1
"To each monomil aX succite the formal sees aT) whieh hat
rmnning becate the fra sre nfo a alge. ace fy =,
the order of as(T(¥)= 83 m3 Ew the fly ofthe e( TY)" atm tae
he vals ©, 1, «+ 15 amoabl, and we cas colder the formal sei
e my
{in which we regroup the powers of, ‘This formal serie in Yi std to be
obtained yobtinton oT) for Xin SCX); we denote it by SCTCY)), ok
So without spexiving the Indeterminate Y. The reader wil vey
the ration
2) (G4 SyeT 5,07 4 507,
SS) °T= Get) eet, tems
Bat, note carefilly that S(T, + Ty) is mot in general, equal ©
821480.
"The reason (4.2) expres that, fr given T (of onder > 1), the maps
ping 8 > 8+ it's hremerpion ofthe ving KUKI! ia the Pag KIC)
wile nafs the nit lement 1 nto
te. ewe ubstiate on S(X) oY a.X', we Hd thatthe fra eis
reduces to is conte term’ ty
rom, rowan sees on
I we fave a mimmable emily of formal sei 8, and if (1) >
hen the fally ST is momma and
a3) (38)-7=2e-n,
which generalizes theft ofthe relations (42) For, let
500 = Barts
we bave
3800 = Z(26)
where
oa (38) -T= 2 (Ba,)eror,
ote
43) Eset = F(Z acto)
“To prove the equally of the right hand sdes of (4.4) and (4.5), we
‘herve atte coeficent of «given power VP in each of them inves
‘only fits number af the ceficients and we apply the aocaticy
nw of (Gite) addon inthe etd
Provoarion 4.1 The latin
9 @-Dov-srey,
olds ence (1) 3 1, o( 0) 5+ anlaiviey of sabitasin)
Pref Both sides of (46) ae defined. In the cae when $ is a monemial,
they are equal beease
an Deva (reup
‘which lows by induction on hom the secon relation in (42)
"The general cae af (46) fellows by eonldvig the wes Sas the
(infinite) sa ofr moscmlle a; by deinen,
SoT= Zar,
and, fom (4 9)
6. U= Zar,wich, by (Ts equa
Jatt ur sere,
This completes the proc
5 Avmaae War OF A rat sen
Tn the sing K{[VD, the Hdencty
on (MEY)
can ently be verted, Het ce the sexes 1 —Y hasan iver in K(X
Paawonrow 51 Far S(X) = SoaxX* thane a ina let fr the mat
Aiton of RID sn and iit that yr 0, he that 80) oe
Prof. The condtin is necemary becuse, if
To)
then y= 1 and ao 44.0. Convey, rappate dat ag 03 we sal
show that (4)I8(3) = §,(8) haw an freee TX), whence follows
{at fT y08) i the Haven of (8). Now
5,00)
and we can subi U() for Yj the relation (5.1), from which it
Eslewm that 1 U(3) Bas an avers, The propo proved
Xe andi€ SOX) = 8,
UC) with (IS
Noe By considering the agen of paloma K(X) ibd inthe
esis frm ver (PR), wil be so any pcm QO)
‘Eh dat Qo) ro wa lve ia te rg K(SQ tend then
‘outa al the quedents PO)Q(X), where F and Qa ply
and where Q(o) 0. a
6. oman nenvanve OF & sexs
et SX) = BaXss by dition, the ied ro, $00) even
the formula * ” (00 Bien Oy
@» 80) = Bax
Tecan tobe itn so £8. The erin of Serine)
4
Pons. rowan sem ty
sm is equal to the um oft derivative, "The mapping SS" near
Imapping of K((X]} ito duel. Morcoren, the denvadve of the product
‘of fo femal serie is given by te formal
' 4 gary sf.
oa Awn-Sr+sh.
or, ii sulicient wo wer this formula ia the particular cae when 8
snd T are monomial and i i lary true then
TE S(0) +0, et T be the averse of § (ene 5). "The frmala (6.2)
sive
“cs
os aes) - dx
Higher deioatves of 4 feral scien wre defined by induction. IE
8(X) = aX its derivative of order ns
S901) sal + terms order > 1.
