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Elementary Theory of Analytic Functions of One or Several Complex Variables Henri Cartan DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. New York graphics Nate Tee Ber pad nian ue a ‘rahe rpsiatn ef he sy sec ining of he we at Yuet by the Addon Wesley Riang Conny Resdng, Maw Ee inti ES ere Mama Seman of okra ped y Harmen er thee Tne dmete er Reto fans De Os Phanere ‘re Comps Lirary of Congres Cataloging in Plain Data "Trier: cemented onions anaytiqus une ou plsiears wien Beco tenner watever re att tne eu seed ecb neat Soames ISBN to: oa86 Biggs 8 OL) cpt he hte spec we Manu the Une Sao by Cause Corporation 84g, ‘TABLE OF CONTENTS caren, Powam seni ob VARA 1 Formal powerserit 2. Gonvergea power sees, : { Logarile and exponential fantions 4 Anniv functions of one variable Brett ooo soos cove ctarrmus, Hotowonra rimorion; cava TRON 1 Garviinear integrals; primitive of closed form». 1. Holomorpicfunetion; fundamental theoreat...0ss0ss0112 Breer sessessee carina, TAvioR nn tataeT EXPAN (Cauchy's inequalities; Liuile'theorem «1.04. Neen pepe masinn mie Schnee lemintivcssevssvsssinnienienieneets Lawrent expansion Trodcton ofthe point aint, Reside tore | Bralaaionointgrlaby the metod frei, ‘oxarmay, Axaurme oNcront or evamat vantans; Hawcroo Powerseieninwveral vasabes 2 Analy functions $3 Harmonic fametins of vo ral variables {Poles mula; Dither probe {5 Bolomorp unctions several complex vaca Reenter s. a i 138 1 Topology ofthe space €(D) 2, Sere oftmeromompt nears 15 Inne oducts of Aolomonpbie anedone 4 Compact sur ofD) Beers 1 Geueraltheorysexamples, . Ginformal eproeneasion; atmo ofthe plane, the Rienannepher, the open dsc . 1. Fundamental icone of ono rspeaeniation. {£ Ginceptoteomplexmanted integration of ferential Sr 1 Riemann surices ene Brees - cauarten yt, Hotowonena rrr or Dipti iL 2QUA1088 1 Exdtnce sta wiquenes theorem 2 Dependena on parameters ae on inal eontore Higher order difeesil equations Beaclics pte 137 es 168 a 8 ae 4 a8 a9 Prerace “The present volune contains the mubatane, with some addition, of & cous of etre given atthe Faculty of Scence in Pars fr the require: tment of the Kace midgut duce dhe seadersic secon 1957-1058, 9g81999 and 1¢ri9bo- Tei Inlay concemed with the theory af analyse Mmesions of eampleevartable. The eate of analyse fonesione fever cel or cumple visible however, touched on in chapter 17 [nly give a insight nto the harmon function of to real variblee ‘ eauyte Rinsions and to permit the treatment in chapter Va of the ‘ebtence thoorem forthe soltine of iferental tems in caes where fhe data i analy "The mbjoc matter ofthis bok covers that patof the” Mathomatie IL ‘ertteateaylabor given co analyse finctions. This ame sees matter twat already inctued in the " Difeential and negra eau et nt of the old ic ‘A the ellabuse of ceriontes forthe lame are not fed Sa deta, the teacher tially enjoys a considerable degree of fied in choosing the subjece matter of bis course, ‘Ths fcedom is tainly Titel by feadion and, ia the cae of analyte funtion of « complex variable, the tdton ia Franee i fely well etablaed, I wll here perbape ‘be welt indicate here to what extent Ihave departed frm shit trade tion Ta theft place I decided to begin by oring not Cauchy's pont ‘olview dierent aetienw and Cass integral) but the Weletast point of view, ie the sheary of convergent power series chapter ‘Thief tel preceded by a brief sccnant of formal operations om power series, Le whats called nowadays the theory ‘mal series. Ihave ao rade something ofan innovntion by devoting two paragraph of chapter v1 toa syeematie though very clementaty exposition of the theory of fbract complex maniflds of one comple dimension. What refered to here aa complet manila isalmply what ese wo be clleda Riemann suru and i olin sll given that name; for car pars we derided "0 [ep the term Riemann surface for the dvble datum of complex matic {Bld and x holomorphic mapping of hia manifold into the complex pane 7 (or; more generally lato another complexmanilé). Inthiwayadiince tin made betweta the todo with clarity snattaiable with ortodoe terminology. With x subject at well tabla asthe thecry of analyse moedont of «complex variable, which hae beon inthe pest the wbjec ‘fo many fretins and wll 8 i all cou, ther could be no question tof lying claim to originality. If the prowene weasels in any Way {fern is Ioerunnera in Franor, it dons vo perhape because it conform to erent practice whic ie becoming increasingly prevalent: aera Heal tot mur contain precise statement of peopaitions or theorems latements which are adequate in herslvs and to which rence can bee made at all tine, With a yry few exceptions which are clealy Enccnted, complete proof are given ofall the statement in the txt The somewhat tklsh problema plane topology in elation to nach’ Incegal snd the disiaton of manyrelucdfinclon ave approached que ‘openly in chapter Mereagaintvarthousltthata ew posesttemen, ‘were preferable to vague folsom and sey iden, On tse problems SF plane toplogy, Tidrew my inepitation fom the exellent book by 1 Alifos (Gonplex Anaya), ithont however conning comply ‘with the points of view he develoge, The baile eonenpts of general Topology ere asumed tobe funliar to the reader and ace employed fioquenly in the proven work; fo Sct this couse sudo to tens th Mathematics 1 who ae expected o have lend sie the "athe mates 1" syllabus. T expres my hearty thoaks to Monsieur Rei Taka who are from experience yalned in directing the praceal work of student, has conse {ed fo mpplerieat the vari chapter ofthis bok wilh exerows and probleme, He is hoped that the reader wil shun be ia a psiuon to Take sre that he has undestod and dilated the theortal dens {et out inthe text Die (Dréme}, August 4th 196 Power Series in One Variable 1, Formal Power Ser 2. ALORA op rounonsate Let K be & commutative field, We comider the formal polynomials jn one symbol (or * indeterminate”) X. with eneflelents in K (fr the roment we do not give a value to X). The laws of ation of two poly ominls and of rulplistion af a polyomlal by a “scalar” mates the {ce SES] of polynomials nto «swt pr oer Cw dhe fatilte base XX! ach polynomial Gite Unear combination of che X* with coefficients in and we rte ie a2, where is undetn hatony iie ‘umber ofthe confit ay are non-zero in the nite sequence of thee Cneficens. "The mapa abe ee (3oa)- (Zs) wa oa Teegiplatet cama ad ante eben as ws +B -Q=RO+ RQ a) -Q=1" PQ) for all plynomaleP, Py, Pay Qand all sealas 2. Te nits as unit le ment (noted by 1) che polynomial YaxX* euch that ay =1 and 0 for n>, We expres all tee properties hy snyng that KEX], rove witht vector space strane ab rulipeation, em ome etree with awit lement over the Bld Be ei in pardon, = commutative ring with @ wit element 4 Twn ALORA of ron. eases ‘A format power sre in X i «fora expresion 3 aX, where dis ine weno longer regi that only a faite number ofthe coeficents ay are Iooeseo. We deine the mim of to formal sree by (2) + (3+) = Ze where 6 a ob be ee eee (Be) Bowe “The st K{[X0) offrmal erie then fom a vetor space over K. The ‘neutral element the ndlien i denoted by 0 the formal esos with SIL coeBcent eo, "The product of evo formal sere i efned by the formal (11), whieh ssl Kara meaning Beene the ramon the ight and side i over 3 Baste ‘number of terme ‘The molipienson ix all commetaive, suociaive od bilinear with respect tothe vector stactine, Tht K(X] i+ a llgebra over the fed K with a uni element (denote yt), which it the veree J a.X" wich that gt and a —0 for n>0. ‘The algsbra K(X] i identified with eabalybra of KILX}, the subalgebre of formal vein whore coeficents are all seo except Zr 8 finite number ofthe, 4 Ta onpan or 4 ronuat seams Dente $e2X* by $0, or mee brie, by S. ‘The or 8) of shia sevee an integer which it only defined when x05 tthe mallet tach that «fo. We say that a formal series § as order > & if ci 0 rif w() By abu de lng, we write w(8) > f even when 8 =o although w(5) sae defined inti x, fe, We can make tie convention that wo) =-H20. The $ such 5) oe a gtven Integer &) are simply the sree aX ch tht so enh They fm asco cee of 43) ein ay (3) whe Edt inns id 0 ‘pevarmabl fr any integer yw(S) > fr all buta te nucber of ‘Selndloe Ry defiton, the 1am of 8 runetable fly of feral erie 809 = Ba fe the sei * 80H = Bas, where, fr ech #, a, — Bea This makes seas eens, fr fied all It s Gite numberof the gy ate sro by hypothesis. The epertion tf adion of formal seen wich frm rurtmable fies penealzs the finite aditon ofthe veto structure o K(EXI). The generalized adion ‘Scommutative and toocatve in enue which the reader shoul! spe The formal notation J, a.X* can then be jusied by what fellows, Let a monanial of degree fe a femal series aX? wich that a, =0 fr sep and let ojX? denote sch mononia "The fly of movomials (eXticen (N being the set of Integers > 0) obvi summa, and ism inp the alae, 3X Nie ‘The produto two fal sero (oe). (Ga) fe merely che vu of the suomable family Sane by all the products (6X9) (9) = (og ot social the it sere by one of he scone Paovoumon get The vag RUT] 1 om itr! oma (hs meas that Syoand Tao imply ST 0 Prof. Suppose that SOX) = Bar and TX) = BAKE are nomsero Let pm a(S) and g = 0(T) fet 805)-T70) = Zexrs bviowly 6 0 fe #

1 "To each monomil aX succite the formal sees aT) whieh hat rmnning becate the fra sre nfo a alge. ace fy =, the order of as(T(¥)= 83 m3 Ew the fly ofthe e( TY)" atm tae he vals ©, 1, «+ 15 amoabl, and we cas colder the formal sei e my {in which we regroup the powers of, ‘This formal serie in Yi std to be obtained yobtinton oT) for Xin SCX); we denote it by SCTCY)), ok So without spexiving the Indeterminate Y. The reader wil vey the ration 2) (G4 SyeT 5,07 4 507, SS) °T= Get) eet, tems Bat, note carefilly that S(T, + Ty) is mot in general, equal © 821480. "The reason (4.2) expres that, fr given T (of onder > 1), the maps ping 8 > 8+ it's hremerpion ofthe ving KUKI! ia the Pag KIC) wile nafs the nit lement 1 nto te. ewe ubstiate on S(X) oY a.X', we Hd thatthe fra eis reduces to is conte term’ ty rom, rowan sees on I we fave a mimmable emily of formal sei 8, and if (1) > hen the fally ST is momma and a3) (38)-7=2e-n, which generalizes theft ofthe relations (42) For, let 500 = Barts we bave 3800 = Z(26) where oa (38) -T= 2 (Ba,)eror, ote 43) Eset = F(Z acto) “To prove the equally of the right hand sdes of (4.4) and (4.5), we ‘herve atte coeficent of «given power VP in each of them inves ‘only fits number af the ceficients and we apply the aocaticy nw of (Gite) addon inthe etd Provoarion 4.1 The latin 9 @-Dov-srey, olds ence (1) 3 1, o( 0) 5+ anlaiviey of sabitasin) Pref Both sides of (46) ae defined. In the cae when $ is a monemial, they are equal beease an Deva (reup ‘which lows by induction on hom the secon relation in (42) "The general cae af (46) fellows by eonldvig the wes Sas the (infinite) sa ofr moscmlle a; by deinen, SoT= Zar, and, fom (4 9) 6. U= Zar, wich, by (Ts equa Jatt ur sere, This completes the proc 5 Avmaae War OF A rat sen Tn the sing K{[VD, the Hdencty on (MEY) can ently be verted, Het ce the sexes 1 —Y hasan iver in K(X Paawonrow 51 Far S(X) = SoaxX* thane a ina let fr the mat Aiton of RID sn and iit that yr 0, he that 80) oe Prof. The condtin is necemary becuse, if To) then y= 1 and ao 44.0. Convey, rappate dat ag 03 we sal show that (4)I8(3) = §,(8) haw an freee TX), whence follows {at fT y08) i the Haven of (8). Now 5,00) and we can subi U() for Yj the relation (5.1), from which it Eslewm that 1 U(3) Bas an avers, The propo proved Xe andi€ SOX) = 8, UC) with (IS Noe By considering the agen of paloma K(X) ibd inthe esis frm ver (PR), wil be so any pcm QO) ‘Eh dat Qo) ro wa lve ia te rg K(SQ tend then ‘outa al the quedents PO)Q(X), where F and Qa ply and where Q(o) 0. a 6. oman nenvanve OF & sexs et SX) = BaXss by dition, the ied ro, $00) even the formula * ” (00 Bien Oy @» 80) = Bax Tecan tobe itn so £8. The erin of Serine) 4 Pons. rowan sem ty sm is equal to the um oft derivative, "The mapping SS" near Imapping of K((X]} ito duel. Morcoren, the denvadve of the product ‘of fo femal serie is given by te formal ' 4 gary sf. oa Awn-Sr+sh. or, ii sulicient wo wer this formula ia the particular cae when 8 snd T are monomial and i i lary true then TE S(0) +0, et T be the averse of § (ene 5). "The frmala (6.2) sive “cs os aes) - dx Higher deioatves of 4 feral scien wre defined by induction. IE 8(X) = aX its derivative of order ns S901) sal + terms order > 1. Hence, my 89(0) — ate where (0) means the rm of subnituting the series 0 fo the ndeter ‘inate Xin (3), 7. Couoamonst vena sees “The seres 108) defined by 1(X) = 2 ea ral! forthe compaiion fre se Se1=S-168. Paoroanson 7.1. Gin 4 femal si 8, « mary and fit coton for har xi fra saris Esch ht oy To) =o SeT=I inte oa Se) =o, SI) Ho. this cay, ani, and T° Us in othr sods ie eof 8 jor the sof comps » Praf, Lat 808) = Bask, TH) = Baw AE os stro) = ¥, he equating the Brat two terms ives oo % Hence the conditions (7.8) are nocury Suppes that they ae sued; we write down the condition that the coafclent of Y" baer inthe le bend sde of (7.9). This coelceat i {he etme athe coeficent of Yin STM) ba TOE + os FCT which ves the relation 4b Pao oss 2 by coe Des) 0, 2a known polyoma with somneitve integra coscens linear a apy. Snce 79 the stand gunn (94) deer Imes; then, fr n>, 6 ean be cated by Scion for (7.3). Thus we have th exience a unique tthe foal srs Yop. The sae the shen ier lo) and TO) 0 ad 12 the remit that weave je proved fr S fan be ppd to eng formal series $; such that amen otek oT ing SO) TH = “s ‘This iplien that 8) = 168) = (6-T) +, = $0 (T oS, =e Hence 8, 6 none other thn § ard, indeod, T+ — I, which complete the proaf Ronak, Since S(T(Y)) = ¥ and TIS(X)) =X, we ean sty that the “femal tantric Y=sa), x= Ty) a inverse to one another; this we call T the “invert Kral series the vee § Propattion 7.1 ian implce function theorem” Fr formal nein 2. Convergent power series 1 Th courts ra From now on, the field K wil be elder R or G where R denote the fi of real numbers and © the fed ef complex numbers. ‘Recall hata complex number ¢ =} 6 (x andy rel fe presented by ' pointon the plane RY whoe coarser are «andy, If we anoclae 6 with cach complex number ¢=s-+ iy It ‘conugate* 2 =~ ip tre define an automorphim £ > ofthe Bel 6 lace rae, We “The conugat of 2 i cin other words she rnairmation 2+ Seine la, Lei alt Sere transformation "The try ab ay, or mods of emmplex number ¢ defied by l= (oo eas the Slowing popes + HebeISiel teh lee =letleh lab ‘The nore ee always 0 and is sero only when g = 0. “This norm rable rt dfice» dec inthe eld the dtance Between zed = ele) which & precy the euclidean dance in the plane "The space Oi a empl space for thin ditance feton, which mene thatthe Cay refi ald: for a equence of points 2a to have ‘lini ie necomary sad wulieient hat mle a) =o. ‘The Cauehy exterlon gles the flowing wellknown theorem: if aes iss of complex numbers is such that 0, of may be inlaite, Evident, bb Int + fo tl = at for any scalar 3y when [al <-+ 2+ in other wor als & rn the vector pace of anctins w uch dat f= ‘We aay that series of fietons ay i normally mez fee series of seems Esl i convergent erie of olive tri nother ord i Binal < +0. Thin impli tha, foreach, the eis Zhe) convergent, and so the serie S(t) fr absolutely catvergent;snoreove, if) isthe sum of this Ise series, t1fe OK nt thet el mamerrs 0 Sh Ot Pea nt me fio) oy aa such tha there eit ome 0 wth no Let S(X) = Zh aXt be a Sanna seves with coeiclets a of ‘We propane to subaote an clement sof the Geld fr the indeterminate X and thus obtana valve” S(2) of he sres, which will ean element af the Bld but tis subttuon is ot penile unl the vie Yt 1s convergent. In ft, we tall init curelves to the case when eit haley coe "To be pret, we inte a real viable 730 and comider the seve of pstve [or tro) tems z called the aml are of S(X). Tt sum ie a wellined number Sor which may be iniity, “The set ofr 0 for which Ziaiecte 4a clay a interval of the Bal Hine Mt, wed tha itera i nonempty ince the series converges fr r= 0. "The interval an ether be open of wed on the ight ican be Site cr indie, can redace a the dagle pinto, Inall eae lt be theleast upper bound ofthe interval 0282 umber >, ale, Infiite, or zero; is called the ras of mora of the formal power sees 3) aaX'- The set of such that 2}

