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1 Course notes on Power Systems

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015

CHPATER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1. What is Power System?

A power system consists of a few generating plants, situated close to resources, supplying electric power to various types of loads spread out over large area, through large complex transmission and distribution network. Voltage levels are reduced in stages. Distribution system supplies power to different loads. Thus power system network is large, complex and very expensive. A power system is compose of four main components:

Power Production / Generation

Power Transmission

Power Distribution

Power Consumption (utilization) / Load

Of course, we also need monitoring and control systems. So, monitoring and control systems are essential components of a power system.

also need monitoring and control systems. So, monitoring and control systems are essential components of a
also need monitoring and control systems. So, monitoring and control systems are essential components of a

2 Course notes on Power Systems

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015

Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 1.2. Brief History of Electric Power Systems In 1878, Thomas

1.2. Brief History of Electric Power Systems

In 1878, Thomas A. Edison began work on the electric light and formulated the concept of a

centrally located power station with distributed lighting serving the a surrounding area. He perfected light by October 1879, and the opening of historic Pearl Street Station in New York City on September 4, 1882, marked the beginning of electric utility industry. At Pearl Street,

dc generators, the called dynamos, were driven by steam engines to supply an initial load of

30 kW for 110-V incandescent lighting to 59 customers in 1-square-mile area. From this beginning in 1885 through 1972, the electric utility industry grew at a remarkable pace-a growth based on continuous reductions in the price of electricity due primarily to technological

accomplishment and creative engineering.

The introduction of the practical dc motor by Sprague Electric, as well as the growth of incandescent lighting, promoted the expansion of Edison’s dc systems. The development of three-wire 220-V dc systems allowed load to increase somewhat, but as transmission distances and loads continued to increase, voltage problems were encountered. These limitations of maximum distance and load were overcome in 1885 by Willian Stanley’s

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development of a commercially practical transformer. Stanley installed an ac distribution system in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, to supply 150 lamps. With the transformer, the ability to transmit at high voltage with corresponding lower current and lower line-voltage drops made ac more attractive than dc. The first single-phase ac line in the United States operated in 1889 in Oregon, between Oregon City and Portland-21 km at 4 KV.

The growth of ac systems was further encouraged in 1888 when Nikola Tesla presented a paper at a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers describing two-phase induction and synchronous motors, which made evident the advantages poly-phase versus single-phase systems. The first three-phase line in Germany became operational in 1891, transmitting power 179 km at 12 kV. The first three-phase line in the United States (in California) became operational in 1893, transmitting power 12 km at 2.3 kV. The three-phase induction motor conceived by Tesla went on to become the workhouse of the industry.

by Tesla went on to become the workhouse of the industry. In the same year that

In the same year that Edison’s steam-driven generators were inaugurated, a waterwheel- driven generator was installed in Appleton, Wisconsin. Since then, most electric energy has

4 Course notes on Power Systems

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015

been generated in steam-powered and in water-powered (called hydro) turbine plants. Today, steam turbines account for more than 85% of U.S. electric energy generation, whereas hydro- turbines account for about 7%. Gas turbines are used in some cases to meet peak loads.

Coal is the most widely used fuel in the United States due to its abundance in the country. Although many of these coal-fueled power plants were converted to oil during the early 1970s, that trend has been reversed back to coal since the 1973/74 oin embargo, which caused an oil shortage and created a national desire to reduce dependency on foreign oil. In 2004, approximately 50% of electricity in the United States was generated from coal.

The early ac systems operated at various frequencies including 25, 50, 60, and 133 Hz. In 1891, it was proposed that 60 Hz be the standard frequency in the United States. In 1983, 25-Hz systems were introduced with the synchronous converter. However, these systems were used primarily for road electrification (and many are now retired), because they had disadvantage of causing incandescent lights to flicker. In California, the Los Angeles Department of Power and Water operated at 50 Hz, but converted to 60 Hz when power from the Hoover Dam became operational in 1937. In 1949, Southern California Edison also converted from 50 Hz to 60 Hz. Today, the two standard frequencies for generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power in the world are 60 Hz (in the United States, Canada, Japan, Brazil) and 50 Hz (in Europe, the former Soviet Republics, South America except Brazil, India, and also Japan). The advantage of 60-Hz systems is that generators, motors and transformers in these systems are generally smaller than 50-Hz equipment with the same ratings. The advantage of 50-Hz systems is that transmission lines and transformers have smaller reactances at 50 Hz than at 60 Hz.

Along with increases in load growth, there have been continuing increases in the size of generating units. The principal incentive to build larger units has been economy of scale-that is, a reduction in installed cost per kilowatt of capacity for larger units. However, there have also been steady improvements in generation efficiency. For example, in 1934 the average heat rate for steam generation in the U.S. electric industry was 17,950 BTU/kWh, which corresponds to 19% efficiency. By the 1991, the average heat rate was 10,367 BTU/kWh, which corresponds to 33%efficieny. These improvements in thermal efficiency due to increases in unit size and in steam temperature and pressure, as well as to the use of steam reheat, have resulted in savings in fuel costs and overall operating costs.

