control systems can be
placed on the platform above the water surface
yielding inherent advantages in terms of inspection and maintenance operations. A disadvantage of floating devices is vulnerability in
case of extreme weather conditions (e.g. hurri-

State of Art technology & ongoing projects.

Technology development plans are advanced in
many regions characterised by intense ocean
and tidal current resources. This includes primarily the so-called Atlantic Arc in Europe,
Canada in North America, Indonesia, India,
China, Korea and Japan in Asia and Australia.
While new concepts are often proposed by
small companies and research teams, marine


current technologies have captured the interest

of leading companies with core business in the
area of energy and marine propulsion systems.
Large-scale exploitation of marine current energy is still in the future; however the situation
is expected to evolve rapidly during the next
decade considering the number of projects for
array deployment that have obtained necessary
consent and funding in the last few years. Projects for realization of horizontal-axis tidal turbine arrays with capacity of 10 MW and more
are planned in U.K., France, Canada, Korea,
Australia, and India.

One of the projects most advanced in development is the MCT SeaGen shown in Figure
7, a 1.2MW horizontal axis tidal device deployed and operational since 2008 at Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland (Fraenkel
(2010)). The system consists of twin power
trains mounted on a crossbeam supported by a
bottom fixed tower. The cross beam can be
raised above the free surface for maintenance.
Each turbine has a diameter of 16 m and two
blades that can be pitched through 180 degrees
to operate in bi-directional flows with current
speed of 2.5 m/s. The company has plans to
deploy a 10MW turbine array in Wales and an
8MW tidal farm in Scotland. Other examples
of smaller horizontal-axis turbines are operating and grid-connected along the UK and Canadian coasts.


Figure 7. The Seagen 1.2 MW device operating at

Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland (U.K).

Many ongoing projects show results of

open sea field tests for device assessment in
view of pre-commercial deployment. In particular, several HACT prototypes with rated
power up to 1 MW have been tested at the
European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) in
the Orkney Islands (U.K.) and in other field
tests worldwide. Tests are primarily aimed at
confirming performance estimates from computational models and from small scale laboratory tests at large scale and in real environmental conditions. Trials are also aimed at verifying operability in extreme conditions, grid
connection, deployment and maintenance aspects and to analyse life-cycle performance and
reliability over testing periods from several
weeks to many months.


Figure 6 Diffusers: (a) HACT: Luquet et al.

2013); (b) VACT: (Ponta et al., 2008).


An example of these projects is the HACT

tested in 2011 for three months off the coasts of
South Korea near the island of Jindo, shown in
Figure 8 (a). This is a 5.3 m diameter turbine
with three symmetrically shaped blades for
operation in bi-directional tidal currents, rated
power of 110 kW with a a current speed of 2.9
m/s. This represents a 1:3 scaled pilot installation. The full scale prototype, with rated capacity of 1 MW at a current speed of 2.9 m/s, is
being tested at EMEC.


Similarly, the HACT turbine in Figure 8 (b)

has been tested, firstly as a 1:3 scaled prototype
in open sea in Norway for more than five years
and subsequently by testing a full-scale 1 MW
unit at EMEC. A 10 MW power array utilising
these turbines is intended to be deployed in
Scotland in 2015 as one of the worlds first
commercial-scale tidal arrays. A ducted, rimdriven horizontal-axis turbine, Figure 8 (c), has
been tested at EMEC in 2008 and two 16 m
diameter, 2 MW power capacity units are being
deployed at the Fundy Ocean Research Centre
for Energy (FORCE), Fundy Bay, Canada.


The first grid-connected VACT device is

the small Kobold straight-blade Darreius type
turbine deployed since 2002 in Messina Strait
in Italy. A three-bladed, 5 m diameter prototype with rated capacity of 120-150 kW is being deployed off the coasts of Lomboc Island,
Indonesia. Other VACT projects are ongoing in
Korea and in China, where a research team
from Harbin Engineering University has developed a 300 kW device consisting of two 150
kW turbines fixed to a catamaran-type platform.

Figure 8 Examples of horizontal turbine prototypes
under assessment in field tests: (a) Voith Hydro
Test Turbine, Jindo, Korea; (b) Andritz Hydro
Hammerfest HS1000, EMEC, Scotland; (c) Open
Hydro Test Turbine, EMEC Scotland

Landmark studies. This section describes

representative experimental studies conducted
with the main objective of investigating specific aspects of marine current energy capturing
mechanisms and device operation and to provide datasets for the validation of computational models.


set for computational model development that

included device powering, shaft steady and
unsteady loads, blade strain, measured device
acoustics, blade cavitation performance, tower
unsteady pressure, nacelle vibration, and detailed flow mapping of the inflow and wake
structure up to one rotor diameter downstream
with phase locked multi-component LDV and
Stereo PIV. The tests were conducted over a
range of blade chord Reynolds numbers from
3105 to nearly 1106 with Tip-Speed Ratios
2-7 and under cavitating and non-cavitating
conditions. The data base is one of the first
produced providing device structural response,
blade strain and drive shaft steady and unsteady
load, as a function of inflow conditions and
blade tower interaction.

Results of a detailed set of model tests of a

horizontal axis turbine conducted in a towing
tank and in a cavitation tunnel are presented by
Bahaj et al. (2007). Power and thrust measurements of a three-bladed turbine under various
hydrodynamic flow conditions are reported. In
particular, the effect of yaw angle, rotor immersion, and the interference between twin
rotors were studied. Cavitation inception studies are also reported.
Extensive studies of horizontal axis turbines
have been carried out at the flume/wave tank
by IFREMER (France). Wave-current interaction studies (Gaurier et al., 2013) have shown
that free-surface waves induce additional cyclic
loading on turbine blades and fatigue conditions are dominated by wave-induced loads.
Turbine wake flow studies by Laser-Doppler
velocity measurements have been presented in
Maganga et al. (2010) and the analysis of the
impact of onset flow turbulence on turbine performance and shed wakes is discussed in Mycek et al. (2014). The interaction between two
turbines has been addressed in Mycek et al.
Milne et al. (2013) studied the impact of
unsteady inflow on blade loading on a threebladed rotor by towing the test-rig on an oscillating sub-carriage mounted on the main carriage of a towing tank, investigating single and
multi-frequency oscillations. Results showed
that flow separation leads to significant increases in loading, but for attached flow the
effects of unsteadiness are shown to be rather

Recently, a three-bladed turbine model with

0.7 m diameter has been selected as the reference geometry for a Round-Robin test in the
framework of the R&D Project MaRINET cofunded by the European Union. At the time of
writing, tests have been conducted by
IFREMER (France), the University of Strathclyde (Scotland) and CNR-INSEAN (Italy).
The aim of this program is to compare turbine
performance measurements conducted in facilities of different type (towing tanks, flume tanks
and circulating water channels) and investigate
the impact of testing energy capturing devices
towed in calm water or kept fixed in an onset
flow with non-negligible turbulence levels.
Plans to repeat part of measurements using
models of identical geometry and different
scales have been made by CNR-INSEAN.
Similar comparative studies on vertical-axis
devices are not reported to date.

Fontaine et al. (2013) performed a detailed

verification and validation experiment on a
0.575m diameter model of a 3-bladed HACT
designed with improved cavitation performance, reduced sensitivity to fouling and reduced
blade noise. This test generated a detailed data

An example of experimental study aimed at

analysing the performance of horizontal-axis
turbines in an array is proposed by Myers and
Bahaj (2012). The flow field around a 2-row
array, device/device interaction as well as the
structure of shed wakes downstream the rows is


investigated by simulating single turbines as

porous actuator disks with 100 mm diameter
(Figure 9). Acoustic-Doppler Velocimetry
(ADV) was used to measure velocity fields.
Results demonstrate that unit positioning combinations exist that allow an increase of the
overall power output capability of the array.

piles, tripods, jackets and gravity bases. Floating Offshore Wind Turbines (FOWTs) utilise
floating support structures in many cases utilising technology originally developed for the
offshore oil and gas industries. In the windturbine literature these are often categorised as
ballast-stabilised (e.g. Spars), Mooringstabilised (e.g. TLPs) and buoyancy-stabilised
(e.g. barges and semi-submersibles). While
bottom-mounted systems are currently operating commercially in several European countries, FOWTs are still in a process of evolution
with several technology demonstration projects
under way around the world. Some hybrid concepts are under development, attempting to
exploit potential for synergy between wind and
current or wave energy systems. As of 2013 the
two largest offshore wind farms are located in
UK waters: the 630 MW London Array (Figure
11) is the largest offshore wind farm in the
world, with the 504 MW Greater Gabbard
wind farm the second largest. All turbines are
of the bottom-mounted monopile type.

A key benefit of the collection of experimental data describing turbine performance

under different operating conditions is to provide datasets for the validation of computational models. Although these tests provide a
valuable data set, in many cases, the small
scale of model devices result in flow conditions
in which transitional effects and turbulence
development must be carefully evaluated to
ensure that test results are not biased by low
Reynolds number effects.

A number of FOWT projects are in the

demonstration stage of full-scale or large-scale
trials at sea. The first demonstration experiment
of a FOWT was Blue Hs tension leg platform
with a small wind turbine installed in Italian
waters in 2008. A number of larger scale
(c.2MW) technology demonstrators have followed. One is Hywind [4] the first large-scale
spar type FOWT installed by Statoil ASA off
the south-west coast of Norway in 2009.
WindFloat [5] is a semisubmersible type
FOWT installed by Principle Power Inc. in
2011 off the coast of Aguadoura, Portugal.

Figure 9 Actuator disks used to simulate turbine

arrays in flume tank tests (Myers and Bahaj, 2011)


Wind energy

An offshore wind turbine system generates

electricity from the energy of wind over the
sea. Wind farms consist of arrays of offshore
wind turbines. Offshore wind turbine systems
may be divided into bottom-mounted and floating systems. Bottom-mounted systems typically utilise foundation technology of mono-

The Japanese government has recently

started three technology demonstration projects
in offshore wind. The first is a 2.0 MW spartype offshore wind turbine located off Goto
island near Kyushu. The second is the 16.0
MW floating offshore wind farm technology
demonstration Fukushima Project which con-


sists of 4 floating devices: a three-column triangular semi-submersible (2MW), an advanced

Spar (7MW) and an V-Shape semi-submersible
(7MW), supported by the first floating substation in the world. The first electricity was
generated in 2013; the 7MW FOWTs will be
installed in 2014 and 2015. Finally the first
demonstrator of a large-scale vertical-axis type
FOWT is the SKWID hybrid wind-current device which is likely to be installed in Saga,
Japan by MODEC in 2014.

parison Collaboration (OC3) reported by

Jonkman and Musial (2010) which included
analysis of monopile and tripod bottommounted wind turbines and a spar buoy floating
turbine. Benchmarking developments are continuing with the ongoing project Annex 30 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4), which addresses analysis of
jacket-mounted OWTs (Popko et. al (2012))
and semi-submersible FOWTs (Robertson et.
al (2013)).

There is rapid increase in capability of

simulation codes for FOWTs, such as those
developed by NREL (USA), Ris (Denmark),
IFPEN (France), MARINTEK (Norway)
among others. In recent years, development of
simulation codes has focussed on addressing
aero-hydro-servo-elastic coupling of FOWTs.
One example is the coupling of WAMIT developed by MIT and FAST developed by
NREL to predict dynamic characteristics of
FOWTs and estimate their parameters effects
on performance.