» (We say nang bout the ese when le) = 6 Prof, Proposition gt follows ors ‘Anes Lana Lot + and ry Be ral mambo at 0S hae tei 4 fe mnbo M9 ok at Mra M for ay inger a> 0, the th ies Bo emerges mma for For, ft!) >, we can make Jas arbitarly large by chosing the integer 1 sully Beene, there, Atle’ Tena would. give aah FSP el ch that the serena were convergent and this ‘would contact the defiton of Formals fr thers of comargce (Haars): we shal prove the fora en Recall fist ofall the deintion af the upper lini af «sequence of rea umes im up a = in (ap) ‘To prove (g. 1), we we a anical elerion of convergence: if ie 8 sequence of nobaregative numbers rich that limsop ()!"-< ty then Bu-<-+ 05 moors if they are wick cat timp ("> 1, then Ee.m + = (thitis* Cauchy rule” and fallow by comparing the ei Boy witha geometric sri). Hero we pu = fr and find that fconvenorner rowan smaes 14 sad othe is Sar converges for > i msup a, and diverges for sein supa". "This proves (9.2) Sine emp, — The wis Bale hes sero san of convergence; has tii rt fconvegece; cxch of te res Be, Bboy 3 he has of convergence equal to 1. Tt can hethws tht they Bbavedifieny hen el 4 Anwsron A MOLADHICATION OF CONVERGANT FOWER SEE Prorouron 4.1. ZetA() and B(X) Btw femal power srr whe rat Senne wp Lt 08) = AD) + BOR) and POX) = ACH).BCR) (ei and pd Thee 1) he erie 8%) and PC) han ada of cms > Fs 1) fore p ‘The two ration (4.1) remain to be proved. The Sint obvious, and- the second is obtained by multiplying convergent series €> be proce sve vocal tha aul eeu Proronron 4.2. Lat Yaa ont sb tw eesti erg oi. Sen hs is Boia cower nit a el prs (3+) (3) Wie opm Bink ty» Zp we have Zr Bled =a moc, m3 a B24) sew can a oft fh whe frac ts, alent one of the inegun pad se) thin ths sum les tan vet ee wh eso nea eds inns. hat nd the pact te inte suns Sn and 3 4 SurenoW OF A CONVERGENT POWER HEREE DY ANOTHER Fer two give formal power erie S and T with To) ~ 0, we have defined the fermal power eves Sol in pargeapl 1, m0. Paovowon 5.1. Supine TO) = JAX IF te ral of sneer 18) ond p(T) ae 0, ten trains ef comes of Um S6T a FO. Tobeprin team 0 mht S far <9); th fief come of Ut 6 nd for ony ch thar ase Imai <8) ow on st) =U. oowtnown rower semae 15 Prof Po S(K)~ Zak, Poraendyamall roy Bh te ne thers o omega. Thun, Zk! i fe {er sullceaiy moll 7 oy a congue, Bir = (Suhr) tends w 0 when reads to 0, ‘There exit then, an 7>0 such that E)o elon (1) son wo be proved ut 8) 2, 3, aX? and et SeTe Uy Pore we bow 9 =SAHO), snc the mapping T+ T(9 i sg homeonpioan 3 pro Ila Since th ie § converges the pst), we hae S119) = ens. (On the other hand, the cocfients of U— by thee of jy ($8, oT arebosnded Zid Zwr)’s ‘sexes when mn tends to 044» co, He illo ty fr lh Uf Tie) ts to ons mf oes Fly we have Ue) ~ Him Ue) = lin (TIE) = $F) fe en hich ities ration (51) and completes the proo. Interaton of ration (51): spose + stats the condone of propo: sition 5-2. Denote the fanedon <-> T(e) by ‘defined for [et td nay denote the functions deine by the sein § and U by 8 fed O rapectvly. The relation (5.1) expremes thay for [lr he ‘campos foncsion 8» Tis dened and ie equal tO. ‘Tha the ration WarseT beowees fheal serie implies the relation O— 8 i the ‘adi of convergence of § and T are 70 and if ee rt curt fily oma als of srl 3 6 Avommse movin OF A conVERGE ROWE sms We know (fy proprio 51) that Hf S(X) = LAX" with «x there exits unique formal teres T(X) euch that S(X)T(RX) is equal Prorowrion 6,1. If he rad of smergce of 86 0, tn he ris merc of he sit mh at ST sn 0, Prof, Muliplying $(0) by a subable constant reduces the proposion fethespecal eae when y= Put S(X) = 1 — UX) 40 that UO) =o, The inverse sees TCX) 3 obtained by subsiting U(X) fr Yi theses 1-4 SL moreover the radius of convergence ofthe Inter i qual to 1 anil s0 ot proposition 6. then fllows from proposion 5. 2 DrrenawriaTiow OF 4 CONVEROSNT POWER SERIE Paovosmow 7.1 La 80%) = BL a.X* Bea orl pwr srr ad lt 800 = Zax sks did ei $1, Thy sir 8 and 8 he he soe rae mee i as mn Sele on S10 ~ip SEES, sae umd oo wt lking thes 0, Praliminary rah, UE |ei S(e) hat ‘diane equal wo 52); in deca of the comples eld 6, relton 7.1) ‘tows that Wwe alo have the soon af sat ath ae fhe omplen Saralez Ta both eases, he existence of «derived faction Se) abv limi that che funetonS(e) Ss continua for le < which ext alo be proved ciety 4 convene? SoWen seams say Prof oppo 7.1. Leta. and let pand be thera f eonver- gence ofthe wes $ and $” respectively. Ir

0 such that " 2, in other words To) ~ 0 From this ‘we ave @n ‘This fundamental formuda shows, in particwas, that Hf the function (eis koown in some neghboarhood of (however sal), the eocnte fof the power stesS are complete determines, Catuegueny, give 2 tineton fe) defined or al nuit alle ae a tne hat ee fra pose S(X) = 3, aX* wha adv of convergence fe 20, sod such chat 4(2 = Jece for [2 suiclenty smal, 9 GourosrnonAL mevEn SERIE OP A coNERORNT POWER SER, Refer § r, popositon 71 Prorournon gi. Lat Sea er sie sh that S(0) nd be ease, th ih serie mh tha ant (0) 4 0 To=o S-T=t Y thera of omar Si , thee epi of espns of Ti 0 The reader ean accept thiv propmiton wishow proof beste & pr (hich does nor we power series teary) willbe gives ater (chap 18 5, proportion 6) “6 convRoeir Powe sates 29 sae ender whan ine wee tam een of * ern sen (ck clap Levan buy tee sta the pro ef popacien 71 ‘etic yt the urelciSe TPS). Aang wi the tee 80, ee Se 509 -ax— Bare sith corn A> 0 ch that oA, fo all mesos we ante dat Rim tmb Abtnig f+ peeponton 1 te the wrka 8 ghe tm To) = Za sdk hat (TOY) ~ Ys cette en by he elaine oo AB Pha one ° ich are also (75) + We btn ns by indo 09 on Ih 1 lows ha se a of converges of theses 6 nt oe than that ‘heron. Westall pore propantion 1 y hog ta the awn feucot Tao "Te end, we cane the ace a low: let r> 0 be numeracy sethantes ty yp ir ane rer he geet ie we ae shen Due save by Evie alae W'S sad ve pa on Avelh Ave Mie fem, we bain he ols a mara sei 8 msm Si) gal to fe) eM tae cle Sie owe te We sek then, fintion Ts} deine a ficient sal vero» which i se 0 al wich en te uation STD) ~ 9 ete Ty) oo ar EMD UA A iNT Hy = y= Ache VR Nar My When | jesus he ud io he em A/T a with J ac so 7) canbe expan au power er i, wih crmege fo ict Sal {pf the man of convegnce of tr rs ya ele “7 3. Logarithmic and Exponential Functions 1, Rxronmerst. roNcnon Weave already remarked ($2, no.9) that the formal series 3, infite rads of convergence," ar z complex, we define > Xv hati the sum of an absolutely convergent serie This uncon has devvative wn) fone ty groan 71 of 2. ; "Gn hector band spying propention 4. § to wo ste with ceo ee aed nade ore = 2 eter ameeeely (ua) mee (che fundamental fanetional property of the exponential function) In particle, (ea) feten 0 eho forall Putting <0 i (with and y reat) gives ore, we need nly study the two function and, where» andy ae rea ‘lables, We have a) one Zeya Reds exponen onerion # We tv se ht #05 pt ee a>, Moro, eae era et eaten s Thos in ¢ = + 0 subatiuting — fr ead to ‘We deduce that the function # ofthe real variable «incretes tly fiom o wo +2, The tansbrmaton # = har therefor’ inven tase femation defined for #0; ein denoted by slept Tis fonction is alo swily monotnle increasing and increases from Seto cbes,” The fnctonal ration af ¢ fe wit @» og (0) = Hog e+ tg, sod, in paral, log 1 ~ 0 ‘On the other hand, he theorem about the derivative ofan invene 4 ea) qlee) =e Te beni t ‘whose rads of convergence i ental to 1, rom propoiton 7. 1 of 6, [los dae the sere ofthe primitive ba the vane rd of coavergence and that ls sum ha desivatve —"—s whence, fr el < t 9) bog tee ton (he ft his epanios tao erect whet # =). ‘Nw pt eo SRR TMA Beoee 1 examine the cormponed serie U = $2. We have fons proposition Stolgatr —rcwe ty Ue = Scr); however, Tia) = log (8+ 8), Six) 3, 20 Bw “Thi shows nt the rma eric Ue merely I becane of te uniqueness ofthe power steaexpion of m function (cf. §y 0 8). Thus che ie Sand Tre inverse 5: Tu oeomaae eavosmras ronerion ¢ (yan) “The serie expamnon of shows that «i he complex conjugate of tthe ole i the ante ofthe scala of 2; but this producti equal tot by relation (123). "Thus ‘We note that, inthe Argnd plane representation ofthe complex Bed © the polation the wily that rhe locus of pits whose distance {Evo he origin oe equal to” The complex umber «such that = form 2 grgp U ander mulpication and the freon propery expres he lowing : he mapping y > i «Bonomi of he ator {Poh Min the malice gap U. "This boremorphsm wil be studied fore laly "Dweowas, The omaorphin > ais Rent , anit ral (ebro of they rch thal om ty the natal net of U) it camped of all he Segal malice fo coin ral monkr >= 0. By non, ts mamber i be dod by 2 Prof, Let wt Sntaduce ral and imaginary pai of we put by dais erm y ti sin which defines ewo rel functions coy and sin, such shat whore rai ofconvergence “Thete uncions can be expanded as power. woe ite ga (er ah * fing aan eS We shall study the way In which shoe two fantions vary. Observe that separting the seal ad imaginary pars in the sou equation (04) fen Jean —snx Lecing) cory ‘Wiha y =o, cory equal to 15 sce com yt contnuows function, thee cena p> oath that one y 0 foe 93-2 ye. Hence tiny phone Gervaive ove Js a sey increasing Reon in te interval [0,34 Put tiny) a°0. We ahll show that ove p vanishes for a ceria value of) which b> 0, Suppose Sn ee dat ony 0 for <9 Sst on ey—oana— fare However, sa >a because sin yi an increasing ft in the ntervak [re i] where fa devivative is 0 has [riso>0.—0 By subatnutng this in (9. 2) and noting that cor», 0, wend that nance i poe at yy nein [pong We tr the malt value fy which is >0 and which ety = (his atin ofthe er). tm te era [o,f ony ecrezsaticly fom 0 6, and sin. inne atily fom 04 dos the mapping 7->e? fr bijective mapping af the cnmpact Interval [a] see of rine uo he it ce whe rns Wand! o are both > 0. By a theorem of topology about continuous, Ijeav, mappings of eampar apace, we dee Kaen The meg 3-26 hme of [0] te ar a de ee pga #3 0 138 ‘ 8 ES 7 4" ape Reon U. This completes the Dron ofthe dheorem, de Magsonramer of Asonas, ARGUMENT oF A coMPLE EER at ant denote the mbgroup of the adaive group R formed by the tte mules of the susier ose The. mapping =>! inact tomes of the putin’ pop ack onthe gop The iene imams g of Dont Med aches. wih any ovplex mumber se th =e, areal suber which Ib etned pet ofan inn mp of ah of mb eed Ue egunn of and ir dented by argc By an sure of motto, art wil abe denote any one of the fal mnbers wines Cdl Teaqrmen ef the fncon sys then camp anyone cin tht ca tke ny tls or a gies val of he vara Ts non sus the poem ncn of tga (each gle “nnd wih the eooponding pent ) sa mewoe ofa mele" ‘tical amber whlch E only teed modal epg qutent group Rs by puting on i the quit topped lopolgy on the fe ine lt Be the sami teuppng of Bon its quant Rds arb Af Ban df Be open iF ilnpce age ph) whine eet swan under anon hy anon open set of BL cl vei shat the toplotnl ace led is Teor (lat tatty. dain! points have dijaat pen vcigmurhot)Mowtoer, i cmp yf isthe cowed ‘Zeros the trl mapping I=» Meeks the compact mace T tuto the Fined pce, Rez which it then sorpact by a cll Siero in poly, The orb y! Rica U i coninan tndinn Beate taping fhe comput spate Rav oto he Hard Somce Us hence yt homonoplion af Bin on onl itn of gone: for any complex number #0, éfne the sequent of bythe eral arg t = arg). ciel =e 7) s oaaastinae Ao exvoMATAL, TENCTON 195 Aipicain, To. slve the equation uation fe equivalent © (ohare a0 ie given): the (ela, ange Lae sod has # comple solutions # beenute ove obtains for ang real number dened wp to adton of an integral muipe of au 5 Cournes Loaanaris Given « complex number t, we seek all the complex numbers auch hat ‘Such nutsbers exist only when 10 In thi cae elation (4) ‘hows Ghat the ¢ that we seek ae the conples number ofthe frm 6» log t+ Fae We define ») log og + ane, which isa complex number defied only up to addon of an integral Imalple of ext From this definidon, we have #«"— «When fe real and > o, we again ave the casa! funtion lag weallow only the vale o fora For any complex number # and € Both 0 and Sr any wales of log log and log owe have oo ag (tt) = log + log (rd 2. Branch of the logan, So far we have 908 define log fat 8 fini Ia the proper ease of he word, Défaton. We ay tha cnn Sanction f(t a the complex variable deine in come ge D ofthe plane 6, not containing the point rank oflog ifr all ¢a, wehave 9 = (nother word, i (0 is on a the pole values ag 2). ‘Weal sc later (chapter) § no. 7) what conditions most be ase bythe open sex D far branch o og to ext nD.” We sll now examine ow ft posable to obtain all branches of lg i one oi Paorosmon 51 If ee vt branch f() of lin become on sD, en ay thr branch Sof the frm f(a (han ge); emo, SOO) abt i rah flag foray ine 38 et ws suppose the that f() and g(t) are two branches of log ts The ‘erence ay =a fs continuous fmoton in D which takes only ivegral values; since D 4 assumed connected, och »fctin is neoomally saan Pot the set, kpoits fe D such that Ke) inequal to agin integer ns both open and ‘dou, Thusthestis empty orisoqeal D. The comstant must af couse beanimeger, That (i) +n sa branch of og ¢ for any integer is ‘One defines similarly what mst be underwood by a branch of arg & ins connected open ect D which does nt contain the origin. Moreover, hy branch of gy dees one af logf and vice-versa, Fane. Let D be the open baliplane Re(!)>o (ecll that Re) denotes the rel pare of). For any in this halplans here ise unigae ne of ag which is >—Z ant < ; denote this value by Arg ‘We shall show that Arg # i» cotinwas fanin and chat comequently Joglth +f Ange ‘4 branch ofa in the half plane Re (2) >. Te wil belle he prise al bach of Tag Since Ang! = Arg ie) ard since he eaepping 1 efit a continuous mapping ofthe aleplane Re (?) > 0 on the st fw auch that [a= ad Re (a) > oy Hee ile to show that the ‘upping y— Arg ncotinaoun. However, tise te inven mapa of rae a ymoge overt open iteral |S. $f she inion wet +4] onthe eo mach hte = «ad Re(a) > 0; th then anemone Diam and the iver mapping is indeed contlnecs, which completes the pro i+ a connaous bce maping of the compact inert | ~ 6. Sams exraxvon oF us coMPLEK connie Peovmox 61. The samo epee sir 1H) = Boye sec ome fo | < yaa the pring rah of ot +») [Note fin that i | <1, = 4 + remains aside an open die contained * ogee Axo exPonRTAL, PENCTIONE 196 inthe half plane Re) >0. Again we ws the notations of relation (2.4) ‘and remerber thatthe seria Sand Tare iver to one another; propoa= tion 51 off shows that S(T(a)) = fr any complex number « such that Tel <1. Ta other wordy, <%= 1 + 4p and consent a) n'a branch of lg (1-42) To show that this isthe pinlpal branch, 45s ulclen to vey that takes dhe same value a he pence ranch far a parieala value of fr intance, that It sro when #0, which inborn che ees cxpanaion of TC) Provourwn 6.4. If {0 it Bran of log! ia comet oon D, he fot (0) ha ect 0) ih rat the employ srl and fone tte cog 9 el Mest tHe Bef, st ve i sn i SEE we © tend wo cm f(s the limit we sok ir then the inverse of the vale ofthe derivative of i =f), which Weal 0 = Na. ‘This role checks with the fict that the derivative ofthe power sei Ta) i inde equal 0 = Deion. Vor any pais of complex aumbers (960 and a, we put ‘This many valued funtion of # fr eed «A brane of Jn a connected open at D is defined tn above, Ady beaach of log! in D dines «branch of nD. Reson. Hee the reads take to eva, i noemey, the power eles, fxpanions of the ual faction, are tans are sts oe.” Mareover, feeany complex expooet «and or complex much chat =, wel a where log 4-8) denotes the principal branch (he fantion (1 4-8)" hen take the value toe ¥= 0); the Feaer should say is power series, expansion, 38 4, Analytic Functions of a Real or Complex Variable 1. Daven Danio 11, Westy that «function f(s) defnedinsomenighbourhoed (toe ba «pu srs ain a hep there eta Fama power serie S(X) — YaX whowe rian of convergence is 0 and which ssf Fa) Zadema foe wes ety so ‘This definition aplir equally well to the case when x 68 real ot a complex vriable, The sven (OX), 1x sage by na. 8 off Ty) hs a power sexes expansica a yen the fancon fis infinely o and fort power sie 8X) = 3 Xt with radi of convergence S 2) and mich tht

