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Easy Guide

Where to Set Elevation

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Easy Guide - Where to Set Elevation

Introduction

Flowmaster can take account of elevation by inputting ‘level’ data at nodes. The level is from a fixed datum point as shown below.

nodes. The level is from a fixed datum point as shown below. Example Create a new

Example

Create a new network as below by using pipes, bends and pumps, using the values shown on the diagram. Whilst inputting the data, select the analysis type to be Incompressible Steady State to show the data fields which have to be completed. Note the negative figure on the flow source to highlight it is a demand.

fields which have to be completed. Note the negative figure on the flow source to highlight

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fields which have to be completed. Note the negative figure on the flow source to highlight

Easy Guide - Where to Set Elevation

Once modelled, run the model as steady state. Look at the results for the node nearest the flow demand. This should show a pressure at node level result of 2.27 bar.

Clear the current collection, and then collect the two nodes between the bend and the flow demand components. Click on the level property in the data fields, and then select the toggle icon (see right) and set the level of both nodes to 10m.

Re-run the simulation. The pressure at node level should now be 1.29 bar. You can see from the results that Flowmaster also produces a result which is termed node pressure. The difference between these two results being of course that node pressure is the result from a network which is assumed level i.e. no elevation.

This is defined as:

is assumed level i.e. no elevation. This is defined as: Pressure   Absolute Total Pressure =

Pressure

 

Absolute Total Pressure =

P total + ATM Pressure

Whereas P total =

P static +

Whereas P total = P static +

And Absolute Static Pressure =

P static + ATM Pressure

[note. P static is the gauge static pressure]

Pressure at Node level

P at_node_level =

P static + P dynamic

Or P at_node_level =

P total -

O r P at_node_level = P total -

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P at_node_level = P static + P dynamic O r P at_node_level = P total -

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www.mentor.com ©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is

©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Defining a Pressure Loss Component

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Easy Guide - Defining a Pressure Loss Component

Introduction

Flowmaster has a discrete loss component which allows engineers to model networks without a high level of detail. This may be used to represent a series of pipes where it is not necessary to understand the behaviours within the series, or where there are many branches of a pipe system and the user is only concerned with what happens at one particular branch.

only concerned with what happens at one particular branch. Application Example Consider the example below as
only concerned with what happens at one particular branch. Application Example Consider the example below as

Application Example

Consider the example below as modelled in Flowmaster.

Consider the example below as modelled in Flowmaster. In this case, the engineer is trying to

In this case, the engineer is trying to calculate the flow rate necessary to conform to the two known pressure levels. Knowing the pipe diameter (and bend) remains constant at 1.6m, and it is not necessary to understand other detail, this network can be defined as shown over.

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at 1.6m, and it is not necessary to understand other detail, this network can be defined

Easy Guide - Defining a Pressure Loss Component

Easy Guide - Defining a Pressure Loss Component The discrete loss component is defined by cross

The discrete loss component is defined by cross sectional area and a Forward and Reverse Loss Coefficient. Cross sectional area in this case is defined by πr2 where r=0.8m. The Forward Loss Coefficient (k) is calculated by

 

2

x Pressure drop (Pa)

k

=

Liquid Density (kg/m3) x Velocity (m/s) 2

and in the example opposite is

 

2

x (200,000-150,000)

k

=

998 x 19.12

k

=

0.27

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and in the example opposite is   2 x (200,000-150,000) k = 998 x 19.12 k

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www.mentor.com ©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is

©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Pumps and Pump Controllers

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Easy Guide Pumps and Pump Controllers www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Pumps and Pump Controllers

Application Example

Consider the network below

Controllers Application Example Consider the network below Liquid is being pumped from a reservoir through a

Liquid is being pumped from a reservoir through a pump and valve into a pipe. The pressure condition is set at atmospheric (or 1 bar in this example). We would like to design the network and then control the pump speed in order to understand the flow rate at the end of the pipe as the pump changes speed.

Analysis Type

In order for Flowmaster to analyse this example, you must first change the analysis type. Flowmaster makes it simple by only showing the data fields required for the selected analysis.

For this example we are looking for pump performance over time – therefore a transient study. As this example is looking at water, we need to input data for an incompressible transient study. Choose the correct study type from the drop down box halfway down the data tab (see above right).

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study. Choose the correct study type from the drop down box halfway down the data tab
study. Choose the correct study type from the drop down box halfway down the data tab

Easy Guide - Pumps and Pump Controllers

Pumps

Next let’s look at what data is required for the pump to be defined.

look at what data is required for the pump to be defined. As with all Flowmaster
look at what data is required for the pump to be defined. As with all Flowmaster

As with all Flowmaster components the pink fields are mandatory. Hopefully you will have a full set of manufacturer’s data in order to define the pump when you come to run your own analysis. However, some of the fields can be calculated.

Pump and Motor Inertia can be calculated from the following equations, ref - Thorley (Fluid Transients in Pipeline Systems, 1991, ISBN 0-9517830-0-9):

Pump Inertia =

Pump Inertia =

Motor Inertia =

Pump Inertia = Motor Inertia =

Where W = Pump Power (kW), N = Pump Speed (r.p.m x 10-3), I = Inertia (kg/m2)

Pump Power (W) =

Pump Power (W) =  
 

where ρ = fluid density, η = overall efficiency, g = gravity, H = Duty Head Q = Duty flow rate

Frictional Torque

Frictional Torque

=

Frictional Torque =

Note: This can be used in the absence of manufacture data.

 

Speed Ratio =

Speed Ratio =
 

Rated Flow, Head and Speed are based on Best Efficiency point from manufacture’s data.

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Ratio =   Rated Flow, Head and Speed are based on Best Efficiency point from manufacture’s

Easy Guide - Pumps and Pump Controllers

Easy Guide - Pumps and Pump Controllers www.mentor.com

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Easy Guide - Pumps and Pump Controllers www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Pumps and Pump Controllers

Model the network above, using the numbers shown. In order to control the pump speed you need to turn the initial logic state of the of the radial pump to setting 1 – Motor On – Controlled Torque/ Speed. You will also need to add the pump speed controller to define how the pump speed changes. Add in a gauge to the end of the pipe so you can measure the mass flow rate.

Once the model is complete, select the simulation tab, and set the time step and the start and end times as shown in red on the right. Then click run. Once completed, select the results tab and double click the result file you have just created.

tab and double click the result file you have just created. Double click on the pump,

Double click on the pump, and ensuring the results radio button is highlighted, plot the rotational speed of the pump by selecting the graph icon in the inspect window, as shown in red in the image on the right.

inspect window, as shown in red in the image on the right. The plot will appear

The plot will appear on a separate tab to your network – named ‘plot 1’. In the upper left hand corner of the graph there are some graph customise icons. Pick on the ‘overlay’ option, and go back to your network by choosing the correct tab.

Now double click on the gauge, and again select the graph icon in the inspect window.

and again select the graph icon in the inspect window. Click back on the plot 1

Click back on the plot 1 tab and you should be able to see a plot similar to the one shown below.

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window. Click back on the plot 1 tab and you should be able to see a

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www.mentor.com ©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is

©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Pressure Loss Validation

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Easy Guide Pressure Loss Validation www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Pressure Loss Validation

Validation of pressure loss using a basic Flowmaster model and Hand Calculations.

P1 is the pressure into the system (= 437000 Pa)

Q

is the volumetric flow rate (=65 l/min or 0.0010833 m3/s), set as -0.0010833 m3/s

D

is the pipe diameter (= 0.015m2)

L

is the pipe length (= 0.6m)

k

is the Absolute Roughness (= 0.000025m), used to calculate friction loss

Flowmaster Model

A simple network in Flowmaster as shown below:

Model A simple network in Flowmaster as shown below: This gives a value of P2 =

This gives a value of P2 = 418558 Pa (result at node 2 – Downstream Node)

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in Flowmaster as shown below: This gives a value of P2 = 418558 Pa (result at

The results for the pipe are shown below:

Easy Guide - Pressure Loss Validation

pipe are shown below: Easy Guide - Pressure Loss Validation These results can be compared to

These results can be compared to those obtained from hand calculations. These hand calculations are shown below:

Velocity

Q = Av

Where Q = 0.0010833 m3/s

A = π D24

This gives v = 6.14 m/s Flowmaster gives v = 6.13 m/s This corresponds to a 0.13% difference.