Hence,
my 89(0) — ate
where (0) means the rm of subnituting the series 0 fo the ndeter
‘inate Xin (3),
7. Couoamonst vena sees
“The seres 108) defined by 1(X) = 2 ea ral! forthe compaiion
fre se
Se1=S-168.
Paoroanson 7.1. Gin 4 femal si 8, « mary and fit coton
for har xi fra saris Esch ht
oy To) =o SeT=I
inte
oa Se) =o, SI) Ho.
this cay, ani, and T° Us in othr sods ie eof 8
jor the sof comps »
Praf, Lat 808) = Bask, TH) = Baw AE
os stro) = ¥,he equating the Brat two terms ives
oo %
Hence the conditions (7.8) are nocury
Suppes that they ae sued; we write down the condition that the
coafclent of Y" baer inthe le bend sde of (7.9). This coelceat i
{he etme athe coeficent of Yin
STM) ba TOE + os FCT
which ves the relation
4b Pao oss 2 by coe Des) 0,
2a known polyoma with somneitve integra coscens
linear a apy. Snce 79 the stand gunn (94) deer
Imes; then, fr n>, 6 ean be cated by Scion for
(7.3). Thus we have th exience a unique tthe foal srs
Yop. The sae the shen ier lo) and TO) 0 ad
12 the remit that weave je proved fr S fan be ppd to eng
formal series $; such that amen otek oT ing
SO) TH =
“s
‘This iplien that
8) = 168) = (6-T) +, = $0 (T oS, =e
Hence 8, 6 none other thn § ard, indeod, T+ — I, which complete
the proaf
Ronak, Since S(T(Y)) = ¥ and TIS(X)) =X, we ean sty that the
“femal tantric
Y=sa), x= Ty)
a inverse to one another; this we call T the “invert Kral series
the vee §
Propattion 7.1 ian implce function theorem” Fr formal nein
2. Convergent power series
1 Th courts ra
From now on, the field K wil be elder R or G where R denote the
fi of real numbers and © the fed ef complex numbers.
‘Recall hata complex number ¢ =} 6 (x andy rel fe presented by
' pointon the plane RY whoe coarser are «andy, If we anoclae
6
with cach complex number ¢=s-+ iy It ‘conugate* 2 =~ ip
tre define an automorphim £ > ofthe Bel 6 lace
rae, We
“The conugat of 2 i cin other words she rnairmation 2+ Seine
la, Lei alt Sere transformation
"The try ab ay, or mods of emmplex number ¢ defied
by
l= (oo
eas the Slowing popes +
HebeISiel teh lee =letleh lab
‘The nore ee always 0 and is sero only when g = 0. “This norm
rable rt dfice» dec inthe eld the dtance Between zed =
ele) which & precy the euclidean dance in the plane
"The space Oi a empl space for thin ditance feton, which mene
thatthe Cay refi ald: for a equence of points 2a to have
‘lini ie necomary sad wulieient hat
mle a) =o.
‘The Cauehy exterlon gles the flowing wellknown theorem: if aes
iss of complex numbers is such that
» (We say nang bout the ese
when le) = 6
Prof, Proposition gt follows ors
‘Anes Lana Lot + and ry Be ral mambo at 0S hae
tei 4 fe mnbo M9 ok at
Mra M for ay inger a> 0,
the th ies Bo emerges mma for
For, ft!)
elon (1) son wo be proved ut 8) 2, 3, aX? and et
SeTe Uy Pore we bow
9 =SAHO),
snc the mapping T+ T(9 i sg homeonpioan 3 pro
Ila Since th ie § converges the pst), we hae
S119) = ens.
