Sei sulla pagina 1di 37

The World Bank

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in Road


Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road


Construction and Rehabilitation
Executive Summary

November 2010

Document quality information

Document Quality Information

General information
Author(s)

Egis

Project name

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in Road Construction and


Rehabilitation

Document name

Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and


Rehabilitation

Date

November 2010

Reference

Addressees
Sent to:
Name

Organization

Fei Deng

The World Bank

Peng Wang

The World Bank

Sent on (date):

Copy to:
Name

Organization

Project Team

Sent on (date):

Egis Bceom International

History of modifications
Version
0

Date

Written by

Approved & signed by:

November 2010
Egis

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 2
Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and
Rehabilitation

Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................... 8
1. Context and Background....................................................................... 8
1.1. Context........................................................................................................... 8
1.2. Purpose of the Toolkit .................................................................................... 8
1.3. Approach followed to develop the toolkit ....................................................... 8

2. Purpose of this Background report ...................................................... 9


3. Structure of this Background report .................................................... 9

Chapter 2 - General analysis of road construction emissions ............... 10


1. GHG emissions in road construction ................................................. 10
1.1. Road transport GHG emissions globally and by region ............................... 10
1.2. Rationale for focusing on road construction activities.................................. 11

2. Main issues ........................................................................................... 11


2.1. Global emissions.......................................................................................... 11
2.2. Emissions per Item of work and per type of road ........................................ 12
2.3. Emissions per phase of work and per type of road...................................... 13

3. Current road construction practices in East Asia............................. 14

Chapter 3 - Development of a calculation tool ......................................... 17


1. Need for tools ....................................................................................... 17
2. Assessment of existing tools.............................................................. 18
2.1. Main principles of existing tools ................................................................... 18
2.2. Comparison of calculations of existing tools ................................................ 19
2.3. Characteristics and limitations of existing tools ........................................... 19

3. Functions of the proposed tool........................................................... 21


4. Assumptions, modeling and calibration ............................................ 23
5. Emissions factors................................................................................. 25

Chapter 4 - Alternative practices to reduce GHG emissions .................. 28


1. Identification of alternative practices ................................................. 28
1.1. Transport...................................................................................................... 29
1.2. Earthworks ................................................................................................... 29
1.2.1. Rock excavation..............................................................................................29
1.2.2. Soil treatment ..................................................................................................30

1.3. Pavement..................................................................................................... 30
1.3.1.
1.3.2.
1.3.3.
1.3.4.

Pavement structure types ...............................................................................30


Investment and maintenance strategies .........................................................30
Overloading and impact of standards .............................................................32
Roughness ......................................................................................................33

1.4. Structures..................................................................................................... 33
1.5. Equipment / road furniture ........................................................................... 33

2. Integration into the toolkit ................................................................... 34


3. Economic and financial analysis ........................................................ 34
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in
Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 3
Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and
Rehabilitation

Chapter 5 - Conclusions............................................................................. 36
1. Main outcomes ..................................................................................... 36
2. Challenges ahead ................................................................................. 36

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 4
Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and
Rehabilitation

List of Figures
Figure 1 Road transport emissions as part of global and transport GHG emissions.................. 10
Figure 2. Emission per item of work per type of road ................................................................. 12
Figure 3. Emission per GHG generator per type of road ............................................................ 13
Figure 4. Impact of technology on emissions: asphalt plant in poor condition compared to
a new one ............................................................................................................................. 15
Figure 5 Total CO2 emissions over a 40 years period for a 1 km long and 13 m wide road
during construction, maintenance and operation (lighting, traffic lights, winter
treatment). ............................................................................................................................ 17
Figure 6 Some of the tools reviewed .......................................................................................... 18
Figure 7. Simplified calculation process for materials................................................................. 19
Figure 7. CHANGER data input screen ...................................................................................... 20
Figure 8. Emissions from a ring road section in France - EGIS calculator ................................ 21
Figure 9. Breakdown of emissions from a ring road section in France - EGIS calculator........... 21
Figure 10. Proposed report format - ROADEO tool ................................................................... 22
Figure 11. Sample best practice data sheet ROADEO tool..................................................... 23
Figure 12. Screenshot of the upstream data entry module of the ROADEO tool..................... 24
Figure 13. Screenshot of the materials emission factors Changer tool ................................... 26
Figure 14 Cumulated GHG emissions for construction and maintenance activities
depending on pavement construction / maintenance strategy ............................................. 31
Figure 15 Comparison of distributed costs between initial construction and maintenance
activities depending on pavement construction / maintenance strategy .............................. 32