(D = 0.015 m)

Reynolds Number

Re = ρvDμ

Where ρ = 1000 kg/m3

v = 6.14 m/s

μ = 0.001002

This gives Re = 91916.2 Flowmaster gives Re = 91605.6 This corresponds to a 0.3% difference.

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μ = 0.001002 This gives Re = 91916.2 Flowmaster gives Re = 91605.6 This corresponds to

Loss Coefficient

Easy Guide - Pressure Loss Validation

The loss coefficient can be worked out by first evaluating the friction factor. The relevant equations are shown below:

the friction factor. The relevant equations are shown below: Where k is the Absolute Roughness (=

Where k is the Absolute Roughness (= 0.000025m) D is the diameter (=0.015m) Re is the Reynolds number (=91605.6) This gives a value of f = 0.0246 This value of f can now be used to work out K, the loss coefficient as shown over:

be used to work out K, the loss coefficient as shown over: This gives K =

This gives K = 0.983 (0% discrepancy with Flowmaster value)

Pressure Drop

These values can now be substituted into the following equation to work out the pressure difference:

the following equation to work out the pressure difference: This can be simplified to: P2− P1=K

This can be simplified to:

P2− P1=K ρ v22

This gives a pressure difference of 0.185 bar. Flowmaster gives a value of 0.184 bar. This corresponds to a 0.5% difference.

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difference of 0.185 bar. Flowmaster gives a value of 0.184 bar. This corresponds to a 0.5%

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www.mentor.com ©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is

©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Net Positive Suction Head

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Easy Guide Net Positive Suction Head www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Net Positive Suction Head

The existing rotodynamic pumps do not currently consider NPSH. However this is recognised as a limitation and development is planned to address this in a future version. In the interim a methodology has been devised, using existing capability, to identify when NPSH available (NPSHA) is less than NPSH required (NPSHR). This methodology does not modify the pump performance.

The schematic below shows a pump in a test system consisting of a tank and suction line and discharge flow demand. The yellow, round components are gauges to measure; suction pressure, fluid temperature, and delivery flow rate

Flowmaster NPSH Model

are gauges to measure; suction pressure, fluid temperature, and delivery flow rate Flowmaster NPSH Model www.mentor.com

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are gauges to measure; suction pressure, fluid temperature, and delivery flow rate Flowmaster NPSH Model www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Net Positive Suction Head

Setting up the Model

In the Data Tab, select the Incompressible Transient filter as shown below

Reservoir: Constant Head

Pipe: Cylindrical Rigid

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select the Incompressible Transient filter as shown below Reservoir: Constant Head Pipe: Cylindrical Rigid www.mentor.com
select the Incompressible Transient filter as shown below Reservoir: Constant Head Pipe: Cylindrical Rigid www.mentor.com
select the Incompressible Transient filter as shown below Reservoir: Constant Head Pipe: Cylindrical Rigid www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Net Positive Suction Head

Pump: Radial Flow

Easy Guide - Net Positive Suction Head Pump: Radial Flow Suter Curves left as default Flowmaster

Suter Curves left as default Flowmaster curves

Gauge Template Pressure Gauge

Gauge Template Pressure Gauge

Gauge Template Flow Rate Gauge

Gauge Template Flow Rate Gauge

Gauge Template Temperature Gauge

Gauge Template Temperature Gauge

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Gauge Template Pressure Gauge Gauge Template Flow Rate Gauge Gauge Template Temperature Gauge www.mentor.com
Gauge Template Pressure Gauge Gauge Template Flow Rate Gauge Gauge Template Temperature Gauge www.mentor.com
Gauge Template Pressure Gauge Gauge Template Flow Rate Gauge Gauge Template Temperature Gauge www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Net Positive Suction Head

Gauge 4 (Flow rate) is connected to input signal 3 on the Controller component and Arm 2 of the Pump component. Gauge 3 (Pressure) is connected to input signal 1 on the Controller component and Node 1 (just upstream of the pump) Gauge 7 (Temperature) is connected to input signal 2 on the Controller component and Node 1 (just upstream of the pump)

The NPSH Monitor component is a Controller Template. The yellow, square component calculates NPSH Available (NPSHA) and compares this to a NPSH Required (NPSHR) value defined as a curve of NPSHR Vs Flow Rate.

Controller Template

as a curve of NPSHR Vs Flow Rate. Controller Template Script/Equation Identifier: NPSH_Vdotnet, this script is

Script/Equation Identifier: NPSH_Vdotnet, this script is written in VB.Net

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Flow Rate. Controller Template Script/Equation Identifier: NPSH_Vdotnet, this script is written in VB.Net www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Net Positive Suction Head

Easy Guide - Net Positive Suction Head Data Curve 1 is the Vapour Pressure v Temperature

Data Curve 1 is the Vapour Pressure v Temperature Curve for Glycol/Water (50/50) and is available in the Performance Data > Materials> Incompressible library

Glycol/Water (50/50) and is available in the Performance Data > Materials> Incompressible library www.mentor.com

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Glycol/Water (50/50) and is available in the Performance Data > Materials> Incompressible library www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Net Positive Suction Head

Data Curve 2 is the Density v Temperature – Water, and is available in the Performance Data > Materials> Incompressible library

Performance Data > Materials> Incompressible library Data Curve 3 is the NPSHR Vs Flow Rate curve

Data Curve 3 is the NPSHR Vs Flow Rate curve and is defined below

Materials> Incompressible library Data Curve 3 is the NPSHR Vs Flow Rate curve and is defined

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Materials> Incompressible library Data Curve 3 is the NPSHR Vs Flow Rate curve and is defined

Easy Guide - Net Positive Suction Head

To define a curve, Right click on a folder within Performance Data, i.e. User defined and select New > Curve and enter the data as shown right.

Run the Incompressible Transient with the Simulation Data inputs shown right.

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the data as shown right. Run the Incompressible Transient with the Simulation Data inputs shown right.
the data as shown right. Run the Incompressible Transient with the Simulation Data inputs shown right.
the data as shown right. Run the Incompressible Transient with the Simulation Data inputs shown right.

Easy Guide - Net Positive Suction Head

Results

If the NPSHA is less then NPSHR then the controller outputs a result of 1 to record that the pump could cavitate. If NPSHA is greater than NPSHR then the controller outputs a result of 0 to record that the pump is not cavitating. The following graph shows a sample set of results for pump flow increasing (Blue Line), suction pressure dropping (Red Line), and pump cavitation occurring at about 1.7secs (Green Line).

Line), suction pressure dropping (Red Line), and pump cavitation occurring at about 1.7secs (Green Line). www.mentor.com

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Line), suction pressure dropping (Red Line), and pump cavitation occurring at about 1.7secs (Green Line). www.mentor.com

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www.mentor.com ©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is

©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Convergence and Tolerance

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Easy Guide Convergence and Tolerance www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Convergence and Tolerance

Flowmaster Convergence and Tolerance Criteria allow the adjustment of the Flowmaster solver control parameters.

Flowmaster Solver Control Parameters

The solver control parameters are set on the Flowmaster Simulation Data tab, under Convergence & Tolerance Criteria. These settings affect the rate at which Flowmaster converges to a solution.

affect the rate at which Flowmaster converges to a solution. In general, we recommend that the
affect the rate at which Flowmaster converges to a solution. In general, we recommend that the

In general, we recommend that the default values are used as they are considered well suited for general Flowmaster analyses. Our general advice if you do experience convergence problems, check and recheck the input data. If, after making these checks, you believe that solver control parameters require adjustment, then the following information will be of use.

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believe that solver control parameters require adjustment, then the following information will be of use. www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Convergence and Tolerance

Flowmaster Tolerances

Flowmaster checks total pressure and temperature tolerances at every node. Mass flow rate tolerances are checked at every branch and mass flow continuity is checked at every node to a tolerance of 1/10th of the branch mass flow tolerance. These sequences of checks are shown diagrammatically in the figure at the end of this paper.

The default percentage pressure tolerance is set at 0.05% and has proven satisfactory for a wide range of applications when used in conjunction with the standard weighting factor (see below). In some situations (high absolute pressure values and small pressure differentials) a tighter tolerance may be appropriate. But in compressible flows, with coupling of pressure with the mass flow solution through the density term, these tighter tolerances may be too severe.

·The absolute pressure tolerance should be well below the minimum pressure of interest. The default of 1 Nm-2 (1 Pa) is usually appropriate. Its main purpose is to prevent the percentage tolerance test from becoming too severe when pressures are very close to zero.

