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F o r t i t u d e of Japanese S o l d i e r s
U e m o i v A a l t o T h r o e Jliunnn iJorahs
H i s s Mioh5, ICavmi

* ->




Attitude* of Japan 'x'oward Her Army

Sudden Hlse of Japan


In spit* of the brilliuvfc record of our American Array in the World

War, at its oloao the records show that t>w> Arivy *f the United Statoa
carried four hundred and seventy thousand men in dee^rtioni


This dismaying total wae aoaunwlattfd in apite of service flags hanging in home windovra, in spite of our own Presidents "We rauct make the
nor Id safe for democracy", and even in apite of brilliant patriotic
speeches in the house of congress*
The task of selling our young American individualist who owna a
motor car and hac a girl the idea of becoming a draftee, of sleeping on
isefc ^ound under an 0D blanket, of getting up before dawn to face murderous machine-gun fire, la becoming increasingly difficult*
For our iaiay officers to get response to cold "canned" language o;f
military orders such ast

*The outpost will hvld until rolieTed by the

Division", requires the highest type of leadership.

A soldier, knowing

he is likely never again to see daylight if he does hold his outpoat

against enemy fire, wonders why he should hold anyway.
In the United States during peaoe timee, thero is too much harmful
sentiment tending to belittle loyalty to the goverrouent*

The great ABUu-i-

ocm public is inclined to neglect its military establishment in peace and

then suddenly demand miraolts from it in time of war*
In the next war, if our desertion list is kept as low as four hundred
seventy thousand, there will have to be more drum boating than thero was
in the past*

America is not apt at drum beating*

(1) Bantham, !!(>, Major, Cavtdry. Lecturo on Mobilization, C & OSS,

9 January 1935

Only in time of grave emergency is the drum-boat heard at all*

But In Japan the war drum-beate never stop and they will not be silenced until all Asia is aroused and perhaps most of th>* world*
From the earliest days comes tho Japanese proverb:

"The cherry blos-

som is first among flowers, as the warrior is first among men**

(2) Not

even Germany in her pre-war days of splendor, over loved her army as does
Japan love hers*
For oeituries China held her,- soldiers lowest in the sooiai aoalo*
She is \K>ak and overrun by War Lords both from and without*


puts the soldier first and she has never been invadod*
The entry of Japan, through power, into tha family of modern nations
id unprecedented.

In 1853 the thirty-two poundera of Commodore Perry1


awrke the Japanese from a two nundr^d and fifteen

year period of self-imposed isolation from all thing* western*

(k) This

sadden awakening taught Japan that her great Camurai swords were no match
for modern weapons*
But straightway Japanese military men saw the light and set about to
master the moro efficient western manner of slaughter*
It took her forty years to get .eody*
new bayonet was into the inners of China*

Her first thrust with the

And Jfcpan gained Korea and

broke the pcrcter of China without the lose of a ingle ship or battle*


Six years later, during the Boxer uprising, as the allied forces
marched on Pekin, seasoned west&rners .Y^re araazed at the reckless abandon
of the Japanese soldiers*

Tfhen electric wires wore cut, leading to pe-

tards of dynamite placed againnt Chinese gates, Japanese soldiers rushed

forward ar4 sot off the fuses by hard*
were blown to btt&*

Tho gates and the fuse lighters


(2) Kennedy, p 11 <* \

' ) Gowen, p 29u
I) Bryan, p 266

Ilearn, The Goniuc

iirrin9 p 7*4

of Jftpanose C i v i l i s a t i o n

- p i

Only four years after the Boxer trouble Japan defeated white Prussia*
Yfh&t matter to Japan If at the end of the victorious struggle with Russia,
she was exhausted in men and treasure; had sue not demonstrated for the
first time the superiority of the Brown over the White?


At the close of 1918 Japan had joined the Allies, helped to defeat
the Ceufcral Powers on tha Mediterranean, in Shantung and on thtf plains of
But the World War in no way has quieted Japan1 e military spirit* The
recent Shanghai episode, in itself inconsequential, illustrates th* twnper
of the Japanese soldier*

Three huraan bombs rushed barbed wire between

Japanese and Chinese positions, blew the wire to bits and themselves to


The oapturo of Mukden ir October 1931 and tho oreation of the Mnchurian state followed the Japanese thrust at Central China*
The final drastic act, in which as yet no blood bus been shed, vraa
the abrogation oi the treaty fixing naval ration*
her cards on the table*

At last Jipan has put

This demand for naval parity with the United

States and Great Britain is the direot result of a ne.T and the greatest
revJvaJ of Japanese military spirit.


This present revival is kncnrm ac the Kodo Movement (The Way of tho

It is lead by General Araki who is at present the near dictator

of Japan. Kodo is a "oauldron of patriotism1* which is liable to boil over

any moment and anyone who olaims to have a finger in affairs of the orient
is likely to be burned*

The Kodo has swspt over Japan like a tidal wave

the entire population has been thoroughly baptized in its teachings. (10)
By military prowess &lone Japan has joined tho family of groat nations



Official History Russo-Japanese Yfar, Vol. Ill, p 81$

Christy, Asia Ma^asine, July 193^
Peffor, Asia Magazine, July I95I1
O'Conroy, pp 280-28i|j Hunt, p 1*0
McLaren, p 236

In the hands of the military leaders lies the destiny of th&ir
pire, for they are responsible only to the Emperor*
saored and inviolable*
all Japan*


And the Emperor is

Japan's army sounds the dominant *one of

For a military establishment to wield suoh power and for it

to be entrusted with tuoh an important mission, it must of necessity pos

sesc high morale and skillful leadership*

The story of the development

of this army spirit is the story of the Empire*

(12) Gowon, p




Tho aborigines of Japan wore a dwarfish, stupid race known as



Before the period of recorded time a people, supposedly from Korea,

landed on the island of Kiushof which is tu* southernmost of the four main
islands, and either drove out or subjugated the native ainus tribes
These invaders were sullen tzn? easily angered.