The increasing size of full-scale wind turbines requires that experiments adopt relatively
small scale models. Devices currently being
deployed employ turbines up to 170m in diameter, and sizes may continue to increase as
offshore installations become more economically attractive both in land and offshore. Consequently it is difficult to keep the physical
similarities of not only the scale of the model
but also the external wind load conditions.
Most of the experiments of 2-7MW FOWTs in
a conventional ocean basin or test tank now use
1/50-1/200 scale models. Some particular challenges of these tests are addressed in Section 7.

Some of the well-known prediction tools

for wind turbines have been benchmarked
through the International Energy Agency (IEA)
Wind Project Annex 23 Offshore Code Com-



Figure 10 Offshore wind turbine foundation types:

(a) Bottom Mounted Wind Turbines : monopile, tripod, jacket, gravity base;
(b) Floating Offshore Wind Turbines: Ballast-stabilised, mooring-stabilised, buoyancy-stabilised


Figure 11 The largest offshore wind farm London Array (UK).







Figure 12 Prototypes of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs):

(a) Blue H TLP (Netherlands); (b) Hywind SPAR (Norway); (c) GOTO Spar (Japan). (d) Wind
Float Semi-sub (Portugal); (g) Fukushima Project (Japan); (h) SKWID Hybrid Vertical axis
wind turbine / current turbine (Japan)


ers, sponsors/investors and/or regulators on the
processes required in order to assess device
performance at various stages of device design
and development, including hydrodynamic
model testing. However, much of the guidance
given is rather general and does not address the
specific nature of many critical challenges of
tank testing MRE devices.

One of the key tasks of the committee has

been to propose revisions to the existing guideline on testing of wave energy devices and to
develop two new guidelines addressing testing
of current turbines and offshore wind turbines
respectively.This task should be seen in the
context of the proliferation of other guidelines
addressing development of Marine Renewable
Energy (MRE) devices, and which consider
issues related to model testing either directly or
indirectly. These other guidelines have been
developed by a diverse set of organisations,
including international standards bodies, intergovernmental organizations, and national and
international research projects. Some examples
of guidance related to tank-testing of MRE
devices either in existence or known to be under development by international bodies are
given in Table 1 whilst examples of guidance
developed by research organisations and/or
projects are listed in Table 2.

In contrast the guidelines proposed for

adoption by this committee aim at providing
guidance to research organisations conducting
tests on MRE devices on specific issues related
to the execution of the tests themselves.
In order to minimise duplication of effort, this
committee has been involved in informal liaison with several bodies and/or research projects currently developing guidelines in the
general area of MRE device development, in
order to raise awareness of the ITTC activities
in developing guidance in the specific area of
tank testing practice. Informal liaison has also
been established with a number of other interested parties in order to raise awareness of the
ITTC activity in this area.

Much of this guidance has been generated

by groups including few or no representatives
from ITTC organisations. The emphasis of
much of this work is to advise device develop-


Table 1. Guidelines generated by International Bodies






International Electro International Guidelinesfortheearly UnderDevelopment

technical Commission Standard
stage development of
settingbody wave energy convert
Technical Committee
ers: Best practices &
recommended proce
International Electro International Design requirements Revisionunderdevelopmentto Yes
technical Commission Standard
for floating offshore includeAnnexaddressingtank
settingbody windturbines
International Energy Intergovern Guidelines for the De Published2011
mental or velopment&Testingof http://www.oceanenergy
OceanEnergySystems ganization


Table 2. Guidelines generated by Research Institutes and Projects

Organisation Title







TankTestingofWave Published2009
Bestpracticefortank Published2010
Ongoingdevelopment Underdevelopment
perimentaltanktesting http://www.supergen



haves in a manner which correctly represents

the behaviour of the full-scale system over the
range of oscillation amplitude and frequency.
In addition it is important that the model-scale
PTO allows the damping to be repeatably varied in order to allow systematic investigation of
the power extraction.



One of the key differences between the behaviour of a marine renewable energy device
and other fixed or floating structures subject to
fluid action is the presence of a Power Take
Off (PTO) system specifically designed to extract energy from the interaction between the
device and the fluid flow. The device performance, in terms of power capture as well as other
aspects of the device response such as motions
and/or hydrodynamic loads, thus depends upon
the behaviour of the PTO system. Hence appropriate simulation of the power take-off is
essential during small-scale model tests to determine the performance of the system.

A key limitation in the implementation of

model-scale PTO simulators is the model size
and scale. Scale is important since some of the
parasitic loads, particularly friction will not
scale according to Froude scaling used to scale
the hydrodynamic loads, whilst size is important since it may be challenging to build a
simulated PTO to meet geometry and mass
constraints in even relatively large scale models of small devices.
At early stages of testing (e.g. TRL 1-3) it
is likely that the detailed design of the fullscale PTO is not complete, and hence the
model test will typically utilise a simplified or
idealised damper. Whilst it may not be necessary at this stage of testing to generate a numerically-quantified level of damping, a minimum requirement is that the damping can be
controlled in a repeatable manner; this can be
problematic with friction-based systems which
are sensitive to environmental factors such as
temperature and moisture.

It should be noted that the term PTO refers

specifically to the system which converts energy from one form (typically kinetic or potential) into another form (typically electrical).
The term Power Conversion Chain (PCC) is
sometimes used to describe the entire system
with which the energy is converted and transmitted to shore hence this could include
components such as PTO, power conditioning
systems, and cabling.


Wave Energy Devices

It is important to characterise damping systems prior to the tank tests in order to gain an
understanding of the behaviour of the system
so as to determine the extent to which the system behaves in the idealised manner intended.
With passive systems this may be achieved by
applying a known motion to the PTO using an
appropriate test rig (e.g. Sheng et al. (2013)),
ideally over the full range of frequencies and
amplitudes expected in the tests.

The PTO in a wave energy device typically

extracts energy from relative motion between
different components of the device, or directly
or indirectly from relative motion between the
device and the water. The corollary to this is
that the amplitude of the motion of the structure can be strongly coupled to the amount of
energy extracted, and in turn the amount of
energy extracted can be strongly coupled to the
damping employed. Thus the simulation of the
device requires that the model-scale PTO be-


fore necessary to measure the flow rate of the

water overtopping the crest. This may be
achieved by direct measurement of water flow
or by collecting the overtopped water and
measuring the total volume over a period of
time (e.g. Parmeggiani et al. (2013)).

At this stage the damper may be passive or

active. Passive dampers typically employ a
variety of mechanisms: on oscillating water
columns, an orifice plate or a porous medium is
often used to damp the airflow in and out of the
air chamber. Orifice plates behave in an approximately quadratic manner, with some hysteresis, whilst porous media behave more like a
linear damper (Sheng et al. (2013)); however
some studies have shown that the resulting
differences in power capture are relatively
small (Forestier et al. (2007)). Tests should
take correct account of air compressibility by
appropriate scaling of the air chamber (Weber

On oscillating body devices, small-scale

hydraulic or pneumatic systems or frictionbased systems may be used on oscillating body
devices. Typically the power will be obtained
from the product of force and relative velocity
between two components. Force is normally
measured with a conventional tension / compression or torque load cell. For devices which
generate power from rotational motion, the
angular velocity will normally be found from
the time derivative of the output from a potentiometer or encoder. Where devices generate
linear motion, a device such as an LVDT may
be used to measure the instantaneous position.
In both cases, and especially where the PTO
motion is underwater it may be preferred to use
an optical motion capture system to derive the
relative motion.

Instantaneous power capture in an OWC is

normally found from the product of air pressure
and flow rate. The pressure drop across the
damper is normally measured directly using a
differential pressure transducer. Direct measurement of the air flow through the damper is
challenging; flow rate is normally calculated
from the rate of change of the air volume in the
OWC which in turn is inferred from measurements of water surface elevation inside the
OWC. These measurements typically employ
conventional capacitive or resistive wave
probes. Where the duct dimension is large
enough that significant sloshing may occur, it
may be necessary to deploy several probes in
order to capture the slope of the water surface
in the duct and thus find the air flow rate.

As an alternative to dissipating energy

through a damper, the energy may be converted
into another form, such as potential energy
stored by lifting a weight or by pumping water.
For tests at higher TRLs, active dampers using closed-loop control systems are normally
employed. These may still be used with relatively simple control models to represent idealised PTOs such as linear or quadratic dampers
(e.g. Ersdal & Moe (2013)), or may incorporate
more complex control strategies.

A possible alternative is to use an optical

system to measure the response of floats inside
the OWC; in this case it is important to ensure
that the natural frequencies of the float in the
duct are well above the wave frequencies of
interest in the test.

The more complex strategies typically employ phase control with highly-tuned devices,
such as point absorbers, in order to broaden the
frequency range at which high response occurs.
In latching control (e.g. Bjarte-Larsson & Falnes (2007), Durand et al. (2007)) the relative

On overtopping devices, the overtopping

power is proportional to the height of the crest
of the artificial beach above mean water level
and the mean overtopping flow rate. It is there-


es are typically designed to operate over a specific range of conditions, typically RPM or
oscillation frequency, for optimal power generation. Maintenance of optimal conditions is
usually achieved by loading the device to hold
RPM or oscillation to a desired range. An unloaded device would typically operate under
freewheeling conditions often undesirable at
full scale and producing minimum shaft power.
The PTO system, comprised of drive train,
power generation and power electronics, is the
sub-system that provides the necessary device
loading. Proper small-scale device testing must
include some form of PTO modeling.

motion is temporarily fixed, normally at an

instant of zero relative velocity, and then released once the relative force exceeds a prescribed value. In reactive control, energy is
both extracted and injected into the system at
different points in the cycle, as described by
Hansen and Kramer (2011)) for the Wavestar
prototype device. Both strategies can increase
the root-mean-square (RMS) power output
compared to that obtained with a simple damping strategy; however the increase in RMS
power often comes with a price of increased
peak loads on the system.
Any of these strategies may be implemented through a variety of hardware systems
including digital drives (e.g. Ersdal & Moe
(2013), embedded controllers (e.g. Signorelli et
al. (2011) for a PTO test rig) or Programmable
Logic Controllers (PLCs) (e.g. Banks et al.

The important parameters of interest relative to PTO function in a small-scale model test
of a rotating device are shaft RPM and torque
at the rotor to shaft attachment. The smallscale PTO must be designed to absorb the delivered power by the shaft under controlled
conditions to minimize shaft torque and rpm
drift during testing. In tests of model current
devices, the PTO can be represented by direct
electrical power generation, by mechanical /
hydraulic / magnetic loading or by using a
speed or torque control drive to control rotor

A key requirement of the mechanical design

of the model and the simulated PTO is to
minimise friction in the system, both static
(stiction) and dynamic, since the friction will
not scale correctly with Froude scaling, and
will potentially distort the relationship between
force and velocity being simulated in the PTO.
Careful design, including the use of specialised
components such as air bearings (e.g. LamontKane et al. (2013)), can substantially reduce
the impact of friction on the system response.
Where possible it may be beneficial to locate
the load cell so that the measured load includes
loads due to mechanical friction in the system,
so that the power dissipated through friction is
included in the total power measured.