The default percentage mass flow rate tolerance is set to 0.05% and has proven satisfactory for a wide range of applications, when used in conjunction with the standard weighting factor.

The absolute mass flow tolerance should be well below the minimum mass flow rate of interest. It is intended to prevent the percentage test from being too severe when flows are very close to zero e.g. in a branch with a closed end or shut valve. The default value of 0.5gms-1 can be too high if low flow rates are being used (e.g. grams per second).

The default weighting factor (or relaxation) is set to 0.5 and should be used in preference to a lower value unless convergence problems are encountered. The default value should be appropriate for most ‘stable’ networks. If it proves necessary to reduce the weighting factor, then tighter pressure and mass flow rate tolerances are required to achieve a similar level of accuracy. As a rule of thumb the pressure and mass flow rate tolerances should be halved for each 0.1 reduction in weighting factor. (For example, use tolerances of about 0.0125 % for a weighting factor of 0.3).

In transient analyses, increasing weighting factor, to say 0.7, can help with rapid events. However, do not increase tolerances in transient analysis to improve convergence; it usually does the reverse.

Nodal temperature tolerance checks work in the same way as for pressure. But unless the network comprises of closed loop systems (where an equilibrium temperature must be found) the calculated temperatures will follow directly from the mass flow and pressure solutions. If improved temperature accuracy is required it will often be better to tighten the mass flow tolerance - there is usually a better ‘feel’ for reasonable values for this quantity.

The minimum heat flow tolerance is only used by ‘solid’ components (bars, bridges, temperature, heat sources etc.).

The following flowchart shows how Flowmaster checks for convergence.

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temperature, heat sources etc.). The following flowchart shows how Flowmaster checks for convergence. www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Convergence and Tolerance

Easy Guide - Convergence and Tolerance www.mentor.com

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Easy Guide - Convergence and Tolerance www.mentor.com

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www.mentor.com ©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is

©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Valve Data Conversion & Validation

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Easy Guide Valve Data Conversion & Validation www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Valve Data Conversion & Validation

When using valves with compressible flow, it may be necessary to convert manufacturer data for gas flow constants. This example demonstrates the relationship stated in DS Miller Internal Flow Systems (p168) and validates it on a simple network

Example

A simple network has been constructed to validate the following relationship Av = 28 x 10-06 Kv, where Av=Flow Coefficient (m2) and Kv=European Flow Coefficient (m3/h)

Coefficient (m2) and Kv=European Flow Coefficient (m3/h) Manufacture’s Supplied data: Kv vs. Valve Opening

Manufacture’s Supplied data: Kv vs. Valve Opening

(m3/h) Manufacture’s Supplied data: Kv vs. Valve Opening www.mentor.com Using conversion Flow Coeff vs Valve Opening

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Using conversion Flow Coeff vs Valve Opening

(m3/h) Manufacture’s Supplied data: Kv vs. Valve Opening www.mentor.com Using conversion Flow Coeff vs Valve Opening
(m3/h) Manufacture’s Supplied data: Kv vs. Valve Opening www.mentor.com Using conversion Flow Coeff vs Valve Opening

Easy Guide - Valve Data Conversion & Validation

From experimental results we know that at a Valve opening ratio of 60% open -> Kv = 0.002526, the change in pressure across the valve is about 5 bar. Results from compressible steady state run:

Total pressure result in Flowmaster <bars>

run: Total pressure result in Flowmaster <bars> Density <kg/m3> results: Velocity <m/s>

Density <kg/m3> results:

result in Flowmaster <bars> Density <kg/m3> results: Velocity <m/s> results: www.mentor.com

Velocity <m/s> results:

result in Flowmaster <bars> Density <kg/m3> results: Velocity <m/s> results: www.mentor.com

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result in Flowmaster <bars> Density <kg/m3> results: Velocity <m/s> results: www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Valve Data Conversion & Validation

Inputting these values in to the equation

& Validation Inputting these values in to the equation gives which is approximately the value predicted

gives

Validation Inputting these values in to the equation gives which is approximately the value predicted by

which is approximately the value predicted by experiment.

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Inputting these values in to the equation gives which is approximately the value predicted by experiment.

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www.mentor.com ©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is

©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Calculating Transient Time-Step

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Easy Guide Calculating Transient Time-Step www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Calculating Transient Time-Step

Flowmaster uses the method of Characteristics to solve for flows in elastic pipes. The method is applied to a spatially fixed grid where the number of grid elements, “S”, is given by

S =

L

aΔt

where L - Pipe Length, a = wave speed, Δt = time step

In order to work effectively, S must be ±0.2 of an integer greater than 3.

Example

This example demonstrates how a simple network can be modified in order to optimise computational effort while still meeting the S criteria

computational effort while still meeting the S criteria The above pipes are 1000m and 675m long,

The above pipes are 1000m and 675m long, applying the equation for S to this network gives

Schedule of Pipes

 

Δt 1 =

Δt 2 =

0.1s

0.02s

 

L (m)

a (m/s)

L/a (s)

S

1

S

2

Pipe 1

1000

1000

1

10

50

Pipe 2

675

1250

0.54

5.4

27

Δt = 0.02 s satisfies the criterion for S. This solution gives a large number of internal reach lengths and combined with the 3000 time-steps required to run the simulation for 60 seconds requires considerable computational effort.

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3000 time-steps required to run the simulation for 60 seconds requires considerable computational effort. www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Calculating Transient Time-Step

Length adjustment

Pipe 2 is split into a 650 m elastic pipe and a 25 m rigid pipe.

Schedule of Pipes

 

Δt 1 =

0.1s

 

L

(m)

a

(m/s)

L/a (s)

S

1

Pipe 1

1000

1000

1

10

Pipe 2a

650

1250

0.52

5.2

Pipe 2b

25

RIGID

   

Δt = 0.1 s satisfies the criterion for S. The loss in accuracy of considering pipe 2 in two sections, one rigid and one elastic is within the overall accuracy of the method. Computational effort is reduced with fewer internal reach Iengths and 600 time-steps being required.

Wave speed adjustment

The wave speed in pipe 2 is increased to 1300 mIs.

Schedule of Pipes

 

Δt 1 =

0.1s

 

L

(m)

a

(m/s)

L/a (s)

S

1

Pipe 1

1000

1000

1

10

Pipe 2

675

1300

0.519

5.19

Δt = 0.1 s satisfies the criterion for S. The loss in accuracy of considering the wave speed in pipe 2 to be 4% greater than that estimated is within the accuracy of wave speed prediction and the overall accuracy of the method. Computational effort is about equal to the length adjustment method.

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the overall accuracy of the method. Computational effort is about equal to the length adjustment method.

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www.mentor.com ©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is

©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Pump Sizing / Modelling a System Curve

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Easy Guide Pump Sizing / Modelling a System Curve www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Pump Sizing / Modelling a System Curve

This example demonstrates how Flowmaster can be used to model the head loss created in a system and so be used to size a pump. The example below uses a very simple system based around a ball valve controlling flow to a downstream reservoir, but the method is applicable to all systems which require a centrifugal pump.

Example

In order to size a centrifugal pump for a given network, it is necessary to simulate it over a range of flow rates. To do this, create a curve which encompasses the range of interest – in this case we know that the system in question will never have to deal with flows greater than 6 cubic metres a second

have to deal with flows greater than 6 cubic metres a second Connect this curve to

Connect this curve to an upstream flow source

a second Connect this curve to an upstream flow source Run the network for 60 seconds

Run the network for 60 seconds to cover the range of possible flow rates for the system. To create a system curve, select the flow rate results for the valve and click “X axis for plotting”

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To create a system curve, select the flow rate results for the valve and click “X

Easy Guide - Pump Sizing / Modelling a System Curve

Easy Guide - Pump Sizing / Modelling a System Curve Repeat the process for the pressure

Repeat the process for the pressure results from the node. The resulting curve illustrates the variation in system back pressure vs flow rate; i.e. it tells us the pressure that is required to overcome the frictional, head and terminal losses of the system for a given flow rate. By superimposing pump curves on the same axis (see below) it is possible to size the pump required by a particular system and choose its optimal running point, given by the intersection of the system and pump curves.

given by the intersection of the system and pump curves. In the example below, two pumps

In the example below, two pumps are plotted along with the system curve (the purple line). The intersection of the system curve with each pump curve represents the point at which the energy provided by the pump matches that required by the system.

curve represents the point at which the energy provided by the pump matches that required by

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curve represents the point at which the energy provided by the pump matches that required by

Easy Guide - Pump Sizing / Modelling a System Curve

Pump curves can be created in a manner similar to that described above: create a network with a nominal pump in the place of the variable flow source

In this case, the valve will be slowly opened over 60 seconds simulating a range of system head losses.

over 60 seconds simulating a range of system head losses. By selecting the valve arm 2

By selecting the valve arm 2 flow rate result (select “x axis for plotting as before”) and the upstream node pressure, a pump curve showing the drop in back pressure with increasing flow rate can be achieved.

node pressure, a pump curve showing the drop in back pressure with increasing flow rate can

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node pressure, a pump curve showing the drop in back pressure with increasing flow rate can

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©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Flow Balancing

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Easy Guide - Flow Balancing

Flow Balancing is an analysis option within Flowmaster V7 that performs incompressible pressure loss calculations for individual components but allows flow rates for components to be specified as an input parameter. The analysis calculates the pressure conditions at those components, referred to as balancing components, and reports results which allows the user to optimise components or set component data to achieve the desired flows.