(On the other hand, the cocfients of U—
by thee of
jy ($8, oT arebosnded
Zid Zwr)’s
‘sexes when mn tends to 044» co, He illo ty fr lh
Uf Tie) ts to ons mf oes Fly we have
Ue) ~ Him Ue) = lin (TIE) = $F) fe en
hich ities ration (51) and completes the proo.
Interaton of ration (51): spose + stats the condone of propo:
sition 5-2. Denote the fanedon <-> T(e) by ‘defined for [et
td nay denote the functions deine by the sein § and U by 8
fed O rapectvly. The relation (5.1) expremes thay for [lr he
‘campos foncsion 8» Tis dened and ie equal tO. ‘Tha the ration
WarseT beowees fheal serie implies the relation O— 8 i the
‘adi of convergence of § and T are 70 and if ee rt curt
fily oma als of srl
36 Avommse movin OF A conVERGE ROWE sms
We know (fy proprio 51) that Hf S(X) = LAX" with «x
there exits unique formal teres T(X) euch that S(X)T(RX) is equal
Prorowrion 6,1. If he rad of smergce of 86 0, tn he ris
merc of he sit mh at ST sn 0,
Prof, Muliplying $(0) by a subable constant reduces the proposion
fethespecal eae when y= Put S(X) = 1 — UX) 40 that UO) =o,
The inverse sees TCX) 3 obtained by subsiting U(X) fr Yi theses
1-4 SL moreover the radius of convergence ofthe Inter i qual to
1 anil s0 ot proposition 6. then fllows from proposion 5.
2 DrrenawriaTiow OF 4 CONVEROSNT POWER SERIE
Paovosmow 7.1 La 80%) = BL a.X* Bea orl pwr srr ad lt
800 = Zax
sks did ei $1, Thy sir 8 and 8 he he soe
rae mee i as mn
Sele
on S10 ~ip SEES,
sae umd oo wt lking thes 0,
Praliminary rah, UE |ei
0 such that "
pel and
G9) Si) — ZL Salem fr eae
aPod of Pie 24, Pt =I
sotq) = Ea
ae
wri OEM an
Ran crcp wee
ak We have
onl,
9) BID ro BEE anaes
fred
0.
Indication of fr "The conn i shown to be aecemary by ng
Inequality (24)- Tei shown to be sufiieat by weting 8 fit Taylor
cxpanson of dhe faction f(s) and ung (25) to Had an upper bound
fer he Lagrange remainder.
1} Pema or neat onvranimon
“Trewonm afb am anti ft ino emt oe at D and lt
The fling condone esi +
5) £%a) = 0 for all ings > 03,
9) Faia ina aevard of y5
0) Fi italy i.Prog, obvious tate) zplics 2). We shall show that) mies #)
land 6) implies). Suppove ) ir sated. We have then Cs) = 0
for all ps0 with the convention that fO'—/. Bat f(e) las a power
‘erica expnoson ia powers of (ex) in w ucghourtiood of re and the
cooticents foe) re 2to th fa) Mentally ern a eghour-
hood a xy which proves.
‘Suppae Conditions 8) ated. To show that fis zero tall points of
Dit suficient to alow thatthe at D’ of punts aD in a mighrhond
(Fwih fis ideal aa bth open and cowed (Isnt expt ene
{f0), th, sine D is conected, Dwi be equal 9D), I follows from the
‘Scfuiion oD that itis opens Te retain to be proved hat, if xe.
isin the clone of D, then syeD. However, /0G) = 0 fr each n >0
it pint abr lve om (inc athe pots of DY thes J) = ©
tpeenme of the coiity of 70; this holding forall > 0 implis es
hove that /() is identically ero in wneighourhood of xy Thus syaD),
thi completes the prot.
