Sei sulla pagina 1di 5
Seediscussions,stats,andauthorprofilesforthispublicationat: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262877652 Rice

Seediscussions,stats,andauthorprofilesforthispublicationat:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262877652

Article·February2014

CITATIONS

4

4authors,including:

ICARResearchComplexforNEHRegion,Umia…

28 PUBLICATIONS 51 CITATIONS

ICARresearchcomplexfornortheasternhillre…

14 PUBLICATIONS 32 CITATIONS

READS

88

14 PUBLICATIONS 32 CITATIONS SEEPROFILE READS 88 AmitKumar ICARResearchComplexforNEHRegion,maim,… 23

ICARResearchComplexforNEHRegion,maim,…

23 PUBLICATIONS 14 CITATIONS

AllcontentfollowingthispagewasuploadedbyAvinashPandeyon11February2015.

Theuserhasrequestedenhancementofthedownloadedfile.Allin-textreferencesunderlinedinblueareaddedtotheoriginaldocument

andarelinkedtopublicationsonResearchGate,lettingyouaccessandreadthemimmediately.

Indian Journal of Advances in Plant Research (IJAPR) www.ijapronline.com

Advances in Plant Research ( IJAPR ) www.ijapronline.com Review Article Vol. ( ): - ; ISSN:

Review Article

Research ( IJAPR ) www.ijapronline.com Review Article Vol. ( ): - ; ISSN: - Rice quality

Vol.

( ): -
(
):
-

; ISSN:

-
-

Rice quality under water stress

Pandey* A., Kumar A., Pandey D.S. and Thongbam P.D.

ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya-

P.D. ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya- *Corresponding Author: Received: 2 Avinash Pandey

*Corresponding Author:

Received: 2

*Corresponding Author: Received: 2

Avinash Pandey Email: nashpgr@gmail.com

Accepted:

Published:

ABSTRACT About 13% of the world‟s 156 million ha of rice is cultivated as rainfed rice under upland conditions where moisture stress affects rice growth and reduces grain yield and quality. Water stress affects plant growth and development and ultimately, reduces grain yield of rice. The reduction in yield may depend on the developmental stage of the crop. The response of rice yield to soil water status varies with growth stage being most sensitive at flowering, followed by booting and grain filling stage. More reduction in grain yield, due to water stress in flowering stage, is largely resulted from the reduction in fertile panicle and filled grain percentage. Water stress also promoted the remobilization of stored carbon reserves and water deficit during grain-filling enhanced plant senescence and accelerated grain-filling. It is generally believed that rice quality is determined both genetically and environmentally. Soil water status, especially during the grain filling period, has a dramatic influence on grain quality of rice.

Key words: Grain quality, rice, water stress,

INTRODUCTION Rice is one of the most important crop in the world, growing in over 156 million hectares of land having overall worldwide production (paddy rice) of 650 million tons per annum. Now, rice is being grown in 117 countries and is a staple food for 17 countries in Asia and the Pacific, eight countries in Africa, seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, and one in the Near East. When all developing countries are considered together, rice provides 27% of dietary energy supply and 20% of dietary protein intake. India is considered as one of the centres of origin of rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) and an important centre of its diversity (Ramiah, 1953) and it alone produces nearly one fourth (21%) of the rice in the world, next only to china (FAO, 2009). Rice is the staple food for its large population and this crop is cultivated in almost all the Indian states under a remarkably wide range of agro-climatic conditions and ecological situations. Conventional flooded rice cultivation in Asian provides more than 75% of the world rice supply for the half the earth‟s main staple food (Qin et al., 2006). To keep up with population growth and income-induced demand for food in most Asian counties, rice production needs to increase in coming decades.

Rice is an anomaly among the domesticated cereals - a tropical C3 grass that evolved in a semi-aquatic, low-radiation habitat. As such, rice carries an odd portfolio of tolerances and susceptibilities to abiotic stresses as compared to other crops. Rice thrives in waterlogged soil and can tolerate submergence at levels that would kill other crops, is moderately tolerant of salinity and soil acidity, but is highly sensitive to drought and cold. Drought is generally avoided in irrigated rice production systems, but it is a consistent feature across all of rainfed rice sown annually, most of which is in tropical Asia, Africa, and Latin America (Narciso and Hossain, 2002). Rice is also the greatest consumer of water among all crops and consumes about 80% of the total irrigated fresh water resources in Asia (Bouman et al., 2007). Fresh water, however, is becoming increasingly scarce because of population growth, increasing urban and industrial development, and the decreasing availability resulting from pollution and resource depletion (Belder et al., 2004). Decreasing water availability for agriculture threatens the productivity of irrigated rice ecosystem, and ways must be sought to save water and maintain grain yield of rice. Besides rice yield, quality of rice has a pivotal role in the adoption of new varieties. Traits of grain quality dictate market value and a

quality of rice has a pivotal role in the adoption of new varieties. Traits of grain

Indian J. Adv. Plant Res.,

Indian J. Adv. Plant Res., Vol. ( ): - ; ISSN: www.ijapronline.com - determinant factor in

Vol.