They worshipped the

gods of olouda and storm*

At a later time a superior people landed on this island of Kiushu*
It is believed they com* from the south drifting with the warm Black Current which, tempers the olimata of the Archipelago*
on the origin of these invaders*

Students cannot agree

Some claim them to be Malay* others

Mongol and some believe they may have been Phoenician*


The new invaders claimed to be children of the &un and w r e imbued

with the idea that they earn from a celestial realm in tho tropics with
the divine right to establish now kingdom and rule0

They worshipped th

aun and their termers were bright and they were indescribably brave and
The tribe from the Land of the Sun demanded the right to rule over the
worshippers of clouds and storms*

The demand was refused*

With anftma&lftgenae of right the sun tribe conquered the tribe of

olouds and stoyroa and established a kingdom; Prince Kan~Iwtxre became their
But the island cf Kiuahu was not well located to rule, no Kan-Iware
set out to establish tho land of the Middle Kingdom,

This conquest took

him to tlie Island of Hondo, the largest of tho group*

Hero ho defeated

tho stupid Ainu who were already paying tribute to the invaders from Korea

f!3) Konokogi, p lj Vinaoke, p 73

{Ik) Aston, Introduction
(15; Ktmokogi, Entiro article

Thus the Empire fcf Japan was founded by Kan-Iweire, who became Jummu,
the first fcuperor* The time is fairly veil fixed at 660 B.C.


While ethnologista diafl&ree ao to the origin of Juramu's people, all

students agree that lifca all good raoes, the Japanese are a blend am! that
the dominant train is Mongolian.


Translations picturing the Japanese Einpire two thousand fi're hundred

years ago, are replete with the divine riffht theory

Spiritual progress

was gained by swords dripping in blood in th defense of national honor*

Inaccurate though theae translation* may b f they throw light on the ipirit
of the tinea# ~ on the theory of dirine origin of the rao# of imperial
deetiny of national faith -- of firm belief in an amazing sense of
Translations of some of their early characters are interesting!

moans the god of the ltud*

(All princes call

thornsoITo Kami)
Nihon -- pronounced Japan means sun origin*

Land-eternal-stand of August-things


divine valor.

And, most significantly, the charaoter for governing -Matsurigoto means worship


The shaping of the psychological trail* of the Japanese is suggested

in certain outstanding facts of their history*
two thousand five hundred years old*

The Empire is at least

The dominant strain of the race,

the Sun Tribe, came from a so-oalled celestial realm in the tropics, believing in their divine right to establish a kingdom*

More than twenty-

five centuries ago the toperor fought and won battle*? v/ith a conviction of
hie divine right*

(16) Aston, p 111, Vol* I| Illblno, p 56

(17) Hoarn, Japan-~An atteiapt at Interpretation, pp 22-23
(18) Aston, p 109, Vol* I*





Because Japan then had no written language, for a thousand years

after their first fcnperor, her history Is little more than a fairy story

During thin period strong family ties were formed, filial piety

and veneration for the dead became Japanese traits*

sooial unit.

The family was the

Clans grew up about village settlements.


Religious worship begf\n with little shrines In the homo, dedicated

to the heads of the family who had died.

There were also village and clan

shrines dedicated to departed local leaders and there were priestc to demand obedience to custom and proper respect for the daad.

There was little

individual freedom.
From the beginning, the Japanese worshipped their raoe rather than a
spiritual God.

Cheerfulness, cleanliness, loyalty, filial piety, were

sacred and supreme attainments.

When Chinese characters were introduced in the sixth century, the word
Ohinto (The Way of the Gods) seemed best to convey this doctrine of worship.


Prom among the villages and clans thore arose strong leaders, and no
other war lords or prinoes have ever enjoyed greater loyalty from their

Gradually, powerful clane came into being*

Since the clan

leader* controlled the land, feudalism was a natural consequence.


feudal lords surrounded themselves with a group of loyal and skl'Uful

swordsmen fasoinated by tho flash of flteei. They were strong men who
fought for the love of fighting and whose sono gladly followed in tho footsteps of their fathers*
Consequently there firo&e an arrogant, determined and loyal warrior
clasa known an the Samurai,

They oorrosporriod to bho Knights of King Ar-

thur and ao ar?,y as the eighth century represented tho boat olase of Japan.

(19) Hoarn, p 205 - Japan, An At tempi; at Interpretation

(20) Hearn# p 89 - Japan, An Attempt at Interpretation
(21) Hearn, p 24 - Japan, An /ttt.empt at Interpretation

Stronger men wore required for fight Ing than for trades or farming* All
other olaasoo of people therefore \vro considered inferior to the Samurai*

The Samurai were the gentry of Japor,

They had hi^h idoala* Loy-

alty unto death to their leader wus the keystofto of tholr code*


the rule of tho great Bho^xn ian the Samurai nunbored two million*


3amurai wera exempted from t&xation, given incomes by thalr feudal lord*
and were the only people in Japan privileged to wear two sworda*


developed a raarvelouo esprit and through V/ien the Shogune dominated Japeui,
practically unopposo'l*.