pel and G9) Si) — ZL Salem fr eae a Pod of Pie 24, Pt =I sotq) = Ea ae wri OEM an Ran crcp wee ak We have onl, 9) BID ro BEE anaes fred rte Since can be chosen arity ear to , this ads of convergence t > 97 Now let x be such that [sx 0. Indication of fr "The conn i shown to be aecemary by ng Inequality (24)- Tei shown to be sufiieat by weting 8 fit Taylor cxpanson of dhe faction f(s) and ung (25) to Had an upper bound fer he Lagrange remainder. 1} Pema or neat onvranimon “Trewonm afb am anti ft ino emt oe at D and lt The fling condone esi + 5) £%a) = 0 for all ings > 03, 9) Faia ina aevard of y5 0) Fi italy i. Prog, obvious tate) zplics 2). We shall show that) mies #) land 6) implies). Suppove ) ir sated. We have then Cs) = 0 for all ps0 with the convention that fO'—/. Bat f(e) las a power ‘erica expnoson ia powers of (ex) in w ucghourtiood of re and the cooticents foe) re 2to th fa) Mentally ern a eghour- hood a xy which proves. ‘Suppae Conditions 8) ated. To show that fis zero tall points of Dit suficient to alow thatthe at D’ of punts aD in a mighrhond (Fwih fis ideal aa bth open and cowed (Isnt expt ene {f0), th, sine D is conected, Dwi be equal 9D), I follows from the ‘Scfuiion oD that itis opens Te retain to be proved hat, if xe. isin the clone of D, then syeD. However, /0G) = 0 fr each n >0 it pint abr lve om (inc athe pots of DY thes J) = © tpeenme of the coiity of 70; this holding forall > 0 implis es hove that /() is identically ero in wneighourhood of xy Thus syaD), thi completes the prot. Gononsany 1. The ing ef nae fotos ino contd oon st Dis a Satrel denain or ifthe produc fg of two analytic function in D is dentialy 20 and ifsgeD, then once the function fg stencil zero in neighboor- hod of. becaues the ing of formal powee seis is a integral comin, Bats fis dentialy wero in sre neighhourhood of x then fs zero the whole of D bythe above theorem, CCononuany 2, (Principle of analytic continuation) If mo ance fctio fod jin one sen tet Dns ino mgr of 8 fon! of D, ‘hen hy ae dl nD. "The polen of aegis contination tthe flowing given an analyte ‘ction hin connected open set D’ aad given a connected epen set D Ccntaining DY, we atk if shore exes am analytic function fin D which rtd hr Carllary 2 owe that such a funtion fis unique it ex. 44 Zaxos oF we sate meron Let (a) be sale ftion in «neighbourhood of yan et S10) = Bale ao" be its power seis expantion for aufiietly small [x —sy, Suppose that f(g) = and at fo) fet asl eo in neighbourhood of ° -xaveri Pion OF om Yanan 5 Tet be the smallest intge uch that a 0, The eres (o—ag converges fir sufiiently small fs — and its sum g(s) san analyle Finetion roch that g() +0 some elghbouhood of. Thus, or # ‘ear enough 19 yo Bae en Si)= (ose, als) #0. ‘The eteger E> 0 thus defined ie calle the ref alli of he 20 fhe the function ft i characterized by ration (41, where (0) {s analyie n'a neighbourhood of sy." The onder of mkt fix so chanictried by the condition S(t) 0 foe O+2, we cll my 8 mule sero ‘Relation (41) and continuity of gC) imply FO) #0 fr opm) o and £0, fan gy are analyse In some neighbourhood of x with fi) #0 and fils) 9; bene, for Bay bat near 10 I) fg —ngor Lie ae) n0) “The function his) ~ Gigs) analy in a neighbourhood of % we have that A) 2 0. Two cae aie 1 EDK the the Fantion e—ahe bs analy in some neighbourhood of and colnldes with f(s) fr fag Hence the extension of fig to the point x i analytic in a neigh trod of and adie x a0 2360 4 > K wk E then £10 ta, ate) ~ agree ‘We say in cis ete that a fle f the Fonson ip; the integer #2 Isa the oder of mip of te poe Aes tend to g [LE sends to 410, We can agree to extend the function fig by giving it the value afinity "at ay. We shall recur later to the dntoducton of thie tunigue nunbe init, denote Eft) aay a har y se a nez0 of der E> then ry fceaely a pole bender beat Hf). hed #0 Dien. A meremaplic funtion in an open set D it defined tbe a fanetion /(2) which le defined and analyte an the open set D’ obtained, fiom D by taking out sot of inleted pnts each of which ir pole of n't neighboashood of each point of D (without exeption), f ean be expressed aa quent ei otro anaytc faction, the denominator ‘being not identically nero, The sum and product of to meromerphie intone are defined in the ebviou way the reromerpbie function, in D forma a rng and even an slgebra. Ia fc they msm Beld Beene, EY) not Mentally aero in D, ea not identically aero nx any neh Iourhood of any point of D By the theorem of no. 35 0 1/Jte) then ealyc, or neat tent pole at each point of D and it consequently ‘meromorphic in D. Pxorommion 5 1. The derivate fof « mowrarpicfton ft D is mew mp in Ds te tins fond” Base these ol if «ple of rr Eff tien pl of ode BY 1 ” or,” indefind aod analyte at each point of D which snot pole of ec emain to be proved that if i a poe off yi also'a poe of Marcover, ar ie iy re was a(s) being analyte with fg) #0, R>-0. Hence, or 8 ty Se) = aE pmlle so Ht) teh and as ela) #0, pole off of order ks. Exercises 1. LeLK be a commuatvefeld, X an indeterminate and B = KID} the algebre formal power serien with coefficient im K.” For §, Tin B, detine i oe s=7, MSD ee if SAT, and (S—TD =k 1) Show that defines a distance fonction in these b) Show tha the mappings (8,1) 8-47 and (S,) +87 of Bx E ito Bae continuous with rapect to the metee topology defined by d- ©) Show tha the algebea KEX] of polynomial fe everywhere deme in F ‘when coidered st 8 set of E- uy 4) Show that che merc space Biscomplee. (If (8) isa Cauchy sequence In, noe tha any ntoger > o he Bet tems of 8 do not depend on mfr slcentlyInrgem) 4) the mapping 8 +8! (he deviative of §) continous? Let pg be integer 3 1. Let $08) be the Samal eee EX ERE ad put 8,08) = (6,00) 1) Show, by induction on m that co vp ARH gg Mesh elp bel (eal toe, s se dada (oy inden on 9) the expeson six) B (Pte ‘ : 1 wie (f) dene the Breit tien ‘BY Une 8,(2).84(%) — Spi4(X) to show that © LE PHEE (Cnet) (Perey) (hich fs geneaition of (1), the one when = 1). |. Find the prs formof he polynomial P nthe pratt propeston 7.1, $y foe neg and ealeuate the terme of degre

o), rh eos 800 =X — bat La tb a whee and bare rel and 9< 2) 5 4 Given to fra power sexe 800) = Bax and TO) = BI theo, me oH = Biase, Voom Bahr, woo = 3 lasix (here pis am integer). Prove dhe flowing relations: HO)= WHY, oN) > 181-4, if 0, (AW) <(S)/0(T)- 6 Leta ad be denen of 6c an nee <0 Wha he onan te 509 =r 4ttx pet De Fe nat Dabney, cy eie a Show hat i um) fr <9), ie he tei eon i= 8 + =O HOE NON lS 0. pees 2. Tat S09) = eX be femal power an sch that (8) = fu o eae a) fn no, oer ta meg tate pH) = Zar, vo) = Brae. ‘Show that () e(U) = (VD = (8) forall el <4, 2 (Zee)- Zee 8 Let S(X) = aX’ be a fal power sre howe cont re ined by the flowing receence reutins + rte t fine for a3, were are given real numbers. 5) Show that, fr wt, we ve |< (a) where = mx oh 8/8) nd deduce tat the radius of convergence (8) #2. 1) Show that (ee PENS) =e, for bh < HS), ‘and deduce that, le < (8), a 0 so =a ©) Lat gut be the two Toot of KPH X—1— 0, By decomposing “6 the righthand sde of (1) imo paral factions, find an expresion forthe ‘in terms of 2, and zy and deduce that 8) = min De Ja (ote tha if SX) = $40) $508), then (8) > min (8), 189). (9 Show that, i, 9 are veal and nis an Integer >, then B solar s)aia (Satya tain? Seen te +9) = cat Ft 9) men = ter) (Woe can pe + 3) Hsin (pk 9) ‘0, Prove the fllowinginequalies fr ce 0: acer slelers 12. Show tha the function of complex variable ¢ defined by cnet {athe analytic extension othe waole plane Gof the fantion coe (espns) etn in § 9,00. 3, Prove tha, oe any, £6, cue +2) = eascoune —an inet canone pemeane) cote pate 8. 1g. Prove the relalone Stine ga for sealant oe 5, 1 the fae real 90 and fy > By2ooe>D BLD ‘Show iat fr all "> ty ieeemetny pee eee eee (Ui) Let 0X} ~ J a.X* be a formal power series with complex oefti- cients uch th 8) ~ 5 and hat Shomer, Us (to show es ee eee tae ae ees ig Bor B ” (i) Let 80) Xt now and et be the imnection ofthe open diel a ofthe open dic je] <1 Show sa here ex a 8(@) +862) eo elog (1a) for ced, vere log dente the pina bc fe complex logit in the halpline Re(@ > o (which enon D) meee (oe tas -ceD, ther log (13) = Tye) with TX) = X.5'09, because of propsition 6,1 of §s, and tbat propsion 6.2 of §g gives Flowetog (so) = MELA MeEE or ea.) ally, we (i) 0 show chat Bue, 4 fogs) = 3 afte (GE chapter v,§ 4, no the aplieaion of proposition 2.1) carmen Ut Holomorphic Functions, Cauchy’s Integral 1, Gurvilinear Integrals 1. Gamma rizony We tall revise some ofthe elementary idea in the theory of. negra inthe plane RY Let x andy denote the coordinates i ‘A eierthleputh sa mang on) ow the segment (a) into the plane RY, sch that the coordinates) and 0) of the point 1!) ate continuouly diftreainble fancion. We hall away muppet <8. The inal oa of sya) and is end ‘ont iar). IPD isan open set of the plane, wesay that yi deren tial pa of the open set D ifthe funcon takes vale in. ‘Seif form in an open set Di an expresion en Pee Od whose cosficents P and Q ste (ral or complersaued) contin Fane in D. fy a difeeniale path of D and w a difrental form in D, we Aen eg fo aa where yM(o) denotes the diferent form f(t) defied by A) = POC, ODL) + Oot) AN)IO: Sel I reese CNTs peepee NT in other words, ye) isthe diferent form deduced Grom w by the Sung of re eat, yea Te, foo foe Conder now 2 conimimly diene fiction f= 6) or augue hy (oth a,c), whowe derivative 1%) ib always > 0 and hich i tuck that 1(o)'"= 6, 1() — 6. The compared tapping of Tea) and the mapping (001) aa a th 1 defines a dierentiale pathy. We ay that x, 8 daduoed fom 4 by ohage of porancir. ‘The difeental form fo) deduced om. Dy the mapping (+2) i equal to Fo} 0 ey by vce of the forma giving the derivative of « composed fiction, he fra for change of variable im sm ordinary integral thus gives the “ fel 1m other wore cai neg fw des mt change i ae Ir theeiferetiable path replaced by ster whichis deduced from y by change af parameter.” ‘We can then, deote paths deduced from one stather by change of parameter by dhe sue ey. ‘Take now a comtinsoady diferenable fepcuon 1 apc by butch tae Ha) <0, Hf) = 6) (a) etn foe fhe description of the segment i evens), We thn we that fiv=— fia. We ty tee tht we have mae change of pce n'y wich changes the orientation of 5 the effect of this is to multiply Lm by— te Subdivie the iaterval 6] decribed by the parameter {into a fate numberof sb-ntervale ak th + ecw teh fl Bs where @< ty << ons lyon Sle , such tha here ext a subdivision of the interval [4b] ato a Sate number ‘trmipinterels as above with the property thatthe rexticson a 1 ‘ach subintervals continously difrentable. We define So-B(L) ‘The sum on the right hand side is independent of the decomposition. ‘Theinitapontofyircalled the intal point oy and the final point of. called the nal painter. Seal pine coincide. "A eed path yan lobe defined by taking stead ofa real parameter ¢ varying from a of, 9 paraactr& which deserbes the unit cle. ‘We say that path i ved fy initial nd ‘Example. Consider, in the plane the perimeter (or ‘boundary’ fre rectangle A whow side are parallel 0 the coordinate tech The rectangle i he se of point (7) saying StS ty NEI Kb Te boundary cons ofthe four line segments sete Sr She gah ger rae hee gan Steep For thie boundary 10 define picewibediftvensable clo path , itis ‘ectnaty to apa the seme of description chosen, We agree always take the towing sense of description song the ede = slong these y = bs, long the side * = slong the side y= By _yinereaes fom by 0 by 2 deren om 410 econ fom bt by ners fom Thue integra [ei well dete dos ot depo he ceo he inital point oy because te abeay qual to the sum of integrals along the four en eact decribed in she ene Sndeated. * Oo noLawakerae TROHENS, eA BOSORAL 1 Prnonve oF A sirenenvi rom Laws, Let D be a somite oe a of the pase ny tan pints nd be Don thn! ond fal fl, rapt, of vine pce difretale fat in D.” (Bit thn saya that a and # can be Joint by a piecewise (iran path Prif, Hach post # D ihe centre af die contalned in D and ean be pine to each point oti dic bya piven eiferentable path contained in'D, for intane, » radi. Suppoe that ea is given punts i he jn to then any point suey near to en also be joined fo ecaute ofthe provins Femark; thus Ue set E of pears of D which ‘ut be jined to eon. On the her hand, Bs cos in Dy beeae, ifeeD isin the clone of «ean be joined to sore point of becuse By hypothe, Disconnected 1) and i bth open and else, oi st be the whale of Ds This completes the prot ‘Lee D again beaconnected open ot inthe plane an et y be apices Alera path contained in D with inal pot a and al point b Lee F be a continaouly Aifeentiable funtion in D and comer the fora rectangle A contained in hineighboarhood, contrary 0 hypothesis (a. 9). Proposition gg thus proved. Es 4 Gomp suman rons Deéfetion. Wesny that frm w= Ps + Qa, with contin Paid Qin an open set, cad sy pola (ey ) @D hasan open eh ‘outhod in which w bas a primitive. We can sume that auch a neigh Tourood in sc with contre (4p 3). Therlre, the els of meh 2 se inmediatly imply = Provcumion 4.1. A mec and saint cnn for eft form 1» with onions cogfcents iD to be cloned és that» = 0 wher ir the oundary ef «small etal conned (with titer} én aith sides poralet bate stn, If sine that P and Q hse coins perl deste! fe why he 2) 1 4 ny ad i in fae ‘We know fom proposition 2.2 that any clove form ina oes dha a ‘rimidne, Weaball now give an example of led fren «na connected ‘pense D which ha no primlive in D, oro 4 LAD i ot nig f pe 0 of ip fw 81 fo Sle cd Shs re Fy nn chron ouch int thr bach fn EAL i deneghboubentsG ptm stage Net TSL'o tw tht su go pit yrs td ch th yn Dh [0 niet he the ot a exalt in ga ander inh pte Toc Sipe ti # wi tring fm ome we have emit Enis sod cmt a) [Sn [lism sien ‘This compite he prot Ta the preceding example, the frm complex. Let now ake he seagiary part Since atid steed post ap the ditional frm oathaust eae oRvINEAR rDORALH; RMEHUE OF A 8LOND ORS incline pane wih he origin xed, Teh opie Decne se ave by (0) shards ae 1 ote nit ede decribed inthe pov vere, Jn ft, the ‘rent rtm 2 which is a maystedfanson (that i ty with mary bunch) nthe pine withthe on ected 5 Sropy o” wasr-vauimn panareves Let bea closed frm defied i a connected open vt D. Alehough w bas not necenrly a single-rlued) primitive in D, we shall define what it meant by a prime of alg adh of D._ Sich m path i defied by 8 einer mapping of the agment T=[s 8] into D; we do not sume differeniablity inthis content, Defeion. Let: [a b}-rD be a path contained in an open set D, and let be a cloved differential form nD. A conti function /() (Fer cxibng [eB] eile a print of w lng eatin the following ‘ond | (©) for oxy x, 8) tre ent rnin of wine mighbured fhe lat ejeD ack te 6» Fat) 70 fort rch ‘Troma 1. Suck «prior f aly eit and is igs op atin of Pusf. Fit of all, ff, and fy are two such primitives, the diference OPA by (tof the fren Fy) — Fy) na neighbourhood ‘of each ela, 8]; since the diference F,— Ty of bwo primitives of Isconstant, flows that te funtion ff) f(t) Saconsant ina nelghe bourhood ofeach pone ofthe segment We expres this by saying that the faction f,— fis belly onan. However, continuous locally eanse tant finetion on ome topological space (the segment I= (8) ia tia (ast) it emlnt Tndeed, fr any umber the ot of points ofthe space where the finction takes the value we both pen an owed, Tt remaina tobe proved thet there exis continuo function f(2) anti fying conditions (P). Each point vel har «neighbourhood (ia 1) a7 OLONORPNG FOMEHIONE,cALRN?' UrEOKA mapped by into an open die where w has a prime F. Since Lis Conact we Ca Sd a Baie saquenc of points Pea Sh i Shs e ac that for each integer where 0 (4) is path 45 of D with therame iat point a the eamon inital pont of yay nd the same endpoint az {heir common end point. Intute, cle path defons continaously fas varies fom 0 lt end pola remaining feed. ‘There aan analogous definition fr two clad pt gad y,:wesay tht they ae homowopie (in D) ar ced pit if there 8 continu mapping (ein) 0G) of LT ite D, auch shat 39) » O36 0) sa) forall, o a) (chs the path sis clte foreach a), Tn prtcla, we my that x lone eth yt hop fot ihe above Rl wth) #etant ” ovowonrite ronan, cxvotn’s “Toman 2. Uy and ae fs Hama ats of D with fed ed ots for 09 eld fom win D. rons aI tp ond ye ld pl oh Kanata lard pats thee foro ee fi ‘Tha two theres are comequencs of a emma wich we shall now state, Fist ofall heres a defiiton Dif. Let (12) 804) be = contnuoae mapping ofa rectangle 69 agigh auch Into the open st D, aod eta Be a loo form in D. A prin of fling the napping 2s «selina fonction f(y 3) ia the vecangle {ating the flowing condition (B) Poy pit (5) of th rt here xe a prion Ff wi igh ear of te») sch hat Fou) 768) ag pon (9) ail rar (9) noun, Sich a ri gy eit i amiga ut atin of crs, “Thilo intone sense, an extension of theorem 1. We shall prow icin an et way. By uring the compacnes of the retangle, we can tquadricet it by subdividing the interval of variation of ¢ by points fd that by points yin such a way tat, fra jee sal rerngle, nich ithe product ofthe wegen [fy Cay ayale mapped by 8 Into an open dic Uy, im which w has a prtive Keep. ined sate the intnetion U,,nUiyr, i non-empty (and connected), we ean add constant to exch F(j xed and f variable) in fc a way dat Fy and Figa elaide ka U0 Vise then obtain, a wen fimetion J) aes dat, fe al we ave HG) = PARE) when — bay has Hence fil x consinou a the rectangle 2StSh weutnn eoavnAR DYTEORALS; PRUE OF A CLOSED som HLL] tnd i in primitive of » following the mapping fy the restetion of & to this rectangle." Rach finetion fs defined up to the addition of ‘onatant;we an therefor, by induction ony choot tes additive coneanta way tha the fanceoes im) and fig lw) ane equal when Flally let be the fanesion debe nthe rectangle (8.3) by the canditon tha, fr all j, we have Fe 9) = silt.9) when — wey ap ‘This contindous function which sss conditions (P) andi indeed | primitive of w following the mapping 2. ‘The lemraa is thas proved Profefthoron2. Let bea continuoar mapping aiying conditions (6.2) and lef be a primitive of w following. Tt ix obvious that f 8 fiastant on the verte! sider 0 and f= t ofthe rectangle T x I. ‘Than we have Fo =F0.