( ): -
(
):
-

; ISSN:

www.ijapronline.com

-
-

determinant factor in economic returns for a farmer. This is reflected by the persistence of benchmark varieties for many decades in spite of the yield gains achieved over those same decades. These varieties include Basmati 370, selected around 1920, and IR64, released in 1985. These varieties, although low- yielding and susceptible to stresses, continue to be grown on many hectares because of their excellent quality.

Rice Quality Grain quality in rice is very difficult to define with precision as preferences for quality vary from country to country. Few people realize its complexity and various quality components involved. The concept of quality varies according to the preparations for which grains are to be used. Although some of the quality characteristics desired by grower, miller and consumer may be the same, yet each may place different emphasis on various quality characteristics. For instance, the miller‟s basis of quality is dependent upon total recovery and the proportion of head and broken rice on milling. Consumers base their concept of quality on the grain appearance, size and shape of the grain, the behaviour upon cooking, the taste, tenderness and flavour of cooked rice. The cooking quality preferences vary in different countries. Rice is one cereal that is consumed mainly as whole milled and boiled grain. The desired properties may vary from one ethnic group or geographical region to another and may vary from country to country. The quality in rice may, therefore, be considered from viewpoint of milling quality, grain size, shape and appearance and cooking characteristics. Milling yield is one of the most important criteria of rice quality especially from a marketing standpoint. A variety should possess a high turnout of whole grain (head) rice and total milled rice (Webb, 1985). Milling yield of rough rice is the estimate of the quantity of head rice and total milled rice that can be produced from a unit of rough rice. It is generally expressed as percentage (Khush et al.,

rice. It is generally expressed as percentage (Khush et al., The appearance of milled rice is

The appearance of milled rice is important to the consumer. Thus grain size and shape are the first criteria of rice quality that breeders consider in developing new varieties for release for commercial production. The length:breadth ratio (L/B) falling between 2.5 and 3.0 has been considered widely acceptable as long as the length is more than 6 mm (Kaul, 1970). The consumer prefer rice with a translucent endosperm and pay a premium price for it, even though opacity disappears during cooking and does not alter eating quality. Preference for grain size and shape vary from one group of consumers to the other. Some ethnic groups prefer short bold grains, some have a preference for medium long grains, and long slender grains are highly prized by others. Grain appearance depends upon the size and shape of the kernel, translucency and chalkiness of the grain. Rice samples with damaged eyes have poor appearance and low market value. Similarly, greater the chalkiness, lower the market acceptability. The starch granules in the chalky areas are less densely packed as compared to translucent areas. Therefore, the chalky areas are not as hard as the translucent areas and the

grains with chalkiness are more prone to breakage during milling. Chalkiness is influenced by both genetic background and the environment, as temperature immediately after flowering. Other factors such as soil fertility and water management, both of which tend to be problematic in rainfed lowlands, are expected to affect the degree of chalkiness (Mackill et al., 1996). Cooking and eating characteristics are largely determined by the properties of the starch that makes up 90 percent of milled rice. Gelatinization temperature, amylose content and gel consistency are the important starch properties which influence cooking and eating characteristics. Time required for cooking is determined by the gelatinization temperature of starch. Gelatinization temperature, a physical property of starch, is the range of temperature wherein at least 90% of the starch granules swell irreversibly in hot water with loss of crystallinity and birefringence. Although the gelatinization temperature and cooking time of milled rice are positively correlated (Juliano, 1967), gelatinization temperature does not correlate with the texture of cooked rice (IRRI, 1968). Gelatinization temperature is not associated with other important plant or grain traits except for certain useful correlations with amylose content (Jennings et al., 1979). Varieties with high gelatinization temperature generally have low amylose content. Many of the cooking and eating characteristics of milled rice are influenced by the ratio of two kinds of starchs; amylose and amylopectin in the rice grain (Sanjiva Rao et al., 1952). Amylose content correlates negatively with taste panel scores for cohesiveness, tenderness, color and gloss of the boiled rice. Rice varieties are grouped on the basis of their amylose content into waxy (0-2%), very low (3-9%), low (10-19%), intermediate (20- 25%) and high (>25%) (Kumar and Khush, 1986). Intermediate amylose rices are the preferred types in most of the ricegrowing areas of the world, except where low-amylose japonicas are grown. Some varieties expand more in size than others upon cooking. Lengthwise expansion without increase in girth is considered a highly desirable trait in some high-quality rices. Grain elongation is a quantitative trait.