Gononsany 1. The ing ef nae fotos ino contd oon st Dis a
Satrel denain
or ifthe produc fg of two analytic function in D is dentialy 20
and ifsgeD, then once the function fg stencil zero in neighboor-
hod of. becaues the ing of formal powee seis is a integral comin,
Bats fis dentialy wero in sre neighhourhood of x then fs zero the
whole of D bythe above theorem,
CCononuany 2, (Principle of analytic continuation) If mo ance fctio
fod jin one sen tet Dns ino mgr of 8 fon! of D,
‘hen hy ae dl nD.
"The polen of aegis contination tthe flowing given an analyte
‘ction hin connected open set D’ aad given a connected epen set D
Ccntaining DY, we atk if shore exes am analytic function fin D which
rtd hr Carllary 2 owe that such a funtion fis unique it ex.
44 Zaxos oF we sate meron
Let (a) be sale ftion in «neighbourhood of yan et
S10) = Bale ao"
be its power seis expantion for aufiietly small [x —sy, Suppose
that f(g) = and at fo) fet asl eo in neighbourhood of
°
-xaveri Pion OF om Yanan 5
Tet be the smallest intge uch that a 0, The eres
(o—ag
converges fir sufiiently small fs — and its sum g(s) san analyle
Finetion roch that g() +0 some elghbouhood of. Thus, or #
‘ear enough 19 yo Bae
en Si)= (ose, als) #0.
‘The eteger E> 0 thus defined ie calle the ref alli of he 20
fhe the function ft i characterized by ration (41, where (0)
{s analyie n'a neighbourhood of sy." The onder of mkt fix so
chanictried by the condition
S(t) 0 foe O+2, we cll my 8 mule sero
‘Relation (41) and continuity of gC) imply
FO) #0 fr opm)
o),
rh eos
800 =X — bat La tb a
whee and bare rel and 9< 2) 5
4 Given to fra power sexe
800) = Bax and TO) = BI theo,
me
oH = Biase, Voom Bahr, woo = 3 lasix
(here pis am integer). Prove dhe flowing relations:
HO)= WHY, oN) > 181-4,
if 0,
(AW) <(S)/0(T)-
6 Leta ad be denen of 6c an nee <0 Wha he
onan te
509 =r 4ttx pet De
Fe nat Dabney,
cy eie a
Show hat i um) fr <9), ie he tei eon
i= 8 + =O HOE NON lS 0.
pees
2. Tat S09) = eX be femal power an sch that (8) =
fu o
eae a) fn no,
oer
ta meg tate
pH) = Zar, vo) = Brae.
‘Show that () e(U) = (VD = (8) forall el <4,
2 (Zee)- Zee
8 Let S(X) = aX’ be a fal power sre howe cont re
ined by the flowing receence reutins +
rte t fine for a3,
were are given real numbers.
5) Show that, fr wt, we ve |< (a) where = mx oh 8/8)
nd deduce tat the radius of convergence (8) #2.
1) Show that
(ee PENS) =e, for bh < HS),
‘and deduce that, le < (8),
a
0 so =a
©) Lat gut be the two Toot of KPH X—1— 0, By decomposing
“6the righthand sde of (1) imo paral factions, find an expresion forthe
‘in terms of 2, and zy and deduce that
8) = min De Ja
(ote tha if SX) = $40) $508), then (8) > min (8), 189).
(9 Show that, i, 9 are veal and nis an Integer >, then
B solar s)aia (Satya tain?
Seen te +9) = cat Ft 9)
men = ter)
(Woe can pe + 3) Hsin (pk 9)
‘0, Prove the fllowinginequalies fr ce 0:
acer slelers
12. Show tha the function of complex variable ¢ defined by
cnet
{athe analytic extension othe waole plane Gof the fantion coe (espns)
etn in § 9,00. 3, Prove tha, oe any, £6,
cue +2) = eascoune —an
inet canone pemeane)
cote pate 8.