% fe =f009 sn ic ee eee co sre "The poot a theorem 2 is completly a saying (6.2). ogous; one wes a ming 7. Prensa seri eopenereD orn SF Define say that D i sinily come if ie connected aod if in ‘ation any closed path in D i homotopic to a point in. Tiwonea. 5. ny ll ifr frm win singly come en st D sa pinion D. efor there we he fo for any cloned pathy contained nD, which impties by proposition 2.x that w hae a primitive nD. In particular, in any simply connected open set tot conaiing 0, the done frm dele has prime; i ater wordy, log hr Prec oy imply concede et whih des a nto Beals of nly comet oben ae. We ay that subset B ofthe plane is stad with respect to one of is points @ ifr any point cB the Tne segment joining at le in B, o yp Dich stared wth rsa anf nt sing ted Bi cvioulycomneceds mercy fr ech fal manera between 0 fn the homolity of conte oand fc rns D nt elf evens rom to latory dees homotopy ofan eed carve parla, sex ope aD singly ome Fo a ove ope Set sarod with rope to any of pelt Te cont te plane ith the origin exci mo mply connected (cam thee [= mot humo to «pt In 618 eae ce tm © lng le ile et since the integral ero (of, elation (40) "The read is viedo prove the equivalence of the allowing fur pope ties (bra connected open st D) at an exerci 2) Dis sip connected ) any continuous mapping af the cle | = 1 ino D can be extended fora continous mapping of he die [|< ¢ Into By 1 any continuous mapping ofthe boundary of aquare ito D can be ‘xtended to a contauods mapping of the equae ibe! it D. 1D ifewo pats of D have the sane endpoint, then they are homotope ‘sith fed eed pols. 8, Tue amex oF 4 coun part Defitin, Let 1 be a cloned path inthe ple € and let bea point of © ‘which ‘des ot belong tthe tnkgs of. The ine of with rexpet og, Uenoted by 1) 4) ir deine tobe the value of the integral op es Proposition 51 gives that th index I) ivan ager By reling back to the definition, we sr that a order to ealeulte the index, ove must find’ continoowe complocvaied fneton fli) defined for 0G! sand mich that hen we have ees Ny Ald fo. Paopen oF DEX 1) Whe pi is fe nd) rin cnt ohn ed th 2 stacey re wt psig hag pt Tilo ey om thee oem 8 oo 2) If th eed phy fad, ha inde Uy) bly cont fat of when «oars te campo of the nage of. The proc he cae Sstbri}. Teslloye dat (0) a fanedon of «which is eed in each ennected component of the complement ofthe image of 3) I the image oft nti in singly comatedsn D eck des not eatin th pony nthe inde Ty a) ra. ot, the close path y ean then be deformed to a pont while remaining én D, hua it never pases ‘hough its mfiione now, tHe 1). 4) Ue x it a ile decribed in th paste sm (ies th sme och that 0) = 5 1) the inde Cp) egal 0 fr aie he le end gel 0 for inde ei. The case when as utd the crc towered by 3)s when « i inside the rele i i sulilent to examine the ease IM eth ent of he Ceca of 28, we ay Pon Prowonow 8 1. Let fb acontimonsmaphing of the cred de 38 3 fn the low HY andl the ron of fe cide 8b PT TF pint of th pla des mot elo th imag 0 nd ft ink) 0, ‘hf tates he ole a ls on he oon JP We prove this by ret a sate supposing that does not take the valve «The retain off we coments cde cre defines © Continuous deformation ofthe cowed pth y to pont. Comeqoey, te inter f > ia zr, which contact the hypothesis Deft. Lt, and yy be tw closed paths which donot pas through {he origin 0. “The pdt of these two pate means the clawed path defined by the mapping fo nl-no where the dot means multiplication ofthe complex number an vl) Porous 8.2. The ind, with pet the arin, of the fru of teo led th, hich donot perish oa he ran of the inde f ech (tt oe pth, Ta eer words, Ure 0) = Ht 0) + Hite 0) Toy le) and fl) be wo feats compere ftom ch 1s t= alt Let (0) nln) Bethe pret the two coed curves the fanetion FO AO) ELA sien wom) and we have iq.0) ASLO — =f ld fel tn 0+ Nr» which competes the poof Prorouon 89. Lely aad y be te clad pt nh plane C.F er late th eee © nd if abonge aoe [es)\ alt, ther enna continuouly iferendable mapping Tha) SAG. a} cen open neighbourhood U ofthe point (0) nto an open Wighbourbood V of poi (3,30, Wich ate the lowing conditions 6 (Gi) 2a homecmorphiss of U on V whos Jacobian is >o a each point Pe han 3 presenes erenation ‘Thus V is mapped homecron- 6 URVILIOLAR ORORALAS FROUNIUE OF A CLORED FORME 19 pialy by the ivere homeomorphism of 3 at U, th points of the thy going onto the points ofthe line a = The pots of V comple= mentary toy are then partitone into two open wet VP ad V=1 that fer which ais > 0 apd tha ir which w to. If we take U to be a ‘open de of centre (fy 0, then the open et V* and V~ ae comnetnd “Thos the pa yop the open set V ino two connected components, which complete the pros othe lemma, Difitin. Let K bea compact sitet of the plane 6 and let P=, bea fine st of cle plcewise diferenable pais.” We say thet Ii the eit Bownay of the compet set KH the llowing conditions are tated = (80 «) cach mapping ¢-»1(t takes any two diet point ino dint pnt, exept fr the nial aed nl point ofthe dfting spicata, Imoreover, the imager ofthe various Pare joint andthe ene the rer (20 2) iy am ciferentiable path of any ofthe Fy derivative (0) Is always 2, and ft sam interior point of che dining interval fy and the open et V ofthe previs lent is choven tobe sufilenly mal, ‘hen V~ tat mad K se V stl nthe ni of Kx ‘Condition (80s) is expres inaltivey by saying tat, when yindeseribed inthe lection of Increasing, the Interlor pote of are always oe le wheress the pins in the complement of Kare onthe ight. ean. Tabs K tbe a (cote) rectangle whote sides are paral to the ase then the perimeter of thin rectangle, as deine at the eid 14 th ried banda of We shal admit, wienooe prot thatthe Groen-Riemann frmula hol fer the aclented boundary Taf compact set K. A pred eae ofthe formals that fn Pde Qdy «ifn fren with con 65 MoLnoRe MiG FONCTION, EACH NeEORAL maul ifrenible coeicient In an open set contsining the compact et then @) frerase ff (O-E) as, (Pre notation J means winere rare the closed paths of 1 Te parla, th frm wi nd nD, he tion ) te teh iy the ree banda of comps abet of D. 2, Holomorphic Functions; Findamental Theorems 1. Reviow op pamexmerance foNerOM Let Dan pes ote pln and 9 el or cpl Serene eer ce ec te 2 ganna herd was Fat fa " (1) Sheet hae BS) = ah + Ok + OVER, fe cy va fh ra compl) STE Pec ete es ea VEE ete th ae bot ea om) ca oe a Mitel ats cal ead ce saYeaw, t= Ktn re Lews, slew Recall that the existence ofthe paral desvntives of fat the point (ou.5) e000 euficent forthe Funeton to be dfrentiable at this plat Duc / haw pra derivatives at every poet sufiienty neat 1 (J) land if thee’ pata devrstive are continbous functions. at she. pont (ae nds then fs dileentiabe at this point. A fanton which has cont ‘owe partial derivative nan open set Di sad 10 be contnaonly dil rentable nD. 4. Gomamon ron HoLoNORDNY LetD be an open mute ofthe complex plane © and let be function of the complex variable ¢ = 4-4 9 defined in D- 6 Deion. We sy that fe) hla atthe point ye it en (dent vale compe number) Tht Thieme yng tt ua dnt ith pet he cle vl the pose AG ‘ay that fs hlornorphie inthe open set it hslomorpt at each pole ws epic in the open st Dif holomomphi oa Condition (2.2) cam alto be writen (aa) Feat Sled = a0 + oa) wher al tendo 0 a ent 0 the deste fe). Since ‘£4 +6, relation (2. a) can also be written Plo 29) Leth nt B= Slie 9) — eh) + ath ETE hit hows tht erie fc ftw el vais x ‘is differentiable and that “ a bag ‘where ¢ and # are the constants in relation (1.1). ‘Thus we have Lm ¢, snd 2 mb ence “ . ye oo Ws tlne Convery Ie bea ierentiable funtion ofthe eal viable and real variable and y sstahing (2.4). Thea, relation (1.1) implies (9) with eo an ib, "Thus fis holomorphic at he point z=y-+ by We have in fact, proved the flowing propetion 7 ora Fe fe rp «initia Sat fel! ar chin of el sae ea 9 peas Sip i nin in rod tg ie “Rec iin 9 merely ep / =F hee? ‘and Q are real factions, then we obtain the Cauchy. iii fs) 29, 6 otowomnine YENEHORS, cAUEA's TEORAL, |. Inmonvomw oF tte vanuanins £4 2 Let f be a (ral or complex-valued) dierentable Santon of the rel sviabler «andy. Obnider the ifrenial oo ones ee “The parclar fois 2m 4-49 and Z=2—y have dierent 2) Lente ih, meth thon we hee convey os) den Et, Ha Ree By submitting thin (1) we obtain the equation With his notaton, we obtain the ution 4 oe nhac Lat. Condition (2.4), which expreses thet f i a holomorphic fonction of ‘he complex vatlable ca tow be writen Lao oo i 1s ter wor necemay and mafic contin fi ft behelomorpie hat the ecient of 2 ein the exresion (5) the ditental Or aguas af rn be proportional to de, the Satin of propor ‘malty ting igi tne tae 7. ‘Wesl spp to prove the lowing rll: a f ba icon i med tif el a oo, fi cont. othe ra pot Re(f)esimply (J + J) bylypabain d+ 7) =0 nb, which Can be wets » Dust Yarhar Tartans NotomoRemio FOROMIONG; FENDAMERTAL THEOREMS Oop Bat, sine fin is holomorphic, we have 2 cong we be a se, wing to the compler Yartans Howes n expo eo dey i cient «and 9 are sero, which ge 2 Tha, =, ‘ned fis constant in D. unod "We dace tom hihi, hme nd 0 Fn ted oh sD nf sitrlog roms arg fot, he fot Fo soir the ton 210) = beg fl) = lal /10i + aes) ‘We stay in some neighbourhood af the pat 2, and we chose a branch of the argument; zs hlomoephic adits fel (or imaginary) par constant ‘Thus i constant in some neighbouthood of zy. Thus f= # is locally coamtane in Dandi comequenely constant since D ie connected, 4 Cavers rexomat Trmone 5, 1/1) i om i op aD of cps, he efi fr he tend iD 1 ew fe pet of ere, we al gv pon nt og Tha pct rel xr hype We spon the para deca and estan Di et the ind et ss ta iota al aed when de Enphic)" Tovey ia hediteenta bem Jae Jt. 705 1 inc byte Gren Ramana la oan), to vay te ae, ay fae However, tht i procuely condition (2. 4) expasing that J is holoe morph, and the proof fe complete. ‘Seon prof, This prot, unlike the first, does not need any ational ypotbei, but itaequles amore sible argument. ‘Te show that fhe % is closed, we must prove that the integral fro de i zero along the seamy yttay coal Ree hier) De To serra a fre Divide the rectangle Rint fur equal rectangles by dividing each vide igo to equal part, ) Fie ety: be the (rented) oundarieof he foursmaltrectangles (i = 1,2, 3,4) eis easly vr (et. fg. ) tat [rete 3 fstote~ 3x0) ‘Thus among there four rectangles shere Seat feat one auch chat acyl > tangle RO into four equal rectangles at let one of which, say RO, will sty the conion [e(R™| >; a(R). We can cept this operation indefinitely to obtain a sequence of rectangles each included in {he previous ones the & rectangle RO yell lave side ates eal thea dove of end it area al then be ies salle than that of the rectangle Ro HF (RO) denote the oriented boundary ofthe rectangle RO, then 2 oa co) Liao ft0 1 the Caney citron convergence, here nique pit gon to all dhe rectangles RO, Obsisaly aD. “Thos fe) ix holomorphic tthe pointy and, consequent, JO fled +L Mea) +19 ea) (2) 9, [e(R)]. Call thin rectangle RO. Now divide the roo e). ra ¥ E Wedatace bag ff H0 fy 2 Lyle toy eel de (On the eight hand sde of 4.9), the St to integrals are xxo and the (hied & neligible compared with the area ofthe rectangle RO aa k ae coves ininiey the neggiecompared with h- Gampating 3 eomiequently by the hs wih (2) sow te ue Aen oR), we hve fe "Tals completes the prot, Conotsany 1. A lalonmpic finan f(e) in Dhar tly primi tick hlmophi ‘Thi statoment means that any poi of D has an open neighbourhood In which fas a holomorphic primitive. The acl existence of spite fallow fom the definition of closed form; and this leat peimive i Indeed holomorphic beeaae it han fn is dsivatve main ff) hep oD, th [0d 0 my seg OL hana ‘Ra flo ten ewes een a 6 308 Goeratcatin, We sal prove theorems 1 agua with lee strict conditions, ‘Doromnu 1". Lat f(2) Be on ctu fein in i st D, hich hl nie a cry otf D rh atthe pte of ine call fo {eral eet Tn te form (0) declan patristic fy bt oD er aed a Bef 0 ae Pot We mut prove tat the integral [(e)de baa for the boundary y of any rectangle contained in D. However, this is obvious {Percale dm tov nee the ine. athe naan a de otis band kt Sacha are cari ele far cores ofthe rece and ning on he Tne 8 ab ae teahand we nous my Ghat 820. Let RG) he the seg Sh Cheb i hea, ” [OLOWORPING FUNCTION OAUGHY'S HEORAL eng very al sunber> 0; he nga) ato oot the bunny o soe thst ed te ine rind he Bunny he eagle R. Toe f 9) Finally, ifthe line A meets the rectangle without containing ane of its erin tye ae ps Rin tages ad Red te mega [710 de ny when en et he buna ther Ror bce of te pein, res bowee he vn Af tho integrase equa oh integer the boundary Sh pe te pe {5 Cho's roan nos Dnonaae a. Let fb @ foton in ox oer st D._Lat aD ted ea clon gah fh dna ps gh on hich oe plein D. "Them oa BLS. aso, tah, dle ede of te la with np «(8m 8). Prmf, Lett) be the fiction defined in D by feo tess fe ate ate) fe ma ‘this fimtion i continous becaine of dhe defisiion of the derivative. tinct [lian ‘However, . [Eos = mitiuasen ‘by the defisiton of the index. hie proves relation (54). samp, Let f be a holomorphic fanetion in some neighbourhood of a ‘owed die and ety be the boundary of the due decribed in the postive ten. Then, [Ease fn Hae ie i 1 | | nowenoanste NCHONE; DANA RONNIE 1.2.6 6, Tavton meranmon oF A noxowonr ZONCHION ‘Tunomin 5, La fe) he leone foto in th ons [|

pad whoxe sum S(c) i equal tof (2) forlel<. We shall show that tis a lo Imophie ft in D sich winds f; such fiction iv unique by the Drinipe of analytic consinaation (cl. chap. 1, § 4 D8) CConide the function g() define in DY by the equation “7B: ‘This function is continuow in D? and ie ean quickly be shown hat it Isholomorphie at any pola of Dna ying on the real ax. The incon 4) which equal tafe) in D' and g(e) in Di coninunas in D ane holomorphic tal polsts ef D not Iying on the rel axis. Its therefore holomarphi stall point of D without excepion Note hat the Function fakes complex conjugate values (tht i syrmetse "ale with eect to the ral ax) at pan ef plats of D which are #7=- Teele with eapet to the real x. Thine why the proveding eomstracsion {Wealed the " pelcple of symmetry Exercises 1. 