Generators, either permanent magnet or inductance, can be used in small scale model
testing using direct-drive or gear-box coupling.
While full-scale devices often have the power
generator installed in the nacelle, space limitations in small-scale model testing may require a
revised configuration where the generator is
installed in a downstream dynamometer or outside the facility. These adaptations often involve additional components like seals, bearings and gearbox configurations.

Current Turbine Devices

It is very important to quantify the small
scale PTO characteristics and operation to
properly understand device function. Key
properties include system efficiency, resistance

In general, PTO modelling in current/tidal

based renewable energy devices is generally
less demanding than for WECs. Current devic-


derived from measurements of shaft torque and

rotational speed. In this approach the tip-speed
ratio for the test is controlled directly through
the combination of specified rotational speed of
the motor and the onset flow velocity (e.g.
Gaurier et. al (2013). It is important to ensure
that the motor and controller have adequate
torque to maintain steady speed throughout the
range of tip-speed ratios of interest. As an alternative to controlling speed, a similar approach may be utilized to control the torque.
Similar control methodologies can be established for oscillating devices where oscillation
frequency rather than rotation is controlled.

to movement which can impact turn on/off

characteristics of the device and system tares.
For small-scale tests, model dynamics
and drive-train friction losses cannot normally
be scaled appropriately; thus friction associated
with bearings and seals must be carefully assessed in order to minimize the impact on the
measured power.
Redundant instrumentation packages should
be employed where possible in which shaft
torque is measured at or near the rotor shaft
attachment and at the shaft generator attachment to give an accurate assessment of system
efficiency losses at small scale. This provides a
more reliable data set to be used in scale-up
performance prediction.

Careful consideration should be given to the

turbine control strategy in unsteady flow. If the
desire is to model accurately the behaviour of
the full scale system including the generator,
then the dynamic response of the generator to
the unsteady loads should be modelled correctly. Conversely, if the intention of the tests
is to characterise the hydrodynamics of the
rotor in unsteady conditions then the more idealised solution of using a speed-controlled motor to drive the rotor may be preferable, so that
effects related to angular acceleration and deceleration of the rotor are removed (e.g. Milne
et. al. (2013). This approach can offer a further
advantage in towing tank (as opposed to flume)
tests since the rotor may be accelerated to the
desired angular velocity prior to the towing
carriage starting, eliminating the impact of
transients related to rotor acceleration on the
time available for measurement.

Resistance loading is usually accomplished

with a drag type device attached to the PTO
drive shaft. This can be mechanical, hydraulic
or magnetic in design. This type of system is
designed to control the rotation or oscillation
rate of the device and does not directly simulate a power generation system. Typically, the
hydro-kinetic power generated by the device is
converted into heat within the PTO model or
motion of a fluid within a hydraulic / pneumatic system. Power generated is computed by the
product of measured shaft torque and shaft
rpm. Resistance loading type PTO devices
must be carefully monitored during a test to
minimize bias errors being introduced into the
results due to thermal effects or component
wear. In particular, the magnitude of resistance
loading that can be generated by a drag-type
device has to be carefully checked in order to
avoid shaft RPM drifting during tests when the
model current device generates more power
than the drag-type device can dissipate.


Offshore Wind Turbines

It should be noted that the terminology

used in offshore wind turbines is somewhat
different from that used in wave and current
devices; the gearbox, generator etc. is usually
described as the drivetrain in a wind turbine.
The requirements for drivetrain simulation in

As an alternative to the approaches described above, a speed-controlled motor may

be used to drive the rotor at a prescribed rpm.
In this case the power is typically derived from


kamp & Ozkan-Haller, 2012, Falcao et al.,


hydrodynamic tests of offshore wind turbines

are generally rather less demanding than those
for PTO simulation in wave and current devices. The goal of hydrodynamic tests of offshore wind turbines is typically to examine
structure motions and/or loads and possibly
turbine control strategies, rather than to characterise the power capture performance of the
turbine. This typically requires appropriate
aerodynamic and gyroscopic loading to be generated by the rotor, so that the coupling between the turbine and the support structure is
correct, but it is generally not required to
measure power output. Strategies for achieving
the appropriate loading are discussed in Section
7 below.


The hydrodynamics of WECs consisting of

rigid bodies are essentially no different to those
for other marine structures in terms of the
modelling methodology. Hence the response of
wave energy devices to the marine environment can be studied using numerical frameworks similar to those adopted for other marine
structures. In particular, linear potential theory
is commonly utilised to determine wave loads
acting on the device.
Many studies have utilised this approach to
investigate performance of a wide range of
device types and configurations. A number of
authors have used this approach to model OWC
devices including Malmo & Reitan (1985),
Lovas et al., (2010), Gomes et al. (2011), Kurniawan et al., (2011), and Falcao (2012).


A wide range of oscillating body devices

have been modelled using linear potential theory. Pizer (1992) modelled the original Salter
Duck. Payne et al. (2008), and Oskamp & Ozkan-Haller (2012) modelled floating buoy devices. Babarit et al., (2005), Josset et al.,
(2007), and Ruellan et al., (2010) modelled the
SEAREV floating oscillating-body device,
while Folley et al. (2007a), Folley et al.,
(2007b) and Renzi & Dias, (2012) modelled a
bottom-hinged flap device similar to Oyster.
Farley et al., 2011 modelled the flexible Anaconda device, while Vicente et al., 2009 addressed arrays of point absorber devices. Babarit et al., (2012) developed a numerical
benchmark of a range of devices.

Numerical Modelling of Wave Energy


Mathematical and numerical models of a

wave energy converter (WEC) including simulations of both the body hydrodynamics and the
power take-off are usually called Wave-to-Wire
models (Josset et al., 2007). At early stages of
device development, numerical models can
allow rapid estimates of the energy capture
performance of a device (Pizer, 1992, Josset et
al., 2007, Payne et al., 2008, Kurniawan et al.,
2011, Babarit et al., 2012), and provide powerful tools to gain insight in the behaviour of
novel device configurations (Renzi & Dias,
2012, Alam, 2012, Farley et al., 2011, Lovas et
al., 2010). The use of efficient numerical models allows extended parametric studies and optimization to be performed more rapidly than
can be achieved experimentally (Malmo et al.,
1985, Babarit et al., 2005, Folley et al., 2007,
Vicente et al., 2009, Gomes et al., 2011, Os-

A key difference between modelling of

WECs and other marine structures is the need
to take into account the Power Take Off (PTO)
in the modelling work, due to the strong coupling between the behaviour of the PTO, including both the mechanical components and


gies on power capture and/or structural loading

for WECs (see section 5.2). Latching control
has been studied by Greenhow et al. (1984),
Babarit et al. (2004), and Babarit & Clment
(2006). Hals et al. (2002) examined reactive
control strategies. Declutching control was
studied by Babarit et al. (2009), while predictive control was addressed by Cretel et al.
(2010). Clment & Babarit (2012) investigated
discrete control strategies; Tedeschi et al.
(2011), investigated the impact of irregular
waves on the power extraction when using different control techniques.

the control strategy, the dynamic response of

the device, and the energy capture.
It is commonly assumed that the PTO behaves as a linear spring and damper system
(see, for example, Pizer, 1992, Hals et al.,
2002, Babarit et al., 2004, Babarit & Clment,
2006, Folley et al., 2007, Folley et al., 2007,
Babarit et al., 2009, Vicente et al., 2009, Cretel
et al., 2010, Gomes et al., 2011, Oskamp &
Ozkan-Haller, 2012, Renzi & Dias, 2012, Clment & Babarit, 2012). The adoption of a linear model of the PTO in conjunction with linear potential theory for the device hydrodynamics allows calculations to be made in the
frequency domain which in turn yields fast
computations. This is particularly useful in
characterising the device performance over a
wide range of environmental conditions, which
requires many long duration simulations to
avoid statistical biases.

For marine structures, numerical modelling

is often used to determine their dynamic responses to the marine environment and to perform structural analysis. In the wave energy
context, numerical Wave-to-Wire models are
also employed to assess the energy capture
performance of the devices. This is typically
characterised via the so-called power matrix,
which expresses the mean absorbed power as a
function of the peak period and significant
height of the wave spectrum.

However, the assumption of a linear PTO

may be inaccurate when the full-scale PTO is
hydraulic. In this case, Coulomb damping (dry
friction) may be used (Babarit et al., 2012).
Full models of the hydraulic PTO systems can
also be considered (Henderson et al., 2005,
Josset et al., 2007, Falcao, 2007) which are
useful for selection of hydraulic components,
and study of the behaviour of the hydraulic
components (Yang et al., 2010). Due to the
non-linear nature of these models, the numerical simulations must be performed in the time
domain, leading to a higher computational cost.

The influence of directional spreading does

not have to be taken into account in case of
omnidirectional devices, such as heaving
buoys, or in case of near-shore devices thanks
to refraction effects (Folley & Whittaker,
2009). For directional devices, some studies
suggest that the influence of directionality is
limited provided that the device is able to selfalign with the mean direction of wave propagation (Kerbiriou et al., 2007).

In case of fully electrical PTOs, a linearised

model is more appropriate than in the case of
hydraulics. Refined models may also be used in
case of direct-drive electrical PTOs for specific
studies (Ruellan et al., 2010, Tedeschi et al.,

Characterization of the full power matrix

implies a large number of long duration simulation (typically 1 hour). Structural analysis usually relies on statistical approaches. Hence, the
Wave-to-Wire numerical model must be faster
than real time in order to obtain results in a
reasonable amount of computational time.
Thus, at present, it is still not feasible to use

Numerical models are widely used for

studying the impact of different control strate-


be adapted to deal with this feature, using approaches such as generalised modes. Dedicated
solvers may be developed in particular cases
(Renzi & Dias, 2012). In case of overtopping
devices, linear potential theory cannot be used
and one may rely on empirical laws (Borgarino
et al., 2007).

high-fidelity models such as CFD solvers for

computation of the fluid-structure interaction in
practice (Yu & Li, 2012). However, CFD may
be used to investigate particular effects in case
of selected events (Babarit et al., 2009), or as
an alternative to tank testing for calibration of
empirical corrections, such as the viscous
damping coefficients in Morison equation
(Bhinder et al., 2011).

As for other marine energy devices, wave

energy converters are expected to be deployed
in arrays consisting of many devices. The behaviour and performance of devices can be
different in the array from that found for the
isolated device due to wave interactions (Budal, 1977, Evans, 1979, Falnes, 1980).
The wave farm may also have a significant
impact on the local wave climate, possibly affecting coastal processes. These effects are
challenging to assess in experiments due to the
large physical size of possible arrays and the
finite extent of test facilities. Thus, most of the
research work on these subjects has been conducted numerically.

Figure 13: Power matrix of a bottom hinged

oscillating surge wave converter. (Babarit et
al., 2012)

Potential-theory based models or wave

propagation models may be used to address
these issues. Their advantages and drawbacks
have been have been recently reviewed in Folley et al., (2012), from which the summary
table 1 has been extracted. It shows that, at
present, there is no single best numerical technique for WEC arrays. For wave propagation
models, the key issue lies in taking proper account of the disturbance generated by the WEC
or array of WECs. In contrast, for potentialflow solvers, the challenges relate to the
bathymetry and the computational time. It can
also be noted that there is a clear lack of suitable experimental validation data.