There have been continuing increases, too, in transmission voltages. From Edison’s 220-V three-wire dc grid to 4-kV single-phase and 2.3-kV three-phase transmission, ac transmission voltages in the United \States have risen progressively to 150, 230, 345, 500, and now 765

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kV. And ultra-high voltages (UHV) above 1000 kV are now being studied. The incentives for increasing transmission voltages have been: (1) increases in transmission distance and transmission capacity, (2) smaller line-voltage drops, (3) reduce line losses, (4) reduced right-of-way requirements per MW transfer, and (5) lower capital and operating costs of transmission. Today, one 765-kV three-phase line can transmit thousands of megawatts over hundreds of kilometers.

In 1954, the first modern high-voltage dc (HVDC) transmission line was put into operation in Sweden between Vastervik and the island of Gotland in the Baltic sea; it operated at 100 kV for a distance of 100 km. The first HVDC line in the US was the 400-kV, 1360-km Pacific Intertie line installed between Oregon and California in 1970. As of 2000, four other HVDC lines up to 400 kV and five back-to-back ac-dc links had been installed in the United States, and a total of 30 HVDC lines up to 533 kV had been installed worldwide.

For an HVDC line embedded in an ac system, solid-state converters at both ends ot the dc line operate as rectifiers and inverters. Since the cost of an HVDC transmission line is less than that of an ac line with the same capacity, the additional cost of converters for dc transmission is offset when the line is long enough. Studies have shown that overhead HVDC transmiision is economical in the United States for transmission distances longer than about 600 km.

In the United States, electric utilities grew first as isolated systems, with new ones continously starting up throught the country. Gradually, however, neighbouring electric utilities began to interconnect, to operate in parallel. This improved both reliability and economy. An interconnected has has many agvantages. An interconnected utility can draw upon another’s rotating generator reserves during a time of need (such as a sudden generator outage or load increase), thereby maintaining continuity of service, increasing reliability, and reducing the total generators that need to be kept running under no-load conditions. Also, interconnected utilities can schedule power transfers during normal periods to take advantage of energy-cost differences in respective areas, load diversity, time zone differences, and seasonal conditions. For example, utilities whose generation is primarily hydro can supply low-cost power during high-water periods in spring/summer, and can receive power from the interconnection during low-water periods in fall/winter. Interconnection also allow shared ownership of larger, more efficient generating units.

While sharing the benefits of interconneted operation, each utility is obliged to help neighbors who are in trouble, to maintain scheduled intertie transfers during normal periods, and to participate in system frequency regulation.

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Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015

In addition to the benefits/obligations of interconnected operation, there are disadvantages. Interconnections, for example, have increased fault currents that occur during short circuits, thus requiring the use of circuit breakers with higher interrupting capability. Furthermore, although overall system reliability and economy have improved dramatically through interconnection, there is a remote possibility that an initial disturbance may lead to a regional blackout, such as the one that occurred in August 2003 in the northeastern United States and Canada.

1.3. Computers in Power System Engineering

As electric utilities have grown in size and the number of interconnections has increased, planning for future expansion has become increasingly complex. The increasing cost of additions and modifications has made it imperative that utilities consider a r range of design options, and perform detailed studies of the effects on the system of each option, based on a number of assumptions: normal and abnormal operating conditions, peak and off-peak loadings, and present and future years of operation. A large volume of network data must also be collected and accurately handled. To assist the engineer in this power system planning, digital computers and highly developed computer programs are used. Such programs include power-flow, stability, short-circuit, and transient programs.

Power-flow programs compute the voltage magnitudes, phase angles, and transmission-line power flows for a network under steady-state operating conditions. Other results including transformer tap settings and generator reactive power outputs, are also computed. Today’s computers have sufficient storage and speed to efficiently compute power-flow solutions for networks with 100,000 buses and 150,000 transmission lines. High-speed printers the print out the complete solution in tabular form for analysis by the planning engineer. Also available are interactive power flow programs, whereby power-flow results are displayed on computer screens in the form of single line diagrams; the engineer use these to modify the network with a mouse or from a keyboard and can readily visualize the results. The computer’s large storage and high-speed capabilities allow the engineer to run the many different cases necessary to analyze and design transmission and generation expansion options.

7 Course notes on Power Systems

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015

Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Stability programs are used to study power systems under

Stability programs are used to study power systems under disturbance conditions to determine whether the synchronous generators and motors remain synchronism. System disturbances can be caused by the sudden loss of a generator or transmission line, by sudden load increases or decreases, and by short circuits and switching operations. The stability program combines power-flow equations and machine-dynamic equations to compute the angular swings of machines during disturbances. The program also computes critical clearing times for network faults, and allows the engineer to investigate the effects of various machine parameters, network modifications, disturbance types, and control schemes.

Short-circuits programs are used to compute three-phase and line-to-ground faults in power system networks in order to select circuit breakers for fault interruption, select relays that detect faults and control circuit breakers, and determine relay settings. Short-circuit currents are computed for each relay and circuit breaker location, and for various system-operating conditions such as lines or generating units out of service, in order to determine minimum and maximum fault currents.