5) Let be apiccewie differatiabe path and lt y be it age under the mapping £—>2 @ymmety with repeee wo the real axis) Show thay, i/() ie a continuous function on 7, the fonction 2» f@) icon tite on and chat Jian [74 1s wotowoarts rinono exten’ HreeRA (9) Inpro i the un ce deeb inte postive ee, then Lrae=— [76 4, Let bes comin pth (0 neil pice dient). Show Sonor = fot few funefe yd ee a ee (rhe atin [ne 15 Let y be a plcewite diftventable path whove image Ss coatained fn an open set D, and let g[2) be a Bolomorphie function in D faking ‘values in an open vet 8 (ofthe plane of the complex variable). Show Uthat ya piecewise difirentiable pa snd tht, fr any continous ‘inetion Fo), Srteaanm freanete ee Is this om tre when 0 Tonge seca iene? fe, baa he (ileal) pad toe) re Gn a iar witht wneyng over the ame Hea 1 cone inthe eit te lel frosnin [you e_Show dat (ei cnn inthe lowed dis |< rand holomorphic in the open dsc [el 2 —P(), "Show that rly large, ty does not puss through the origin z= 0 and chat U(r 0) = #5 oauce fom this that P(t) =o Ia atleast one root, (Fit show dat, fr saintly lage Ry [aed -f os + a fr > Re The ual wo the inde, with ‘SR by the mapping 8 Letyfle) = ufe, 9) +e 9) be a holomorphic function ina connected open ei De IF ants 2) bso} me im Dy where 4,8 and ¢ ane eal comsants which are not all zr, then f(2) is ‘constant ia De (9 Let D be 3 sane open st inthe plane and let f[e) bea hotomorphle ftion in D. Show thet, oe any pa of prints, be, we can choose ‘vo points «and don the ine segment Joining and ruck eat FO) FB) = (eB) Red + HTL) (Conster the funetion ofa real viable dtd by FW) =F6 + —DOKe—D, ‘and apply the mean value theorem to dhe eel and imaginary parts of Fo) to. LetD be a comet open et hich symmetric with rapt 0 Sve axh and har aes ilcon Tih Aly al ‘txde feeder) in D ae be enced uniquely in We Be Jl 0) iM) feral ead, where and are blomorpic into nD which take ave nL Show fat in tie ca, Ws, =n ant Fe =e) ie, all coD. ti. t fad be vo lomorphic estonia comes open st D ofthe plans which have no zeros nD; if there i sequence (4) of point ofDaorh that Timaaa eeD and are forall, nai Sled 18) rat Fee) ae) show that thee exit constant ¢ wh that /(@) — ee) in. 12, Let ge) be a cious function on the oriented boundary Pf a compact et K. Let D be open et complementary t2 1 in Gand pul, fee ea, ° 9 = f 2 © Wom Beka fr eed, show at ) for ger and le—elcr with 0 0. However, we know that the eoeicient in the Fourier expansion of & feutinvow function of period ax ae expreaible as integral Involving the » FT foncin. In th peat conten, hee earere noma when 8 tend ony end ninty,the campct de ide ‘a ring als ween tea neat tomy eon a on eee e pmea ed Re y compact dba contin fnaon Hac, gy Bounded . In the wile of the ple an 1 aan by Lille eau. Te en the ght and sal ent eo ep wh at Peo nema one nies ponds to p= #, and we obtain the fundamental formula aaa rae rc) wed femsoea, Ef rsseey tom 35 ape a ¢ E 2. Mean Value Property; Maximum Modulus Principle |. which we onl also have deuce fom telation (61) of chapter § 2. "Tis integral frmala gees an upper boul for the ooefliient let ME) |, ethe upper bound of (et) 0 varie tha isthe upper bound of the values of oa the camerence of radi The alolute valu ofthe ‘et hand so (45) hem bownded bore by M4) und sation (1-2) hos giver the Randamental Saequaiis Mews vate rxopenry ‘We apply lation (1-2) of fin the putiular ase when w= 0. ‘The ar) ja) 0, which we sal ature om now fm. or rafienty small 70, et Mie) = myp| sa + For uficinty mall r>> 0, we have Mix) < fle) by hypothe. Moreo- ver the mean valve property gives m4, whence fe) MU) and consequently f(a) = MP) 1 follows thet the function 4) = Ro(F(e) S10) no fie suiienty small c~ a], ad that ge) = oi and only if F—Slo. By (22), the mean yale of ge) om the eee fn ero snc gis continuous and > this requtes that gi dential sero om this cinde, and, conequeaty, f(2)=J(@) when |e—el=r Conon Gomplt-atnd) cole icin ned i the lone oad sng He mace ale rer Dat Mb te sper ad off) when € dese he Siotir of D. Than, Let be bode cn oe tof th Plane 65 le f o fie oM fr ced; w ¥ (flo) =M “ego D, fis oto. Prof. Let M! be the upper bound of f(2)| fr xD, a bound which {i rained at at leart one pot oof the compact set D (since |) is ‘ottioun). If aD, fis contant in some ncgibourood of a by theo- ‘emt theocen sno howe atthe eubet of D whore takes the wate (0) ‘Soper, and, as ies obviously clved and non-empty, this subset must be the whole of D (because Dis consete) ncn f continuo is Dy we sexwane! uees mgs ato have fe) =(0) for caD whichshowa that M— Mi and etablisher Statement (i) ad (i). "The other ate to be proved ie when | (a2 Mt for any point veD; but, then M-= MT (which proves (and. () is tevaly trve because we do not have [{(@)] = M for any point «of. Nate, The maximum mela principle ie applied pecially to the illo ‘we #8 continnoo Rincon fn led dsc holomorphic inthe Intetior of the di, the upper bound of Lfon the boundary ofthe dic bunds [f above in the terior ofthe dic. In prtcla, in the Casey euslite (1- 3, MA) snot only the upper bound aff (2 [ei=F but alo fe |e 3. Schwars’ Lemma ‘Trmonan (Scwars? Lemna) Bergh tad ape hat Lo= Lat fe) be oleh tio in the Feal<1 friice Thee 19 se hse f (|< Ie for el <5 2° for igo 0 th gual Lf) Hs, th Sle) =e idtialy nd Pref In the Taylor expansion f(z) Bae’, the coeicient a zero became (0) = 0. Te fllows that fe holomorphi fre pe Supone fom now on that py pu. The, the sum 7(2) of the sexes ae nade 1 holomorphic in the nln p4~<[el 0.0 <0. ‘Weree tha ifthe function fi given, the cofcens ofa Laurent expe Alon of f when it exe, ar determined uniquely By relation (a). Tee ‘led the Laurene expansion of ‘Temonme. Any hloephic faction (2) in on ermal gu py oh id wo Fe) file) Ale Tis emo i iif sat ht heft fds 0 ee For, lot f(s) = 3. et be the Laurent expansion off; Put 2) Alem Bae, fled Bae. Relation (1) e obviously satis, and fends 00s tends to Stppone tnt ee LO = H00 +00 ‘another uch decompoaton et show that fy = gad f= gy Let ‘be the holamorphie fnetion which i equal 0 f;—-e ele, and legal 16 fa fr [> pas tin faction hs holomorphic in the wae plane and tend wo 033 jc ted to on. By the maximum modal pri {ple (fs, 202), or by Liou’ theorem (9 3) te notion ie Fdentically er." Thit completes the proof 4 Cauary's mequasris; arrucanion To THE STUDY OF woLATED Consider the integeal formula (2). FM) denotes the upper bound of] F(2) fr |=, Whe ght hand we of (2.1) ha ts modal bounded, shove by Mj), whence the Cauchy ineqality (fad - 0 which ind) above fr Incqualiy (4 we ave with ay suicinny all. By Cauchy's ale forall small, and for <0 thie implies Eat — 02, Thus the Laurent ‘expansion off redaces to « Taylor series and this defines the required extension of (0) Deaton, Let (2) be holomorphic function ia the punctued dee fo-cielaip. The ovigin 0 is said to be an lol snglariy off if the Tueti f cannot be extended toa holotoepicTurction on the entre dae 0, the image of te paced ie 0 e r fe o£ is homeomorpiam of 8; Ponto ©; we say thatwebaveachart ofS, —P onthe complex plane @, Silay, the ‘mapping (63,2) re” sa chart of 8) —Pranto the camplox plane Provided wii thse two chars, yale the ign sho Tet D be an open set of Sy We sy dat funtion f defined in D is Iolo in Di, in some neighbourhood of any point MeD disnet ffom Pi can be expresed ata holomrpi lane of, and i In ome neighbourhood of any pit MeD cianet fom Py i ca be express ‘8 holomorphic finetion of 2. We note tht, in a neighbourhood of ‘point disinet fom both P and P any holomerphie fiction of 0 except fra ike mamber of dm; the condlion fer an Cate elaguasty st the point at inGnty that shere exist an inity » of integers n> 0 such that ay 70 ‘The concepts of fel path led fab nd ried boundary of « compact ot can be defined far the epee By Resour norm, Finn, let ve conmider a holomorphic function /(e) fy le< py cated at the eign ‘Peorowron a. i «ev path tied th alas, he 1 [ode tyden 0) he inf te ph te twit ool te Feil aa abode ot We hve tee LO = ae + eds som 2 ae is holomorphic onthe anmulus and a s prime int equ z Bah "Thus, we have the relation en fredemes faces fia a eli demo sce ¢ a pike, feeem ani Us 0) by the definition of the index ‘These two relations, along with (22), ge (2.1). Formula (21) applied parclarly a the cate when the fnction fas am toad sngularty at the orga o (either m pole, or an endl ‘ingulety)- Tn this ease, yds a closed path in rome neighbourhood ‘of which dees aot passthrough 0. ‘The eneficent a of the Laurent ‘xpatsion is then elle the ede ofthe fiction fat the ingula pt. In parca, ify its cco centred ato with small radn deveibed in the! padive tome den oo [iuemmis ‘There ot ny lated dng st a any pol te plane © ‘is defined in a similar way. a eh §n08) Po Are hint nity eda spi defiiton lt fe) hex holomor- phic faneon fee] and put 2 = so sem fy) dain on ft pr anny ee of the fineton —,/( 5) at the point &'= 0, Thus, if Dac is the Laurent expansion off) in neighbourhood ofthe pint at innit, the edue of fat infty sa. Rawoue ruones Lat D bea oe sf the Rian sph 8 and lt ello ton Deepa a led pi ish ve singular Gf, La eh ited Bakar of coat rab Ae and apt hat ‘es mt fs trough ay singles off 7 the font at ay. Then, ony (fo mer of nul ae ote A, and en [0 e~a(ZRe 0), sear Ra (ft es of the ition fa he pointy tsa (tn oe al thesauri zoe Aiding sta iin ft ulin, Prof, We ditinguith between the two case where the pint at infinity ‘longs or does no belong to Pl 4 TN. Theshaded pas repent the completa he compact et A Trkene "Thepointat infinity des not Belong to A; Ais then a (bounded) compact set ofthe plane (fig. 4); cat singular pont gi the centre of clot dis 8 the interior of Aand we can choot the radi of dane ‘ics small enough forthe discs to be diol. Let be the boundary ofthe dsc 3, deorbed in the pois sese- Lat A’ Ie the compact et ‘hianed by removing the intron ofthe above dc fom A the ented Doudary ofA isthe diference between (the ovented boundary of A) tnd the circles. Since fx holomorphic in se neighbourhood of A, we have (ch. chapter a § no. 8, theorem 5) es) froenBf sore (On the other hand, by (2. 3) [fiosem vanaf snd sbi hi in (5) ge the equi reaion (2.4) stn sae ‘Thin infin blong eA. Lt ea of the point aint whic dos ot ner and wh ha telomeric inthis neihtaond (he pint anny being exe Lec A’ be the compact set obtains by removing the open ae [e|> 7 fom A (ci. 5) ae me 22 Ml ri ee ro ‘ened andr Ai he em fhe sent try fA SEF Se ac ae SECT wed et Pe Sia 9 [your fot mon ZRats 2, wr tenon on he ih ee ender gute %8 comand in Aether tha thn oii. Moreover, by she deiiton ‘ofthe reside at init, we have Saft eo mitten hse a (0) gen {sla de~ ani Resin) + Ee Uied) which i none ter tha the rege maton (24) whe he pit a ‘Rnky ioe of the gular ‘ear Conc npr th us wre the compact ti he we ‘phe Incl hebounly ingyen 4) cme en Reif a=o. Ror example, the om of te reir of retina fein (ing the ree igh) see. 3. Paxcnear eALouLATION OF neDUES ec le bh iy Ua ene le Som ya, . ‘where gi holomorphic in vome neighbourhood of with gfe) x60. Let HO Zae—e be the Taylor expansion of g(¢) In a neighbourhood of gy weate that the Laurent expansion off (2), th oefiient of equal 6) Tas, oo Reiff 2) = lin ee fia gira in the form of quotient )Q, whee Pan Qerelomos- pi ee tbeceed nd wheres irs ingle soo oF Q wh Peg eo.then =P. 69 naif 20 = Bes, senaing the diate of Q re Brangie. Let fe wwe have PIO! = 4 he fnction ha oo simple ples =, sand, consequently, the rede off atthe pe is equal wo The ce of «aig le Let fe) yeh ee ayitle whe oe) hate ‘morphic in a neighboushood of the point zg with 2%) #0. "The rdue Of /(@) is equal tothe coefcent of (es inthe Taylor expan ‘o{@) atthe point zy. The problem i rede, then, to Fnting ied ‘expansion of 2). To tls end, it isften convenient fo ake anew variable my Bante Let fe) = aha a Vet ww elle readue of Fe) atthe double pole zt this cate, =a 3 ae 444,50 we mus ad colon of in the Taylor expanses of Pate eis litt wie down the ted esaion of degre ofeach of MP0 ste) the req rlte b 2 Ailton, Rasa of «lars distin, Lat $2) be x meroroephic ction in neighbour of ty" We propre to Sad she rede of the logvithnic derivative a the poiné a. We have SO = e—aale) Bee seeraen deter er eee aera ee 95 <= | tf hlomnpicat ey ad <0 poe off eaking she learitnie derive ofthe two server Sif Ae tes nf han cm asin een of lei eu th nts the oder af multipticy ofthe eo or pole (outed pone far ero ted negatively 4 pol} 4 Arenscaron 70 wna ke NUMER OF FOEEE AND 23808 OF A RO Prowomrton 4.1. Li fle) be « monaypic futon slich ir mal cntnt fina operat D on be the oid Bandar of acampat 1 Kose ixD. ‘Suppo hat the ton farm oer onl dt tte he al Tha, ; tp Lle ig wo mh peh-2—* she de nen te nes of mihi he a of hs tin Siomene tine in and P dts he se of the end of aici of he pls of ‘aad K "This ean immediate consequence of the residue theorem and of the calc xeon ofthe residues ofthe fncion 2 1 pier, when holomorphic, he nals te Ta hand ide of (fe 1) a equal to the mumber of sore of f(s) = castained in K, it being understood that ech zero ie counted at many Ses ass ordet cof mii. ‘You will moze that the value ofthe integral on the Ft hand ideo (4.8), fn equal tothe quotient by a of te eenaon of te arpament of (@)— a ‘when ¢deserbes the elowed path I (of ehapert § 1.8). Provan 4.2. Lt sg a rut of ar bof he eputioe fe) = 6, 7 Wing woot, nonin in rme gta of. Ro any “fey mal mighonrod Vf fir ny btn ad (he equation fe) Bhar ly & single slain iV. [eTROOUCTION OF Tm FODKT OF IIWEY. ABUT THROREN 15.5 te came that fio 70 a any pint of the ds xt th ete ce Wetone he grt Ce sah Te=8 We knoe hat (2) sie cont when bare a conte compar sent he compement oft iagest yur fc chapers§ no 8) ‘etait a ae Side sp fade [Fess wal fesse > 0d canequnty, tention /(e) = Pha aly rots the iti ate ifenck rot bonnie wi oer ofp Bax bl ltl sear oabut athe moto the eqpatn 2) = barca gle Beene the dative 'e) 0 many of ¢ main eo soand Ay Hone, popron 2 prove 5 Armucarion 70 nounLy yewoote yexer Let and ey be two complex numbers, which ate linearly independent ‘over the el ld, that tomy, sch thats 0 wi tha het quent “isnot rea The totality of vectors af the frm yy mt where fd wy ae aebiteary integer forma a dlcree subgroup @ of the wdaiive group ofthe id €. We say that a funtion / (2) dined on the plane ‘bas the group as group of pais it on Tet me tae) Fe) forall eand fr all integers, andy, Anccemary sl ilficient condition for thin that 6) Seba sera=Se) Let cgheany complex number, We cser the (clos) parallelogram with veries 2 Ze 4 St te Zab tte Te coms ofall pints of the frm 2g fr tr ware 0 hy and 0 fy fe Such a Drlletgramm ie called = frleigrn of pris with few vorex cy Tet f(g) now be & meromorphic finction Inthe whole pane which fat (0s its group af periods, an covet in sucha way that (2) hs poles on the Boundary yo parallelogram of peeiods with a fest vere. We can conser the integral ff) de, whats vale i nro erase of the parody; [P00 = THe + 60) —Stea + ext ed] et +f les tat Fleet ed] o ‘By appling this esl ta the Logvithmic derivative (fan sing ropo ston jt we obtain Provosnon 5.1. [fFle) is noconon meron fiton in th whl ‘lebih ht a ap of ri, hander of era of Os, foto cvined fa prlegramo pris sql the mar of oes cid i he ae Sovran, ifm eer or pls of te anton J care th ees of he parlaigom. ; Conon, A Abmorphi fontn im © cing Oar group of oid & ‘Otherwise, the number of eee off (e) ~ 4 woald be equ tothe number poles, hat eros Dy thie tue fr all wih Is absurd Moreover, consder the figetion ® (6. Frsutisenty age, = mee the fnton Rl) thle o theory ah eg [sce qo he sm fees pl of wih re inn Tn fan fTnees [Re a= ane Re), where 0) denotes the halite canted ato f radius + deseled inthe Doatve seme, and where the summation exends over the raidses of pole stated in the balfplane p> 0, At r tents to: 00, the St Integral on the left hand sde of 2-2) tends wo T; we shall show tha the second integral on the lft bad side of (2-2) tends to 0. Ts il give (as) LR ae mi DR RE), the sum extending overall the poles of inthe upper halfplane y > 0. ‘Sinilry, [ny = — ei BR RO), -evaLnAsION OF DARORAL BY THE METHOD OF REKDURS ULE the sm hte lg ae over ll the pu a the lover halpane jem tin oe proved hat RG de tend oa rede + ‘which wil be se immediate comequenee of the blloing lemme Teun 1. Letf(2) be cota ton df i the cy tk oy end dowsing te moda and erg of eI faTO=0 i came 0. T lin f=, tina f fe de nor ane i mt Sareeneereetaniae oct pe ran yb he pee oan m6 wld p vag ir "Ra om) [rte aelecaan forme We sll show that [“e-vttrdd is bounded above by fixed number Independent ofr, wich will complete the proof of lemma 3. Tn fet oft oo fem de cm 193 Pro (5.4): we have rene the proposition , #5 completely prove. "We now exaiine the ease when (2) can have aguas on the eal sus.” We shall lint custo to one exam, the cave when /(2) har ‘liple poe atthe ergin Ts this cao, iis appropriate to mndiy the pal ef tegration to make i by-pus the origin along « semicite x6) ‘Erma adie «> conte atte rg nl sted the or hallane (ig. 7). We ure the fllowing tema Linon g. Ife = 0 is a simple pole of g(z), then oo tg [pl = Re eo 0 bing ted te itn of inesing ano a, we have g(@) 2+ ere Ae bolomorpie fnetion at thr The ng Ke) nd 0 a no dhe Iona fe i equal This gies raion (4 "This Lana will be applied to the function fe) fe). Bxanjs, ‘To evuate the integral 04 VALUANON OF MONORAL HY YEE WETMOD OF ABAD IL Inport nt tendo ff} e we bd cleats hate st [7 /() dy shen iwc be ec intranet Ankit perl: the tion oo tne lower halpins cand tn alpen ta en § Sapp (m nd). Move enraly a nega te ach [Hope ere semper ata ca be rata y ate iri inthe apa whee estber that dn ¢and cov ot bud ny hele, To coats pa of th oe [Fo sends, fF cor nae one aleaysexprones the trigonometric fnesionsin ora of complex expo ‘ental thatthe preceding tacts ean be apple, {0h te" Consider integrals of the fem. ra fas, where doer number such ht 0 << an Rs) onl Fenton wih no polo the pale wal sax >. Tes ca ht och ‘Sine cong for the lower lait of inteaton 0A ect) ed silent condition fr to converge the oper oe at (he principal part of is ny ofthe frm wih > 1 ter ‘wor, I necoary and mien that (en Hin Ria) 0 To cine eh nel we ome te finns = BLP fhe cpl aie dete nthe pe it pose al is SSeS ier rage edit eomny {the ch cha Be al a ee an oe Sumo fs ten oan, Wi hi coment negro ting he ce ah) dd ails: we der, i he a SE Se oe a eed lee Dot mes ol nmr ay ly cies) Wanowraideahwsi homme nas Lice tae ksh RY, Inve & 105, eu ost ra fh prt BD aD ete ln inl ge a+ fis al We ve mf Bay f Bees Gein [RO Snpten fgncect [tee oy [ioe cate, when the argument of is qual t 2, we have & = Meh Since te aurea fc emai bende, (ef when teas x 0 or when | ten to infin; Us he integrals along 4() and) tend to oae7 tends to co and sends to. (lemmas + anda). Onthelinit, wwe have ea) (—esyt ad Be (BA), and hs lation lows cal mpl fo ents = fey (0a) ee we ae Riz) — 5; there is only one pole g—— 1; because the branch of the ane of ia equal to = at ths pot the reueaf BLD Septem 2 Ren (2) en ra ana th yh Le one itp of he em [R00 toga ‘where R it raionalfanesin with no pole onthe posi rel axis #0 "Thi lst condton snr that entra AUIATION OF NITEORAL AY HE MRSOD OF RAIDERS aS Wie camer the rae open st D_ for integra ofthe gh type aul the same pach oincegation, Here again, we must spely the braneh chosen for og e; we shalchoowe teargument of: between ard ae. Fora reason which wiltoen be apparcat, we sal integrate atthe Raton RG, Dut the finetion Te) og) Here again the inengrals along the lel [pan (0) ton o'0 a onder, ae « tends t 9 bees of Jemonat rand.” When the agument of sequal toas, weave loge = log} 2s, 1 denoting the moda ofc. "Thue we have the elation LR ogsitae— ["R(e age ton de = at EReH RCO) oe ees, (0) af" RG) toga te — ani "Rl de BREA RO) og aly i ny sone dnt en thw ines f°) ant [Rel Leto» maps, owes tht he tn faetion Rie ret (ha iy i takes rel valu fr esl; y sparen rel sod imaginary parts of the relation (31), we obtas the two relations G9) [O°R()togede = — 1 Ro(BRe | R(o (ose)! Ga) 7 RG) a= —Lm( ERs [RQ dog} ‘The summation extends ver all the poles ofthe rational Keeton RY) contained in Be Baap, To erat he integral a to [aE The rede of 5 ot the ple = —1 i equal the efit fin the inte expon of lg (¢ — 1); three 1 fe, td we fd Note, By integrating the function RCé) loge inthe sume way we obtain ie forma wo [0780 d= 3 Res Re loge wor “The above method ean also be applied in some cats when the rational fuetion Rss single fle at x= C) ln his cae, the lateral ‘R(a logade vill has a meaning becae the pencil beasch of {hata simple sro at the point 1. eis then arewary 19 modify the contr of integration which we weer when we integrate along the poe rel aa withthe argument of equal to ay wet past (+ Pe 9 the point ¢— 1 along a semicircle of conte and small edie (6. 