Although linear potential flow theory is often the only practical option, its limitations
must be acknowledged. WECs are often designed to have their natural frequencies within
the wave spectrum. Thus, the motion response
of the device may be large, which violates the
assumption of small amplitude motion. Significant discrepancies in comparison with experiments may be observed (Durand et al., 2007).
Some research groups are putting efforts in
developing medium fidelity models to address
this issue, while keeping the computational cost
moderate (Gilloteaux et al., 2007, Guerber et
al., 2012).
Some WECs are composed of many articulated bodies with many more degrees of freedom than the conventional 6 DOFs for conventional rigid body motions (Soulard & Babarit,
2012, Babarit et al., 2013). BEM solvers must



Potentil flow models

Linear Bf,M
Definition ol

Implicit body surfaces


Explicit coefficients

Nonlinear wave dynamics

Nonlinear BEM



Explicit absotion layers

Not capable





Not capable

Not capable

Implicit solver

Explicit absorption layers

Explicit inclusion by I inearisation

Explicit inclusion

Explicit incusion

Nonlinear dynamics
Vortex shedding

Soectral wave models

WEC radiation

Implicitly capable

Explicitly capable


Implicitly capable

Explicitly capable

Variable bathymetry and

marine cunents

Not capable









Explicit source

absorption laver


Implicit fluid

Implicitly capable for



averaged dynamics

absorption layer




lmplicit inclusion

Explicit inclusion
Not capable


Approximated by phase-decoupled
refracti on-diffracti

Implicit solver

lmplicitly capable




Primary dependent
Secondary dependent

Complexity of

Number of panels

Number of frequencies and


Determinate of array

Number ofpanels
and complexity
of equations

Number of panels

Number oltime-steps

Quadratic increase with number of WECs


Simple and stable


Number of cells

Number of ceils

Number of cells

Number of time-steps

Number of frequencies and


Number of time-

Linear increase with spatial area

Simple and poss


Complex and

Simple and poss


Simple and stable



Linear increase with spatial area

Simple and stable


Linear inc with

spatial volume
Complex and

poss unstable

Required skill
Software availability in






Commercial code

Research code

Commercial code

Research code

Commercial code available, WEC





model required

**t* - hshlv suifebleLocalised effects

Dynamic control
AEP lsmall \EC arrav)
AEP (laree WEC arrav)
Environmental impact
Suitabilitv I


- moderetelv suitahle* tO ***

t* - noorlv suitable. * - not suitble I

'Limited to shallow water


Limited to mid-slope




Open-source code available, WEC

model required

Commercial and
open-source code

With few exceptions, turbine and nonturbine systems have in common that power is
generated by means of lifting surfaces subject
to rotary or oscillatory motions. According to
the device type, these surfaces consist in turbine blades, foils or sails. The prediction of
hydrodynamic forces generated on these lifting
surfaces can be obtained by computational
models with different levels of approximation
used to describe relevant fluid-dynamics
mechanisms. Due to similarities of energy capturing mechanisms and of device layouts to
some extent, computational methods for marine
current devices are closely related to models
used for wind turbine modelling.

6.2 Numerical Modelling of Current Turbines

Theoretical and computational hydrodynamics modelling plays a key role in the development of marine current devices. Numerical
methods are primarily used to achieve a preliminary validation of concepts. At this stage,
energy capturing mechanisms are investigated
and rough estimates of power output capability
are obtained. Simplified system layouts and
operating conditions are considered, e.g., an
isolated rotor in uniform axial flow.
At a later stage of technology development,
computational hydrodynamics modelling is
used in combination with physical model testing to analyse details of the flowfield around
the device. Parametric studies are performed to
investigate response to different operating conditions and to optimise geometry details. A
more detailed representation of system components is usually addressed in this phase, e.g.,
rotor hubs and supporting structures, device
clusters. In addition to hydrodynamic performance, numerical studies also provide data for
the structural design of the overall system.

A broad classification can be set distinguishing global performance methods and

flowfield models. The former class identifies
simple approaches that provide an estimate of
device power output by momentum and energy
balancing of the water mass flowing through
the device. Momentum theory, and Blade Element Method (BEM) and their combination,
Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT)
belong to this class. Very fast predictions of
global hydrodynamic performance can be obtained using basic geometry and operating conditions representations.

In general, computational modelling provides analysis and design tools that are complementary to testing physical models in laboratories and field sites. In particular, aspects
that cannot be reproduced by physical tests can
be investigated by numerical simulations. This
includes, for instance, estimation of scale effects on results of laboratory tests carried out
on small models in order to provide reference
data for the design of full-scale prototypes to
be deployed in open water. The analysis of
multiple device operations in arrays and the
impact of energy capture on the environment
are other examples of applications of computational models.

An example is given by Bahaj et al.

(2007a), where numerical results by two
BEMT models are compared with experimental
data from Bahaj et al. (2007b). The capability
of BEMT to determine reliable performance
estimates at early stage of design of horizontalaxis turbines is demonstrated.
Inviscid-Flow Models. Flowfield models
aim at describing details of the hydrodynamic
interaction between the device and the incoming flow by the numerical solution of mass and
momentum equations. Under the assumptions
of inviscid, irrotational onset flows, Lifting
Line, Lifting Surface, Vortex Lattice, Bound-


cyclic variations of blade angle of attack over a

revolution may determine transient separations
of blade boundary layer with strong load peaks
that are not observed under attached flow conditions. The mechanism, known as dynamic
stall is described e.g. in Ferreira et al. (2009).

ary Integral Equations Methods (respectively,

LLM, LSM, VLM, BIEM) are derived. These
methods provide estimates of turbine hydrodynamic loads and power at very reduced computational efforts. Viscosity effects are only approximately taken into account and hence particular care has to be devoted to analyse blades
and foils operating at high angle of attack
where viscosity-induced effects like boundary
layer flow separation and static/dynamic stall
have an impact on blade loads.

Urbina et al. (2013) combine a LLM with a

dynamic stall model derived by the BeddoesLeishman model widely used for helicopter
rotors and wind turbines. Numerical results
compared to experimental data (e.g. Figure 14)
show that dynamic stall modelling is fundamental to correctly describe VACT blade loads
and power,

Examples of current turbine performance

by inviscid-flow models are given in Falcao de
Campos (2007) and Baltazar and Falcao de
Campos (2008), where a 3D BIEM is used to
predict rotor forces and power over a range of
values of Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) and yaw angles between 0 and 15 degrees. Numerical results are compared to experimental data in Bahaj et al. (2007b).

Viscous-Flow Models. Although inviscidflow models describe many aspects of current

device/flow interactions, viscous-flow models
based on the numerical solution of the NavierStokes equations provide a more physicallyconsistent and comprehensive approach to accurately describe a full range of system layouts
and operating conditions.

The same methodology is applied in

Salvatore and Greco (2008) to evaluate unsteady blade forces on vertical-axis turbines. In
both papers the importance of coupling BEM
with trailing wake modelling and viscous-flow
corrections is stressed.

The most popular approach among viscousflow solvers is the Reynolds-Averaged NavierStokes Equation (RANSE) method. This methodology allows to estimate the effects of flow
vorticity and turbulence on hydrodynamic
loads. Turbulence modelling is introduced to
avoid the explicit solution of eddies in the flow.
If more detailed descriptions of local flow perturbations and of blade/foil generated wakes
are necessary, Detached Eddy or Large Eddy
Simulation model (respectively, DES and LES)
are preferred to RANSE.

The problem of predicting the trailing vorticity pattern shed by VACT blades is addressed by Li and Calisal (2010a, 2010b, 2011)
using a 3D potential-flow vortex method with
viscosity-effects correction. The impact of the
wake shed by one turbine blades on the following blades is analysed for different configurations and the best performing layouts are determined.
Viscous-flow correction models are used to
improve turbine blade load predictions from
inviscid-flow models that cannot describe blade
stall and post-stall conditions when blades are
at high angle of attack, a common condition in
case of operation at small TSR. In particular,


water channel. To this purpose, the computational domain reproduces the test section of the
facility. The turbine region is enclosed into a
cylindrical grid block that rotates with respect
to the rest of the grid fixed with channel walls.
Suitable boundary conditions are imposed at
the interface between rotating and fixed grids.
Numerical results include pressure and loads
distributions on turbine blades and flowfield
quantities for given current speed and different
values of the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR).

Figure 14. Modelling Dynamic Stall effect on

blade loads (Urbina et al., 2013)

Pinon et al. (2012) propose a computational

study of a horizontal axis turbine by a methodology based on a velocity-vorticity formulation
of the Navier-Stokes equations. Turbine blades
are not explicitly simulated, but their effect on
the flow is accounted for through forcing terms
in the momentum equation. A Lagrangianbased vortex method is used to describe the
evolution of the vortical wake shed by turbine
blades. Calculated velocity maps in the turbine
wake are in good agreement with experimental

Viscous-flow methods are typically referred

to as Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD)
methods. The main drawback with CFD is that
computational set-up and computing effort can
be very demanding also for simple problems.
Dealing with turbines and oscillating foils, a
complication is to capturing the interaction
between rotating parts (e.g blades) and nonrotating parts (e.g., supporting structures, diffusers) which requires fixed/rotating grid interface techniques.

CFD simulations of vertical-axis turbines

are primarily aimed at analysing blade/wake
interactions, as illustrated in Figure 15 taken
from Maitre et al. (2013). Several computational studies analyse power output increase
that can be achieved in VACTs by blade pitch
control or similar strategies to optimise blade
angle of attack over a revolution, see e.g.
Hwang et al. (2009), Paillard et al. (2012) and
Xiao et al. (2013). The latter use the commercial unsteady RANSE solver Fluent to simulate
turbine blades with symmetrical sections and
fixed or oscillating flaps at the trailing edge.
Results show that power output can be increased by mitigation of boundary layer separation and shed vortex control by oscillating

To limit the computational burden, CFD

modelling of turbines is often addressed using
simplified models in which the blades are not
explicitly solved as solid boundaries of the
fluid domain but their effect is indirectly taken
into account via suitable forcing terms in the
momentum equations. Furthermore, the analysis of vertical-axis turbines is usually performed under the assumption of infinite-length
blades, to reduce the problem to a 2D schematization.
Recent literature provides an amount of
CFD studies for all kinds of current devices. As
an example, the computational prediction of a
horizontal-axis turbine by using the commercial RANSE solver ANSYS CFX is presented by
Jo et al. (2012). Numerical results are validated
against measurements from model tests on a
scaled model turbine tested in a circulating

The effect of diffusers on turbine performance is investigated in several papers. As an


eration are determined that should require adequate experimental validation.

example, Luquet et al. (2013) present a study

of a twin, horizontal-axis ducted rotor assembly
by an unsteady RANSE model.

Unsteady loads and waves. In addition to

power capturing capability, numerical models
are also used to provide detailed analysis of
hydrodynamic loads that are necessary to correctly design device components. Unsteadyflow models allow to determine transient loads
that are generated on turbine blades over a
revolution about the axis. Fluctuating blade
loads are caused by non-homogeneous, unsteady incoming flow due to many factors including device disalignment to the onset flow,
high turbulence levels and velocity shear. Furthermore, the interaction between onset flow
and turbine-induced perturbation yields complex mechanisms on turbulent structures, as
discussed in Birjandi et al. (2012) for the case
of a vertical-axis turbine.