Tha 5Jajflurai bcoevrao keepers of the Shinto faith*


In the aocsiaX aoalep Samurai wr** first*

folk, farmoro, arti!;ens and rwrohaufca*

They were aoldierThen came tho ooivaon


Not until the Era of the Iteijl wre the real Btoperora actually in control of the entire nation*

Prior to this time the strongest family took

ovor the Emperor *nd ruled in hia name*

He tms a symbol of authority and

tho olana fought to ponaeso him much a3 tho Icrealitoo end Philistines
fought to possess the Arc of the Covenant*

But no matter whloh ola*. pos-

sessed the Emperor, the entire nation held him in highest veneration. They
knew no greater devotion than to thoir Eiuporor, a human descendant of gods*
It was fortunate for Japan, that she had her Samurai warriors*


Kublai Khan* grandson of tho great Genghis, attemptod invasion of Japan

(I27I1 and 1281) and twioe he was badly defeated*

The Samurai boarded

Khan 1 * ships and dealt terrible execution with tholr great swords* (25)
At such tJunos Shinto Spirit ran high*

.All Japan burned with patriot-

.. \ All clans united in a common cause and chelr Samurai wero regarded
as uv. ors of tho race*
By the early r>art of tho seventeenth century Japan wao aware of the
tremendous power of Spain*
had drifted in

Tho following extract from a Spaniard1a speech


22) Porter, Japan tho rlao of a modorn power, p rf)

23) Hiblno, p 13
Portor, Japan, tho now world pav&r, p i|6
Porter, Japan the r i s e of a modern power, pp 21 & 2I4

Qur kin^s (3p,ln) begin by Bonding into the countries which they

to conquer missionaries who induce the pooplo to embraco our religions, and when they have made acnsidarable progress, troops are sent
who combine with the new Christians, and than our kln^a have not much
trouble in aooompliflhing the rest*"


Seriously alarmed at the proapoots of being overrun by western barbarians. Samurai warriors exterminated the native converts? and either
killed or deported tH> miaaionarles.
For two hundred years following tho expulsion of foreigners, the
Sho^uns and their Sowurai warriors were "Uie supreme power of Japan*
clans singly, could not dispute their portor*


Insufficiant leadership ac-

counted for the absence of an anti-Shogun movemaiit from aaon(r the various
other clans,
Thase two hundred yuara wore peaceful years and th Samurai turned to
a great revival of learning to occupy their restless energies*
a revival of tho old Shintoiflm*
divinity of the race.

There cama

New life was put into tho theory of the

New loyalty was pledged to the toperor who was, w of

direct descent from the od3 n #

A history of Japanf highly colored, was completed in which it was
prophesied that throx^h cV> war po ter of the Camurai, togethor v/ith the
Emperor as the spiritual head, a great future vmn in store for tho Land of
the Rising 3un #


Under Samurai power, foreign influences mune and w*mt #


blended with theoe lnfluenooo, sometimes poorly, sometimes ovornhadowing

and ncuirall?iin; thom#

But Shintolsm lived.

The Samurai oodo wae the veliicle for tho national falth#

Like t)io

inner light of George Fox, Shinhoiam ;rew to be a burning aamothin^, doepor

tlian patriotism aa wervternar lrnov; it| more oompreliensive t t o a religious

f26) Porter, Japan, tho now world penror, p

(27) Vimicko, pp 8 0 - m

faith and difficult for westerners to comprehend beoauso it is striotly

Shintoism is a germ child of the Japanese people.
ib; it has no rtuui float ions and contains no mystery.

They understand
It is ac real as

Patriotism and Shintoism in Japan are inseparable and one cannot survive without the other.

In times of a national crisis Shintoisra^ in its

pur a form, assumes amazing vitality; for to the Japanese, patriotism means
more than ib oan to any other people.

At such times, from the western

viewpoint, ShinboiGm assumes a fanatical significance.


Another phase of tho Samurai code has had a deep effect on Japanese
military thought.

It is the practice of hara-kiri.

The Samurai developed a code of honor and a loyalty to thoir masters

which required absolute devotion, even unto the performance of solf-destruotion by the sword.

It m s this military class which established hara-kiri

as' a means of p,venerving honor, or of expressing supreme and final moral


Tliis honorable custom of tho Samurai still lives in Japan.

The suocosaful execution of hara-kiri requires great physical and

mental courage.
A short, sharp dagger inserted in the loft, abdomen is pulled with tho
right hand all tho way aoroou tho bowels and a little puff of Shinto Spirit,
loTig cooped up, is released to flow "back from whence it oam.
Intense pain often prevents doing tho complote crosswise stroke. Vfhen
a victim realizes ft6 is doing a bad job, it is ethical to withdraw the knife
and cut tho throat where tho going is easier.
It is said tho re are. times whon certain situations makei hara-kiri as
natural and necessary to the Japanese as supreme unction is to a devout


To givo S^KIG iuo'i ol tho prevalence of hara-k.Vri, and to show tho class
of people who practice ib, a few examples uro citedt

(20) Kanokogi,, "ShlntolcTn and its sii^iif

(29) Isshiki, personal convor^abion v;.s bii Tor a;] I IrsnhiVi, f lmu\!.nr, >lf>\-unav,Q
-10ihdup br lal is I, Tokyos 'J/#O.