9)- ‘The reader should prove that, when the fineton Rie ral i satis G9) [TRO egede = a Re er (9) —E Re [ER where f denote the fiction Rie) (lg)* and where she summation ‘tends opr all he pols of fether than ¢=t. For example it can be ane Let Exercises 1. Let f(g) be holomorphic in [|< R,R> tenuate che integrals LG (e+4 taken over the uni rele i the pote sense in two iaent ways and dace the flowing relations: 108 2. Let/{@) bea holomorphic fant a an open wt containing de lie le) Rand le be the image ofthe crete [| — undo the mapping POF CG); supper that finninple ian fle) fe) Wee. Show that he Hngth L of yi oul to RLF (Re) dec thas LS aROL ‘Show that, under de same condtions, the area A of de imagecf the oted (ie fe Render the sane mapping given by ho ff gle tees educe the inequality Azo} (Change o polar coordinates and nate tha, fr 0-7 ee the integral stk in he piv ene. (Use exercise 1.) of Shaper and Cay’ Segal ela) 4 Tet /(2) be holomorphic fanton in the whole plane, and mapper ‘hat thee an integer wand vn poe nel numbers Rand M ich Hat UO@I 0, and suppoce that f+ 1) —/(@) forall zeP*, ‘Show that there is holomorphic funtion a) in the punctured disc oct hy sah that FO = 00, for gah Doduce that fe) as an expos of he em J=_ Xt, here tem fire hija ner ds focanyy>o,. Show ta isn omy converge cmpsct ‘Rive 2" Show ao thas ifthe et connant Mand an ier ch ict i) + (oy png eins ont sd th ton (eve Sex) (Bev) <2). © Ferd ups full) = 3 land let ye be the perimeter of the: square whose vertices have complex ‘Coordinates = (am i) (amt tba Show that Miele oy that aie ow OE Re cent (NB. The numbers B, re alld the Beroull nurses.) 15, Let c be an eneotl singularity of holomorphic feneion fe) i the puncturod die D given by 0< lee , show that thee ext a 'eDD and real Dumber e'> 0 such hat WW hean ated, ‘where denot the image oD ander the mapping < +f) and ware (4) (re. (9) 8 the open (esp las disc of radia contre 2 (ote tnt propor 4.a otf pte that & i be (hi lp follows foe the theorem im chapter, § yo.) and uee Weise heorem, mo. 4 4). (Let D be the punctate dine 0 <|g—~e< pls ad Het ay be te image under for > 0. Given zy 6, > 0, abo, Dy inducsion on m, the existence ofa sequence (ons of posive real mumbersand a wequence (Gaps of pone of D staying the following eopltone Been rama don Tah eandtye a) BU ombendemoayeie) fr #1 deduce that there ens a sequence (aps of psits in D such that Xi cme and Fl hows: and that (ein simple in any punctured die 0 < fee] Iefa} on ry show that che murber of eon of f(3) + (2) in Kisequal tothe number ‘of meron of a) in K. (Conder the loved paths foTy fe and pply Propsiion 4. of §§ and proportion 8. of chapter mf.) Evonpl, ICF(e) is olomonphic in an open st containing the cowed de fe) 1 and | f(e)| <1 for |e} ty then the equation fe) Ina exclymsolasons ne] =f for any Itager #8 2, Battling nega by eleing ren Of etametms, @ fees satdt (tal 8) eta exoh ft Comet on lees om he i 25 an (a,b real), 21, Integrate the Rtn J) = ga girjagy? WHO tne denotes the branch auch that — < anges slong the closed path 9(, «) defined as follows: escibe in turn the negative real axis om —r 10 Wy then the cle () of radia « centred at 0 in the negative seme, ‘en the negative real ax fram tor, a, Sally, the ele y} of radi rcentred at 0 antilockwne (oe 2 ad ft « be a real aumber such chat n> redo. Braluate, by the sme method, the integral pede Les pg be two real mune > 0 and lt whe a integer bc By Integrating the faction 2 along a conte analogous tothe above (in exer as), but with « table chor ofthe angle at the a, prove the following rations [ler rcongr te = Rede e foeering (ett cu tn co, I Pea (Rea da fe-t-nde = (=) 25. (Show thatthe function wet eis meromorphic inthe whale ‘orplex pany dat it bas simple ples atthe pont nx ma ateer, fand thats eidue atthe pole c= B equal tor forall met FQ = PIIQIA) be rato fzetion such hat dg Q> deg. P+ 1, and let Se poles act by by vb be de coteponding vcs Bape ao thatthe gare not integes fr tc 9 m.Let ye denote the pevimeter there with vein (+ 4) (24-1) whe apse Integer. ‘Show that thee exis two psitive ral numbers My, iedepen Sento a ch that ° Inca ony 5 tee Wet atety Tange Dede that cate de sd hat o te BJO =~ ZB bacorane 6 (Nore 4) implies hat Hm af) cexdsts, thus the [eft hand side £ (0 can beep y E70) Brome, Zale +b, eo +e!) ty (a) Show a ie caso sai een iota et > (tow it a) can Be wit enh en cat a oa ion which mise the condos f(s wet tat [EEE =o te ie log oppote esc) Note: lim 3 ft) does not exist in this case.) Bvample, —Caloulae tin S pase real nusnber). (ii) Let «be a real mumber such that —2 stating the flowing properties without ‘roof: The analytic fnctions in an open st D form a ring and even at Algebra. f(s, 9saaalyicinD,1f(e,) analytcatany pols (9) ¢D Hale 9) e069, ae value in'D, then the composed fneton / (u(y 8, aalts Dy Bx 9) 58 analytic in DY ———— ee ‘owen YONEMG OF RIVERA VARIABLDS, HARMONIC FUNCTION Provowrton 21, The im of mle power wit i an etc fvton (of ts abe in domain of emg “The proof i snilar to that of proposition 21 of § 4 of chapter The eer sould Sxnulate » proposition sila (0 propstion 2. the wae parsgraph 4. Tue ramet or nus cowmUaron ‘Turon, Let fs.) be on ana ftion in emul ape se and Lalo ybeD. The ilacingcnSos ar epae 8) Sand ols dinate sexo 6.3): 1b) ie del ce in sme neighberood of (93 ©) fi idatealy sia De “The proofs modelled on hat of te theorem of chapter 6490. Cononany 1. The rng of anc fami in «cma ent D it on feral dra Conouiany 2, (principle of analytic conination). If tne enbie tins f and inetd sen st D eli soe mghborhod fit ‘FD, than hey ae eal 3, Harmonie Functions of Two Real Variables Danan oF waswonte FONCTIONE Deéfwiton A Sasesion of 9) fo rea variables and defined in an ‘pen ct Dit aid to be har a Dif as conan derivatives ofthe cond onder and ates the contin (a) Ea Bfow bo clled the Laplacian andi fen dracted by "A barronic funtion fof eel valables sy oui defined 0 be a funetion with connote avvative of the fecond onder vwich aay “oe ites open + wy. UL oo; apt hag ‘but the fllowing only applies to the case of so variables Tetons the detains ad 2 arabes «= ++i anditsconjugne 2 «i (8 chapter, $2, 289} Then th respect to the complex 1.9) Meee ua) Bt Baty and, consequently, condition (1.3) i equivalent tothe Slowing “ ¥Lno os Bho Condition (1-9) express then that ina harmonic function. LYoe. We consider oth real- and comples-alued harsonic factions 2y (0. ya neccesary ad sfclent codon for «complex-valued function FP 440 (P and Q being real-valued) to be harmonic that Pad Q. ‘re harmonic. We shal len denote P by Re(f) and Eni.) Prowomrion 2.1 say Alone faction is heme or, iC s holomorphic, iis infty direatlable, and, by taking the derivative 2 ofthe elation & Gonorsany. The land iia part ofa blob ution ae harmo nications, or example, log Isa harmonic function inthe whole plane excluding the origin fr in some neighbourhood of each point ¢ loge har 8 branch and loge the veal pare of such n rch Porosriow 2.2. Ay ral harm fin fs 9) tan shen a Di ina ‘eighiaroed of ech pon of D, the ral pat of oomorple fenton f whisk {dried ation of ott Pf Sic ge brine mo, and content Ms lorie nD, Te dicen fm 23 at rte pv flr in er work, in x ncghouhond ofeach point of B here et « Aci ens up addon os ont, hat en pm ds AAALITIE MINCHIONG OF HVEAAL VARIABLE, HARHONID ENCTIONS “This relation show that fis holomorphic. Taking the complen conlue {gte of relation (a1) es eo) a7 22 ete cau, ¢ bag lit, the fcine 2 and SF are comple ene sats, By ang laos (22) ad (2), we obnin bay Daa thos su to the eal part of ith real catantadded it necety. {treat be proved ha Ifo lomorpie fcr ft fin ‘neighbourhood oF the same point have the same teal part thn their filrence Jiao constant, In fet, f+ f) or tha Lee Ter Lies Ean ich gin tS on “compa a Nae, Given a rel harmonie faction g in an open set D, cere does ‘ot necsnly exit a holomorphi fneton fin the wale of D, whaee real part equal tog. Por example, when D's the whale plane exchuing {he origi, log es wt the el pat of holomorphic function in D bec the logarithm of ¢ has no single-valued branch in D. Proposition 2.2 ‘aye only that any rel, harmouie Function Is lel the ral part of & Dolosoephiefaneton. However + Concrsany. If D ise singly come ae ul, oy rl harmonisation 1 the wal part of bln fat fie D- For, the difrential form 25 de has a primitive in (of chapter, § 1, 0.7, theorem 9). 4 Thu wan vat enorzeey We min chapter, § 2, 9, | that any holomorphic ineton finan open set D has the mean value propery: for any cle dae contained iD, the valu of fat the cente ofthe cise i equal to he mean of is vals on the bounday ofthe de. Proroamon 3:4. Any hems acon in D hn he nen sale re {ee elcent to prove this fora realvulued harmonic fanetion becnase 4 RAMONE FONERON OF RO REAL YAREARESE WRG the case ofa complen-alued harmonic function rede tothe seal ce ‘when the real and imaginary pres are conser tepately. [at 4, then, bea real harman function in D and let § be cowed dine ‘tained {a D. By the colar of propaditon 22, thee ext a halo: ‘orp funton fin se neighbourhood of $ whose real partis g. "The ‘ale off atthe centre of Sis qual fo the mean aff on the boundary of the da; By eng weal parts, we se thatthe value of gat che cone ofS eal to ts mean vale on the boundary of the div. ‘Th completes the prot, Wie shall se later (4 26 4) cat, converely, any oontiauous feion ‘with the mean value property is Baroni. Ia other wordy the nea “luc property charicteriza harmon funeins, Tn chaper 1, § 2, so. 2, we proved the sina ne frinil fr all, (ceakor complex valued) cooncous fandons wit the mean valve pro ppey. The maximum madulor principle therefore applies to harmon 4 Araurneery op wausionte roxemons Proromrion 4.1 day harm iting,» a fe et D of the Hae iran nl i of he ra sss oo) Dray, a 1 finn iy eal Prof, We can roppose tht hus ral vals and, atthe proposition is local ince itis suficient to show tha gi analyc fn neghborbood ‘each print ofD), we hall supose hat af, 9) harsuni fn he pen (dae a8 F< o%, Tahini gnthe real prt ofa olomorphie fonction JF wbie can be expanded as power sree wn Sei= Zac Replace ¢ by x iy in this veces and eomsider the ier we) Baer a power sien to arable ad bag onto hat (+5) ie (ali replaced by hs epeaon “ a es) Gtor= 3 thet All the point (sy) such that I+ 91

Tht we bv under the iterson el rin 8 smd comequenty, the integral (4g) ia bounded above by ", ine a nde ew 0 ev Tree Prmed the lem, we can now prove relation (6.2), We'dave 48 Fe S09) erent eee oe een Sera gat te tee of meee onal eat Since J is continous, we ean choate 9 20 that the abnolute ttetrnapaines wa tea en ees eee a SIRE tpt me ® lue of the integral (4. 3). ‘By the above lemma, m tends to 0 a2 tend tw, Therefore, wh &&vuliiendy ear to the aclu ‘value of the second integral will be<£. ‘Then, PO F096 hich proves (4 8). ia “anavrie FONCTION OF REVERAL VARIARE, HARMIOHEE FERETIONS "The theorem of no. 3 thus completely proved and formal (41) giv the wlation ofthe Dchee proiem exliy |b cmamacennearin OF HARMON FEMETIONS FY 7K RAN YALE ‘We have een (§ 5, 3) chat any harmonic fnction has the mean vale property. ‘The converse ato true ‘Troma, Any cts ft fi am oer et D ih eae ropes iD hemo inD. Prof ts aulicient to show that fis harmonic in x neighbrarkood of ‘heh point Ds to this end, we shal show that iF K fm lose dis: con- ‘Sino nD, shen fisherman in theinterioe of K. Conde the retiction [Sift the boundary ofthe die by the theorem of wo tere exist a eksnuourfantion Fin Ky which ie harmonic inthe iteior of K and Gite colnies with fon the boundary of K, ‘The diferenee F— fi Werte tie bowndary of K end eater the maximum modules principle Jn the tntetor of Kbecnuse it has the mean valve propery. By the ‘asimuin modus principle (ct the lemma of no. gh F=f identically Bein Ke Thus J coincide with the harmonic function F in the meio of K and, caoeqienty inde Martone a the iterie of K. 5, Holomorphic Functions of Several Complex Variables Comides n complex variables cy mete (ck Gm). By resoning (arin chapter 2, no, 3, we see atthe diferent of continuosly ‘Giferendablefantion can be writen i the fm rm) ao 3 lar ¥an). Kee a the aie fae xcept ecm fet anton forthe paral function to be a holomerphiefancion of x that 3 = 0. hic iw for each ofthe viable ay the diferent 7 tinea eombic ton ofthe da; conversely, ifs linear combination of the dey the ‘re hmction i blomorpic epartely with respect to cach variable 2 ie a penne ee ee . es nays perme emer in addition, its differential qf is equal 10 * 7 Ble 1s clear that an analytic faction of the comple variable zis holo= ce eet eee Bit, Asche eet ee aes Mitel ee Al te tes of no sic, Aue tte Sooe y cacee Spreciomicen ctrtiriene eerste ae Sorrel Gc thera 2 Cavety’s wracras, yours it, we conde the axe of to complex variables cand &p Prowournon 201. IF, comune in the prof ds eo fal) be bop fat on oe at D fC and forte ‘be hla fits i a oe et DY of cls asa ath pit of DP lr counter of ptt in D. The ations gil by (ba oop mPa De aly oo fs os lly <9 a lorie fet yo ft oe wD ‘Prof, We could we substition in convergent power series but, since ‘we have not gone ito the details of his mater inthe ease of several ‘aviabln we shall give a method based on an entirely diferent piacipe. ‘Since holrmarphic, we have, by hypothesis, 23M, 6» apn Bi dew sod since he finn 8 Hoshi oa en~ $3, We fd he diferent ofthe compote Fencion fg by batting Far ‘the aiferentals dyin (5-1), thelr ales in (5.2) thas deg) ia linear ‘combination of the dy andy consequently, fg irs holomorphic Seseon ot the ty 6. Ten mouzar remeron moe Presomon O.t- La Sy 8 fos tat jm a ee pe foc in nahi € fb yay eed toe a tinal rin ee (9) i 0 te ities Thy te ee " 6) We Sht ont ee el GE aed 196 MovoMORDHG FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL. GoM VARIA 1.5.6 ob ld whan te ar iiny rb they en te 25 ve sein ar th cd ehh 9 a ngBntly ar th By Fy yan, 1 te fing sy (a) B= HAI deh Boosh se fot emi tins is we tnd oft pa Progf We shall reduce it to the clamical implicit funtion theorem foe vealvarable.” Put YEE hhh HS b hy Jan being real. The exten product dy Adi equal to (is 4 8g) 1 (bem at Aa, Heres, (6.3) diyAdry——siae Ade, and, siilary, dyAdy)— aig When sp ussy3) are kept fa, hs dare Adg = dee(2E) dan. és anny. da) anon, wc, by main Sean nbdey, |e ML) dante Ad rd "Thisrelation and (6.3) show tat the fneional determinant of x, saw expe toy ay oo ye og bce sit eeserte cnre pa Ye tno Pia shows thatthe dy are linear combination of the sy andthe den Thus uso 2. rein fc, hla function f they a the 2x ‘Thi coeplete the poof as | Exercises 1. Show thas, t/t holemorpile a en ope set D, then forall z=, @ afta = as Or @ logs + 1/0 = Asbo + where denotes the Laplacian defined in § no. 2. (9) Let ale) bem holomorphic fanction in the die [e| 0 throughout the dc, prove the inequalities = res Retiro 0 In connected open set of the plane © and let K be a compact subse af D. Show that there iva ‘comsant My which depends ony 0a D and K, uch that fea) 0. (i) 16) holomorphic in an open set D, show tha | f(s ubdhar- ‘monic in Dforp > 0. Gi) IC fe), 18, a «0m, ane subharmonic fn D, chen the following Finetioat are alo eubbarmons in D= Baio a doi sep flee (ii) Ta vequenceofabarmnic fanstion/() in D converge airy ‘Ga any compact subset of, then the il function alo subbarmonie (ie)_Show thatthe maxim meslue pneple holds for subharmonic fess sow, In Sct that (2) fyi sbharmonie fiction in an open set D and ihe» relative tmaximim at polat aaD (le.f(2) <0) for any ¢ vllelertly near torah thea js conatant fn some eighboithood of (2) Let D be bounded, connected, open subset of the plane, let fe {2 ontinuous fanton in D which i sttarmonie ia Dad let NC be the ‘upper bound off 2) a ¢deeribe dhe ener of D, Then, 0 J) 0, (Put w Dade tat Lfrermansa+ ft [fp for mfcenty small p> o and show that a funtion 2) with cont uo can erates subharmone sD sand cay 18, /(2) 0 and = in the previous relation) BIN toby Show ha i iolamorphiin a pe se, eft leg F109 is vabaemoni nD “= 5: Lele) be mibharmonte function in the dive] such that the ‘loed dite of centre o and rdive ri eoptaned in Dy Ths the, holomorphic fre) 0) and converge ‘of anifry fo eh 0, we conde the subi! Vik, «) af e(D) ‘defined by oy FAVE) P/E for ve. ‘A neces and saficent condition for = sequence of functions f,@6(D) to converge tof uniformly cn eompact rubets i that, far any He and «, SofeeV0K 6) for sufiieny large ‘This expres that che sequence off @€(D) has faite linitin the topaogy (Gt exis) for whieh the sts VK, ) form a fademental system of neigh bourhoods of (the neighbourhoods oa point fate defied hy tating the neighbourhoods of 0 by f), Prorournon 9. 