Water stress and rice quality Water stress (commonly known as drought) can be defined as the absence of adequate moisture necessary for a plant to grow normally and complete its life cycle. The lack of adequate moisture leading to water stress is a common occurrence in rainfed areas, brought about by infrequent rains and poor irrigation. About 13% of the world‟s 156 million ha of rice is cultivated as rainfed rice under upland conditions where moisture stress affects rice growth and reduces grain yield and quality (Carlos et al., 2008). Water stress affects plant growth and development and ultimately, reduces grain yield of rice. The reduction in yield may depend on the developmental stage of the crop. The response of rice yield to soil water status varies with growth stage being most sensitive at flowering, followed by booting and grain filling stage (O‟Toole, 1982). More reduction in grain yield, due to water stress in flowering stage, is largely resulted from the reduction in fertile panicle and filled grain

yield, due to water stress in flowering stage, is largely resulted from the reduction in fertile

Indian J. Adv. Plant Res.,

Indian J. Adv. Plant Res., Vol. ( ): - ; ISSN: www.ijapronline.com - percentage. Water stress

Vol.

( ): -
(
):
-

; ISSN:

www.ijapronline.com

-
-

percentage. Water stress also promoted the remobilization of stored carbon reserves and water deficit during grain-filling enhanced plant senescence and accelerated grain-filling. Usually, senescence induced by water deficit shortens grain-filling period and can result in reduction in grain weight. According to Xie et al. (2001) grain filling pattern had marked influence on final grain quality. Meanwhile, great differences in quality among grains within a spike were also recorded due to different filling rates and assimilate competition. The effect of water stress on the rice quality may be different for upland and lowland rice cultivars. Cheng et al. (2003) reported that the upland cultivar showed greater variation than lowland cultivars in appearance and nutrient quality, and the good quality lowland cultivar showed less stability in milled and cooking-eating quality than the poor quality one. Water is a major constituent of plant tissue as reagent for chemical reactions and solvent for translocation of metabolites and minerals as well as an essential component for cell enlargement through increasing turgor pressure (Carlos et al., 08). The occurrence of soil moisture stress affects many of the physiological processes such as photosynthesis and transpiration resulting in reduced growth and poor grain filling (Samonte et al., 2001). Many studies have been conducted on the effects of various irrigation methods on water utilization. However, little is known regarding the influence of reduced water supply on rice quality.

It is generally believed that rice quality is determined both genetically and environmentally (Krishnan and Rao, 2005). Soil water status, especially during the grain filling period, has a dramatic influence on grain quality of rice (Dingkuhn and Gal, 1996). When the soil moisture content lowers, the milled rice recovery and the brown rice protein content arc both significantly raised, but the percentage of unripened grain is decreased, meanwhile the amylose content in milled rice is decreased (Renmin and Yuanshu ). There is increase of the head rice ratio in moisture stress condition. Therefore, the occurrence of drought during grain ripening stage could be considered as a useful factor that might help to reduce broken grain in milled rice with high level of head whole. The amylose content generally becomes lower in water stress condition, but, it may increase if the amylose content is very low. Negative correlation is present between amylose content and protein content in stress condition. Protein content is also associated (remotely) with grain quality traits such as head rice ratio, milled grain dimensions, milled grain appearance, viscosity parameters. The increase of protein content can improve the nutritional status of people; however the protein content should be taken with care since it negatively correlates to rice taste (Ishima et al., 1974). Basmati rice grown under poor water supply conditions during grain filling time shows excessive abdominal whiteness in grains whereas these factors adversely affect cooking qualities. However, diminishing soil moisture at the time of grain filling is reported to favour the aroma formation.

of grain filling is reported to favour the aroma formation. In flood condition, the kernels became
of grain filling is reported to favour the aroma formation. In flood condition, the kernels became