A Japanese Christian priost, captured ae a soldier in the RussoJapanese War, and lator released, is looked down upon by his Christian
friends for failure to take advantage of the btiautiful opportunity to
commit hara-kiri*


General Yoshibashi, true cavalryman of the old school, had his heart
set on the idea that the primary role of the cavalry is shook action not
mobility and fire power these being secondary*

lie also -was obsessed

with the idoa that, since Japan's future battles would be in a country
whore cavalry was particularly well suited, the cavalry arm should be
greatly increased.

Naturally, General Yoshibaahi and the great General

Staff dashed and also naturally, the General Staff won*

After having his last hearing in behalf of his beloved cavalry, Yoshlbashi conmitted hara-kiri.
All off Soars, whether or not they agree with Yoshibashifs stand on
cavalry, are as one in holding hara-kiri was natural and a proper act #


When the HueQians captured the Japanese transport, "Kinshu Maru w , they
allowed the offioors and men an hour to decide to surrender


the entire Japanese personnel opened fire on the Hussion battleship with

And before tho Russians could send the transport to tho bottom

with a torpedo, a great number of offioors and mon committed hara-kiri, (3)
At Yu-huan-tun, 7 March I 'K)5
"Major Okoshi, of the 6th !<ciinont, had been sont back with a party
escorting the reglmontal colour, a.-d had boon charged with a rruoasa^e to
General Nambo explaining tho situation of the regiment*

Within a few mln-

utos all the party except ono soldier were killed or wounded*

The unwounded

man carried tho colour to safety, and Major Okoshi thereupon shot himself
after writing tho following lettert

(3:) Kennedy, p 191

(31) Konnody, p 208
(32) Konnody, p 191

The reason I loft the regiment, leaving the regimental and
battalion oommanders behind and not sharing in their fate, is simply beoause I was ordered to do so by the regimental commanderf in order to report the situation of the regiment to Your Kxoollenoy*
I knew before I left the village of the danger en route; but I
had hoped to return to the regiment onoe more after I had reportod myself
to Your I-ixoellency, and to die for my country with my brother officers and
dear soldiers*

I regrot to cay, however, that I am severely wounded

will therefore commit suicide and follow the same journey to heaven as the
other officers and soldiers havo done*

It is to my deepest regret that

ray right hand is useless for committing hara-kiri as a warrior should*

will, therefore, die by my revolver*
die like a Samurai*

Have sympathy on my being unable to

I thank Your Exoellonoy for your kindness to me in

the past, and sincerely wish Your I^xoollenoy good luck in your military life*
I am too faint to -write any more*
6iJ0 FM on the 7^ n March under the enemy1 s artillery fire from
the west, and at a nameless village south of Li-wan-pu*
Major Okoshi*n

To His Excellency
Major General Naihbo


On the eve of the break with Russia, Admiral Togo called a conference
of his commanders aboard his flagship wLIikaoaH#

Hero Togo made only one

brief announoomenti
*We sail tonight*

Our enemy flies the Russian flag*n

An impressive silenca of minutes followed as all stood at attention*

Then ao each officer, individually, filed out he faced Admiral Togo and each
looked tho othor squarely in the eyo*
amall table*


Between thoce two officer** was a

And on tho table was a white woodon tray, innocent of

ornamentation, used only for oacrod riboa*

In tho tray wao a shining,

"33> Official History Ruoso-Japanese War, Vol* III, p J

3k) Hunt, p I?

sharp-pointed sambo, a three euid one-half inoh bladed dagger

Aa the Admiraltaofrfaced eaoh officer, the two dropped thoir glan.oe
to the "white tray bearing the sacred old-timo symbol of Samurai honor*
Solemnly the coramaixlers filed out, one by one*

Victory or death

was to be theirs
An officer present remarked*

"The silent toaat of the Admiral makes

me feel as if someone has suddenly piokled my soul in red peppar*"


General Nogi was the real hero of the Russo-Japanese Y/arj he had a
thousands of young man to their death, had lost his own two sons, yet he
himself M d been permitted to live when he would have weloomd the honor
of dying for his Baperor*

He felt he o w d a debt to the parents of tho

sons he had sent to death, he owed a debt to himself and he owed a debt to
hi3 Ifraperor*

To his mind only hara-kiri could balance this debt*


September 1J, 1912, the day of tho Emperorfs funeral, which took place
forty-five days after death. General and Mrs* Nogi returned to their home
from the ceremony*

As the Emperorfs body passed their house, each went

calmly to separate bed rooms and in Samurai manner, committed hara-kiri*

And in tho eyos of Japan, the Nogi family had joined the spirit of the
Etoiporor their servioe to him was to be continuous*
Today among tho Japanese people General Hogi is a saint.