1. €(D) har int tplogy (arian dir toa) ‘in ich hs VK) fom Sindee of mgood of. Tht elegy is wie asd con bed by a tne whch rival. Prof. ‘The uniquenes of the opolgy ix obvious, Bate we know a fundamental sytem of cighbouriods of, and therefor, a fndamental ‘gptem of neghbourhoots af any poi of the apace €(D) by taaaaion. ‘We ee only find a distance faction, which invariant under tration, suc thatthe VG, «fre a fadamentl sytem of neighbourhoods af inthe topology defined by ths distance, Pit we inte the concpr of an exhastnseue of emp abate ‘ofD, thats an ineresingsequence of compact eu KreD (thie Kc Ks) fueh that any compact sabes K contained iD i comune in one of eK, Lown. Thee eit ov exhutie spun of embctrabiet of D. For, conser the compact dss contained in D whotecentze as rational ‘ordinates and whote radius Is rauonal. ‘They form acuta art that can be arranged faa vequence Diy Dy ay Dy vrs Let «=U. We now show tat the Ks frm an exautive equeoe: the intros of the dice D, frm an open cover of D and, consequent, any compact unt Kot D is contained ih a Ky 6 rorotsey oF rie wack 6{D) wns, ‘Suppate, from now oo, that we have chosen an exhnustive sequence of compact sunets K, and, foreach f=e(D), put oo Mis) oo “n= 3) We note shat dif) faite hecasse the serie on the right hand side ssajrised by the geometric series Ya“. Weshall prove tht dif) has the flowing properties: o mp is MEN). oa Up=oersno, os MF , the MMi fad, consequently, (9.5) implies that fee i. ancl emins Bo wich gv (6. ‘To complete the pool of propositions, t we sill have toshow tet the seu VOK, 6) form a fandamental system of meighbouthoods of in the ‘Opology defined by the abore mete ur ‘convenomes OF SEQUENCES OF HOLOMONEHIG OR MEROMORDING FUNCTION 1) Anyset V(K, aa neighbourhood ofo fr, given Kand «with «<1, Jet d be such that KeK, Then dhe relation d(f) @ because it tends 10 9 a | fends to initaty ance ie bounded each sep, the fonction fg ie bounded in the whole plane beeane ofits pviodty. iow’ theorem (Chapter at, (35 a0 2) giver thatthe fonction fp must thereire be fcnntant; nce fg testo 0 a8 |p| tend t ff, thi constant is ero. Hence, proposition 2.1 it proved. Mbit We hove eo (ga)-3- Bee an eh ie lone ncn (ne ihe Soho! a ee Monee) = 3 Hee, wo ltel~s] oA eee ee Tite expanion (2): valet 40 we chain the relation Aes @3) de to alee, Soom EWU OF A sRR OF seRoNORFING FUNCTIONS (Conde the seria oo es general erm ie equal to 7-£ the reader bl to prove for himself mA ‘hat this ein i normally convergent on compact subet ofthe plane 6 Tesum F(@) is then, #alromorphicfeton a 6, and its poles are the Integer 2a; dhy are stple ples with reidues equal to 1. By the theorem of no, the derivative P(e) ete um ofthe seis of derivatives, ‘hat isto sy rea Brat —(aea) Bl ita) Ie flows that F()— i in constant. However, we se on (82) that #3) = of and a8 ti constant, the conmant spt be 20 ‘The series (a. 1) eam be rearranged by puting together the two txt coreaponding to dhe integen mand —n nce, (att) +Ga-a)-a we finally obtain the relaon (es thus the faneton Fe) —z"- isan od faneton 2) b+ Batons 4 Avorn sxaous By the same method as no, it cam be how that 9 far st __ ct) 2 nia a fam bri be ata 3 a t+ Berg 5. Waseesaass roxemon Conse, atin chapter uty § 5, 0. 5, 9 dlscete subgroup 0 of O with = bse coming of to vector andy whoverti e aot rey We note Immediately tha the bse (¢y 4) 15 not completely devermined by the choice of: "The vector of another Base (fy) are exprenle as lnear ‘combinations of the vectors of the Rist ba with itera coeficienty, and vice-vena; i fllows thatthe determinant ofthe metrx of cociint Ie an integer which ha an averse i he ring of integers 90 equal to Convesely and «are near combinations af ad with integral cuelision and Ifthe deueminant of the matrix af cocicent is equal to: 4, then the Cramer formilne show that, convene, rand oar Tinea combinations oft and, with Integer coecons and, coment, (ye) inn bare of 0, en eee onvencase oF suqveNcss OF #oLOMORNING OR MEROMORPIG FUNEHONE ‘To prove this we shall need the flowing ems ana, These 3 imeem ‘Pref ofthe nme, Foreach integer a> 1, cones the parallelogram Py formes by the points ¢= fr; fr where the veal numbers fy and f fre such that sup (hile) oom (ee figure Jo). "There are exiclly Fig. 10 points of a on Py and the ditance beween any of them and ois > fa, Were fia fned namber = (i ie the mallet distance fom 010 the rns oF). The nm ofthe tae ovr the punto P i here 3, convergent, the lem i prove ‘We cat now show that the seri 5.) converge nzrmally on any comct Gace We have [olsear fr all but ite uber ofthe ws 0, forall bat a fae numberof the terms of the see (5 1), Defetion. Te Weierstram function y() i defined to be the meromorpic [upton which isthe sum ofthe seis (51). (Thi finetion depen, of ‘enue, on the dscrete subgroup @ chore). 156 sunt 0 seenonontnne FaNemON was “The pls of pare ely the poi of 05 hey ar doable pole wie rite ne inane nighbhond oft We) — got jt ales where gis holomorphic. "The fiction yi an ee fnetion of ¢becase wanat Bea) and itis safcient wo put —w fr won the right han se to resuver the Series (9.1). By the theorem of 1, a expacion ofthe derived fnetion 1 368 eres (whlch le normally convergent on compact tues) i os Wom Bete This reationdemonsentes the pei ofthe fncion ¥, YE+9=V@ fr all wea, andthe ft that Wi) = — “We shall ow show dat the neon elf ha any a ped ‘To do thi, i sulicent to prove thas ple) —p(e) when take he value and 2. However, 63) He +4) — He) — ‘because the derivative ¥(z +4) —y"(2) =o, We ean give « the valne "Tiron (9) bene and" nt poy we So ee he he ih end Se gs) ato ¥(2) 4 {is zero since ¥ is a even fanetion, ‘To sum up, the Weientras pimction is @ meromorphic fnetion with the pints O's periods andl with ple atthe pnts af @ and no athe, fench pole having onder 2 and principal part & The Laumt pouion of We). In wome neighbourhood of the orig, hava Laurent expaion which ia ri, of the frm oo Wem baat baat tons Decnuse the function yi even and berate, by (5. )y the holomorphic Seton defined by H0=¥0—4- 3B (eg—5) ‘comvmnoron F sguENans OF HOLOMORPUO OR MENOMOREINE FUNCTIONS fn some seighbourhood ofthe oils a zero for x= 0. ‘The coeflents land a, can ealy be exprened in terms of the discrete subgroup 0 lterendaing the series (@) term by term gives, ams ZS ws) ana, ‘Now, diferente relation (5.4) term by term and square both sides; this ges oO wey ~ Bacto cobing both siden of (4 vet oa (1a SB poten went, Vina no atag he Teflon that the fein ro) Vim song + is holomorphic in some aeghbourhood of the origin and it zero at the ‘origin. However, is fincion har @ aa iv group of periods 10 Ht olomasphic i some neighbourhood of each point of O and sero at ‘ach pot of Q. Since the feneion i no poles outie @, i flows {Bat iis holomorphic im the whole plane; nee ie Bounded on say compact suse, periodicity implies that it boude on; ad since ieisteo at the eign, Liowills theorem shows that I ie Ldenticlly ter. Finally, we have proved oo Yhap + sep + 2 “hia elton ha a iporta itrpetain et cone he alge tis eave 19) Pm 4 — tone aa the forma # = Xe), = ¥(2) give a parameterepeseatatin of tis fe, "Werallsbw iat ay point 9) € wach aie (3 1) ihe image of «pte eG whch breed pt headin of suclement of. Pat we sok the sa sch tht tee and ce. At ach 8 pot pan a tlomorpicy we have Va) = t=) bee ofthe poly 9 ad Piya eee "became 09 an cid fneon hence, ie aero at uch pein” We tow ere mac pats, samy ow ea adt, 22a = bel we inmedinely se tat says wh tat 00 and 242 {eat feather (he hac ml Ot he ie 1) ne dtc." Sice as nance ach paraleageanat ‘opens of chp sho fa Baya ee tee ‘icin tren in snc pct eo” The ate here he tice poietic (oy team posto, te fe {hn dct take mae nue mr tan tcc nach pear a en ‘Sint 9 (ej = Mah the hme tauer earache fn fe) aay {ee ached nthe ther handy aege0 aad ee, en Vk Snare ‘eet a te neon Sad om, wo SSS ee ec mbm oper "Po a a, Holy Wels wl + a) Inte pciny ene in each paragraph ete vale stein By (rainy ne thet Hote cto (10) oat nd, cormquely, this eatin ha hoe dot sola. To wi up, we have Font Propose deg, seatin (J), whee i ond eae ed by (5) hs Be ae tM fh | fsiecxe of he lhe at (0) th i pal ©) 206 ch at Mans ven We sal se (chapter vt § no. 9) hat, conven, given a arbitrary quaton of the form {5 1) whose right hand side has three ditinet oy there exists a dierete group fi vch that ey and yaaa (5 8)s tpi the Weierstrass fanesion seociated with tis yroup Oy the fre EERO: 25110 whe = permet eprom of te ale 3, Infinite Products of Holomorphic Functions Di Let (2) be a eqn of contin con nd in fmopen sD sf te compen ane, We cy tha the ate pede TL (s snwra momalyon a set KeD i lowing te condi sheeted 18 as teat o,f) ede nny hie imple in sede thay fr nicy age me 2 hs meee ce "7 ‘convenanice OF EQUENOES OF HOLONOREHG OX WEROWORPING FUNEEICN 2° he seis whose general term it log (which is define for suiciently Tange 9) it normally converge x ‘We can give a angle contin which it equivalent so the wo eond- tious 1° and 2° above. Let fa 1 -+ ax; them, condition 1° expeeses that the sequence a, converge uallormly too in Ky when a is smal, log f. and m, are equivalent to the Bet order, end, consequently, condition 2 express that the series Ym, converges normally in K. “To sum wp, « mer ad fet endo or eine ret TL amore arly in Bis atthe wees Yeon smal in K. Debi. Te te produto cso mbt eto i rod! comers aml a vy pac art a. A oecemay adic enone his sa ve ptf te theres a converge orally os camp aes of D1 hs seth a nro, he produc TL converge unioraly ‘on compacts subsets of D to limit J (2), whic fr evidently a continuous tnt To sean omer lie tak ei sf te tr ley age 4 Paoranmst OF NORMALLY OoNvERORINT rRODUCTE OF MOLMORFIG ‘Drmomn 1, Ate anton fae halemaphicinD and if hint prot TL mrs may none ts of Dt f= lpi Siew on Sofbe HATLA Th sb of oof, the son of the a of eof he ations fo ther of uli of cr of Being eu tthe sa fhe ods of aii ich Ia foreach of te fons fo Prof. fis holomorphic became fis the limit (approached ustormly on ‘eompact subsea) of the finite produc, which are holomorphic. The ‘twocatvity farms (e 2) obvious on any relatively compact open set U ‘The function fh no zero n U fr eficenly large m nce ‘ouvergesunlrmly 10-0 in U; the lt statement is then obvious 158 ‘owes rAoDUGTS OF HoLoMoRNHE HONEMON V3. ‘Pamomet Wie bts of he, tr ia Bf of meric fectons emmy ory om cma eats of D (in te ese of no of $21 “ands sae th rn dersatief. Prog Let U be relatively compact pen set of D, ‘The funtion oo 3 is fee) 4s defined and holomorphic have in, ee FBR E However, on oy where the vio om he ht hand sie conser fly on eompect sic Df, the ee Bog fa gst cee (aie om compat sab og 8 he rif deste fhe gos ‘eves (fri o etiget se) to he date is ee, mm trem 3). Bp comparing 0 8) am f'n wee aa Lays Pee the converges being noon compact et of UT ols iG, whem he tere Sas exrmson oF a 8 IDE or Conia he ine rode on fol 8 “Thi pret converge erally on compet soe ath lane eee she win BE converts normally on compact et, whieh flow from the converte of the miner! sero BA Than, e » ‘lomo function inthe whole plane adits eae al the integral values of ‘They ae simple ers, By theorem 2, we can iferentiat logarithmically term by tem; we obtain 0 where gle) sane, Than 1 = fs 3 £60 tins “he constant ¢ reins o be determined, By (1) Fee tent scene 0, and since 2 ha «a Hii wes that nee we have proved the orale os 4 Tue revevenon Mel < rand 1 <<, we can comide the principal branch of log fle) mie ad Manica Breas, for suficenty smal Hees, the sein Zog fe) converges normally on compact subsets of the plane, and, consequently, the inflte product ay TT © converge normally on compact suives of the plane. It Value le'a holomorphic funetion g(2), which is the uniform Timi on compact sult of the fanctins Bethe fe "The anetion gas the numbers 0,140.1 sits zt, and 0 momne ProDects oF HoOKONORFIBE FUNCTIONS Yad they are all imple meron, If nt an integer, we na frm the quotient Hl tig 80) wo gern Ngee ‘Thus, the meromorphic function —£4)_— ig, in uct, holomorphic and ate ton ey 9 £0) = fing) = HEE a, Dijiti. ‘The meromephefneon ee) decid by 1). All Rolntgen ac oa sole pos cf T(dy sod the faci ater ro) Netyae, Mm ‘which follows obviously from (4 4) and (4.5). We deduce om (4. 6) by Induction on the integer a> 0 tat, a) Peta ant ‘We now propos to calelate the product P(e)-P(t—2). Weave 4) aeate whic, by nn, equal e822 By inverting, we oan 9 rene 2) and, inthe pariula cate when 2 = The Wri infra, By wig (1); we ean write Ge) nome ((r 4 g)em)ateton Meant orto hr dees Blt ents Te te in wean log») tends to Cea tends to infinity, en 16 ' ‘comnmoeier OF sou OF HOLOMORFEIG OR MERONORFIIG FUNCTIONS sn hw wy nh gt hn ee Teva comespeton etapa wear ath pac. Scag = fe cans ‘taking logarithmic derivatives of the two side of (4 11) (ee ert) wn sods prt, a u(RG +2) Finally, we can diferente elation (4 18) tom by ten (ef § 8 so 1} 08a fi £(ria oe ind) 3 ote thesia between esr on the ight and sd ad the ere sone nin (5-2) 02 When ald sti, he ie Imad ide of (4.14) 8 obviculy penitiv, log P(e) decom fat gf ier real £0. era 4. Compact Subsets of 3¢(D) ‘The characterization of compsetsubit f HD) which ie given here it what uted to be elled the theory of neal fais af olomrphle entinn, 1. Bocioeo roma or #(D) ‘Weshal define whats meant by bounded sabats of the vetor space). "The denon is merely 2 partclar case of x defition whi applies toa topological vector space. Tn parealar the sane defaitionspplics to bounded mace a (0). Deft. Asset Ne3(D) is unde if for any neighbourhood V(K, «) of, there isa Mine postive number i such that AC 1V(K,), where IV(K,) denotes the homethery of VOR, «) with respect tothe origin by the ewe i. The relation AcAV(K, «) exprewer that |e) de Me ‘cowencr sume oF (0) vga force andforanyfinetion feA. Hence, amestey ad fie! sna Soi of brah fis in D to be bale at for 9 emact ‘nut Ke, the oft maber NK) rah that LV MK) forall 20K and al fed, other word A is «hounded subst if he functions fv. at aifrmly ded on cmp sits of D (the opper bound MR) depending larly on the compact sabe K) a IA ins bounded watt of (0), its cose A i bounded (we mean here the elosre nthe tpalgy of unre on compact ules ED). This obvious because if (1 1) hold for every fA it lds ls for every fineton belonging to the clare of A. Puovomion 1.1, The maphing ff? of 8D) intial taker any bod ae int banded bt ‘This follows dreey from the lemma which we wed to prove theorem 2 off iuoe 2, Stare oF rie FumasuEAL OREN We propose to characterise the cmpact saci of the space (D) of holomorphic function in am open set D ofthe complex plane Proroaiow 2.1. If AeX{D) is cama, thm A ie cond and bode Prof. The space X{D) i Hausdorl snge its metre (CE § 5 no 3) ‘Ths, any compact saber of) i cloned by claaeal ret in general topology. Te remains tobe proved that, fA i sompact, Ais bocnded, ‘To prove this Tet Ke a campactsubet of D and sonaider the mapping Sormplyo| the set of values which It tes onthe compact subaet consiting of te ‘FeA is bounded. This exprener that the fa" are utibrmnly bounded ‘on the compact subset Kt holds fr any compact subset K of D, nd, consequently, the att A is indeed a bounded subvet of the vector ‘ye 0D}. ‘oe, Proposition 2.1 is stated forthe space 34D) but itis alo eae forthe space 0D) of continuous funcions ia In conse, the converse ‘of proposition 2.1, which we shall now mate only tre fr nists ot che space i(D) 6 