Figure 15. Vorticity field and streamlines calculated across a VACT (Maitre et al., 2013)

The duct/rotor assembly is simulated under

simplified assumptions (single blade rotor and
cyclic conditions) to limit the computational
effort. Numerical predictions show flow accelerations of 40% inside the duct. However, the
authors indicate that if the power coefficient is
scaled on the outer diameter of the diffuser, the
power coefficient substantially drops below
that of the Betz limit. Based on generated results, two duct geometries were chosen to be
manufactured and tested in a towing tank.

The effect of free-surface waves on loading

fluctuations is investigated in Lust et al. (2013)
where experimental data are compared with
numerical predictions by BEMT, and in Whelan et al. (2009), where tidal stream turbines
are described using an actuator disc model.
Mason-Jones et al. (2013) present an experimental/computational study of the effect of
velocity shear on the performance of a tidal
turbine. Field measurements of the velocity
profile using an Acoustic-Doppler Current profiler (ADCP) technique are used as inlet condition for a CFD analysis of turbine flow. The
unsteady CFD model is based on a commercial
RANSE code (ANSYS Fluent). Blade loading
time histories over a revolution cycle are calculated for an isolated tri-bladed rotor and for a
combined rotor/supporting stanchion assembly.
Force and power fluctuations induced by the
onset velocity shear and by the interaction with
the stanchion are analysed revealing that a
structure downstream the rotor may have an
effect in terms of load peak intensity and fre-

Furthermore, Gaden and Bibeau (2010) present the results of a computational study using
the commercial RANSE code ANSYS CFX of
the flow around an axisymmetric shroud. Turbine induction is estimated by a simplified
momentum source model and is not explicitly
solved by RANSE. This turns into a computationally efficient methodology that can be used
to perform parametric studies to determine duct
geometries capable to maximise turbine power
output for a given current energy density. The
capability to achieve power output gains up to
a factor 3 with respect to unducted turbine op-


quency higher than the onset shear flow (Figure


posite materials for blades. Dealing with composites, hydroelastic effects on blades are to be
taken into account because of the large deflections that blade loading determine. A hydroelastic analysis of a horizontal axis turbine is
described by Nicholls et al. (2013). The FluidStructure Interaction model combines a LSM to
predict blade loads and a structural model from
the Finite Element commercial code ANSYS.
Numerical results indicate that hydroelastic
tailoring consisting of blade bend-twist coupling has a potential to reduce blade loading
and to increase efficiency and reliability.

Reliability. Particular attention is also

given to assessing the reliability of current turbine blades, with fatigue and fracture identified
as failure modes that are induced by loading
fluctuations during operation.

Arrays. A commercial RANSE code was

used by Antheaumea et al. (2008) to describe
the flowfield with a body-force method to describe turbine blades effects. Turbine-induced
perturbation is represented recasting blade
loading evaluated by BEM as volume forces
introduced in the right hand side of the momentum equation and evaluated by BEM. The
model is applied to analyse single Darrieus
VACT units and arrays. Good agreement between numerical predictions and experimental
data of single unit performance are obtained for
TSR > 4. Numerical applications to investigate
spacing effects in a row of multiple turbines are
also presented through numerical examples
(Figure 17).

Figure 16. Transient axial force (top) and power

(bottom) on isolated axial rotor and upstream of a
stanchion (Maison-Jones et al., 2013)

An example of a theoretical study on blade

reliability is presented in Hu and Du (2012). A
time-dependent reliability analysis for a tribladed horizontal-axis turbine is presented.
Reliability over a 20-years life cycle is referred
to excessive flapwise bending moments calculated by a standard BEM. Blade loading predictions are based on a stochastic analysis of river
current intensity. Numerical results show the
effect of cut-off velocity to improve blade reliability. The study considers a river current scenario but the methodology can be extended to
tidal current devices in general.
Reliability studies are particularly important
in view of the assessment of non-metallic com-

Environmental aspects. No less important

in the development of marine current turbines
is the analysis of the environmental impact of
devices in terms of energy capture, radiated
noise, sediment transports. Computational
modelling can be used to analyse device/environment interactions by macro-scale
problems where portions of regions around the
device deployment site are simulated.
The impact of tidal energy extraction on
sediment transportation and related seabed
level changes is analysed in Neill et al. (2009,
2012) by using a 1D morphological model for


the solution of mass and momentum equations

combined with suitable sediment transport and
bed level change models. Tidal current devices
are simulated as equivalent bed-friction source
terms in the momentum equations. Results of
the study show that tidal energy extraction reduces the magnitude of bottom level changes
and the effect is more pronounced in case of
different tide intensity between tide rise and
fall phases (tidal asymmetry).

cross-flow devices, Xiao et al. (2012) for an

oscillating foil device, and Liu et. al (2013) for
a flexible flapping foil.


Validation of Numerical Modelling for

Offshore Wind Turbines

Offshore Wind Turbines (OWTs) are generally designed using simulation codes which
aim to model the coupled effects of wind inflow, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, turbine
control systems and structural elasticity. These
are known as aero-hydro-servo-elastic codes;
some examples are shown in Table 1 (Robertson et al., 2014). Due to the high level of complexity of these codes it is desirable that they
are verified and validated to ensure their accuracy. A series of research tasks have been developed under the International Energy Agency
(IEA) Wind to address this need.
The first task was designated the Offshore
Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) which
operates under Subtask 2 of the International
Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 23. The OC3
programme consisted of four phases each analysing a different problem. The basis of the
study was a code-to-code comparison. In Phase
I, the NREL 5-mW wind turbine was simulated
in 20m of water on a monopile with rigid foundation; in phase II the foundation was made
flexible using different models to represent
soil-pile interactions. In Phase III, the water
depth was changed to 45 m and the monopile
was replaced with a tripod substructure; whilst
in Phase IV, the wind turbine was installed on a
floating spar-buoy in deep water (320 m). Full
details may be found in Jonkman & Musial,

Figure 17. Axial velocity prediction across a 5-unit

turbine row (from Antheaumea et al., 2008)

The development of a 2D hydrodynamic

model for coastal environment analysis based
on the numerical solution of depth-integrated
3D Navier-Stokes equations is presented by
Ahmadian et al. (2012). Turbines effects are
modelled via source terms. The methodology is
applied to simulate the impact of a notional
current turbine array on current intensity outside the array and to analyse suspended sediment transportation.
Novel concepts. Finally, CFD is applied to
carry on the initial validation of innovative
concepts. A literature survey on this topic is not
addressed here for the sake of conciseness.
Recent studies include Amelio et al. (2012) for
a novel HACT device, Gebreslassie et al.
(2013) and Yang & Lawn (2011) for novel

The second task, designated the Offshore

Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation
(OC4) project extended the work of OC3 by
considering the same turbine installed on two


further foundations types. Phase 1 considered a

jacket structure in a water depth of 50m (Popko
et al. (2012), while Phase II considered a semisubmersible platform in 200m water depth
(Robertson et al. 2013).




Uncoupled Tests

A new project by IEA Wind to initiate the

validation of offshore wind modelling tools
through comparison of simulated responses to
physical response data from actual measurements is named the Offshore Code Comparison
Collaboration, Continuation, with Correlation
(OC5) as in Fig. 4 and will begin in 2014 and
run for four years. The project will examine
three structures using data from both floating
and fixed-bottom systems, and from both
scaled tank testing and full-scale, open-ocean

Tank tests of bottom-mounted offshore

wind turbines will often be focussed on determination of hydrodynamic loads on the support
structure. In these tests, it may not be necessary
to simulate the wind load and the wave/current
loads simultaneously as these loads may be
considered to act independently in many cases.
Where the tests aim to examine the dynamic
responses of the tower and support structure in
extreme weather this decoupling may be particularly appropriate, since in these conditions
the turbine will typically be shut down. Hence
in these cases, hydrodynamic tests can be carried out without the rotor as long as the influence of the rotor mass properties is correctly
represented (e.g. de Ridder et al. (2011)).

Table 3 Offshore Wind Modelling Tools

(Robertson, et al., 2014)

Measurement of wave / current loads without simulation of wind loads offers a number of
advantages. Facilities without wind generation
may be employed, set-up and calibration time
will be reduced, whilst a larger model can be
used for the measurements of wave/current
loads. Furthermore, measurement uncertainty
may be reduced since the entire range of the
load measurement systems can be used for
measuring the wave/current loads. However,
where tests are aimed at investigating the coupled dynamic response of the structure in operational conditions, including realistic modelling of flexibility and aerodynamic damping,
then inclusion of the aerodynamic coupling due
to the rotor is necessary.
In studies of floating offshore wind turbines, model tests without the rotor can be carried out at preliminary stages of the tests or for
special purposes, such as comparison of differ-


as the gyroscopic effects and the steady torque;

furthermore, the total mass and moments of
inertia of the system will inevitably be incorrect. This approach can only be justified for
rough estimation of the maximum mooring
offset (e.g. Chujo, et al. (2011)).

ent support structures in terms of their responses to waves, or for the validation of numerical models. However, final tests aiming at
evaluating the global response of the system
from the concept validation stage to the prototype and demonstration stage should include at
least simplified modelling of the rotor due to
the strong coupling present between the platform dynamics and the rotor-generated forces
and moments.


A further possibility, which may be suitable

for small-scale tests in the concept validation
stage, is to use the rotor as a fan rotating in
otherwise stationary air (e.g. Kraskowski
(2012)). This offers a rather simplified approach to the investigation of response of
FOWTs in facilities which do not have wind
generation capabilities. In this case, separate
measurements are required to calibrate the system, i.e. to identify the force vs. rpm characteristics.

Simplified Coupled Aero-Hydrodynamic Tests

The forces and moments generated by the

rotor are partly aerodynamic in nature, but additional moments are generated due to gyroscopic effects; for example, pitch motions of a
horizontal-axis turbine facing into wind and
waves will generate gyroscopic moments
around the yaw axis.

This method of modelling the rotor is quite

simple and allows for easy adjustment of the
mean wind load. However, it is difficult with
this approach to control the blade pass frequency and wind load simultaneously to
achieve the correct mean thrust and torque
whilst capturing tower interaction effects. Further challenges of this approach include the
correct simulation of orientation of gyroscopic
moments in relation to steady moments, and
the difficulty in realistically simulating the behaviour of the magnitude and direction of the
thrust vector as the turbine pitches. Particular
care is required in the interpretation of results
from this type of test.

It should be emphasized here that the aim of

modelling the rotor loads in hydrodynamic
testing of offshore wind turbines is normally
not to determine the power captured by the
turbine. Instead the goal is to model rotor loads
sufficiently accurately to allow for correct
evaluation of the global response of the system.
Simplified Simulation without Wind Generation. A number of methods may be employed to simulate the presence of the rotor
without using a direct representation of the
rotor aerodynamics, although none capture all
of the physics of the fully-coupled system.