8 Course notes on Power Systems

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015

Transients programs compute the magnitudes and shapes of transient overvoltages and currents that result from lightning strikes and line-switching operations. The planning engineer uses the results of a transients program to determine insulation requirements for lines, transformers, and other equipment, and to select surge arresters that protect equipment against transient overvoltages.

1.4. Energy Control Center

For reliable and economical operation of the power system it is necessary to monitor the entire system in a control center. The modern control center of today is called the energy control center (ECC). The ECC provides the functions necessary for monitoring and coordinating the minute-by-minute physical and economic operation of the power system. Energy control centers are equipped with on-line computers performing all signal processing through the remote acquisition system. Computers work in a hierarchical structure to properly coordinate different functional requirements in normal as well as emergency conditions. Every energy control center contains a control console which consists of a visual display unit (VDU), keyboard, and light pen. Computers may give alarms as advance warnings to the operators (dispatchers) when deviation from the normal state occurs. The dispatcher makes judgements and decisions and executes them with aid of a computer. Simulation tools and software packages written in high-level language are implemented for efficient operation and reliable control of the system. This is referred to as SCADA, an acronym for “Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.”

9 Course notes on Power Systems

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015

Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 The system control function traditionally used in electric
Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 The system control function traditionally used in electric

The system control function traditionally used in electric utility operation consists of three main integrated subsystems: the energy management system (EMS), the Supervisory control

10 Course notes on Power Systems

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015

and data acquisition (SCADA), and the communications interconnecting the EMS and the SCADA (which is often thought of as part of the SCADA itself).

1.4.1.

SCADA

There are two parts to the term SCADA. Supervisory control indicates that the operator, residing in the energy control center (ECC), has the ability to control remote equipment. Data acquisition indicates that information is gathered characterizing the state of the remote equipment and sent to the ECC for monitoring purposes.

The monitoring equipment is normally located in the substations and is consolidated in what is known as the remote terminal unit (RTU). Generally, the RTUs are equipped with microprocessors having memory and logic capability, together with some form of telemetry to provide the communication link to the ECC.

Relays located within the RTU, on command from the ECC, open or close selected control circuits to perform a supervisory action. Such actions may include, for example, opening or closing of a circuit breaker or switch, modifying a transformer tap setting, raising or lowering generator MW output or terminal voltage, switching in or out a shunt capacitor or inductor, and the starting or stopping of a synchronous condenser.

Information gathered by the RTU and communicated to the ECC includes both analog information and status indicators. Analog information includes, for example, frequency, voltages, currents, and real and reactive power flows. Status indicators include alarm signals (over-temperature, low relay battery voltage, illegal entry) and whether switches and circuit breakers are open or closed. Such information is provided to the ECC through a periodic scan of all RTUs. A 2 second scan cycle is typical.

1.4.2. Communication technologies

The form of communication required for SCADA is telemetry. Telemetry is the measurement of a quantity in such a way so as to allow interpretation of that measurement at a distance from the primary detector. The distinctive feature of telemetry is the nature of the translating means, which includes provision for converting the measure into a representative quantity of another kind that can be transmitted conveniently for measurement at a distance. The actual distance is irrelevant. Telemetry may be analog or digital. In analog telemetry, a voltage, current, or frequency proportional to the quantity being measured is developed and transmitted on a communication channel to the receiving location, where the received signal

11 Course notes on Power Systems

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015

is applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the quantity being measured, or it is applied directly to a control device such as a ECC computer.

Forms of analog telemetry include variable current, pulse-amplitude, pulse-length, and pulse-rate, with the latter two being the most common. In digital telemetry, the quantity being measured is converted to a code in which the sequence of pulses transmitted indicates the quantity. One of the advantages to digital telemetering is the fact that accuracy of data is not lost in transmitting the data from one location to another. Digital telemetry requires analog to digital (A/D) and possible digital to analog (D/A) converters, as illustrated in Fig. 4.

to analog (D/A) converters, as illustrated in Fig. 4. The earliest form of signal circuit used
to analog (D/A) converters, as illustrated in Fig. 4. The earliest form of signal circuit used

The earliest form of signal circuit used for SCADA telemetry consisted of twisted pair wires; although simple and economic for short distances, it suffers from reliability problems due to breakage, water ingress, and ground potential risk during faults.

Improvements over twisted pair wires came in the form of what is now the most common, traditional type of telemetry mediums based on leased-wire, power-line carrier, or microwave. These are voice grade forms of telemetry, meaning they represent communication channels suitable for the transmission of speech, either digital or analog, generally with a frequency range of about 300 to 3000 Hz.

standard telephone circuit; this is a convenient and

straightforward means of telemetry when it is available, although it can be unreliable, and it requires a continual outlay of leasing expenditures. In addition, it is not under user control and requires careful coordination between the user and the telephone company. Power-line carrier (PLC) offers an inexpensive and typically more reliable alternative to leased-wire. Here, the transmission circuit itself is used to modulate a communication signal at a frequency much greater than the 60/50 Hz power frequency. Most PLC occurs at frequencies in the range of 30-500 kHz. The security of PLC is very high since the communication equipment is located

Leased-wire means

use

of

a

12 Course notes on Power Systems

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015

inside the substations. One disadvantage of PLC is that the communication cannot be made through open disconnects, i.e., when the transmission line is outaged. Often, this is precisely the time when the communication signal is needed most. In addition, PLC is susceptible to line noise and requires careful signal-to-noise ratio analysis. Most PLC is strictly analog although digital PLC has become available from a few suppliers during the last few years.