His grave

if? a Shrino whore hundreds of thousands, including highest govornment officials, go to worship*

Nogi societies, similar to "Browning Sociotios*

but with a religious motive, have been formed*


Everyone know; all about

"Truly General Norvl -was moro \tan mortal man* w


In 19J/0 thero waa a play at tho Kabukiza theatre in Tokyo which playod
to a full houe for a month*

It depicted tbo "Pall of Porb Arthur"*


orowd cheered lustily and become i'renziod as they lived again the battle
ju3t as they and othors must have livod it twenty-five year*, ago*

35) I^wis? Kinnoouke, p 127U

6) Kuroivm, p xxx; Kennedy, p 28 & 29

In the

play No^i had lost hin two sons, recalling their defcth he remarked that he
oould not have returnod to Tokyo with hi& sons alive*

'Vhen the Russian

General Stfsseru extended his sympathy to Nogi, the reply Ov^roet

As a

father I am pleaaed with the death of my two sons for the Emperor*" {)*])
In 1926, upon the death of Etaperor Yoshihito, his olose friend Baron
Ikeda committed hara-kiri in order to tcoompany hie master * (38)
In the town of Kiryu, during November 193^4 Police Sergeant Juei Hondaj,
with a poAioe pilot oar was leading His Majesty, the I&iperor, baok from

The Sergeant beoaro confused and took The Son of Heaven down

the wrong street*

The schedule for the Divine Ehperor was disrupted by

twenty minute a I
Honda's humiliation waa complete, and although closely guarded to prevent hara-kiri, the Sergeant outwitted his guard and cut a four-inch slice
in his throat* (39)
In the recent Shanghai debacle, Major Koga waa wounded, captured by
the Chinese and then promptly released*
erated, even by his fellow officers*

The major was completely exonBut Koga waa obsessed with the idea

that only death could wipe out the stain of his having been made a prisoner*
Returning to his place of capture he releawed the Shinto Spirit; his stain
was forever wipod out*
Commenting on this act, former Minister of War General Ai aki said*
"There cannot be a single Japanese prisoner, according to the disciplinary
principle of the Imperial Army**


More than two hundred yearn ago the Lord of Ako was murdered by another
nobloman named Kiro*

For two years, forty-aeven loyal Samurai (Ronin),

supporters of tho Lord of Ako, schomod to kill Kiro*

Finally on February 3

1703 their efforts wore rewarded and Kiro was assassinated*

forty-seven assassins the a in turn oomaitted hara-kiri*

(37) Tho writer was an eye witneos


Gowon, p I4IO
Tim magazine, 26 ITovombor 193U* P %
Christy* Asia magazine, July 193U, p
RodoBdale, pp l-2!j

Each of the

On the anniversary of the death of the forty-seven Ronin, regiments

stationed in the vicinity of Tokyo are marched to the graves of these Ronin
and the story of the Loyalty and Devotion of the Ronin to their mactor is
related and given as an ideal for which soldiers must strive.

This prac-

tice is a scheduled part of the Japanese soldiers' moral training.

Children in Japan know the story of the Forty-Seven Ronin as well as
our children know "T'was the Night Before Christmas".
Now hara-kiri, in itself, is of no more consequence in the history of
Japan than was dueling in the story of America.

It is the attitude of the

Japanese people toward those who oomniit the act which renders hara-kiri of
supreme importance to the military student.

It is customary to canonise

those who oonmit hara-kiri.

When General Araki saidt

"There cannot be a singlo Japanese prisoner,

according to the disciplinary principle of the Imperial Army", ho had in

mind suocess in battle or hara-kiri.


The Japanese military establishment has spared no effort to make the

most of the canonization of national heroes.

Worship of them is the basis

for the moral training of the Japanese youth.

The Yasukuni-Jinja, a Shinto Shrine or memorial for those who died in
alleged patriotic action is the Arlington of Japan.
our Arlington.

But it is more than

It is the most sacred spot in all Japan; it is consecrated

From the windows of the General Staff building can b cc or the two most
sacred spots in the Japancoo Empire the Yasukuni Jinja Memorial and the
Emperorfr. palace.

Japanese staff officero think and live for nothing other

than what this shrine and the l^nperor mean to them*

aot of foroo has divine sanction*

'1;2) Araki - Quoted in Asia littgafcine, July 19?U# P

i ) O'Conroy, p 153

Through Shinto, any

In Tennyson* o "Charge of the Light Brigade", ho sent ti.e Anglo

Saxons into battle ttto do or die* -- but Japanese go into battle, not
with the idea of Glory O Death, but with implicit belief in Death and
Suoh an attitude toward death has decided advantages; it leads soldiers
to olose with the enerayj it imbues them with the spirit of the offensive^
But there are also disadvantages to suoh a fatalistic temperament*
In modern war, Japan lias never met with serious advoroity


in case of great military reverses, Commanderfo Command Posts might be

strewn with entrails-Nipponese*





Break-up of Feudalism
Arrival of Military Socialism
Psychology of Military Teachings
Military Nationalism Today
Neoessity for this Spirit*
Pan-Asiatio Dreams


Y/hen the United States sent Commodore Perry to Japan in 1853, we

took no half-hearted measures auoh as sacrificing missionaries to the fate
of tha Spanish proselyters of l62lj and I63EU
In the words of the Herald-Tribune of the time:

"The Japanese ex-

pedition, according to a Washington correspondent, is to be merely a hydrographioal survey of the Japanese coast*

The ^S-pounders are to be used

merely as measuring instruments in the trian^ulationsj the oannon-balls

are for procuring base lines *

If any Japansso is foolish enough to put

his head in the way of thoso meteorological instruments, of course nobody

will be to bleun* but himself if he should got hurt,"
And the London Punch said:
if he lias to open his own**

"Perry must open the Japanese ports even


For the first time in their history the fclmurai warriors and their
groat swords were impotent*