Simplified Simulation with Wind Generation. Where a simulated wind field may be
created in a tank, it is possible that a solid or
porous disc may be used in place of the rotor in
conjunction with a battery of fans. The disc
should be sized to generate a drag load in the
simulated wind field corresponding to the predicted mean thrust on the turbine. If a rotating
disc is employed with Froude-scaled rotary
moment of inertia, and rotation speed, it is pos-

In the simplest case, the steady wind load

may be simulated using a lightweight line attached at the rotor hub (for a horizontal axis
system) and tensioned using a weight to simulate the steady aerodynamic thrust. However
this approach neglects the aerodynamic damping imparted by the rotor on the system as well


The minimum aerodynamic requirement for

modelling the presence of rotor in a fullycoupled test of a floating offshore wind turbine
is the correct reproduction of the mean wind
thrust load in order to generate correct aerodynamic overturning moments and mooring offsets. The impact of rotor aerodynamics on pitch
damping is also of great importance.

sible to capture the coupled response of the

structure taking into account the gyroscopic
coupling between the rotor and the platform.
Alternatively, a separate rotating arm may be
deployed downwind of the disc (see Cermelli et
al. (2009)).
This approach neglects the aerodynamic
torque exerted by the rotor on the platform as
well as blade / tower interactions; problems
may result due to the unsteadiness of the flow
around the disc when pitching in waves.


Maintaining the Reynolds similarity is in

general not possible for typical sizes of basin
models, and thus detailed modelling of aerodynamics, including stall phenomena, is usually
infeasible. Variations in wind speed caused by
motions of a floating platform will in any case
naturally be driven by wave effects governed
by Froude similarity.

Direct simulation of the rotor in fully

coupled tests.

Direct modelling of a floating offshore

wind turbine rotor is usually realized by exposing a working rotor to a wind field generated
by a battery of fans. This method allows for the
most accurate modelling of actual conditions of
the rotor operation and is recommended to be
used whenever possible. Examples are given in
Chujo et al. (2011) for a spar OWT, Shin et al.
(2013) for a semi-submersible OWT and Goupee et al. (2012), for spar, semi-submersible
and TLP. The rotor rpm and the spatial variation of wind speed should be carefully calibrated prior to the main experiments.

Depending on the required outcome of the

tests, modelling the rotor will usually also require maintaining the Froude similarity for the
rotor RPM to generate the correct representation of the gyroscopic effect of the rotor as well
to allow more accurate representation of the
aerodynamic interaction between the rotor and
the support structure. This will also involve
realistic representation of the mass distribution
and possibly the elasticity of supporting structure and rotor blades.
Performance models of OWTs will therefore normally be scaled using Froude similitude. However some key parameters related to
wind loading will not scale in this manner,
leading to scale effects when extrapolating to
full-scale, particularly for FOWTs. Approaches
to address this through redesign of the rotor
model are discussed in more detail in section

Particular challenges in this approach with

respect to the wind generation include the generation of wind field over the large volumes
required due to the size of the models, especially where tests are intended to include the
representation of wind gradients and the wind
turbulence (see section 7.5). A further challenge is the difficulty of generating wind in a
wave tank close to a wavy water surface, particularly in tests with large waves. The design
of a wind system for use over a wave tank is
discussed by De Ridder et al. (2013).



correct gyroscopic moments, then the tip-speed

ratio will be incorrect, resulting in incorrect
torque. However this may be justified as an
approximation since the overturning moment
due to thrust is typically very much greater
than that due to torque. The ratio of unsteady
velocity (caused by platform motions) to mean
velocity will be reduced leading to incorrect
modelling of effects of unsteady inflow on the
rotor. Nonetheless, results show that the aerodynamic damping of the platform pitch generated by the turbine is modelled with a reasonable degree of accuracy.

Physical Modelling of Rotor Aerodynamics

In wind/wave tank model tests of FOWTs,

the difficulty in achieving flow similarity between model and prototype increases drastically with increases the scale ratio. As mentioned in section 3.4, the increasing size of
modern wind turbines designed for offshore
deployment results in scale ratios in the region
of 1/50 1/200. The application of Froude
similarity to the steady wind speed results in
substantially incorrect modelling of the rotor
aerodynamics due to Reynolds number dissimilitude.

A second approach addressing low Reynolds number effects is the placement of studs
or other roughened materials as a turbulence
stimulator along the leading edge of a blade;
however this is unlikely to improve the turbine
performance adequately on its own to yield
comparable performance with the full-scale
device, and can yield unrealistic results if laminar separation occurs, as well as unrealistic
unsteady aerodynamic loads during flow reattachment.

The low Reynolds Number conditions can

cause substantially dissimilar flows with the
relatively thick sections often employed in offshore wind turbines, due to effects such as
laminar separation, leading to reduced lift and
increased drag, and unrealistically low thrust
and torque coefficients compared to the fullscale foils. The small model size also results in
increasing influence of any imperfections in
geometric representation on the flow quality
(Muthanna et al., 2013).
The most important forces generated on the
rotor and contributing to global response of the
FOWT are: gyroscopic moments, rotor thrust
and rotor torque. In order to match the thrust
and torque correctly, it is necessary to modify
the rotor and/or the mean wind speed to correct
for the Reynolds number dissimilitude. It is
generally difficult to reproduce both thrust and
torque correctly, hence priorities must be set;
generally this will involve prioritising attempting to match the thrust correctly.

A third possible approach is to redesign the

rotor blade sections to account for Reynolds
number effects, or even more radical solutions
such as changing the number of blades and the
rotor diameter. This can involve choice of
laminar flow sections for the model scale rotor
so that the model rotor design can simulate as
closely as possible the correct full-scale mean
thrust and torque coefficients at the modelscale Reynolds Number (based on blade
chord), whilst still maintaining the correct mass
properties. Martin et al. (2012) demonstrate an
example in which blades were redesigned using
low Reynolds number aerofoils. These sections
are less susceptible to laminar separation under
low Reynolds number conditions, leading to
broadly correct values of scaled thrust and
aerodynamic damping using Froude-scaled

Martin et al. (2012) discuss three possible

approaches to address this challenge. In the
first approach, the wind speed is increased beyond the Froude-scaled value to compensate
for the low thrust coefficient. If rotor speed is
maintained at Froude-scaled values, to retain


sembly) and the reproduction of the complex

active blade pitch control system. Some examples of successful model tests of FOWTs in
wind and waves including direct modelling of
the blade pitch control system were reported by
Chujo et al. (2013) and De Ridder et al. (2013).

wind speed. A further example of this technique is given by De Ridder et al. (2013).
Correct modelling of the gyroscopic moments introduced by the rotor can be achieved
by Froude scaling of the mass properties and
rotor speed. However, modelling the mass
properties of the rotor at small scale will require lightweight materials of high strength
potentially presenting some severe challenges
in manufacture. For example, the 1:80 scale
blades shown in Figure 18 have a target mass
of only 35g. It can be difficult to achieve the
necessary combination of accurate geometry
and very low mass using conventional model
making techniques, and novel approaches may
be required: for example, film-coated blades
may be manufactured from components created
by a 3D printer to achieve both mass and elasticity requirements.


Wind characteristics for design load


Key issues for design load calculations include the choice of models for wind gradient
and the turbulence. Obrhai (2012) reviews the
current guidelines for wind modelling for offshore wind turbines.
The IEC standard 64100-3 (2009) recommend that the wind speed profile as a function
of height is given by the power law:
V z Vhub z zhub

where, for normal wind conditions, the

power law exponent, , is taken as 0.14. The
same standard gives the option for the stochastic turbulence models of using the Kaimal spectral and the exponential coherency model:

Figure 18 1:80 scale model rotor blades for

a 5MW wind turbine produced by the University of Ulsan, Korea using a 3D printer

Contribution of the wind load to global response of the FOWT is also strongly affected
by the pitch control strategy of the turbine. In
the near future, it is possible that 3D printers
will enable the manufacture of both very light
weight models of the RNA (rotor nacelle as-

Whilst extensive studies have been made in

the marine renewable energy literature of the
uncertainty of energy resource and of the eco-



(2013) address the model-scale uncertainty in a

variety of parameters associated with smallscale model tests of an idealised heaving buoy
device both as a single point absorber and in a
square array of four devices. Results show a
model-scale uncertainty in power capture for a
single test of 8-10% which could be reduced to
2-3% by using multiple repeat tests; however
even then, the uncertainty could be of similar
order as array interactions.

nomics renewable energy, there are relatively

few examples of thorough uncertainty analyses
of hydrodynamic tests and/or extrapolation to
full-scale. This is perhaps surprising given the
importance of understanding the accuracy of
the prediction of power capture of devices in
predicting the cost of energy generated.
Whilst standard procedures specifically addressing MRE devices have not been developed, some aspects of uncertainty analysis for
hydrodynamic tests of MRE devices may be
inferred from existing ITTC procedures. For
example, the uncertainty in the loading on a
horizontal axis current turbine may be assessed
using a variation of the approach set out in
ITTC Recommended Procedure 7.5-02-03-02.2
Uncertainty Analysis, Example for Open Water
Test (see for example Milne et al. (2013)).
Similarly the motions of floating wave or current energy devices or floating wind turbines
can be assessed using a modified version of the
approach set out in ITTC Recommended Procedure 7.5-02-07-02.1 Seakeeping Experiments, whilst measurements of flow around
devices may be directly addressed using approaches such as described in ITTC Recommended Procedure 7.5-01-03-03 Uncertainty
Analysis: Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV).
An example of such an analysis is given in
Fleming et al. (2013) for PIV measurements of
the flow inside an Oscillating Water Column
wave energy device.

In general there are several key challenges

to be addressed in the assessment of uncertainty for full-scale power capture predictions.
One of the key issues affecting uncertainty of
the model-scale results for a wave energy device is the simulated Power Take-Off system,
as discussed in detail in section 5.2. In tests at
low TRLs, it is unlikely that the full-scale PTO
has been designed in detail, and hence any
model-scale PTO simulator will be idealised.
Nonetheless it is important to estimate the uncertainty in the behaviour of the idealised system in order including effects of static or dynamic friction, and hydraulic or pneumatic
This may be achieved using a PTO test rig
as discussed in section 5.2; data from these
tests may be used to inform the uncertainty in
the model dynamics. Other aspects of the tests
which require particular care are the uncertainties in the model-scale wave conditions, related
to temporal and spatial variations through the
tank; these have particular significance where
array tests are carried out, since the footprint
of the array will often be substantially larger
than other single structures typically tested.

However there are some very specific challenges in relation to the analysis of uncertainty
of power output of MRE devices which are not
addressed by existing procedures. These are
discussed further below.

The impact of wave blockage on results

should be carefully considered; guidance for
other structures (such as offshore platforms),
which are generally designed so that interaction
with waves is small, may not be well-suited to
wave energy devices which are designed to

Arguably the area in which greatest development is required is in the prediction of power
from wave energy devices. Very few examples
exist in the literature of uncertainty analysis of
wave energy device tests. Lamont-Kane et al.


maximise energy extraction from the waves.

Ersdal & Moe (2013) discuss the impact of
tank width on power capture of a floating wave
energy device. For some devices, there may be
issues related to model manufacture. Achieving
the desired mass properties (where they are
known) may be challenging for floating bodies
due to limits on size of PTO components,
whilst scaling material properties of flexible
structures is often difficult.