In flood condition, the kernels became soft and developed fissures which contributed to low head rice recoveries. The milled rice from them had lower kernel weight and protein content but showed higher amylose and ash content. Flooding generally has no effect on the gelatinisation time and temperature but peak viscosity and setback may be affected. The flood- affected rice generally show lower cooking time and higher gruel solids loss, and were rated poorer organoleptically. Water stress effect on rice quality also depends on different level of nitrogen content. Cai et al. (2006) examine the effects of nitrogen (N) supply and water stress on rice grain yield and its quality. Rice grown under normal N level, water stress markedly reduced the grain-filling percentage and grain weight, resulting in a significant decrease of grain yield. Though the head-milled rice had a slight increase, the percentage of chalkiness was significantly increased which resulted in an inferior performance in grain-apparent quality. In contrast, when the plants were grown under high N level, water stress increased the grain yield because of the increase of grain-filling percentage and grain weight. As compared with well watering, water stress decreased the percentages of chalky grain and chalking, which improved the performance of grain-apparent quality. According to the performance in the indices of cooked quality, the palatability became poor when subjected to water stress under normal N level, as the result of the increase of hardness and cohesiveness. In contrast, under high N level, water stress availed the ascending of viscosity at the early stage when rice flours were pasting, peak viscosity and breakdown were increased, and setback was decreased, suggesting that the palpability got well. Stressed rice grains have lower gelatinization temperature and lower peak viscosity. It is well known that there is a positive correlation between gelatinization temperature and cooking time (Veronic et al., 2007). Therefore, the occurrence of the moisture stressed at the ripening stage could shorten grain cooking time. Cooking time reduction is very important in terms of energy and time saving. The increase of the peak viscosity time and value of the „breakdown‟ observed in stressed samples showed that moisture stress during ripening stage induces higher grain volume expansion upon cooking. Moisture stress during grain maturity stage causes physico-chemical variation in rice grain. Late drought that occurs during ripening stage appears to increase the main characteristics defining rice grain quality including total milling rate, head rice ratio, and protein content (Fofana et al., 2010). Since the criteria of choice of a given variety depend on each consumer, it might not be well advised to conclude that the occurrence of water deficit during ripening stage necessarily or not enhance rice grain quality.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are thankful to the Director, ICAR RC for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya 793103, India for providing the facilities for the study under the project “Development of high yielding and stress tolerant upland rice for mid altitudes of Meghalaya”.

under the project “Development of high yielding and stress tolerant upland rice for mid altitudes of

Indian J. Adv. Plant Res.,

Indian J. Adv. Plant Res., Vol. ; ISSN: - www.ijapronline.com REFERENCES Belder, P., Bouman, B.A.M., Cabangon,

Vol.

; ISSN:Indian J. Adv. Plant Res., Vol. - www.ijapronline.com REFERENCES Belder, P., Bouman, B.A.M., Cabangon, R., Guoan,

-
-
Indian J. Adv. Plant Res., Vol. ; ISSN: - www.ijapronline.com REFERENCES Belder, P., Bouman, B.A.M., Cabangon,

www.ijapronline.com

REFERENCES

Krishnan, P. and Rao,

Effect of genotype and

environment on seed yield and quality of rice. J Agric

in

( lowland conditions in Asia. Agric. Manage ., 65:193 – Bouman, B.A.M., Humphreys, E., Tuong, T.P.
Barker, R. ). Rice and water. Adv. Agron., 92:187 – Kumar, Sci., 283– I. and Khush,
Barker, R. ). Rice and water. Adv. Agron., 92:187 – Kumar, Sci., 283– I. and Khush,

Kumar,

Sci., 283– I. and Khush, G.S. .
Sci., 283–
I. and
Khush,
G.S.
.

Gene

dosage

effect

of

amylose content in rice endosperm. Japanese J Genet

of amylose content in rice endosperm. Japanese J Genet - Mackill, D.J., Coffman, W.R. and Garrity,
-
-

Mackill, D.J., Coffman, W.R. and Garrity, D.P Rainfed

lowland Rice Improvement. International Rice Research

lowland Rice Improvement. International Rice Research Carlos, A.C.C., Orivaldo, A., Rogério, P.S. and Gustavo,

in

Institute, Manila, Philippines, Pp

P.S. and Gustavo, P.M. in Institute, Manila, Philippines, Pp ). (2006). Grain quality of upland rice
P.S. and Gustavo, P.M. in Institute, Manila, Philippines, Pp ). (2006). Grain quality of upland rice

). ).

of

Narciso, J. and Hossain, (IRRI).