The Japanese had their choice of opening

their ports or having them blown to bits by Perry1 a 32~ipoun&era%

There was constornation amonj; the Japanese*

Without a solution to

their own internal problems, all factions hurriedly agreed roaistance was

The Amorloans concluded a treaty socuring open ports*

Commodore Porry was magnanimoufl in M s promiooss

If the Japanese

came to the United States, they would find the navigable w&tor3 of the
country free to them, and tliat they would not be debarred even from the
$old fields of California,n


Perry*3 treaty preoontod a new problem for Japan*

So long as sh

practiced ri^id Isolation, national unity wa& rather inconsequential*


now that sho w&e to deal with foreign powera she must prosont a united

Each rival faction waa dotor^Vasci io\< to ftivo in to bho other*

(140 Cknton, p 29I1

Ik) Oowonf p 29B



the end there was only one solution, self-ovldent from the first*


restoration of the Emperor

The stage was sot for this restoration.

The one tiling all rival

olans had in ooramon was loyalty to the Emperor*

Only the Emperor could

represent Japan and ratify treatios with Yfestornors*

Tho revival of

learning of the Samurai period had engendered a new wave of patriotism*

Clan spirit fused into national pride*

For the Restoration the Samurai,

loyal to the last, gave up their entire incomes from their old olansf
without a murmur


During the reorganization incident to tho Restoration, the one thing

essential to Japan was poace#

She had no national army*

wf\3 forced to make certain concessions to Korea,

In 1877 Jo-pan

Enraged by this spine-

less action, the Satsuma clan broke out in open revolt against the newly
organized government*

It was tho final plea for a return to the old order*

The robellion was bitterly fought and the central government was forced to
resort to the use of something novel in Japanese history a brand new
national array of conscripts, oomposod not of Samurai gentry but largely of
stock from the lowly walks of lifo#
The Satsumi clan pitted iiO#000 ex-Samurai against the Mikado's new

The fighting was bitter and bloody, each aide suffering thirty*

three percent casualties*


The victory of tho National Army wan a turning point in Japanese history*

Like our whinkey rebellion, ib settled forever the question of

National authority*

Heretofore opinion hold tlmt only trained warrior?* of

the Samurai stripo woro fit to be soldiersr

strated that tho lowly too could fight*
tremendous prostigo*
the social scale*

Now it was conclusively demon-

And tho lowly classes had gained

They had been lifted to unpreoedented heights in

It amounted to a social revolution*

unitod by an invisible bond of military-sooialisra*

(i|6) Vinaoko, p 90
(hi) Portor, Rioe of a Modern Power, p 110
(I48) Portor, Japan the Now World Power, p 60


All Japan was

Instead of a small army of trained soldiers like the old Samurai,

Japan could now build a new national foroe in whioh very man in Japan
oould be made a soldier.

Now the entire man power of Japan could be

"delivered en m a s s e d
Therer are sound reasons w h y Japan must keep alive her spirit of nationalism through power*

If the frnpire is to endure 9 it must do so through

strength rather than weakness*

Military leaders have deliberately planned

and put intu operation a system of moral training for the youth of the Empire w h i c h bids fair to accomplish more than was intended in the beginning*
Japan's governmental organization amply secures the military establishment

Control of the army is entirely Independent of tho Parliament

and Cabinet*

The Minister of Yfar is responsible only to the Emperor*


With their position secured by tho Emperor himself, \5he military leaders have injected into the school courses of tho land an amazing doctrine
of soldier ppyohology*


Tuo thousand rjaerve officers of tho Army are on duty in the grade
schools for the express purpose of handling this spiritual training
as the Japanese call it


moral training*

Thus It is evident thut the Japanese youth, at the most impressionable

period of their lives are imbued with religious patriotism*

Soldior psy-

chology of the military leaders has had a freo hand in shaping the thought
of young Japan*


In 190i| a thesis called "The Vfay of the Japanoao Subject" (Nippon

Slando Ron) & was prepared for use in tho schools for tho purposo of presorving nationalism*

Tho toxt is now so universally used that it may be

regarded as the nation 1 0 bible*

Taken largely from Nippon Shindo Ron is tho Imporial Rescript which

has bo come tho holiest writ* * * * It has became an indispensable part of

the equipment o very soldior and sailor*"

J49 Hunt, p
Konnody, p 169
51 Hunt, Conversations with
Hlbino (introduction), p 9;


Christy, Asia magaalno, July I93h$ P l&h

Quotations taken at random illustrate tho amassing tone of thsse

"Loyalty is tho very lire and epinal n e n of tho Japanese subject."

"If it is then asked what loyalty io and what it implies we reply
briefly that it means the unchanging reverential service of the Imperial


"To this proposition I firmly bfllievo there is not one dissenting

voio* among the myriad subjects of the Empire*"


"To serve the Efcnperor with single-hearted loyalty , is the superlative treasure of the Japanese subject, by reason of which he rises superior
to all foreign peoples*"


"There is nothing upon which loaders have looked with such anxiety of
late as the torrential violence with which products of European and American civilization havo invaded the ea&t # *



If foreign nations in their pride of power should venture to despise

uo f to cause us embarrassment, or to oppress us for their own end?, our Emporor will not overlook their insults, and our people at hi* oennnand will
brave a thousand defctha to defend tho national honor*

To ofl'or our liv^u

to the Emperor in order that our foes m y bo defeated and subdued in our
highest privilege."