Application Example

data to achieve the desired flows. Application Example In the Fire Protection System above, water is

In the Fire Protection System above, water is pumped from a constant head reservoir by the fire water pump through a control valve and into a branched network of sprinkler nozzles. The required analysis is to calculate the orifice plate diameters that will achieve a specified flow rate through each sprinkler nozzle.

Example Data

The example network data are shown in the tables below. In this example, the sprinkler nozzles are represented by a Discrete Loss and Constant Head Reservoir. The required flow rate through the nozzles is 7 litres per second (0.007m3/s).

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and Constant Head Reservoir. The required flow rate through the nozzles is 7 litres per second

Discrete Loss/Reservoir (Sprinkler Nozzles)

Forward Loss Coefficient

5

Reverse Loss Coefficient

5

Cross-sectional Area

0.03m 2

Pipe Diameter

0.025m

Liquid level above base

0m

Base level above reference

0m

Pipe components

 

Diameter: 0.2m

All pipes

Absolute Roughness: 0.05mm

Pipe 1, 11

Length: 20m

Pipe 2-3

Length: 10m

Pipes 4-10

Length: 2m

Non Return Valve

Diameter

0.2m

Valve

opening

0 ratio (closed)

Orifice Plates

Pipe Diameter

0.2m

Orifice Diameter

Not Set

Volumetric Flow Rate

0.007m 3 /s

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Easy Guide - Flow Balancing

Radial Pump

Rated Flow

0.25m 3 /s

Rated Head

80m

Rated Speed

1450rpm

Rated Power

200kW

Initial Speed

1450rpm

Constant Head Reservoir

Pipe Diameter

0.2m

Liquid level above base

5m

Base level above reference

-20m

Ball Valves

Diameter

0.2m

Valve opening

1 ratio (open)

Discrete Loss

Forward Loss Coefficient

5

Reverse Loss Coefficient

5

Cross Sectional Area

0.03m 2

Pressure Source

Total pressure

1 bar

5 Reverse Loss Coefficient 5 Cross Sectional Area 0.03m 2 Pressure Source Total pressure 1 bar

Easy Guide - Flow Balancing

Orifice Plate Data

Next let’s look at what data is required for the orifice plate to be defined.

what data is required for the orifice plate to be defined. As with all Flowmaster components
what data is required for the orifice plate to be defined. As with all Flowmaster components

As with all Flowmaster components the pink fields are mandatory. To size the orifice plate using Flow Balancing we need to enter the pipe diameter and the required Volumetric Flow Rate, in this case 0.2m and 0.007m3/s respectively. The value for the Orifice Diameter is left as ‘Not Set’ as it will be calculated in the analysis.

Analysis Type

Once the model is complete, select the simulation tab and change the analysis type to ‘Incompressible Flow Balancing’ by selecting from the drop down menu. Then click run. Once completed, select the results tab and double click the result file you have just created.

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click run. Once completed, select the results tab and double click the result file you have
click run. Once completed, select the results tab and double click the result file you have

Easy Guide - Flow Balancing

Results

Double click on one of the Orifice Plates to view the calculation data.

In the Results view, the Flow Rate is shown as the required input value of 0.007m3/s, giving a calculated orifice diameter of 0.0169476m.

The calculated operational values for the balancing components can now be updated in the Data tab view.

Volumetric flow rate can be specified in most components, but it is most appropriate to components that can be set up to give the desired flow rate at the pressure conditions prevailing in the network. The components most suited to the use of balancing flows are control valves, orifices, pipes, pumps, reservoirs and accumulators.

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to the use of balancing flows are control valves, orifices, pipes, pumps, reservoirs and accumulators. www.mentor.com
to the use of balancing flows are control valves, orifices, pipes, pumps, reservoirs and accumulators. www.mentor.com

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©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Incompressible Priming

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Easy Guide Incompressible Priming www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Incompressible Priming

Priming is an analysis option within Flowmaster V7 that can be used to simulate the process by which residual air has first to be exhausted from the pipes.

Application Example

first to be exhausted from the pipes. Application Example In the Fire Protection System above, water

In the Fire Protection System above, water is pumped from a constant head reservoir by the fire water pump through a control valve and into a hose (Priming Pipe). The required analysis is to calculate how long it will take the water to exit the hose end, i.e. how long it takes the water to fill the priming pipe.

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it will take the water to exit the hose end, i.e. how long it takes the

Example Data

The example network data are shown below.

Pipe components

All pipes Diameter

0.2m

Absolute Roughness

0.05mm

Wave Speed

1000m/s

Pipes 8 & 10 Length

2m

Pipe 7 Length

20m

Pipes 5 Length

100m

Radial Pump

Rated Flow

0.25m3/s

Rated Head

80m

Rated Speed

1450rpm

Rated Power

200kW

Pump Inertia

50kgm2

Motor Inertia

25kgm2

Speed Ratio

1

Friction Torque

500Nm

Initial Speed

1450rpm

Non Return Valve

Diameter

0.2m

Characteristic Operating Time

0.5 s

Minimum Velocity

2m/s

Constant Head Reservoir

Pipe Diameter

0.2m

Liquid level above base

5m

Base level above reference

-20m

Ball Valves

All Valves Diameter

0.2m

Valve 9 Valve Opening Valve 6 Valve Opening

1 ratio (open) 0 ratio (closed)

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Easy Guide - Incompressible Priming

Valve Opening Valve 6 Valve Opening 1 ratio (open) 0 ratio (closed) www.mentor.com Easy Guide -

Pressure Source

Total pressure

1 bar

Discrete Loss

Forward Loss Coefficient

5

Reverse Loss Coefficient

5

Cross Sectional Area

0.001m2

Valve Opening Tabular Controller

1st Time Valve Position at 1st Time 2nd Time Valve Position at 2nd Time 3rd Time Valve Position at 3rd Time

0 s 0 ratio (closed) 2 s 1 ratio (open) 1000 s 1 ratio (open)

Easy Guide - Incompressible Priming

Note: Nodes (8, 9 and 10) downstream of the opening valve should be set to compressible, i.e. all nodes in the priming section of the network. Changes to the type of node can be done in the node data form.

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nodes in the priming section of the network. Changes to the type of node can be

Analysis Type

Once the model is complete, select the simulation tab and change the analysis type to “7. Incompressible Priming” by selecting from the drop down menu.

Enter the following values for simulation time and time step

Time step

0.0005 s

Simulation Start Time

0 s

Simulation End Time

10 s

Then click run. Once completed, select the results tab and double click the result file you have just created.

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Easy Guide - Incompressible Priming

results tab and double click the result file you have just created. www.mentor.com Easy Guide -
results tab and double click the result file you have just created. www.mentor.com Easy Guide -

Easy Guide - Incompressible Priming

Results

In Results mode double click on component 8 Pipe: Cylindrical Elastic to view Results form.

In the Results view, highlight Liquid Length, click Inspect plot.

and select

The resulting plot will show you how the priming pipe filled and how long it took to achieve this.

priming pipe filled and how long it took to achieve this. The components that can be
priming pipe filled and how long it took to achieve this. The components that can be

The components that can be primed include Discrete Losses, Orifices, Pipes, Pressure Sources and Control Valves.

Those that can not include Accumulators, Heat Exchangers, Bends, Diaphragms, Junctions, Transitions, Pumps, Reservoirs, Flow Sources, Flow v Pressure Sources, Check Valves and Weirs

Many of the components that cannot be primed can still be used in the liquid section of the system.