Microwave radio refers to ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio systems operating above 1 GHz. The earliest microwave telemetry was strictly analog, but digital microwave communication is now quite common for EMS/SCADA applications. This form of communication has obvious advantages over PLC and leased wire since it requires no physical conducting medium and therefore no right-of-way. However, line of sight clearance is required in order to ensure reliable communication, and therefore it is not applicable in some cases.

A more recent development has concerned the use of fiber optic cable, a technology capable of extremely fast communication speeds. Although cost was originally prohibitive, it has now decreased to the point where it is viable. Fiber optics may be either run inside underground power cables or they may be fastened to overhead transmission line towers just below the lines. They may also be run within the shield wire suspended above the transmission lines.

Additional communication technologies include use of satellites, VHF and UHF radio, spread spectrum radio, and internet/intranet systems.

One easily sees that communication engineering is very important to power system control. Students specializing in power and energy systems should strongly consider taking communications courses to have this background. Students specializing in communication should consider taking power systems courses as an application area.

1.4.3. Energy Management System (EMS)

The EMS is a software system. Most utility companies purchase their EMS from one or more EMS vendors. These EMS vendors are companies specializing in design, development, installation, and maintenance of EMS within ECCs. There are a number of EMS vendors in the U.S., and they hire many power system engineers with good software development capabilities.

During the time period of the 1970s through about 2000, almost all EMS software applications were developed for installation on the control centers computers. An attractive alternative today is, however, the application service provider, where the software resides on the vendor’s computer and control center personnel access it from the Internet. Benefits

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from this arrangement include application flexibility and reliability in the software system and reduced installation cost.

The EMS consists of 4 major functions: network model building (including topology processing and state estimation), security assessment, automatic generation control, and dispatch. These functions are described in more detail in the following subsections.

1.4.3.1. Network Model Building

A network model is necessary in order to determine whether operating conditions are safe under the existing topology and also under the event that one or more components fail and are outaged. The network model must reflect the correct topology and the correct operating conditions relative to the actual network conditions. The information available to construct the network model includes the status indicators and the analog measurements available from the SCADA. The result of the network model builder is a power flow model. Network model building takes place in two steps, topology processing and state estimation.

Topology Processing: The topology of the network characterizes the connectivity between buses (nodes), the shunt elements at each bus, and which generators are connected to each bus. This information comes to the EMS from the SCADA in the form of status indicators for each circuit breaker and switch at all buses. This information is referred to as the bus section- breaker-switch data and provides a mapping of individual bus sections at each substation and how they are connected. Different bus sections connected by closed breakers or switches are electrically a single node. A key step in topology processing is to recognize these situations in order to minimize the number of nodes in the resulting network model.

Effectively, then, topology processing converts bus section-breaker-switch data into so-called bus-branch data. The bus-branch data is appropriate for modeling the transmission line and transformer connections between substations, rather than the precise bus-section connections at each substation, as illustrated in Fig. 5.

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Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 The impedances of all network elements are stored in an

The impedances of all network elements are stored in an EMS database, and this information, when combined with the output of the topology processor, is enough to establish the system topology.

State Estimation: Given the topology of the system, it still remains to determine the operating conditions, i.e., the bus voltages, load levels, and generation levels. At first glance, this appears to be an easy problem just take the corresponding information from the SCADA. However, one must recognize the reality of data unavailability and of data error.

Data unavailability comes from two sources. First, there may be some substations that have no SCADA. Second, there may be some substation RTUs or telemetry systems that are unavailable due to maintenance or unexpected trouble.

Data error comes from the fact that all analog measurement devices contain some measurement error. Typically this error is small for any single device, but the use of many thousands of devices, each having small error, can result in significant inaccuracy in regards to the overall system analysis. The state estimator is a program that receives the SCADA measurement information and then uses statistical procedures to obtain the very best estimate of the actual state of the system. The result of state estimation is a power flow model that can be used for security assessment.

1.4.3.2. Security Assessment

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Security assessment determines first, whether the system is currently residing in an acceptable state and second, whether the system would respond in an acceptable manner and reach an acceptable state following any one of a pre-defined contingency set. A contingency is the unexpected failure of a transmission line, transformer, or generator. Usually, contingencies result from occurrence of a fault, or short-circuit, to one of these components. When such a fault occurs, the protection systems sense the fault and remove the component, and therefore also the fault, from the system.

Of course, with one less component, the overall system is weaker, and undesirable effects may occur. For example, some remaining circuit may overload, or some bus may experience an undervoltage condition. These are called static security problems.