"Here rulor has always boon rulor and subject subject*

has evor aspired to bo ruler#"

No subject


Roferonoo past waroj

"Every tfubjeot subscribed to a. blood paofc to die at his (Emperor)


niblnc f




"Undor the wide spreading heavens and in every corner of our land,
from thn woodcutter who sleoos ariong tho mountains to tho fisherman who
is tho companion of the restless waves, the people of Japan without exception regard th^ Imporial Line with reverent*al awe, and are ever ready to
devoto their lives to the supreme claims of patriotism^"


To whioh quotation General Hogi wrote in the margin of his texti


Ah Loyalty, Loyalty I How true it is that all the virtueo of the

Japanese subject arise from this sourcel"


"International treaties cannot be depended upon, nor can reliance be

placed on promise of peace#*


"Should worm-like foreign reptiles dare to insult the dignity of the

Emperor or to pollute his virtuous name, the spirit of heaven and earth
cannot refrain from meting out punishment, nor can his subjects witlihold
their indignant iro
nRt4.ontl insult.*

Thoy will never rest until they have avenged the


You will nob find tho oqual of this nation in Europe or America nor

yot in Asia."


"Our Imperial Ancestors condescended to take upon themselves the Ln~

porlal offioe, nob for their own glory but rather for tho purpose of nurturing and governing a race of gods and men**


IIor can wo ovor fail to laud the Imperial Destiny of our Empire,

ooeva] with hoavon and oarth*11


"Patriotism in dosoribed in a word when wo say that it dovotos its

whole strength gladly and without roaorve to further the intorets of the
country and when we say that it .is instant readiness to sacrifice life and
fortune in the service of thot country, without one baokwnrd glance or
loast regret/1


Hibino f


p 36
p 172
p [|2
p UJ.
p lj2
p 57
p 2Ji2
p 15O

Thoro is therefore nothing astonishing in the fact that the Japanese

id'.*?.l should be superior to that oC other nations/1


^tfhen the true flag *a unfurled cind the loyal troops advancet what
soldier is there that Iaok3 in gallantry or in courage?

Careless of the

corpses of tho fallen piled in heaps, heedless of rivers of blood flowing

on every hand, we concentrate only upon tho fulfillment of tho Bnperor's
oomia&nds and tho duty of sacrificing ourselves in the realization of hie

Is this not the reason why our soldiers are superior to all

othors upon the Asiatic continent?"


Recently, this "lYay of the Japanese Subject*1 has boen proparod espeoially for soldiers, sailors and civilians in military training

It is

a handbook whioh students and soldiers are required to know as our soldiers
know their general orders*

Extracts from tho Imperial Rescript follow*

"Loyalty in the chief duty. The Jinporor said*

'You should devote

yourself to your allegiance as your principal duty, esteeming fidelity

weightier than mountains and death lighter than a feather1**
"Anyone who , . # is rude to hie bettors or arrogant to hie aubordiiuvtes
must bo deemed ^ poison to his service ami an offender a^alnat hifi country*"
"Valor is a cardinal virtue.
General Araki said*

It in one of tho ^racoo of relicicn*

'Not a single shot Is fired en tho field of battle

without the soldier thinking of the hifch moral cause he sorvua1*"

"Soldier should bo frugal. Othervri00 they are liable to bocor.o effeminate, selfish, luxurious and, lastly, greedy and moan-rnLiderU"


Vfith ouch ama^in^; and vivid dootrino tau^lit to t)ie youth of tho land,
it io little v/onder that youn Japan i now swopt witli the now Kodo doctrine.
The curve of the intensity of this "Cauldron of Patriotism" lis yot in it3 the mad march of Japan into Manchuria in the fall of

Arakl bocamo the virtual dictator of Japan*

((/)) Hibino, p 139

(70) Hibino, p I63
(71) Cliricty, Asia nv.>azlno, July 3
(72) Clcoe, Clmllonco Behind tho Face of Japan, p

Ho in of the/Samurai

school but at the some time ho is fully alive to present-day conditions*

To General Arakifs mind, foreign thought was creeping Into Japan and
to him "the remedy for this is tho propagation of the Soldier Spirit among
the whole nation"*
In his recent books

"Toll the Japanese People", General Araki de-

"Tho urgent need of the Japanese nation in to realise justly and

ef feotivoly tho power of tho spirit of the Japanese* by w.iih alono poaoe in
the Far East may be secured and the degradation of humanity may be cheeked*
By tho power of arms Araki would have JB,pan expand.


In replj to tho direct question asked by an American, "What is the

ideal of fcho New Japan?" - General Araki replied:

"Tho ideal of the Now

Japan is the attainment of tho Way of Heaven which wo understand as consisting of ti.o throe virtues, tho love of humanity, all embraoSaag equity
and all sonquerin^ bravery for which 'Three Sacred Treasures1 stand as
symbols #

The only ri^ht way to understand Japan is to study this Way of

lloavon*" The Japanese Army stands "as the guardian of the '.Yay of
Iloavon against the mischief-inakoro from the outside*

Therefore it is tf.

moral forco, at the same time a sacred instrument wherowith justice and
truth are promoted and Inequity and depravity suppressed*11


This new nationalism of the military has spread to thn navy.