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Specialist Committee on Ice

Final Report and Recommendations to the 27th ITTC

Mr. J. Rmeling passed away in 2012.

Furthermore, P. Jochmann resigned in June 2014
as the chairman and Dr. M. Lau has been acting
on the remaining of the term.


1.1. Membership and Meetings

In performing their work, five physical

committee meetings were held at different

The ice committee (IC) was appointed by the

26th ITTC in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2011, and it
consists of the following members shown in
Figure 1:

Mr. Peter Jochmann (Chairman), HSVA,

Dr. Michael Lau (Secretary), National
Research Council of Canada, Canada
Mr. Johannes Huffmeier, SSPA, Sweden
University, Japan
Mr. Topi Leivisk, Aker Arctic, Finland
Mr. Rudiger von Bock und Polach, Aalto
University, Finland
Mr. J. Rmeling, FORCE, Denmark
Dr. Kirill Sazonov, Krylov, Russia
Mr. Victor Westerberg, SSPA, Sweden
Prof. Qianjing Yue, Dalian University of
Technology, China
Dr. Rod Sampson, Newcastle University,
United Kingdom

HSVA, Hamburg, December 13th, 2011

NRC/OCRE, St. Johns, October 25th 26th, 2012
AARC, Helsinki, June 13rd -14th, 2013
Kogakuin University, Tokyo, November
25th -27th, 2013
SSPA, Gothenburg, May 8th -9th, 2014

In addition to the physical committee

meetings six online meetings were organized to
discuss work results and to prepare for the
physical meetings. Those online meetings were
performed on the following dates:

Dr. R. Sampson resigned from the committee

in September 2013 and Mr. J. Hffmeier was
replaced in October 2013 by Mr. V. Westerberg.


August 5th, 2013

August 12th, 2013
February 4th, 2014
March 4th, 2014
April 22nd, 2014
August 21st , 2014

Two progress reports were prepared and

submitted to the ITTC Secretary. They were sent
to the Advisory Committee on September 18th,
2012 and August 15th, 2013, respectively.

Examination of methods to model and

measure various ice properties
Gathering information on degree of
scattering in model ice properties within
one ice sheet (statistical distribution)

(2) Define which existing ice related procedures

need to be checked and if new ones need to
be developed
(3) Look into operational conditions in frozen
seas (in view of the climate change) relevant
to modeling, e.g.:

Figure 1. Group photo of Specialist Committee

on Ice (back row: A. Konno, J. Hffmeier, T.
Leivisk, N. Fatieva, K. Sazonov, R. v. Bock;
front row: G. Fengwei, P. Jochmann, M. Lau)

(4) Review the existing numerical methods for

offshore structures and ships concerning:

1.2. Recommendations of the 26th ITTC

The 26th ITTC recommended that the
Specialist Committee on Ice for the 27th ITTC
address the following technology areas:

Model ice failure

Ice resistance and propulsion
Maneuvering and ice loads
Operational simulations, e.g., dynamic
positioning in ice

1.3. Brief Description of the Task


(1) Review ice properties modeling (full scale

and model scale) considering various
conditions, ridges, and pressurized ice for
both offshore structures and ships that

Brash ice channels

Ice, waves, wind and current
Ice dynamics

The tasks were grouped into the following

three work elements:

Review and update of the state of the art

regarding new relevant ice conditions
such as brash ice channels (related to Ice
Class powering requirements) both in
frozen channel and fresh channel


Review of existing Recommendations and

Preparation of an inventory list by
development, distribution and analysis of
a questionnaire
Compilation of existing publications
regarding numerical simulations

This report documents the work and the

outcome in details.

2.2. General Guidelines

Guidelines were at least 12 years old with ice
technology developed rapidly during the period,
the General Guidelines were extensively revised.
Two different types of model ice, fine and
columnar grained, are used in the model basins;
hence, it was decided to describe in details the
production techniques of these two ice types.


2.1. General
Following the recommendation of the
Advisory Committee the committee members
Recommendations and Guidelines:

2.3. Ice Properties

The guidelines 7.5-02-04-02 Test Methods
for Model Ice Properties have been updated and
extended based on the state-of-the-art in science
and ice tank operations. In the revised version all
available methods to determine ice properties are
listed and discussed in terms of precision,
feasibility and validity.

General Guidelines (1999) - 7.5-02-04-01

Model Ice Properties (2002) - 7.5-02-0402
Tests in Deformed Ice (1999) - 7.5-02-0402.4
Resistance Test in Level Ice (2002) - 7.502-04-02.1
Maneuvering Tests In Ice (1999) - 7.5-0204-02.3

The testing of ridge properties is added and

the difference between test methods for
compressive failure and indenter testing is

During the Helsinki meeting in June 2013 it

was decided to remove Guideline 7.5-02-04-02.4
Tests in Deformed Ice without replacement. The
General Guidelines, Model Ice Properties,
Resistance Test in Level Ice were finalized and
transmitted to the Advisory Committee for
review while Maneuvering Tests in Ice could not
be finished and was therefore postponed together
with Propulsion Tests in Ice to the next

2.4. Resistance
Current procedures adopted in various ice
tanks for resistance tests have been reviewed.
Model towing methods practiced by ice model
tanks are described. A method to determine the
maximum force applied at model towing through
the ice ridges is given. Description is given of the
methods used for correcting ice resistance data
with minor deviations from the design ice
thickness and strength.

As the workload for editing the old

guidelines was already very high this committee
was not able to start work on a new guideline
regarding Brash Ice Tests and Dynamic
Positioning in Ice.

Empirical relations are most frequently used

in ice model tank practices for the data
correction. Based on experience and model ice


used by individual ice tank, details of the

correction method might vary. The general
correction method for test data variations due to
ice-model friction and the test data correction
method used by various ice tanks are described
as follows for further reference.

where f is the ice flexural strength and a and
b are the weight coefficients selected based on
experience (for example, one can use values

Correction of Minor Deviations in Ice

Thickness. The following empirical relation
between ice resistance and ice thickness based on
results from experiments can be used as an

The classic way to perform the corrections is

to use a component breakdown of the ice
resistance. (Jones et al. 1994, Riska et al. 1994,
Izumiyama and Uto 1995):

where HI is the ice thickness.

where RB is the speed independent ice breaking

resistance component associated with ice failure
and RV is the speed dependent resistance
associated with ice submerging and clearing.

The determination of the exponent in

Equation (1) was usually based on historical data
obtained from a particular ice basin or on
statistical data obtained from the same model
testing in ice of at least two different thicknesses.
The latter is a more accurate approach. The
exponent in Equation (1) may vary between 1.0
and 2.0; and the value 1.5 is commonly used.

The breaking component can be determined

by means of a test in pre-sawn ice. In a pre-sawn
ice test ice the ice sheet is pre-cut with an icebreaking pattern simulating that observed during
ice breaking. Hence, the ice breaking component,
RB, is eliminated from the total resistance, and
therefore, RB can be defined as the difference
between the resistances measured in level ice and
in the pre-sawn ice, for the same speed:

The exponent in Equation (1) may depend on

model towing speed. This effect may be taken
into account using an empirical Froude number
relation (HSVA Report):



where RIT,level ice and RIT,presawn ice are the total ice
resistance in level ice and
pre-sawn ice,


calculated for the target ice thickness HI, target.

The pattern of ice pieces in the pre-sawn ice
field should resemble the real breaking pattern.
Some compromises are, however, usually made
and a typical pattern is shown in procedure ITTC
7.5-02-04-01. The centerline of the model should
coincide with the centerline of the pre-sawn ice

Correction of minor deviations in ice flexural

strength. Ice resistance and ice strength are
considered to correlate linearly with corrections
of minor deviations in flexural strength of ice,
according to Equation 3.


pattern. The recommendation for the test run

length of the pre-sawn area is the same as for the
level ice section. It is important that the pre-sawn
area is slightly wider than the waterline breadth
of the model ship. The breadth of the pre-sawn
area may be defined by the formula:

Ice resistance


1 - relationship between model ice

resistance and speed

2 -extrapolation of this relationship

to V=0

where BPS and BWL are the width of pre-sawn ice

strip and the model waterline breadth,
respectively; and the constant n should be
between 3 and 4.


Figure 2. A method to determine ice strength

dependent resistance component.

If the air temperature is below the freezing

point or the ice is very cold there is a risk that the
ice pieces may freeze together; therefore, it is
important to minimize the time lag between the
tests and preparation of the pre-sawn ice sheet,
while such conditions exist.

where C=2.3 + 2FnHI and is the model scale

coefficient. Ice strength f in this formula is
measured in kPa.

Another method to determine RB is to

represent the experimental results by a speed
dependent relation RI = f(V) and then obtain the
zero test speed of RI by extrapolation as
illustrated in Figure 2.

Another methodology to obtain corrections is

to assume that the ice resistance is dependent on
the strength and the thickness of the ice:

Another method adopted by HSVA applies

ice strength correction without ice resistance
component decomposition. An empirical formula
is used (HSVA Report):

where the speed dependent constants (a and b)

are determined by regression analysis; and I is
the ice density.


NRC/OCRE adopts a similar approach, but

with a full regression analysis on the resistance
measurements on a model with varied ice
thickness and ice strength to obtain the
relationship for ice resistance as function of ice
thickness, ice strength, ice density, and model
velocity (Spencer, 1992). The correction is
performed accordingly.



Friction Coefficient Correction. Allowance

for friction coefficient is usually introduced for
overall ice resistance with the following formula:

another mathematical model

Sazonov, 1993 & 1994).


Sometimes there is a need to correct test data

from model towing tests performed in ice ridges.
Mathematical models of the ship/ridge
interaction process developed at ice basins are
used for this purpose. For example, KSRC uses
such model (Sazonov, 2013) as shown in Figure

where C is the correction coefficient.
The value of the correction coefficient C is
determined based on analysis of model and fullscale tests data. For them C may be determined
as given in the equations (10 12) (HSVA
- for level ice



- for large ice floes (11)

- for broken channel (12)

where fID is the model/ice friction coefficient.

Extrapolation formula may also be obtained
based on computations made with mathematical
models of ship motion (Alekseev & Sazonov,
1993 and 1994) For example, Alekseev and
Sazonov (1994) gave the following equation for
extrapolation of model ice resistance in level ice
to that of another friction coefficient:

To correct model test data one can use ice
resistance computations made with one or


Aalto University and The Hamburg Ship Model

Basin. The questionnaire was distributed among
the ice facilities in North America, Europe and
Asia. The information from the returns was
compiled by Aker Arctic Research Center in a
spread sheet. The eight facilities surveyed are
listed as follows:


R/RT, %











Aalto University
Aker Arctic Technology Inc. (AATI)
Hamburgische Schiffbau-Versuchsanstalt
Japan Marine United Corp. (JMUC)
Kyrylov State Research Center new ice
tank (KSRC)
Krylov State Research Center old ice tank
National Maritime Research Institute
National Research Council / Ocean,







, kg/m3




Figure 3. Effect of various factors on ice

resistance. a) ridge keel depth variations and b)
ice density variations; RT is the resistance in
ridge with keel depth equal to ship draft and R850
is the resistance at ice density I = 850 kg/m3

Ice Resistance of Vessels

Numerical methods for determination of ship

ice resistance were actively developed at the turn
of 20th century. At that time various researchers
developed numerical techniques based on
mathematic description of the salient physical
processes occurred during ship transiting in ice,
i.e., ice breaking by ship hull, turning and
submergence of ice pieces. In this context, the
studies of Enkvist (1972), Lindstrom (1990),
Alekseev and Sazonov (1993), Valanto (2000),
Liu et al (2006) and other can be mentioned.