Dynamic security problems may also occur, including uncontrollable voltage decline, generator overspeed (loss of synchronism), or undamped oscillatory behavior.

Almost all EMS today are capable of performing static security assessment, because it only requires a power flow program to do so. Very few EMS are capable of performing dynamic security assessment, however, because the assessment tools are more complex and computationally intense. However, dynamic security assessment tools are rapidly becoming more prevalent in EMS with the continued growth in computational and algorithmic efficiency.

1.4.3.3. Automatic Generation Control

The purpose of AGC is to regulate the system frequency and power interchange between control areas. It ensures that frequency is brought back to the nominal value and inter-area power flow is regulated.

1.4.3.4. Economic Dispatch

The economic dispatch an optimization problem whose objective is to minimize the total cost of generation in order to supply the demand. Different generators may have different cost of generating power. A power plant or system operator may wish to re-adjust the generator power in various units for maximum economic benefit. This adjustment of generation is generally done manually and is called “economic dispatch”.

One can come across the acronym “SCED,” which stands for security-constrained economic dispatch. The SCED is also an optimization problem. It is similar to EDC in that it typically has the same objective of minimizing the total cost of generation in order to supply the demand. Yet it extends the EDC to account for the equality constraints governing the real and reactive

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power flowing out of each bus and therefore, its optimal solutions are more realistic. More important, it offers the capability to determine the effects of different electrical constraints on the system economic operation. The security constrained aspect of the SCED accounts for flow constraints imposed by security considerations identified through contingency analysis.

considerations identified through contingency analysis. 1.5. Computer Analysis For a power system to be practical it

1.5. Computer Analysis

For a power system to be practical it must be safe, reliable, and economical. Thus many analyses must be perfromed to design and opertate an electrical system. However, before going into system analysis we have to model all components of electrical pweer systems. Therefore, we neeed to properly model transmisssion lines, transformers and generators. Design of a power sysetm, its operation and expansion requires much analysis. This course presents method of power sysetm analysis with the aid of a personal computer and the use of Power World Simulator/MATLAB. Some of the basic analysis covered in this course are:

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Power Flow Analysis

Fault Analysis (symmetrical and unsymmetrical)

Stability Studies

Transient Studies

1.6. Brief Introduction to Power System Components

and unsymmetrical)  Stability Studies  Transient Studies 1.6. Brief Introduction to Power System Components

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Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 1. Power Generation These are the station responsible for

1. Power Generation

These are the station responsible for power generation and most of the time the are located near the resources. We can classify them into two:

i. Conventional energy sources

- Steam/Thermal Power Plants

- Nuclear Power Plants

- Hydro Power Plants

Power Plants - Nuclear Power Plants - Hydro Power Plants ii. Non-conventional Energy Sources - Wind

ii. Non-conventional Energy Sources

- Wind Energy

- Solar Energy

- Ocean/Tidal Energy

- Geothermal Energy

- Biomass Energy

Energy Sources - Wind Energy - Solar Energy - Ocean/Tidal Energy - Geothermal Energy - Biomass

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Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Note we can also classify the as Renewable and

Note we can also classify the as Renewable and non-renewable:

Non-renewable: Thermal power plants that use fossil fuel (coal, oil natural gas) and nuclear power plants

Renewable: hydro, nuclear, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass etc

2. Power Transmission System

Electric power transmission is the bulk transfer of electrical energy, from generating power plants to electrical substations located near demand centers.

The power plants typically produce 50 cycle/second (Hertz), alternating-current (AC) electricity with voltages between 11kV and 33 kV. At the power plant site, the 3-phase voltage is stepped up to a higher voltage for transmission on cables strung on cross-country towers. To have greater efficiency, High voltage (HV) and extra high voltage (EHV) transmission is the next stage from power plant to transport the generated power over long distances at voltages like; 230 kV, 400 kV and 500 kV etc. Power transformers are used to setup the voltage levels for power transmission on cross-country. Transmission system consists of transformers, transmission towers and transmission lines.

Where transmission is over 1000 km, high voltage direct current transmission is also favoured to minimize the losses.

Sub-transmission network at 132 kV, 110 kV, 66 kV or 33 kV constitutes the next link towards the end user.

Note: according to EN 60 071, voltage levels are classified as follows:

Below 1kV: Low Voltage (LV)to EN 60 071, voltage levels are classified as follows: Between 1 kV and 45 kV:

Between 1 kV and 45 kV: Medium Voltage (MV)are classified as follows: Below 1kV: Low Voltage (LV) Between 45 and 300 kV: High Voltage

Between 45 and 300 kV: High Voltage (HV)Low Voltage (LV) Between 1 kV and 45 kV: Medium Voltage (MV) Between 300 kV and

Between 300 kV and 750 kV: Extra High Voltage (EHV)1 kV and 45 kV: Medium Voltage (MV) Between 45 and 300 kV: High Voltage (HV)

Above 800 kV: Ultra High Voltage (UHV)45 kV: Medium Voltage (MV) Between 45 and 300 kV: High Voltage (HV) Between 300 kV

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Ethiopia: 230 kV, 132 kV, 400 kV, and 500 kV

September 2015 Ethiopia: 230 kV, 132 kV, 400 kV, and 500 kV Subtransmission Subtransmission is part
September 2015 Ethiopia: 230 kV, 132 kV, 400 kV, and 500 kV Subtransmission Subtransmission is part
September 2015 Ethiopia: 230 kV, 132 kV, 400 kV, and 500 kV Subtransmission Subtransmission is part

Subtransmission

Subtransmission is part of an electric power transmission system that runs at relatively lower voltages. It is uneconomical to connect all distribution substations to the high main transmission voltage, because the equipment is larger and more expensive. Typically, only

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larger substations connect with this high voltage. It is stepped down and sent to smaller

substations in towns and neighborhoods.