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Weirs Many of the components that cannot be primed can still be used in the liquid

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©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Defining a Fluid

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Easy Guide Defining a Fluid www.mentor.com

Fluid Properties

ρ

- Fluid Density (kg/m3)

Cp

- Constant pressure specific heat (J/(kg K)

Cv

- Constant volume specific heat (J/(kg K)

γ

- Ratio of specific heat (Cp/Cv)

Z

- Fluid compressibility factor

μ

- Dynamic viscosity (N s/m2)

k

- Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

R

- Gas constant (J/kg K)

Deduced properties

Easy Guide - Defining a Fluid

c - Sonic speed (m/s); Gradient (Compressibility factor variation with temperature); Gradient (Compressibility factor variation with pressure);

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factor variation with temperature); Gradient (Compressibility factor variation with pressure); www.mentor.com
factor variation with temperature); Gradient (Compressibility factor variation with pressure); www.mentor.com
factor variation with temperature); Gradient (Compressibility factor variation with pressure); www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Defining a Fluid

There are three methods to defining a fluid within Flowmaster, they are as follows;

1. For an Isothermal analysis, the fluid can be defined at a single temperature. Data for the following properties is required

• Reference temperature

• Vapour Pressure

• Reference Dynamic Viscosity

• Reference Density

• Bulk Modulus

2. For a temperature varying analysis, the fluid can be defined using fluid property versus temperature curves or equations. Data for the following properties is required

• Bulk modulus (can also be defined as a Bulk Modulus v Temp & Pressure surface)

• Vapour pressure v Temperature curve

• Viscosity v Temperature curve

• Density v Temperature curve

As an alternative to the curves the viscosity, density and specific heat capacity can be calculated by the following means:

• The viscosity can be calculated using the Walther Equation coefficients to effectively calculate a temperature v viscosity curve. (see Reference help > fluid properties)

• The variation of density with respect to temperature can be calculated using the thermal expansion coefficient and the reference and actual temperatures.

• The variation of specific heat capacity with respect to temperature can be calculated using the coefficients A to F in place of a curve.

3. Eagle Database

Set the composition of the fluid using the eagle reference (maximum 5 different pure components), and also set the following;

• Equation of state

• Vapour Pressure

• Bulk Modulus

• Mole Fractions of fluid components.

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• Equation of state • Vapour Pressure • Bulk Modulus • Mole Fractions of fluid components.

Easy Guide - Defining a Fluid

Standard Flowmaster Fluids

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Easy Guide - Defining a Fluid Standard Flowmaster Fluids www.mentor.com
Easy Guide - Defining a Fluid Standard Flowmaster Fluids www.mentor.com
Easy Guide - Defining a Fluid Standard Flowmaster Fluids www.mentor.com

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©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Common Data Entry

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Easy Guide Common Data Entry www.mentor.com

Application Example

Easy Guide - Common Data Entry

Application Example Easy Guide - Common Data Entry Consider the example above where all pipe diameters

Consider the example above where all pipe diameters and valve diameters are to be the same. Rather than enter each data value individually you can enter the diameter into one component and then copy this value to all other selected components. First we must collect the components for which we want to enter a common diameter.

Collecting components

When first building a network and a component is placed onto the schematic or a node is created, it is automatically listed in the Data pane in the component collection.

When re-opening a network you can collect components and nodes in several ways;

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the component collection. When re-opening a network you can collect components and nodes in several ways;

By right clicking on a component or node and selecting ‘Collect…’

Or by ‘rubber banding’ a selection of components and/ or nodes and then right clicking and selecting ‘Collect…’

Easy Guide - Common Data Entry

selecting ‘Collect…’ Easy Guide - Common Data Entry By using the Add drop down menu and
selecting ‘Collect…’ Easy Guide - Common Data Entry By using the Add drop down menu and

By using the Add drop down menu and selecting all or specific components and nodes

Or by double clicking on a component or node.

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down menu and selecting all or specific components and nodes Or by double clicking on a

Data entry

Easy Guide - Common Data Entry

To enter a common diameter for all components in the collection, first select one of the components and in the lower pane click the Diameter entry field.

and in the lower pane click the Diameter entry field. A drop down menu will automatically

A drop down menu will automatically appear next to this cell allowing you to choose a unit for that value. The default unit is the one that is selected as such for that unit set.

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to choose a unit for that value. The default unit is the one that is selected

Easy Guide - Common Data Entry

Copying Data

To copy a value from one component to another, the first step is to tick the box next to the desired value in the Copy column and then select the Copy icon in the top right of the lower pane.

select the Copy icon in the top right of the lower pane. This will open the
select the Copy icon in the top right of the lower pane. This will open the

This will open the Copy Features window where you can specify the copy function of your choice:

where you can specify the copy function of your choice: For example, if you want to

For example, if you want to copy the diameter from one pipe to the other, you can choose the Strict matching (matches component type and data field name), but if you want to copy it over to both the pipe and the valves, select ‘Relaxed’ matching (only matches data field name).

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copy it over to both the pipe and the valves, select ‘Relaxed’ matching (only matches data

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©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is proprietary to Mentor Graphics Corporation and may be duplicated in whole or in part by the original recipient for internal business purposes only, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies. In accepting this document, the recipient agrees to make every reasonable effort to prevent unauthorized use of this information. All trademarks mentioned in this publication are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Easy Guide

Composite Components

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Easy Guide - Application Example

Composite Components

Using Flowmaster V7, a design engineer can combine several standard Flowmaster components to model complex geometries of individual components.

Application Example

The following example is taken from the automotive industry and represents a silencer model for an automotive exhaust system.

a silencer model for an automotive exhaust system. Figure 1 Silencer model The model uses a

Figure 1 Silencer model

The model uses a combination of standard Flowmaster components including the Fixed Volume, Sharp Edge Orifice and Gas Accumulator components. Each is discussed briefly below.

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the Fixed Volume, Sharp Edge Orifice and Gas Accumulator components. Each is discussed briefly below. www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Application Example

Fixed Volume Component

The fixed volume component is basically a 2 arm-compressible accumulator that allows the user to model mass accumulation within a cavity that has both inflow and outflow through separate paths in the cavity. It also allows the user to set separate loss coefficients for the inlet and outlet of the volume. For this application we will be using several of these components to model the large volumes in the individual chambers of the silencer. We will set the diameters large and the loss coefficients small since we are using orifices and transitions to model the effects of the flow moving from one chamber to the next.

Sharp Edged Orifice

The sharp edged orifice is a commonly used component in Flowmaster that models the pressure losses as the exhaust passes through small holes in the system. For the muffler in this model it will be used to model the openings between chambers where there is no piping involved. It is also used to model the exit losses of the muffler. The pipe diameter inputs for the orifice are set large to simulate the small hole in a relatively large plate.

Accumulator Gas

This is the standard compressible accumulator component in Flowmaster. For this application we will be using these components to model the large volumes in the individual chambers of the silencer that have perforations to account for the volume and mass accumulation.

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individual chambers of the silencer that have perforations to account for the volume and mass accumulation.
individual chambers of the silencer that have perforations to account for the volume and mass accumulation.

Example Data

The example network data are shown below. Components 1 and 2: Pipe: Cylindrical Gas

Easy Guide - Application Example

Pipe Diameter

0.025

m

Pipe Length 1

0.1 m

Pipe Length 2

0.15

m

Friction Data Sub-form

Friction Option

1 Colebrook White Approximation

Absolute Roughness

0.025

mm

Heat Transfer Sub-form

 

No. of Internal Nodes

4

Components 3, 4 and 5: Fixed Volume

Pipe Diameter 1

0.05

m

Pipe Diameter 2

0.05

m

Total Volume

0.001

m3

Inflow Loss Coefficient 1

1

Outflow Loss Coefficient 1

1

Inflow Loss Coefficient 2

1

Outflow Loss Coefficient 2

1

Polytropic Index 1

1.4

Polytropic Index 2

1.4

Component 6: Orifice: Sharp Edge

Component 7: Orifice: Sharp Edge

Pipe Diameter

0.03

m

Pipe Diameter

0.05

m

Orifice Diameter

0.02

m

Orifice Diameter

0.02

m

Components 8, 9, 10: Transition: Abrupt

Major Diameter

0.05 m

Minor Diameter

0.025 m

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0.02 m Components 8, 9, 10: Transition: Abrupt Major Diameter 0.05 m Minor Diameter 0.025 m

Components 11 and 12: Accumulator Gas

Easy Guide - Application Example

Inlet Pipe Diameter 11

0.015

m

Inlet Pipe Diameter 12

0.02 m

Accumulator Volume

0.003

m3

Initial Temperature

80°C

Initial Mass Flow Rate

0

Polytropic Charge

1.4

Polytropic Discharge

1.4

Pressure at Node level

Pat_node_level =

Pstatic + Pdynamic

Or Pat_node_level =

Ptotal -

To validate the model, a pressure source is added at inlet and outlet and a Compressible Steady State simulation performed.