A questionnaire for investigating the
inventory of the ice basins was developed by


use DEM simulations with their own codes such

as DECICE (Lau, 2011). Some of them
implement physically-based modeling that can
be considered a derivation of DEM.

Recently, the research aiming at developing

of new methods has diminished. The concepts of
the earlier developed methods are widely used in
addressing other ice technology issues, e.g.
calculations of ice load on the ship hull and ice
vibration, ship maneuvering (Lau, 2011),
dynamic positioning, and in ice operations (Lau
and Simoes Re, 2006) and personnel training.

Many studies conducted simulations of three

dimensional and dynamic phenomena such as
ice-induced vibration and motion of moored
structures (Sayed et al, 2012; Karulin and
Karulina, 2001).

A full list of recent papers is given in the

reference section. It should be noted that one of
the latest tendencies in the development of
numerical methods for determination of ship ice
resistance is application of Computer Aided
Engineering. Most of the systems are not
customized for computations related to ship
resistance determination and require substantial
adaptation. There are several research teams in
Russia, (Ionov and Gramuzov, 2013; Lobanov,
2013), Europe (Valanto, 2009) and Canada (Lau,
2011; Daley et al, 2014) that are currently
involved in these studies.

Arctic Technology report in Proceedings of

the 18th International Ship and Offshore
Structures Congress, Vol. 2 (ISSC 2012) covers
numerical simulation of ice. In particularly,
Section 9.2 Ice-Structure Interaction and
Discrete Element Method (DEM) covers the
related topic. Therefore, we reviewed mainly
literatures after 2011. So far, we reviewed IAHR
Symposium on Ice 2012, OMAE 2012,
ICETECH 2012, POAC13. Proceedings of the
27th, 28th and 29th International Symposium on
Okhotsk Sea & Sea Ice (2012, 2013, 2014
respectively) are also reviewed but no paper can
be found that was directly related to loads on
structures in ice. A full list of papers reviewed is
given in the reference section.

Loads on Structures in Ice

Investigation of loads on structures in ice

using numerical simulation is not a new topic,
but its review was not performed in the past
committees. Earlier studies such as Lau (1999)
and Izumiyama et al. (1992) combine beam
theory, crack pattern approximation and ice force
calculation to estimate ice load on a conical


Maneuvering and DP in Ice

With an increased interest of operations in

Arctic and sub-arctic conditions the ability of
station-keeping and manoeuvring in ice has been
shown an increased focus. Dynamic positioning
(DP) is widely used in ice-free water and open
seas where the impacts from wind, waves and
current are included in the force balance

Recent studies, however, often use advanced

numerical methods such as FEM (Finite Element
Method) and DEM (Discrete Element Method).
FEM simulations are often conducted using
commercial software packages such as
Abaqus/Explicit and LS-DYNA (Derradji and
Lau, 1993). On the other hand, many researchers

DP in ice conditions infers additional

parameters such as the local and global ice loads


Depending on the application a particular

modelling approaches may be favoured. For
onboard integrated systems or training simulators
real-time, or preferably fast time, simulation
capacity are needed. To this end, less complex
mathematical models may be implemented and
supplemented with data obtained from model
tests and sea trials.

on hull and the performance variations of

propulsion systems. The increased number of
variables together with discontinues nature of ice
and its regimes puts new challenges on ship
manoeuvring and the development of DP
To understand and predict the ice forces
acting on a DP vessel, a wide range of numerical
simulation studies and development projects
have been initiated throughout the years. The
numerical simulations focus on a wide range of
applications from hull and propulsion designs,
DP capability limits, ice management and oil
spill response capabilities evaluation to
operational training for navigational officers.

To increase confidence on the numerical

simulation, validation of its results against model
test data and full scale measurements are needed.
More complex problems and scenarios will
probably be addressed further on to aid the
industry with well based investigations for future
design projects and operational issues. To be able
to identify and determine operational limits for
specific operations and minimise risks to ensure
safe operations the ability of numerical
simulations with high accuracy complemented
by ice tank and full scale testing will be essential
for future successful Arctic operations.

A review of the latest numerical methods on

dynamic positioning and manoeuvring in ice
were performed which encompasses the wide
span of disciplines from control systems and
thruster force allocation to ice load computation
on hulls. A full list of papers reviewed is given in
the reference section.


Numerical modelling with DP and
manoeuvring in ice is a relatively new research
area. General approach to solve the problem
numerically is yet to be developed, however,
promising methods currently evolves. During the
development of methods different components
are addressed individually with various level of
simplification. One of the biggest challenges at
the time are to couple all relevant phenomena to
attain a satisfactory level of accuracy and yet at a
reasonable computing cost. The latest and
promising trend in theoretical modelling is to use
different commercial physics engines. However,
increased complexity is often detrimental to realtime simulation capability.

In August 2011 the Ice Committee was reinstalled with 10 members. For various reasons
only 7 were consistently contributing to the
activities. In December 2011 the committee
started work with a Kick-Off meeting in
Hamburg, followed by 4 more physical meetings
and 6 video conferences.
After completion of a questionnaire and
compilation of a new inventory list of the
existing ice model basins the committee
concentrated on review and editing of some ice
basin work related guidelines and procedures.
Two of them were finished and accepted by the
Advisory Committee for publication.


Another work element during the three years

mandate was to establish a numerical simulation
database on ship- and structure-ice interactions
as well as on maneuvering and dynamic
positioning in ice. Papers and articles related to
these areas were reviewed and assessed. The
results of this work are compiled in the report.

These recommendations are briefly discussed

in the following sections.

Review of Existing Recommendations

and Guidelines

The Recommendations

Although the scope of work given by the

Advisory Committee was not completely
fulfilled, the members believe that the 27th ITTC
was successful and should be continued during
the 28th ITTC. Therefore the committee members
recommend the installation of another Specialist
Committee on Ice or make it a permanent
committee. This position is supported by
increased activities in arctic regions and its
resulting work load in ice models basins.



Maneuvering Tests in Ice - 7.5-02-0402.3

Propulsion Test in Ice - 7.5-02-04-02.2
Ship Trials in Ice - 7.5-04-03-01
Experimental Uncertainty Analysis for
Ship Resistance in Ice Tank Testing - 7.5-02-0402.5
We recommend continue working on these
recommendations and guidelines in next
committee period.

The members also like to emphasis that the

ice committee covers several model test types for
which special committees exist for open water
testing. Therefore, the members feel that it would
be appropriate to install a standing ice


Preparation of New Recommendations

and Guidelines

These Recommendations and Guidelines




Brash Ice Channel Tests. Currently there is

no quality control for brash ice channel testing
except the ice coverage, thickness and
distribution; however, the resistance in brash ice
is also affected by the cohesions of the ice bits,
their density, strength and size. The FSICR
(Finnish-Swedish Ice Class rules) requires the
bending strength of the parental ice sheet, which
may however be of minor significance for the
brash ice channel tests. The significant
parameters should be identified and there
practicality as applied in day-to-day tank
operations should be investigated.

The committee recommends that the ITTC

Review of existing Recommendations
and Guidelines
Preparation of new Recommendations
and Guidelines
Review of numerical and prediction
Establish a joint research project on
maneuvering testing methods


Beside the resistance in level ice, propeller

ice interaction is of significance to powering
prediction. The FSICR provides formulations for
powering assessment, which may be compared to
the results from ice tanks tests. Furthermore,
guidelines on measurement (e.g. sampling
frequency) and powering extrapolation methods
should be described. The guideline may further
be discussed in terms of equipment used
(constant torque, constant rpm, or constant
power, which is an idealization of the actual
MCR characteristics).

Numerical and Prediction Methods. A stateof-the-art review should be performed to assess

and evaluate the availability of numerical
environments and tools. The simple evaluation
may be conducted with aim to answer a few
central questions such as:

Is the method validated?

Is the method still under development?
Is the tool based on commercial tools and
can it be made available?

Semi-empirical prediction methods should

also be reviewed as part of the numerical tools

Dynamic Positioning in Ice. Not all ice

model basins are able to perform Dynamic
Positioning in Ice. The next committee should
either develop new Recommendations and
Guidelines for this test type or include dynamic
positioning issues into the guidelines 7.5-02-0402.3 Maneuvering Tests In Ice.

In order to keep impartiality ITTC may not

give recommendation.
Maneuvering Tests. A joint research project
should be considered to investigate the
correlation of test results obtained from different
modeling facilities and methodologies adopted.
Of special interest are turning circle and breakout tests.

Scalability. The performance of ice model

testing and the ice property testing is based on
scaling model test results to full scale. The
experimental procedures in both environments
may however differ significantly, which may
also limit the scalability of model test data.
Therefore, procedures for full-scale ice property
testing should be reviewed and evaluated against
model test data to assess their scalability in
connection with the procedures 7.5-02-04-02
Test Methods for Model Ice Properties. The
ultimate goal should be new guidelines on fullscale ice property testing, which refers to and
accounts for the procedures in model scale ice.

Ice model basins, except Aalto University

and MOERI, do not usually provide enough
width to conduct a full turning circle test. The
turning circle has to be extrapolated from a pitch
circle. Comparative model tests with a standard
model conducted in the wide Aalto or MOERI
basins and the other narrower basins can be used
to assess the quality of the extrapolation methods
that in turn deliver input to the Maneuvering in
Ice guidelines.

Offshore Structures. As testing of offshore

structures currently cover 30-50% of model ice
tests Guidelines should be developed for fixed
and floating structures.

We know that in nature the channel edge is

stronger than the surrounding level ice. This
aspect is not considered in breakout tests and the
possible impact of this omission to test results
should also be assessed.


Dobrodeev, A.A. and Sazonov, K.E., 213.

Experimental investigation of interaction
between of co-axial propellers with ice.
Proceedings of Krylov State Research Centre,
issue 73(357). pp. 99-104. (in Russian)


The 27th Specialist Committee on Ice
recommends to the Full Conference to:


Adopt the revised procedure 7.5-02-04-02

Test Methods for Model Ice Properties
Adopt the revised procedure 7.5-02-0402.1 Resistance Test in Ice
Remove procedure 7.5-02-04-02.4 Tests
in Deformed Ice

Goncharov, V., Klementieva, N. and Sazonov,

K., 2013. Interaction of ships under traffic
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8.3. Dynamic Positioning in Ice

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Kerkeni, S., Metrikin, I. and Dal Santo X., 2013.

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Cok, L., Sazonov, K.E., Belyashov, V.A.,

Shaposhnikov, V.M., Nesterov, A.B. and
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Millan, J. and Wang, J., 2011, Ice force modeling

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Iyerusalimskiy, A., Choi, J., Park, G., Kim, Y.

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Kim, H.S., Kim, M.C., Choi, K.S. and Lee, C.J.,

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Suominen, M., Karhunen, J., Bekker, A., Kujala,

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Huang, Y., Ma, J. and Tian, Y., 2013. Model

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