There is no fixed cutoff between subtransmission and transmission, or subtransmission and

distribution. The voltage ranges overlap somewhat. Voltages of 69 kV, 115 kV and 138 kV

are often used for subtransmission in North America.

N.B: Most of the time voltages from 66 to 132 kV are classified as subtransmission voltage levels.

3. Distribution network

An electric power distribution system is the final stage in the delivery of electric

power; it carries electricity from the transmission system to individual consumers.

The distribution system is responsible for the conveyance of the bulk power in the

transmission to the consumers with lower voltage networks.

To distribute the electric power among the consumers (usually using MV overhead

lines)

Distribution substations step-down the transmission voltage level to lower voltage

levels (suitable for the loads/consumers.

Distribution substations connect to the transmission system and lower the

transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between 2 kV and 35 kV (e.g. 12

kV, 13.8 kV, 15 kV, 6.6 kV, etc) with the use of transformers. Primary distribution

lines carry this medium voltage power to distribution transformers located near the

customer's premises.

Distribution transformers again lower the voltage to the utilization voltage of

household appliances, shopping centers, and other local loads and typically feed

several customers through secondary distribution lines at this voltage (380 or 400

V). Commercial and residential customers are connected to the secondary

distribution lines through service drops. Customers demanding a much larger

amount of power (like large industrial plants) may be connected directly to the

primary distribution level or the sub-transmission (secondary transmission) level.

For example Messobo Cement factory is supplied by the 132 kV sub-transmission

like.

Most of the distribution networks operate radially for less short circuit current and

better protective coordination.

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Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 General layout of electricity networks . The voltages

General layout of electricity networks. The voltages and loadings are typical of a European network.

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Distribution transformers or service transformers

Figure below shows the distribution transformer, also called service transformer, which reduces the feeder voltages (e.g. 15 kV) to levels usable by the consumer eg. 380 V.

called service transformer, which reduces the feeder voltages (e.g. 15 kV) to levels usable by the
called service transformer, which reduces the feeder voltages (e.g. 15 kV) to levels usable by the
called service transformer, which reduces the feeder voltages (e.g. 15 kV) to levels usable by the

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4. Power Consumption

Industrial customers (Mesbo Cement Factory)

Commercial customers (Hotel)

Residential customers (My home)

customers (Hotel)  Residential customers (My home) Electrical substation A substation is a part of an

Electrical substation

A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Between the generating station and consumer, electric power may flow through several substations at different voltage levels. Substations may be owned and operated by an electrical utility, or may be owned by a large industrial or commercial customer.

Elements of a substation

Substations generally have switching, protection and control equipment, and transformers. In a large substation, circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may use recloser circuit breakers or fuses for protection of distribution circuits. Substations themselves do not usually have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearby. Other devices such

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as capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation (Voltage regulators

to raise or lower the distribution voltage as required).

.

to raise or lower the distribution voltage as required). . Elements of a substation A:Primary power

Elements of a substation A:Primary power lines' side B:Secondary power lines' side 1.Primary power lines 2.Ground wire 3.Overhead lines 4.Transformer for measurement of electric voltage 5.Disconnect switch 6.Circuit breaker 7.Current transformer 8.Lightning arrester 9.Main transformer 10.Control building 11.Security fence 12.Secondary power lines

Substations may be on the surface in fenced enclosures, underground, or located in special-

purpose buildings. High-rise buildings may have several indoor substations. Indoor

substations are usually found in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, for

reasons of appearance, or to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions.

Where a substation has a metallic fence, it must be properly grounded to protect people from

high voltages that may occur during a fault in the network. Earth faults at a substation can

cause a ground potential rise. Currents flowing in the Earth's surface during a fault can cause

metal objects to have a significantly different voltage than the ground under a person's feet;

this touch potential presents a hazard of electrocution.

Types

Substations may be described by their voltage class, their applications within the power

system, the method used to insulate most connections, and by the style and materials of the

structures used. These categories are not disjointed; to solve a particular problem, a

transmission substation may include significant distribution functions, for example.

Transmission substation

A transmission substation connects two or more transmission lines. The simplest

case is where all transmission lines have the same voltage. In such cases, substation

contains high-voltage switches that allow lines to be connected or isolated for fault

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clearance or maintenance. A transmission station may have transformers to convert between two transmission voltages, voltage control/power factor correction devices such as capacitors, reactors or static VAR compensators and equipment such as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between two adjacent power systems.