World Rice Statistics. In.

of

-
-

O‟Toole, ,

Adaptation of rice to drought-prone environments. In: Drought Resistance in Crops with Emphasis on rice. IRRI, Manila, Phillippines. Pp: 195-Braz.), 65(5): Effects of water stress during - O‟Toole , Cai, Y., Wang, W., Zhu, Z.,

Xue

Tai

- Cheng, W., Zhang, G., Zhao, G., Yao, H. and Xu, H. ( ). Variation in rice quality of different cultivars and grain positions as affected by water management. Field Crop Res.,

- Dingkuhn, M. and Gal, P.Y.L. ( ). Effect of drainage date on

yield and dry matter partitioning in irrigated rice. Field Crops Res., 46:117FAO (2009). http://faostat.fao.org/ Fofana, M., Cherif, M., Kone, B., Futakuchi, K. and Audebert, A. ( ). Effect of water deficit at grain repining stage on rice grain quality. J. Agric. Biotech. Sustainable -

Dev., International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). ( ). Annual Report for 1967. Los Baños, Philippines. Pp: 308. Ishima, T., Taira, H. and Mikoshiba, K. ( ). Effect of nitrogenous fertilizer application and protein content in milled rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep.

rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J.,
rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J.,
rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J.,
rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J.,
rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J.,
rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J.,
rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J.,
rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J.,
rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J.,
rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J.,
rice on organoleptic quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J.,
-
-
quality of cooked rice. Rep. Bao, Nat. Food Res. Inst., - Qin, J., Hu, F., Zhang,

in

. Role of flooded rice
. Role of
flooded
rice
rice cultivation. Agric Water Manage., 83: 252 – Ramiah, K. . Rice Breeding and Genetics. Scientific
Ramiah, K. .
Ramiah,
K.
.

and

No.

19.

of

Renmin, W. and Yuanshu D. (1989) . Studies on ecological factors on ecological factors of rices from heading to maturity I. Effect of different soil moisture content on fertilization,grain-filling and grain quality of early indica rice. Journal of Zhejiang University

Samonte, S., Wilson, L.T., McClung, A.M. and Tarpley, L.

. Seasonal dynamics of non-structuralSamonte, S., Wilson, L.T., McClung, A.M. and Tarpley, L. carbohydrate in 15 diverse rice genotypes. Crop

carbohydrate in 15 diverse rice genotypes. Crop Sci

-
-
carbohydrate in 15 diverse rice genotypes. Crop Sci - Sanjiva Rao, B., Vasudeva, A.R. and Subrahmanya,

Sanjiva Rao, B., Vasudeva, A.R. and Subrahmanya, The amylose and amylopectin content of rice and their

influence on the cooking quality of cereals. Proc Indian Jennings, P.R., Coffman, W.R., and Kauffman, H.E.

Jennings, P.R., Coffman, W.R., and Kauffman, H.E. (1979) Grain quality. In: Rice improvement. IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. pp. 101-

improvement. IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. pp. 101- Acad Sci., - Veronic, V., Brigitte, P., Judith,
-
-

in

Christian, M.
Christian,
M.

of

 

.

Juliano,

Kaul,

Physicochemical studies of rice starch and protein. Intl Rice Comm. Newslt., Special issue: 93- .

Early generation testing for quality

studies of rice starch and protein. Intl Rice Comm. Newslt., Special issue: 93- . Early generation
studies of rice starch and protein. Intl Rice Comm. Newslt., Special issue: 93- . Early generation
studies of rice starch and protein. Intl Rice Comm. Newslt., Special issue: 93- . Early generation
to Kernel Physicochemical Properties. J Agric Food Chem ., - . Criteria of rice quality in

characteristics. II. Rice Indian J Genet Plant Breed.,

-
-
characteristics. II. Rice Indian J Genet Plant Breed., - Chemistry and Technology Pp - Xie, G.,
-
-

Khush, G.S., Paule, C.M. and dela Cruz,

Khush, G.S., Paule, C.M. and dela Cruz, Rice grain characteristics of rice and their relationships to

Rice grain

of

and

to

quality evaluation and improvement at IRRI. In:

of

Proceedings of Workshop in Chemical Aspects of Rice Grain Quality. IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Pp: 22-

Quality. IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Pp: 22-  IJAPR  - ViewView publicationpublication

IJAPR

-
-