Components 13 and 14: Pressure Source

Total Pressure 13

4 bar

Total Pressure 14

1 bar

Once our model is confirmed we are then ready to create our data form for the composite component.

There are several steps to doing this. These are listed below and we will discuss each step in detail.

• Creating new composite framework

• Building the underlying model

• Setting configured values

• Assigning a symbol

• Deducing the connections

• Create signal mappings

• Creating data form

• Defining fall through values

• Hiding unwanted fields

• Defining call up values

• Testing completed composite component

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values • Hiding unwanted fields • Defining call up values • Testing completed composite component www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Application Example

Creating new composite framework

The first step is to define a new composite framework. This is done from the ‘Catalogue’ tab in the Project View as shown Figure 2. Expand the component family and right click on the ‘User Defined’ folder. Then select ‘New > Composite Component’.

This will create an empty composite component under the User Defined folder and automatically open a composite schematic window as shown below.

open a composite schematic window as shown below. Figure 2 Creating new composite This window will

Figure 2 Creating new composite

This window will look very similar to the standard schematic window with one exception. The tabs in the Network View are different. They include Data, Connections and Data Model. These tabs will be where the customization of the component occurs.

The first step is to rename the component. This is done by changing the name in the Property window in the lower left hand side of the screen. For our example change the name to Main Silencer.

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window in the lower left hand side of the screen. For our example change the name

Easy Guide - Application Example

Building the Underlying model

The next step is to create the model that will be underneath the composite component. This is the same model that we created above (without the pressure sources). We can either recreate the model from the beginning or we can simply copy and paste the components from our validation model. Once all the components have been added the schematic should look similar to Figure 3.

been added the schematic should look similar to Figure 3. Figure 3 Underlying Model Note: If

Figure 3 Underlying Model

Note: If you are creating a composite component where the flow direction through the component is important, place the component that is intended to be the inlet of the composite into the schematic first. For this example it is component 1, the cylindrical pipe. This will be used later in the process for defining the component arms.

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component 1, the cylindrical pipe. This will be used later in the process for defining the

Easy Guide - Application Example

Assigning a Symbol

After you have created your network the next step is to assign a symbol to the composite. This is done from the Connections tab in the Network View selecting the Symbol button.

tab in the Network View selecting the Symbol button. Figure 4 Connections tab This will open

Figure 4 Connections tab

This will open the symbol selection dialogue box. Within this window use the file browser to go to the User Defined Symbol Catalogue. This will list all of the symbols in this folder. By selecting any of the symbol

names an image of the symbol will be displayed in the lower centre of the selection box.

identified the appropriate symbol, choose the ‘Select’ button to attach it to your composite component. Once you have done this the symbol will appear in the ‘Connections’ tab just to the right of the ‘Symbol’

button.

Once you have

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symbol will appear in the ‘Connections’ tab just to the right of the ‘Symbol’ button. Once

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 5 Selecting a Symbol Deducing the connections Similar to standard

Figure 5 Selecting a Symbol

Deducing the connections

Similar to standard Flowmaster components composite components have arms associated with the connection points of the components. These are the unconnected ends of the components in the network. Unlike standard components there is no limit to the number of arms that a composite component can have. To deduce the connections for your composite component select the Connections tab from your Network Views window.

From this window select the ‘Deduce’ button as is shown in Figure 6.

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from your Network Views window. From this window select the ‘Deduce’ button as is shown in

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 6 Deducing connections Flowmaster will evaluate the network and produce

Figure 6 Deducing connections

Flowmaster will evaluate the network and produce a connections map similar to the one below. This mapping shows that Arm 1 of the composite component is mapped to Arm 1 of component 1 (Pipe) and Arm 2 of the composite component is mapped to Arm 2 of component 7 (orifice).

component is mapped to Arm 2 of component 7 (orifice). Figure 7 Arm mappings Note: If

Figure 7 Arm mappings

Note: If components are added or removed from the schematic after the Arms are deduced this step must be repeated.

Along with setting the arm mappings it also assigns a default placement for each of the arms of the composite component. This is the physical connection point with respect to the symbol. These are initially set to 16 for both arms and these must be changed to suit how the component is going to be used. This number can be set to any value between 0 and 59. These numbers are associated with a position on the symbol as is shown in the diagram below. Position 0 is the mid position on the left side of the symbol and they increase in a anti-clockwise manner around the symbol.

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mid position on the left side of the symbol and they increase in a anti-clockwise manner

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 8 Mapping Positions For our example, use placement value of

Figure 8 Mapping Positions

For our example, use placement value of 45 for Arm 1 and 15 for Arm 2. This will produce a symbol similar to that shown if Figure 9.

for Arm 2. This will produce a symbol similar to that shown if Figure 9. Figure

Figure 9 Main Silencer Connections

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for Arm 2. This will produce a symbol similar to that shown if Figure 9. Figure

Easy Guide - Application Example

Create Signal Mappings

Many of the components have signal connections associated with them that the user may want to utilize as part of the composite component. To take advantage of these signal connections they must be mapped to the composite component. This is again done from the Network View window under the ‘Signal Mappings’ header.

Network View window under the ‘Signal Mappings’ header. Figure 10 Signal Mapping For our example we

Figure 10 Signal Mapping

For our example we want to be able to get the pressure inside accumulator component 12 as a

measurement output. Silencer composite.

Therefore we must map the measurement output of the accumulator to the Main

This is done by selecting the ‘Add’ button just above the Signal Mappings header. This will open a new window that lists all the components in the schematic that have signal connections. By selecting the ‘+’ next to the component, the window will expand to show all available connections for that particular component. These will either be designated with the letters (MO) for Measurement Output or (SI) for signal input.

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These will either be designated with the letters (MO) for Measurement Output or (SI) for signal

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 11 Signal Mapping Section For this example we expand component

Figure 11 Signal Mapping Section

For this example we expand component ‘12 Accumulator: Gas’ and it shows that it only has a Measurement Output. To proceed, check the box next to the Measurement Output. This will open an additional window which lists all of the variables that could be measured. Select Pressure and select the OK button. This will update the signal mapping window to show that pressure has been selected as the Measurement Output for that component.

Now select OK in the Signal Mapping window and the Network View window will update to show that the measurement output mapping has been added to the composite component.

Similar to the fluid connections, the placement of the signal connections on the symbol can be changed for this example change the placement to 50.

If there are more signal connections desired for a composite component this process can be repeated.

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to 50. If there are more signal connections desired for a composite component this process can

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 12 Signal Mapping and Placement Setting Configured Values One of

Figure 12 Signal Mapping and Placement

Setting Configured Values

One of the major benefits of composite components is that they allow the user to predefine inputs for the underlying components that never change. This then eliminates the need for these values to be set every time the composite component is used. To do this it is important to understand how you will be using the component in the future and which inputs that you want predefined. You will only want to set configured values for items that will never change.

For this example, we will pre-set the friction data in the pipes and the loss coefficients in the fixed volume components and polytropic index in fixed volume and accumulator components. This is done by simply setting the values in the individual components. Below are the values we will be using for each component.

Components 1 and 2: Pipe: Cylindrical Gas

Friction Data Sub-form

 

Friction Option

1 Colebrook White Approximation

Absolute Roughness

0.025 mm

Heat Transfer Sub-form

No. of Internal Nodes

4

Logic: The pipe material will always be the same

Components 11 and 12: Accumulator Gas

Initial Mass Flow Rate

0

Polytropic Charge

1.4

Polytropic Discharge

1.4

Logic: Pressure and Temperature changes will not be significant enough to affect the Polytropic Index.

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1.4 Logic: Pressure and Temperature changes will not be significant enough to affect the Polytropic Index.

Components 3, 4 and 5: Fixed Volume

Easy Guide - Application Example

Pipe Diameter 1

0.05

m

Pipe Diameter 2

0.05

m

Inflow Loss Coefficient 1

1

Outflow Loss Coefficient 1

1

Inflow Loss Coefficient 2

1

Outflow Loss Coefficient 2

1

Logic: Using orifices and transitions to model the flow losses and velocity changes from 1 chamber to the next.