Transmission substations can range from simple to complex. A small "switching station" may be little more than a bus plus some circuit breakers. The largest transmission substations can cover a large area (several acres/hectares) with multiple voltage levels, many circuit breakers and a large amount of protection and control equipment (voltage and current transformers, relays and SCADA systems).

Distribution substation

A distribution substation are used to reduce voltage levels of transmission and sub-

transmission systems to distribution level. This allows power to be delivered by distribution lines/feeders to distribution transformers that further reduce the voltage to a level useable by the customer. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity consumers to the main transmission network, unless they use large amounts of power,

so the distribution station reduces voltage to a level suitable for local distribution.

The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission or sub transmission lines. Input voltage may be, for example, 115 kV or 132 kV, or whatever

is common in the area. The output is a number of feeders. Distribution voltages are

typically medium voltage, between 2.4 kV and 33 kV depending on the size of the area served and the practices of the local utility. The feeders run along streets overhead (or underground, in some cases) and power the distribution transformers at or near the customer premises (industrial, commercial, and residential customers).

Figure IV-6 shows a relatively small electric distribution substation that reduces Unitil’s 34.5 kV sub-transmission voltage to 13.8 kV, which is then distributed to industrial, commercial, and residential customers).

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Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Consider The generator voltage is around 11 to 33 kV.

Consider

Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Consider The generator voltage is around 11 to 33 kV. This

The generator voltage is around 11 to 33 kV. This relatively low voltage is not appropriate for the transmission of energy over long distances. At the generating station a transformer is used to increase the voltage and reduce the current. In Fig. above the voltage is increased to 500 kV and an extra-high -voltage (EHV) line transmits the generator-produced energy to a

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distant substation. Such substations are located on the outskirts of large cities or in the center of several large loads. As an example, in Arizona, a 500-kV transmission line connects the Palo Verde Nuclear Station to the Kyrene and West wing substations, which supply a large part of the city of Phoenix.

The voltage is reduced at the 500 kV/220 kV EHV substation to the high-voltage level and hig h-voltage lines transmit the energy to high-voltage substations located within cities. At the high-voltage substation the voltage is reduced to 69 kV. Sub-transmission lines connect the high-voltage substation to many local distribution stations located within cities. Sub- transmission lines are frequently located along major streets.

The voltage is reduced to 12 kV at the distribution substation. Several distribution lines emanate from each distribution substation as overhead or underground lines. Distribution lines distribute the energy along streets and alleys. Each line supplies several step-down transformers distributed along the line. The distribution transformer reduces the voltage to 230/115 V, which supplies houses, shopping centers, and other local loads. The large industrial plants and factories are supplied directly by a sub-transmission line or a dedicated distribution line as shown in the Fig. above.

The overhead transmission lines are used in open areas such as interconnections between cities or along w ide roads within the city. In congested areas within cities, underground cables are used for electric energy transmission. The underground transmission system is environmentally preferable but has a significantly higher cost. In Fig .above the 12-kV line is connected to a 12-kV cable which supplies commercial or industrial customers. The figure also shows 12-kV cable networks supplying downtown areas in a large city. Most newly developed residential areas are supplied by 12-kV cables through pad-mounted step-down transformers as shown in the Figure.

One Line Diagram

In power engineering, a one-line diagram or single-line diagram (SLD) is a simplified notation for representing a three-phase power system. The one-line diagram has its largest application in power flow studies, short circuit analysis, and stability studies. Electrical elements such as circuit breakers, transformers, capacitors, bus bars, and conductors are shown by standardized schematic symbols. [1] Instead of representing each of three phases with a separate line or terminal, only one conductor is represented. It is a form of block diagram graphically depicting the paths for power flow between entities of the system. Elements on the diagram do not represent the physical size or location of the electrical

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equipment, but it is a common convention to organize the diagram with the same left-to-right, top-to-bottom sequence as the switchgear or other apparatus represented. A one-line diagram can also be used to show a high level view of conduit runs for a PLC control systems.

represented. A one-line diagram can also be used to show a high level view of conduit

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(M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Power Flow Analysis in Power World Simulator
(M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Power Flow Analysis in Power World Simulator

Power Flow Analysis in Power World Simulator

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Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 The case of Ethiopia Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation

The case of Ethiopia

Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCO) is the sole electric utility company responsible for generation, transmission (high voltage lines), distribution and selling of electricity throughout the country.

EEPCO operates two power supply systems, namely the main interconnected system (ICS) and the self-contained system (SCS). The main ICS, which serves the major towns and industrial centers, has a total installed capacity of 2022.2 MW. This generation capacity is contributed by hydropower plants having a total installed capacity/Firm energy generation capacity of 1842.6 MW. The diesel stations are required to mitigate the power shortage due to seasonal influence on the hydro reservoirs. The SCS supplies isolated load centers, which are far from the ICS, mostly using diesel plants as a source of generation. Currently this system has an aggregate installed capacity of about 37.38 MW, of which 31.23 MW is being generated from diesel stations. The remaining balance of 6.15 MW is being generated from small hydro power plants located at Sor, Yadot and Dembi [4].