JiipanoB are determined to build u naval force second to none.
m v y will bo able to duplicate the deoda of the army on land*


Them the

The old Shinto spirit, flushed with recent victories in Korth China,
has started Japan on a policy of expansion, tho end of which i3 not yob
Japan is far fro?n carefree in hor rolo which General Araki calls,
"The V/ay of Heaven"*
On the northwest lies youn, and dreaming Soviet Run0la whoBO bombers
in Vladivostok have already made a profound impression on him /far Ministry

(73) Hunt, p
(7n) Araki, Asia magazine, July 19:'U p ^$~3


p Ul

(76) RooGovolt, Asia iwigazino, February 19iO* P 77

in Tokyo*

To the east is China, humiliated by the loss of territory,

seething with a quarter of the world's population within her bordsrs. To

tho south and southwest the United States, England, Holland and France
have taken trade from the Japanese and denied hor torrltory*

Japan is

excluded from expansion in both Americas, in Europe, in Australia,


Japan mxst expand, Hor population increases at tho rate of 800,000

per year,

\Yhilo Japan slumbered in contontod isolation tho white mtxn was

buay pluokinc oholoo territories by force.

Today, fully aroused, Japan

finds it is too late to aoqulro ohoioo lands*

The whito man tells herf

since he has what ho wonts, that now it in wrong to taice land by force*

Ouht a nation which obviously has a high decree* of culture and who^e

people are Industrious and po^ee-leving, be denied tho peaceful Migration

of her surplus population to regions where there are vast tracts of undevolopod land?

Is it moral for a nation with a vast and undeveloped ter-

ritory to refuse tho entrance of another people, simply in order that it

may preserve its standard of living, re^ardle-;?, of the fact time suoh action
will have a serious effect on others?w


Other nations, in particular the United Statesf havo been far from
diplomatio in impressing their ideas of exclusion and racial discrimination
upon Japan*

Tho Japanese feol tho American exfcltui.ion act is an insult to

their national honor*

They are unable to understand tho American viewpoint*

The Japanese have Pan Asiatic dreama*

one which stands forever at the gate to Asia*

They consider their empire as


A. cavalryman rni^ht

describe their position 03 that of a oounterreconiiaiseance screen off the

east ooast of Asia, extending from Kamchatka on tho north to Formosa on tho

It is a Japanese national ideal to allow only auoh penetration of

this scroon at3 they are willing to tolorrxto*

Behind tho screen lies China, tho real bane for tho countorreconnaissance ooreen,

Japan fools she can no more afford to lone this base In

(77) Bryan, p 27U

(78) Naam, p 126
(79) Hibino, p 11

I I ICICI l O l t l






China than a navy oan hopo to operate without Its "base.

The Pan-Aslatio dream .VioluJ.eib a buffer state between Russia and
Japanese lines of communication to China*

This part of the dream is al-

ready real,
Tho Philippine Archipelago is the southern third of the oounterreoonnaissanoo screen off China,*

THien and if tho United Spates finally divorces

herself from the Philippine* will be the time to see whether or not Japan
wants these islands*

The Islands of tho Philippines have sufficient area

and fertility to support a population of 80,000,000, but today supports

onlyll ,000,000*

Japan's most suocecsful foreign colony in at Davao

there are already 15*000 Japanese planters there*

nicely into Japan's Pan-Asiatic plan.

The Philippines fit


The Pan-Asiatic dream pro-supposes freedom of action in Asia*

insure this Japan must liavo a navy*


Burning national spirit al^ne will

dictate tho sire of the navy needed*

In rogard to the size of tho navy that Japan needs there aro two
schools or thought*

The Anglo-American school teaches that available

basoo and sea aroas to bo patrolled, should determine tlio relative strength
of navies,


The Japanese school teaches, as Masandri Ito ably ex-

prosced it, that sea powor io not measured by the oca area wldch must be
pabrollod and the proximity of basee to that area, but that soa power gained
only after the enemy fleet haa been annihilated*

It Is to prevent possible

annihilation that Japan has deoidod to build a fleot second to none* After
gaining naval parity Japan will talk limitation*


Admiral Yainamoto frankly admits Japan demands navnl equality to discourage pemanently all ronietanco to Japan's piano for China.,



Japanese navy is a protective capo, hur*g on ITipponoGo ehoultlerc to protect

their back while tho ml lit a* y thrusts ita npear deeper into China*


Prytm, 277-280
Jioooovell*., Asia nu\(-azino# February l\oU9 P 77
Ito, Asia raa;;azlnof Decombor 193^1, F TfO
Yamanoto, Vanity Fair, Inarch 1955 P 37


Japan charges the Ytest, and it appears justly, vdth racial disoManination.

(&k) Our Christian missionaries in the Orient, teaching the

Golden Rule, add tho final touch to our hypocrisy.

When Japan compares herself to tiio 7/est she is not too displeased.
Her Empire is firm and old*
porary character.

3he looks upon Western Demooraoy as of tem-

Slavery lias never been practiced in Japan. Her people

are clean, economical, industrious, little given to dissipation.

plastic a miracle at assimilation.
intellectually young.

They are

(85) Japan is emotionally old,

She is proud and has never been invadedc

The World

Vfar -- a heaven-sent opportunity for Japan placed her as one among the
great powers.

Japan lias religious faith in her destiny.

As tho gap between the East and V/est widens, military psychology
probes this sore and will not allow it to heal*

Bryan, p 21
Iloarn, Kokoro - Chapteri The Geniun of Juptutone C i v i l i s a t i o n .