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# Unidirectional Flow and

Sediment Transport

Discharge
volume

## of water flowing through a crosssection of channel per unit time

Q = w d U
w is width of flow
d is mean flow depth
U is mean flow velocity
X-S area of flow, a, is width x depth
Q=aU

flow

## characteristics (depth, width, velocity)

do not change with time steady flow
flow characteristics (depth, width, velocity)
do not change from place to place: uniform
flow
streamline -- imaginary line drawn parallel
to local mean flow direction

## Consider a steady, non-uniform flow

Plan View
a1
streamlines

a2

Streamlines -- visualization
of flow velocity -- show flow
direction and speed (spacing of
streamlines is closer where
flow is faster)

Conservation of mass
Consider

because

## no fluid is lost or gained between xsections 1 and 2, discharge is constant: a1U1

= a2U2 = Q
This equation is the continuity equation
Tells us that where a is small, U is large, and
vice-versa.

Conservation of energy
Consider

## the energy of a fluid mass that

moves between 2 streamlines (see next
slide)
Fluid is ideal -- incompressible, frictionless
(no viscosity)
Steady, non-uniform flow

Bernoulli Equation
In

change
p1 + gy1 +

Real

u12
2

= p2 + gy2 +

u2 2
2

## water is not ideal; there is friction so

total head decreases downstream
In some cases, friction is small so this
equation works well.

Fluid viscosity

Fluid viscosity
Viscosity

## = internal resistance to flow

Water viscosity results in friction between
water and bed/banks
Friction from bed/banks is transmitted
through fluid
Result: velocity increases with distance
from bed/banks

u
=
y

## Velocity gradient, the rate of change of velocity with distance from

aboundary, can be written u/y
Shear stress within the fluid, , is proportional to the velocity
gradient. Viscosity, , is the proportionality constant

## Definition diagram for spatially-averaged bed

shear stress in steady, uniform flow
flow

Fd
bed

Fd
0 =
A

W
Consider column of water with unit area (A=1)

## Bed shear stress (for steady,

uniform flow)
Fd=Vgsin; V is volume; V=A x d; is water
density; g is acc. due to gravity
0 = gdsin
0 is bed shear stress
For small , sin=S, the water surface slope
0 = gdS DuBoys Equation

## Two types of flow:

Laminar & Turbulent

## Allen, Earth Surface Processes, Blackwell Science

Laminar flow
Streamlines

nearly parallel
Think of flow as composed of layers of fluid
sliding over each other
There is friction between layers (bcs. fluid
has viscosity)
Momentum transferred over very small
distances

Turbulent Flow
Flow

## is NOT smooth layers.

Turbulent eddies can transfer momentum
over much of flow depth.
High speed fluid can sweep down to bed
and increase amount of sediment moved.
River flow is almost always turbulent

## What determines whether flow

laminar or turbulent?
Laminar

## flow occurs at low flow velocities

and depths.
Turbulent flow occurs at higher velocities
and depths.
Reynolds number (Re) is used to determine
whether flow is laminar or turbulent.

Reynolds Number

Ud
Re =

is fluid density
U is mean flow velocity
d is mean flow depth
is fluid viscosity

flows
Viscosity

## dominates in a laminar flow

= u/y
is shear stress in fluid
is fluid viscosity; dynamic viscosity

## Velocity Profile - Graph of velocity increase

with distance from bed

2

o
y
u( y) = y
2d

## u(y) is velocity, u, at height y above bed

o is shear stress
d is flow depth
is fluid viscosity
mean velocity is at height above bed = 0.4d

Turbulent flow
Turbulence

## results in transfer of momentum

over entire flow depth in turbulent eddys
Generates higher shear stresses
Therefore, for turbulent flows,
= (+) du/dy

## Velocity Profile - Graph of velocity increase

with distance from bed

Flow

Wall

## near bed obeys theLaw of the

u( y) =
ln

yo
u is the velocity at height y above the bed
is von Karmans constant
u* is the shear velocity
yo is the height above bed where velocity = 0
u*

Applies

## only to velocities in lowest 20% of

flow depth
Can be used to calculate o, bed shear
stress, because

0
u* =

As

## flow velocity increases, flow can exhibit

standing waves --> critical flow.
When flow shallow and fast, can see chutes
and pools (rapids) --> supercritical flow

Froude Number, Fr
Dimensionless

number used to
determine whether flow is subcritical or
supercritical.

U
Fr =
gdis supercritical
If Fr>1, flow
If Fr<1, flow is subcritical
Fr=1 for critical flow