folmepi Sanction in D. ofthe spice XD) into it is clear that hist consinsous mapping, 163 EO convERonNce OF mQQENaE GP NOLMORFHG OW MEROMOREEO UNCTONS ‘Fonoanentas rieonrat, Any sb of SD) whi dt del ond cool roma, Conon. A meer and aint endef « abe A of (D) © be compat i al Boe end Sled. "The prot ofthis theorem wll ake up number, 4 and 5, An equ ‘alent snterent ofthe fdarnental Care i che lowing “Aaybuded bof HD) Hr ltl compact The converse e alo tue, + Mon or paoow ov ne ransuenent Hon Let A be & bounded, cloned suet af 26(D)- The topological pace A i tetdaable ince it n'a subspace of + testable spuce %(D). To prove that As compact sullen show that ony ii sume of lets (Ah ft sega shih one oan lama of Fo, we have the following topological lena: ma 1. La A Be mee sae ck at en fie sep of pins of A ‘onli an inf sbegmce lich ener eat of A; ten scope Prof often 1. Lee (U) bem OF Ay open seu Us We must ‘Show that this covering conta a Brite covering Fist we show: 4) There exit an «20 such that any ball Bls,¢) is contained in at eat one of the Uy fe we Bla) to dente the cowed bil of conte eA snd raion Te ere) we we he fod: we mune ht he» sequence of points syasA and decreasing tequence of number ey ir ek he rs) ct ine in yo the Uy By hypothe, the sequence (s,) eontsne an infil aubsequence ‘which convener to 8 point ae. We can therefore suppise that the sequence (x) camvergs toe Let U, bean open set contitng e; then U, ‘contains a ball Bar) For slilenly larger (02) aod ola Tellows that Bi, «) i consined i U, or suiiendy lage m which | acantaiction, "This proves a). We nov show 1) For any «> 0, A can be covered by afl numberof Balls Bis): Tis clear that) and 8) together imply that here ext a Bite ner ‘ofthe open ets Uy which cover A. ‘We prove) alo by seking a contradiction sf) i fe, tere i aninfnite sequence of pints syeA hove ditances spat are all 34; howeve, we ean, by hypothe, extract a convergent subsequence ofthis sequence, ‘which cbvioly leads to cnsadiction. ‘Thus, we have proved ema. 164 courncr suns oF (0) os 46 Aca, ‘Because of no. 3, we have reduced the theorem to showing tat Aiea bounded suvet of 2(0), then any infinite soquenee of fnetone eA contains an infinite subsequence which eouverges afomly on campact rules ofD. The following lezsna i wel sriteron fi convergence ‘of sequences of holomorphic factions belonging to a bounel mine # Tune 2. Lit D be on gn dissed ob 2y ond lt Abe bounded st Pf MD).” A meio and sien eetin fo e qune of foto foe A {be comer (in he ploy of wir emerges er mast of D 1s te flats contin Gly) fr cach > 0, ihe seamce of ath darts fe) har a fini (Por =o tis means chat the sequence of vals of the functions fat ‘the point zy hata iit), Prof of lnme 2, Conlin Ole) is newamary bose, exch a, the sequence of nh derivatives JP" converges unify. tn say cieypeet subset ofD (1, n0 2, theorern 2). "Te remains to be pve int condi is) imple thatthe sequence (convenes unifrmly in any compact dite of centre zy and raclur 7 sicly lew than the radi ofthe aoe D> Goose an rr but sl see lem then the ray of. Shoe A la bounded, thre exists «finite M rach that ny WM fe eel We conser the Taylor expansions ofthe holomorphic fein fj: 4 Ske By Cauchy’ neque, we ave M «9 las Bh Zademeo To, fea < and eal 4 VOB <3 ave a4, lr aac (2) Sin ro< wean cho ent ge © make mE (Gy tt ha whores an key amber > 0 ge a aac By 185 ‘convenonion Or seguunens OF HOLOMOREHE OX MENaMORPIE HENETIONS ‘onion (ey, wen the integers Fae bot increase indeiitly, dhe Alerence aye gy tends to aero for ech mbecasze nn de. We can here came hn ine Bch hat (Aylmer mln SE eb D he AD be Ti, os 4), 43) A) —“AO See ED bh Mele—elcn which proves chat the sequence of functions fi, converges wnifoemly on the compact de of contre cy and radian Hees lemma 2 i proved | Paoo? op mu roman, tnoRae ‘We ae now in youloa to prove the Fundamental theorems (ao 2) "The given openset Des he covered bys countable sequence of pen ies with conten at-teD. For each Integer 8 > 0 and foreach i comider the Hiner mapping 9 >t336D) +6 ‘whic vce the number 0) with each function fi Let we conider {aequenee f functions f, belonging to a bounded subst A; we Intend to how that there isa infinite subert N"of ee set of postive integers N ‘ach at o» ‘But, foreach jad ech the numbers (form a brad sequence at the index k deveriber Ny since the fy dsc a bounded ee A and the Ineppings 3 are continuous, Let wr arrange the countable et of Mappings JP les shglesequenee ich we write fy oc vesc ss We halthow Ue ates fam nena NON ac a oo ‘yp tA) exis foreah neger > 1 Ess) exits foreach pie “Todo thi, wo shall se the diagonal sequence methed. Since the sequence ofthe pai) for aN, e onde, there am nine suber Nye sch tha Lim aal4) exits courncr susses oF (0) vas ‘The sequence of the (fr aN t bounded, 2 there exit an in sect Nye eu feat brats) ens Hence we define step by step, the ifnit mbes NyaNyo... 282. “The vt Nay i then an infinite subct of Ny euch that dip wossl fi) exit, Consider now the infinite sequence N’ of ators defined in the flowing ‘way: foreach integer m > 1s the mth term ofthe sequence Nie the meth term of the wequence Ny. ‘The sequence N’ is sity Increasing, nad it 1s clear that every imager of sequence N’ after the m-h lenge to Ne ‘This holds forall mao the sequence N’ satis condition {5s which completes the proof, ence the fandamental dheorem of no, 2is completely prove, Nae, What we have just prove in fcty that Jn & special ease, an Infinite preduer of cempact space i ompack 6. Sour conszguasons oF in FUNDANENTAL TEORENE ‘The fllowing principle is hequently wed : Lat A be bund st of ble morph cis ns Uf segue of fntins fe hat at mar hon oe ction in i cla (te ily of waif cng om mph), ‘hsp iscamorga (he rane logy. "Ths fellows fro» coal theorem abou the topology of compact spaces, “AL an application af this principle, conalder fist the cue where he openseeD sconce and where the sequence of functors Fy conve imply tah it femme oe ct conta in (ci om ‘ans thatthe of amber) has a Limit for each pent @D, this the eae and ifthe fy belong to a bounded, the sequence (4) converges uniformly oncloed subnets aD.” Bors if fad ee two bolo ‘morphic incon in D and both ae inthe close ofthe seuencea the fo then, cleary, fe) = a2) at any point cD” which lpr that f and ¢ faze ential in D by the princple of analytic contauaton). CConier now dhe cae of «bounded seucceof olen fantins saint emo Oe) fh where i pot a.” Thny is connected the equence (fi) converges unifrmly ia any compact fubeet of D. Foe fan gare to he funecions in the cavore of the sequence (fi), thea /(e) = g(e) for any integer n>, and 6 CONVENOR OF RIE OY OLOWORRING ox tRAEMOREIG PENEHON comequenly, fand gare idendeal because of the poeple of analytic ‘Another cate i hat of = bounded sequence of holomorphic Fantons fy {nD which convege simply a each point ofa snes abt B of Dy ‘where D ig stl connected. Such a sequonee converges anioeay on Compact subics of D, because fang are two holomorphie functions inthe conureofthe quence (fi), the dlaece J{)—¢) lazer ateach pol of andi thardencialy sro since the ae of mero of holomorphic Fanetion in D (connected) isa Gscret et fhe fonsion snot iensally Exercises 1. Let f(@) be holomorphic fmetion in the de e|-< 1, and suppose that f() = 0 Show that the serie ZF) converges wily i sy compact suboor of thie be. (Given 0'=<7-<1) we Schwa” Jemma fin the din e|-27) to Bound! [f(e) above by a constant multiple of lerorklc 4 LD beacon open thls als i) ange Ge hobenopie fn iD, sonverging uray sommpect noc SED wom fin fd) whsh ino ietealy ort.” Morey te he {event boumtary oa compectauiet KofD woh thet a) 008 Show tat thee nn yotiveratger Nach hat, fr a> Ne) 000 fd thats ad fhe the mone eof eon (HEM the vee otod offi and inchonen oat UC) fe) 2M fr WN Sed cof, thon Roochte theorem (exersbe 19 of ehepler 1) can be pple the fapetins J) ad fe) FO) fea zero (thre eit a aquene (4) of pains Let + be a complex number auch thet Imjs) 0, and pat g = ‘Show thatthe flowing wo seri converge unormly os compact subsets of the plane Gof the variable w: XE we dete the olor inion dead ste wile plas ‘by theve series by 29{u), 3,(a), then the following relations hold aaa Net = 363, sat) 90, ltt) rhein), ts) — gees), alee) = irre, Stow that the Santon 3) 3) are not Ketly zo. (show, tn, at [Psrar=s +2 3 wn) Stow thatthe comple she mf integral vale man, are seats 5) dd heme me (n- (0) By rating theintega fhe intion Whoa the preter ofa ‘te paralllogra of pro show ta the a ns other se yak a bea re number, By proselng an no. §2, prove the sch ane ae tapinee—a) "2 pe and deduce that 9 ea ane coe Jay the ftlowing expansions o pee eR. “aoe 0 weaase~ar 3 Deduce for (that + Prd ewig fra om) a by he ti of 0.3 w owe I (pt). wea IER) 38 convenamics OF 2quENGRs OF UOLOMONHNE O& MEROMORDHHG FONCTION (ee at ‘coacantey sat) acum 738 6. Show that eye TEN) ag (Ue formal (414). se, by integration, that re@r(s+t) meres, « beonsant; determine ¢ and 6 by ating z—=-1, 1 incur. Use the same method, ten he mr gl le ges > 5 roe = eo-mpriman(e et) ur(e4l4). (mie he cota nen, pt = 1 er 8) with z= tip <9 pan the relation sin sin SE. sn Fe gar Gepsson dade PE Te FOI P) - 2) Show thatthe integral renin Where sits real parameter, converge unl fa any intel e xc b wih 0c; dee tha he intra [ea defi a slo hic nto af, whic denoted by O(n the haplane Ree) > 0. pinion te by 00, Eplane Rel) > © fete ape OL ene aR > ane nan integer > 15 © ase)<( a then ute the inequality —H < e(a— whch str for #3 6 2 0 by taking ae, B= 1 tf) Dedace hae ef Ge) =F) for ele) >0 8. Determine the residue ofthe fanction F(2) at te pole = eens 9 Show that it we) wha and that ‘ 2 fe eh hat bebe athe Laurent expansion ofthe faction (ea the origin, then the ile rental equation (5-0) of § allow ur to clealate the eoefiients ou fen > 931 polyromialsin a dm by ndoetion. Determine a sad a. to, Let Pe a paalelogram of pris of the faseions y. Show tht, iE and pare two complex aumnbeey, the function 0 vO — fas three seo in Pantha theirsum equal os period (we propositions 5:4 and 5.2 of chapter ut 65). Deduce that, fw and # are awo complex uraber uch that w-0250 (mod. 0}, then x pean be found s0 that deduce that, uh of a=0, Ho ve eeslFO) 0) ive ¥00) 1, Th the sotition of example § above, show tha dhe inte product, Tle erence] den tlamorpicanction (nthe whale fhe plane othe pox ‘aide Wit ae she sew a0)? Show tat FW) =6.50 here «denotes» constant {The fiction f (20) in shown tbe doubly periodic and holomorphic Jn ew lt te cy fo opin fear 45 ” ouwren VI Holomorphic Transformations 1, General Theory; Examples 1, Loans sy oF A wovoworrite seavaronuarion w =f) Wi SFiey eo Porro tc Late =e) «hl facta i msgbnd fesse i 70, and of Phen a ftly Se We cd ne npc i ln fe) tron fo ola PE gto, thy dats dr) hap lan of ee hbo of ahh a) = “Taille 1,2 propionate ison SAE in sone nghiutoed of «pnt the irene tanoratn cf's hlomorie tnairaton wih Uesvave 0 a loner trandormation; moreover, wih the above notaec, the dene Been bythe vlan 10) =p Ta pai hist 70a he pit oy ire be the nonsuro complet number (ep The (homogenss) ea, tangent ancrnaton ofthe tatcon fat he pa Gotinhenaton oun) wea, hl, comdred ot » nsmation ofthe pine, ix dt sin 1 paris, he taration pos rod hr nT the wor i to aifereinie pty to he ene have Ina unt the lnager ef te pata uncer te asain wf) tre aire pae with nal pln ny and che halPanget 3 y mm ‘make the same oriented angle atthe halétangonts to the path yy and te atthe pint zp or this raion, we my that a holamerphic teanslrmation 1 =f) in efor al each panes where the derivative 2) ia to. Convery, any (Bomogeness) aan tranfoaton ofthe pane which rer ae (lt nny pra hee on te that the composed earsormation Se leaves the real point (10) fixed, Since So10'T preserves angle the point (o, 1 i ensormed tat (ove) where ai real yo. ‘Ths (1) rare in (1, (2h a 2) mae oq sar (0), nee oe 54,7 Us asmncay wih rape tothe ralanoand Te SoU tie rm 9 wh aps ie po Inthe eae (thei sam reves oan in theese (ni change none" iy» ran 2) ae n'ont ope et fe pat of te cpl: ‘eraie'ce'h 9; supe te common iele $h in al pao De wanmaton our sg er wort linear get unrsnisoe epe cach pint oD) en at eh pao Dy oon rains Yang Mao, Noe Ene bole, Tho sine ca never eid slay a pot SD tee he pal dors with ropes ot ty weld belts cong he hc Jaan ner ae he tw feof a amos te pi of Don wich iy ae ow ae an a Dees D thi te ve it ‘led ond nq, te wane py ce Dice ted Oni tecans aepoie either fm ay poi of the amrasobai, ar Mat ea plo D (of a ‘holomorphic fisnetion of Z}. Tn the latter case we say that the transfor ttn entitle To tan sp Prowomnon 1.2. A newer aed rift cndion for «contol dif ‘ual tangfirmatin with Jobion v0 aye iene open D (Ff the fle b pros ely i that ii le olor or 7 1 the et ae, cosas hein of anges ey hanes, ages tie ration fen T is the identity and T'S in ofthe form {ts a). Me — at 2, Loca ery OF A HoLoNoRUE raASaHORUADION we) WHEN Fe =o. int, considera particular case, tht of the tnsatormation ey where p denotes an integer "The ietenetrnormation oF ee zero for g (ea) 1s many-valucd to each vale 60 of ty there correspond p dinet wales oz. Angler atthe origin are nt peerved by the taaformetion (@-1) because the argument of wisp tne he segument oc. "The ages ary in fact, multiplied by the iateger p. When the point < tera once ‘ound he origin, the polnew tars p times round the origin in the ae Aircon; che reader i invited to forme this precely im tm of the inde of any closed curve described by and the nox of the ans formed curve deveibed by To sudy the general case of a holomorphic tramemiation w fe) when f(g) = 0, we spose for that y= 0, fl] ~ 0 for simplicity Jn what flows, i esetial to ase tat is aot Kendell zero i sneghbourhood of 0 tthe onder of lity of the wero off a8 ‘he origin, the Taylor expansion of fat the eign tof the frm @3) =e +Aled whore the constant ¢ ie 9 and the fnction J, which is holomerpic the origin sates fo) 0. Pat fe) =e ‘he function fie) ix holomorphic In some neighbourhood of the oi (ove chovee one of its branches), and fo) 0. Relation (29) then ecoree on = teh let os) shld By no. thie elation goes ¢ — (2) where gis holomorphic i some neigh- ourhood of o and ro nt she point 0 with £(0) 0. By (24), We ave fal whence ally, eo z= (el. onveeat tuony; mesures wg Hl, the rains = fe) i piano gored ofthe ign, tion ofthe for (26), shes hla tego fad 0 th gi, ih (0) #0 In particular, to any value of w sufiienly near to-0 and 0 there correspond p dint value of «The origin ix vd to be a rial plat ‘Tonder pt the tanabrmatin (26) the inven of = /(3). Houowossnia rearsronsarions ‘Taxon, Lif be 6 Hoople fin, wich sat etn, a coed son sD Than the imag f(D) sa oon et fe le Prof 10s sulicient to show tha, fr any point sou, the image f(D) ‘tain all th points of some neighbourhood of f(a). "The ease when Fed 0 Sllows trom to. 11 in this cam ff dees bemeomor ‘him ‘of a neighbourhood of 2, onto” a aeighbourhood of 2) ‘The cue when f(a) — 9 (ihe fineion fant being constant i spy neighborhood of) fllows from no in thir cate there isa eigh- bourhood of zn which theincson J thes p time ack vate saintly sear tf (a) and fe). Heme the theorem i proved in all cae ite. Roe say open sabeet DY of D, the image f(D) is open. We say than chat fis an pe map. Conosanny. If is simple (chapter, vy § 1, 10.2) hla fton in a oma oo ef D, the fis omarion of D om he om vt f(D), nd the rose mang fs hoor f(D. roof is an inective, continues, open mapping. Tt inverse mapping Fis continuous becuse fis open. Since fi simple, fe 0 etary ont cu by the eels of mo 25 thus by ao. 1, /-* i holomorphic teach point f(2) Deft Let D be am open st of the plane of the variable sand D? fan open st of the plane of the viable w. An ismwpin of D on D' dein w be a homeomorphism which i defined by & blomplie map ping f whose invene i also holomorpbe. Te hllow fom the above coelary tha ia halomorphie mapping of D simple, then ii an tumorpion of D onto is image f(D). Nar. The above definitions and reat hold, not only when D is an ‘open sec inthe plane ofa complex variable, but, more generally, when Dis fh open set of the Riemann sphere, and the mapping f can lao take ‘alu inthe Rina apher. 8 4 xis oF Nownners HoLouoREIAD FUNTION Bren when the derivative /(2) is everywhere 79, the fantion feat be ronaimple (hati 10s Rot simple). "The east example ie the tae Srmation hich is peo of period ani, Asteip ecm 0) an fneeaes Kem 0 1 x the point ie deeribe, ‘antl once, the halls which i situated fa the halfplane <0 Sth ft andr ar el and whowesemsmajor and semisinoraxcs are nh and snk yy sepocivly. When the pint cy devriber a halline Png 22) any inrease oso to 2, the point a describe, jjot once, ce halebraach ofthe hyperbota wih ie stunted in the bale. plane vccovwith { 1 and—t at fst apd whose vemi-aves ae (085) fd sin ”

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