1g. Prove the relalone
Stine ga for sealant oe
pad whoxe sum S(c) i equal tof (2) forlel , show that thee ext a 'eDD and real
Dumber e'> 0 such hat
WW hean ated,
‘where denot the image oD ander the mapping < +f) and ware
(4) (re. (9) 8 the open (esp las disc of radia contre 2
(ote tnt propor 4.a otf pte that & i be (hi lp follows
foe the theorem im chapter, § yo.) and uee Weise heorem,
mo. 4 4).
(Let D be the punctate dine 0 <|g—~e< pls ad Het ay be te
image under for > 0. Given zy 6, > 0, abo, Dy inducsion on m,
the existence ofa sequence (ons of posive real mumbersand a wequence
(Gaps of pone of D staying the following eopltone
Been rama don Tah eandtye a)
BU ombendemoayeie) fr #1
deduce that there ens a sequence (aps of psits in D such that
Xi
cme and Fl hows:
and that (ein simple in any punctured die 0 < fee]
Tht we bv under the iterson
el rin 8
smd comequenty, the integral (4g) ia bounded above by
",
ine
a nde ew 0 ev
Tree Prmed the lem, we can now prove relation (6.2), We'dave
48 Fe S09)
erent eee oe een
Sera gat te tee of
meee onal
eat Since J is continous, we ean choate 9 20 that the abnolute
ttetrnapaines wa tea en
ees eee a
SIRE tpt me
® lue of the integral (4. 3). ‘By the above lemma, m tends to 0 a2
tend tw, Therefore, wh &&vuliiendy ear to the aclu
‘value of the second integral will be<£. ‘Then,
PO F096
hich proves (4 8).
ia“anavrie FONCTION OF REVERAL VARIARE, HARMIOHEE FERETIONS
"The theorem of no. 3 thus completely proved and formal (41) giv
the wlation ofthe Dchee proiem exliy
|b cmamacennearin OF HARMON FEMETIONS FY 7K RAN YALE
‘We have een (§ 5, 3) chat any harmonic fnction has the mean vale
property. ‘The converse ato true
‘Troma, Any cts ft fi am oer et D ih eae ropes
iD hemo inD.
Prof ts aulicient to show that fis harmonic in x neighbrarkood of
‘heh point Ds to this end, we shal show that iF K fm lose dis: con-
‘Sino nD, shen fisherman in theinterioe of K. Conde the retiction
[Sift the boundary ofthe die by the theorem of wo tere exist a
eksnuourfantion Fin Ky which ie harmonic inthe iteior of K and
Gite colnies with fon the boundary of K, ‘The diferenee F— fi
Werte tie bowndary of K end eater the maximum modules principle
Jn the tntetor of Kbecnuse it has the mean valve propery. By the
‘asimuin modus principle (ct the lemma of no. gh F=f identically
Bein Ke Thus J coincide with the harmonic function F in the
meio of K and, caoeqienty inde Martone a the iterie of K.
5, Holomorphic Functions of Several Complex Variables
Comides n complex variables cy mete (ck Gm). By resoning
(arin chapter 2, no, 3, we see atthe diferent of continuosly
‘Giferendablefantion can be writen i the fm
rm) ao 3 lar ¥an).
Kee a the aie fae xcept ecm fet anton
forthe paral function to be a holomerphiefancion of x that 3 = 0.
hic iw for each ofthe viable ay the diferent 7 tinea eombic
ton ofthe da; conversely, ifs linear combination of the dey the
‘re hmction i blomorpic epartely with respect to cach variable 2
ie
a
penne ee ee
. es
nays perme emer
in addition, its differential qf is equal 10 *
7
Ble
1s clear that an analytic faction of the comple variable zis holo=
ce eet eee
Bit, Asche eet
ee aes
Mitel ee Al te tes of no
sic, Aue tte Sooe y cacee
Spreciomicen ctrtiriene
eerste ae
Sorrel Gc thera
2 Cavety’s wracras, yours
it, we conde the axe of to complex variables cand &p
Prowournon 201. IF, comune in the prof ds
eo fal