Polytropic Index 1

1.4

Polytropic Index 2

1.4

Logic: Pressure and Temperature changes will not be significant enough to affect the Polytropic Index.

Component 7: Orifice: Sharp Edge

Pipe Diameter

0.05

m

Logic: Set large to simulate significant difference in the flow area to properly model the velocity changes. Components 8, 9, 10: Transition: Abrupt

Major Diameter

0.05

m

Logic: Set large to simulate significant difference in the flow area to properly model the velocity changes

Once these individual data items are set we are then ready to create our data form for the composite component.

Creating the Data Form

Before creating the data form it is advantageous to look at all the data items that will need to be completed for all of the components and determine if any of them can be combined into a single item. Below is a list

From this you can see

that there are several fields that can be combined to reduce the total number of input fields from 20 to 14.

of components and the data items that need to be completed for each one of them.

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fields from 20 to 14. of components and the data items that need to be completed

Easy Guide - Application Example

Component

Data item

Same As Component No.

Custom Field Name

1

Pipe: Cylindrical Gas

Length

Unique

Inlet Pipe Length

1

Pipe: Cylindrical Gas

Diameter

2, 8,9,10 (minor dia.)

Pipe Diameter

 

Internal Pipe

2

Pipe: Cylindrical Gas

Length

Unique

Length

2

Pipe: Cylindrical Gas

Diameter

1, 8,9,10 (minor dia.)

Pipe Diameter

3

Fixed Volume

Total Volume

Unique

Chamber 2 Volume

4

Fixed Volume

Total Volume

Unique

Chamber 3 Volume

5

Fixed Volume

Total Volume

Unique

Chamber 5 Volume

6

Orifice: Sharp Edge

Orifice Diameter

Unique

Internal Orifice Dia.

7

Orifice: Sharp Edge

Orifice Diameter

Unique

Exit Diameter

8

Transition: Abrupt

Minor Diameter

1, 2, 9, 10

Pipe Diameter

9

Transition: Abrupt

Minor Diameter

1, 2, 8, 10

Pipe Diameter

10 Transition: Abrupt

Minor Diameter

1, 2, 8, 9

Pipe Diameter

11

Accumulator: Gas

Pipe Diameter

Unique

Equiv. Flow Dia. Chamber 1

11

Accumulator: Gas

Total Volume

Unique

Chamber 1 Volume

11

Accumulator: Gas

Initial Temperature

12

Initial Temperature

 

12

Accumulator: Gas

Pipe Diameter

Unique

Equiv. Flow Dia. Chamber 4

 

12

Accumulator: Gas

Total Volume

Unique

Chamber 4 Volume

 

12

Accumulator: Gas

Initial Temperature

11

Initial Temperature

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Chamber 4 Volume   12 Accumulator: Gas Initial Temperature 11 Initial Temperature www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Application Example

Pipe Diameter

Diameter of all Pipes within the composite

Inlet Pipe Length

Length of pipe on the Inlet side of the silencer

Internal Pipe Length

Length of the pipe that is internal to the silencer

Chamber 1 Volume

Total volume in Chamber 1

Chamber 2 Volume

Total volume in Chamber 2

Chamber 3 Volume

Total volume in Chamber 3

Chamber 4 Volume

Total volume in Chamber 4

Chamber 5 Volume

Total volume in Chamber 5

Equivalent Flow Diameter Chamber 1

Equivalent diameter of all holes in the pipe through chamber 1 (inlet pipe)

Equivalent Flow Diameter Chamber 4

Equivalent diameter of all holes in the pipe through chamber 4 (internal pipe)

Internal Orifice Diameter

Diameter of orifice between chamber 2 and chamber 3

Exit Diameter

Diameter at the exit of the main silencer

Initial Temperature

Temperature inside the silencer at the start of the analysis

Now that we have determined all of the inputs that will be required for our silencer we are ready to build the data form.

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determined all of the inputs that will be required for our silencer we are ready to

Easy Guide - Application Example

To create the data form we must switch to the Data Model tab in the Network Views window and select the ‘Create/ Edit’ button as is shown below.

and select the ‘Create/ Edit’ button as is shown below. Figure 13 Creating Data Form This

Figure 13 Creating Data Form

This will then open the ‘Analytical Model Editor’. It is in this editor that we define each of the input fields and assign their context dependency. Using our list from the previous page we can begin to add the data items in the correct order. This is done by selecting the Add Existing button in the ‘Analytical Model Editor’ which will open the ‘Feature Selection’ window as is shown in Figure 14 and Figure 15 respectively.

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which will open the ‘Feature Selection’ window as is shown in Figure 14 and Figure 15

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 14 Analytical Model Editor www.mentor.com

Figure 14 Analytical Model Editor

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Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 14 Analytical Model Editor www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 15. Feature Selection Window Scroll down the list and find

Figure 15. Feature Selection Window

Scroll down the list and find Pipe Diameter. You will see that there are multiple entries for many of the fields. This will allow you to use more than one instance of the input. You do need to be careful to ensure that they are input fields and not output fields though. This is shown in the lower left hand side of the window.

Place a check mark next to the Pipe Diameter field and select OK. You will then see that this item has been added to the Analytical Model Editor. You will also see that the Necessity table on the right side of the editor now has several Simulation types visible.

This portion of the editor is used to tell Flowmaster which fields are mandatory, optional or context dependent for each of the available analysis types. For the Main Silencer this will only be used in Compressible Steady State, Compressible Transient and Compressible Flow Balancing applications. For each of these simulation types set the requirement to Mandatory. This is done by selecting the drop down menu next to the analysis type.

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set the requirement to Mandatory. This is done by selecting the drop down menu next to

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 16. Simulation Type Necessity We now need to add the

Figure 16. Simulation Type Necessity

We now need to add the other required fields for our component. Repeat the process above and select the following fields and select the same necessity type for each:

Inlet Pipe Length:

Internal Pipe Length:

Inlet Pipe Length Length

Note: there is not a default field type for Internal Pipe Length so we chose an Equivalent field simply named Length.

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is not a default field type for Internal Pipe Length so we chose an Equivalent field

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 17. Necessity Types The next 5 fields are very similar

Figure 17. Necessity Types

The next 5 fields are very similar in that they represent volumes in the different chambers in the Silencer. Flowmaster does not have 5 independent volume features in the standard database, but the Analytical Model Editor provides the capability to create new features in the database. This is done by selecting the Add New… button in the Features table. This will then open a series of windows that will step you through creating the new feature. The first of these is the Feature Type.

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of windows that will step you through creating the new feature. The first of these is

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 18. Feature Type This window is used to select the

Figure 18. Feature Type

This window is used to select the type of feature we would like to add. For the Volume fields we want to use a Real data type, so this is selected and then press OK. This will then open the Feature Edit window. This window is used to create the following items for our example:

• Feature Name

:

Volume 1

• Designate if it is an Input field or Output field

:

Input

• Add any field specific help if required

:

NA

• Specify the Units for the field

:

volume(m3)

Once these items are entered select OK and set the Necessity values as we did before.

Repeat this step for each of the volume fields for Volume 1 to Volume 5.

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Necessity values as we did before. Repeat this step for each of the volume fields for

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 19. Volume Fields We need to now add the 5

Figure 19. Volume Fields

We need to now add the 5 remaining fields. There are existing fields in the editor to accommodate these remaining fields. Use the Add Existing… button to include these remaining fields as per the list below.

Equivalent Flow Diameter Chamber 1:

Equivalent Flow Diameter Chamber 4:

Internal Orifice Diameter:

Exit Diameter:

Initial Temperature:

Arm 1 Diameter Arm 2 Diameter Orifice Diameter Diameter Initial Temperature

Once these are all added select OK and return to the Data Model tab. You will be able to see all the data items that have been added to the composite.

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to the Data Model tab. You will be able to see all the data items that

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 20 Data Model View of Input Fields Customising Fields and

Figure 20 Data Model View of Input Fields

Customising Fields and Defining Fall Thru Values

The next step is to create the custom names for each of the fields and defining how they are linked to the components within the composite components. First we will create the custom names where required. On page 25 of the application guide is list of all the input fields with a description of each field. Comparing that list to our input field names we can see that there are 10 of the 13 fields that we will want to create custom names for. Below is a summary of the fields and the custom names we have chosen.