At the generation power plants, power is generated at 10.5 kV, 15 kV, and 13.8 kV. The electric energy generated from the main hydro power plants is transported through high voltage transmission lines rated 45 kV, 66 kV, 132 kV, 230 kV and 400 kV.

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The power distribution in both ICS and SCS is effected at primary voltage of 33 kV and 15 kV lines and step down to 380 V and 220 V of customer's level.

The Energy Resource Potential of Ethiopia

level. The Energy Resource Potential of Ethiopia Electricity Generation System installed capacity

Electricity Generation

Energy Resource Potential of Ethiopia Electricity Generation System installed capacity ………4,130.7 MW 

System installed capacity………4,130.7 MW

Hydropower

Wind

Geothermal

Diesel stand by

3,909.4 MW ((94%) 171 MW (4%) 7.3 MW (0.177%) 43 MW (1%)

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Ashegoda wind farm:

Installed capacity 120 MW (costed 230 million Euros, performed by the French companies Vergnet and Alstom WIND)

30 wind mills (each with 1 MW)…finalized by by March 2012,

54 wind mills (each with 1.67 MW)….finalized finalized at the beginning of September 2013.

….finalized finalized at the beginning of September 2013. Hydropower Plants List of power supply from each

Hydropower Plants

S.No.

Stations

Capacity (MW)

1

Koka

42.00

2

Awash II

32.00

3

Awash III

32.00

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4

Finchaa

134.00

4

Finchaa Amerit Neshe

97.00

5

Melka Wakena

153.00

6

Tis Abay I

11.40

7

Tis Abay II

73.00

8

Gilegel Gibe I

210.00

11

Dire Dawa

40.00

12

Awash 7 killo

35.00

13

Tekeze

300.00

14

Gilgel Gibe II

420.00

15

Beles

460.00

 

1870 (completed by june 18, 2015)

16

Gilgel Gibe III

Power Plants under Construction

No

Hydro plants

Installed Capacity (MW)

Average Energy (GWh/yr)

1

Genale III

254

1,200

2

Grand Renaissance

6000

15,700

Wind Farms

1

Adama II

153

479

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Gilgel Gibe II

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Gilgel Gibe II

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Gilgel Gibe III (1870 MW)

in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Gilgel Gibe III (1870 MW) 10 x 187

10 x 187 MW Francis-type

in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Gilgel Gibe III (1870 MW) 10 x 187

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Sub-Regional Power Interconnection

Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Sub-Regional Power Interconnection

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Power System under Construction:

Dam Construction:

in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Power System under Construction: Dam Construction:

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Intake:

Systems Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Intake:

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Power House

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Power House

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Switch Yard/ Substation

by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Switch Yard/ Substation

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Transmission Line

Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 Transmission Line

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Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 • Every large-scale power system has three major
Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 • Every large-scale power system has three major

Every large-scale power system has three major components:

generation: source of power, ideally with a specified voltage and frequency

load or demand: consumes power; ideally with a constant resistive value

transmission system: transmits power; ideally as a perfect conductor

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Additional components include:

distribution system: local reticulation of power (may be in place of transmission system in case of microgrid),

control equipment: coordinate supply with load.

power (may be in place of transmission system in case of microgrid), – control equipment :
power (may be in place of transmission system in case of microgrid), – control equipment :

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Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 The corporation has two electric energy supply systems: the

The corporation has two electric energy supply systems: the Interconnected System (ICS) and the Self Contained System (SCS). The main energy source of ICS is Hydro power plants and for the SCS mini hydro's and diesel power generators allocated in various areas of the country.

Tekeze

The powerhouse contains four 75 MW (101,000 hp) turbines, [2] generating 300 MW (400,000 hp) of electricity. A 105 kilometres (65 mi) transmission line connects it to the national grid at Mek'ele.

At the time of its completion, the 188 metres (617 ft) Tekezé Dam was Africa's largest arch dam. [1]

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Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 An energy management system (EMS) is a system of

An energy management system (EMS) is a system of computer-aided tools used by operators of electric utility grids to monitor, control, and optimize the performance of the generation and/or transmission system. This monitor and control functions are known as SCADA; the optimization packages are often referred to as "advanced applications".

are often referred to as "advanced applications". Distribution System In this report, the distribution system

Distribution System

In this report, the distribution system will be defined as that portion of the electric system extending from the distribution substation to the end customer, including the customer’s meter. The portion of the electric system from the secondary (low voltage) side of the distribution transformer to the customer meter is normally referred to as a “service” or “service drop.” Distribution poles in New Hampshire are typically jointly owned by the local electric utility and the local telephone company to minimize the number of poles needed to provide both services. Distribution poles may also be used to support electric equipment, street lighting, cable TV lines, fiber optic lines, and municipal alarm and communication lines. A considerable amount of electric and communications material may be attached to a single

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Systems Prepared by G/Tsadik Teklay (M.Sc. in Electrical Power Engineering, Adigrat University), September 2015 pole.

pole.