Internal Pipe Length:

Length

Chamber 1 Volume:

Volume 1

Chamber 2 Volume:

Volume 2

Chamber 3 Volume:

Volume 3

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Chamber 1 Volume: Volume 1 Chamber 2 Volume: Volume 2 Chamber 3 Volume: Volume 3 www.mentor.com

Chamber 4 Volume:

Chamber 5 Volume:

Equivalent Flow Diameter Chamber 1:

Equivalent Flow Diameter Chamber 4:

Internal Orifice Diameter:

Exit Diameter:

Easy Guide - Application Example

Volume 4 Volume 5 Arm 1 Diameter Arm 2 Diameter Orifice Diameter Diameter

To create the custom name select the Length input field in the Data Model tab. This will then display the properties of the field. These properties include Default Value, Minimum and Maximum Value and many others. The first property in the list is Custom Name. For the Length field add “Internal Pipe Length” as the value.

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property in the list is Custom Name. For the Length field add “Internal Pipe Length” as

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 21 Custom Names You will see the field name in

Figure 21 Custom Names

You will see the field name in the Data Model update. Repeat this for all the fields in the list. When you are finished the Input field list should be similar to the figure below.

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the fields in the list. When you are finished the Input field list should be similar

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 22 Custom names list Now that we have all of

Figure 22 Custom names list

Now that we have all of our custom names created we are ready to associate them to the components underneath the composite components. To do this we again look at the Data Model tab and expand the Parts list at the bottom of the window. This shows a list of all the components and nodes that are included in the composite component. Furthermore, if we expand any one of the components we can see all input and output fields that are associated with that particular component. It is here where we can now link the custom fields to the component fields.

This is done by highlighting the custom field name and checking the appropriate field name under the individual components that you want to associate the custom field with. It is important to make sure that the “Check for Fall Thru” radio button is selected. It should also be noted that that multiple component fields can be associated with a single custom field.

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It should also be noted that that multiple component fields can be associated with a single

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example www.mentor.com Figure 23 Field Mapping

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Figure 23 Field Mapping

Easy Guide - Application Example www.mentor.com Figure 23 Field Mapping

Easy Guide - Application Example

Previously we defined field mappings which we can now use as a guide for mapping all of the fields. This table can be rearranged to clarify the mapping

Custom Field Name

Component

Data item

Pipe Diameter

1

Pipe: Cylindrical Gas

Diameter

2

Pipe: Cylindrical Gas

Diameter

8

Transition: Abrupt

Minor Diameter

9

Transition: Abrupt

Minor Diameter

10

Transition: Abrupt

Minor Diameter

Inlet Pipe Length

1

Pipe: Cylindrical Gas

Length

Internal Pipe Length

2

Pipe: Cylindrical Gas

Length

Chamber 1 Volume

11

Accumulator: Gas

Total Volume

Chamber 2 Volume

3 Fixed Volume

Total Volume

Chamber 3 Volume

4 Fixed Volume

Total Volume

Chamber 4 Volume

 

12

Accumulator: Gas

Total Volume

Chamber 5 Volume

5

Fixed Volume

Total Volume

Equivalent Flow Diameter Chamber 1

11 Accumulator: Gas

Pipe Diameter

Equivalent Flow Diameter Chamber 4

12 Accumulator: Gas

Pipe Diameter

Internal Orifice Diameter

6 Orifice: Sharp Edge

Orifice Diameter

Exit Diameter

7 Orifice: Sharp Edge

Orifice Diameter

Initial Temperature

11 Accumulator: Gas

Initial Temperature

 

12 Accumulator: Gas

Initial Temperature

The Figure below shows the proper mapping for the Inlet Pipe Length. We can see from the Table above that the Length of component no. 1 is the proper field to map. So first, highlight Inlet Pipe Length in the custom fields and then expand component 1 to show all the input fields.

Flowmaster applies a sorting logic and inactivates any field that could not match the data type that you have chosen so it is easy to see that length is the only option for this component. Check the box next to Length.

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so it is easy to see that length is the only option for this component. Check

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 24 Inlet Pipe Mapping Repeat this for each of the

Figure 24 Inlet Pipe Mapping

Repeat this for each of the items in the table and take care to include all the fields when one custom field has multiple entries.

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the items in the table and take care to include all the fields when one custom

Easy Guide - Application Example

Defining Custom Result Fields and Mapping Pass Up Values

Now that we have all of the input fields defined and mapped we want to determine what results from the individual components we want reported as a result for the composite component. By default Flowmaster will provide standard results for flow rate, pressures, and temperatures for the composite as whole so we need not be concerned about these.

Note: If we are interested in a particular result internal to the composite such as a node pressure we must attach a gauge to the node and map the custom result to the result of the gauge. For our example we are only going to be concerned with the Gas Mass and Pressure in the chambers 1 and 4. Therefore we will have 4 custom result fields to create.

To create these we again go to the Analytical Model Editor and add additional fields this time making sure all the fields are Output fields. Similar to the Inputs we will map these to existing fields in the database. Below are the fields that we will use.

Gas Mass:

Chamber Pressure:

Cavity Gas Mass:

Pressure:

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Chamber 1 Gas Mass Chamber 1 Pressure Chamber 2 Gas Mass Chamber 2 Pressure

Cavity Gas Mass: Pressure: www.mentor.com Chamber 1 Gas Mass Chamber 1 Pressure Chamber 2 Gas Mass

Easy Guide - Application Example

Easy Guide - Application Example Figure 25 Custom output fields Now that the custom result fields

Figure 25 Custom output fields

Now that the custom result fields have been added we need to customize the names in the same manner as we did the input fields. Use the list above to create the custom names.

input fields. Use the list above to create the custom names. Figure 26 Custom names list

Figure 26 Custom names list

The final step is to map the Pass Up values for the results. This is done in exactly the same manner as the inputs except select the “Check for Pass Up” radio button.

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is done in exactly the same manner as the inputs except select the “Check for Pass

Easy Guide - Application Example

Select the custom result and the appropriate result for the underlying component. Below is a table that shows the correct mapping for our component.

Custom Field Name

Component

Data item

Chamber 1 Gas Mass

11

Accumulator: Gas

Gas Mass

Chamber 1 Pressure

11

Accumulator: Gas

Pressure

Chamber 2 Gas Mass

12

Accumulator: Gas

Gas Mass

Chamber 2 Pressure

12

Accumulator: Gas

Pressure

Gas Mass Chamber 2 Pressure 12 Accumulator: Gas Pressure Figure 27 Mapping Pass-Up Values www.mentor.com

Figure 27 Mapping Pass-Up Values

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Gas Mass Chamber 2 Pressure 12 Accumulator: Gas Pressure Figure 27 Mapping Pass-Up Values www.mentor.com

Easy Guide - Application Example

Testing Completed Composite Component

Now that we have completed the Silencer composite component we want to verify that it is providing the same results as the network it is based on. We can do this by building a simple model and compare the results to those of the network in Appendix A.

Create a network like the one below with the following inputs.

a network like the one below with the following inputs. Component 1: Main Silencer Figure 28

Component 1: Main Silencer

Figure 28 Test network

Pipe Diameter:

0.0250 m

Inlet Pipe Length:

0.1000 m

Internal Pipe Length

0.1500 m

Chamber 1 Volume

0.0010 m3

Chamber 2 Volume

0.0010 m3

Chamber 3 Volume

0.0010 m3

Chamber 4 Volume

0.0030 m3

Chamber 5 Volume

0.0010 m3

Equivalent Flow Dia Chamber 1

0.0150 m

Equivalent Flow Dia Chamber 4

0.0200 m

Internal Orifice Diameter

0.0200 m

Exit Diameter

0.0250 m

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Flow Dia Chamber 4 0.0200 m Internal Orifice Diameter 0.0200 m Exit Diameter 0.0250 m www.mentor.com

Initial Temperature

Component 2: Pressure Source

Total Pressure:

1 Bar

Component 3: Pressure Source

Total Pressure:

4 Bar

80.0 °C

Easy Guide - Application Example

Now run a compressible steady state analysis and compare the results for the Chamber 1 gas mass and pressure with those same items for component 5 Accumulator: Gas and the results for Chamber 2 gas mass and pressure with component 6 Accumulator: Gas.

If the composite is created correctly these results should match.

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with component 6 Accumulator: Gas. If the composite is created correctly these results should match. www.mentor.com

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www.mentor.com ©2014 Mentor Graphics Corporation, all rights reserved. This document contains information that is

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