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 5
Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and
Rehabilitation

List of Tables
Table 1 Regional breakdown of road transport share in transport GHG emissions ................ 10
Table 2 Typical unit GHG emissions of various road categories (t CO2 eq. /km) ................... 11
Table 3 Typical breakdown of GHG emissions by work items for various road
categories (t CO2 eq. /km).................................................................................................... 12
Table 4 Typical breakdown of GHG emissions by generator for various road categories
(t CO2 eq. /km) ..................................................................................................................... 13
Table 5 Orders of magnitude of GHG emissions related to the road construction
programme in 3 East Asian countries over 2009-2019. ....................................................... 16
Table 6 List of parameters used for the summarized description of the road.......................... 24
Table 7 List of case studies used to calibrate the model ......................................................... 25
Table 8 Emission Intensities within VicRoads, CHANGER and EGIS calculators................... 26
Table 9 Emission Intensities for steel according to various sources ....................................... 27
Table 10 List of alternative practices included in the ROADEO tool........................................ 28
Table 11 Relative importance of explosives in GHG emissions from earthworks
techniques ............................................................................................................................ 30
Table 12 Comparison of GHG emissions from the construction of embankments,
bridges and tunnels .............................................................................................................. 33

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 6
Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and
Rehabilitation

Glossary of Abbreviations
AASHTO
AAU
ASTAE
BAU
CDM
CER
CRRAP
DNA
EASTE
EIRR
EPA
ERU
ESA
ETS
EU
FIRR
FUND
GHG
HMA
HMAM
IPCC
IRR
ITL
JI
NPV
ODA
ORN
PDD
PPD
PPM
RGGI
SC
TRL
UNFCC
SCC
WMA

: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials


: Assigned Amount Unit
: Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program
: Business As Usual
: Clean Development Mechanism
: Certified Emission Reduction
: Cold Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement
: Designated National Authority
: East Asia and Pacific region
: Economic Internal Rate of Return
: Environmental Protection Agency
: Emission Reduction Unit
: Equivalent Standard Axles
: Emission Trading Scheme
: European Union
: Financial Internal Rate of Return
: Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation, and Distribution
: Green House Gas
: Hot Mix Asphalt
: High Modulus Asphalt Material
: International Panel on Climate Change
: Internal Rate of Return
: International Transaction Log
: Joint Implementation
: Net Present Value
: Official Development Assistance
: Oversea Road Notes
: Project Design Document
: Perpetual Pavement Design
: Parts Per Million
: Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
: Stage Construction
: Transport Research Laboratory
: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
: Social Cost of Carbon
: Warm Mix Asphalt

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 7
Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction and
Rehabilitation

Chapter 1 - Introduction

1.

Context and Background

1.1.

Context

The transport sector of the East Asia and Pacific region (EASTE) of the World Bank (the 'Bank')
has the goal of identifying solutions to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to road
construction and rehabilitation in the region. The transport team was awarded a grant from the
Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program (ASTAE) to finance creation of a toolkit
addressing the GHG emissions resulting from transport development and restoration activities.
It is anticipated that over the next several years, developing countries in East Asia will be
substantially expanding and restoring their extensive road networks. One result of these
activities is increased GHG emissions. Reducing these emissions would significantly decrease
the negative impacts related to these infrastructure works.
There are several steps involved in road construction, which contribute to the production and
release of GHG emissions, beginning with site clearing, preparation of the sub-grade,
production of construction materials (i.e. granular sub-base, base course, surfacing), site
delivery, construction works, ongoing supervision, maintenance activities, etc. The aggregate
GHG emissions for each project (phase, section, alignment) can be calculated depending on
equipment, local condition, and standard construction and maintenance practice in a country.
This document has been prepared as part of a study aimed at identifying and quantifying the
GHG emissions from current practices, and at developing a strategy for the better planning,
design and construction of roads in order to give planners a tool where then can explicitly
compare emissions and costs and therefore make more informed decisions some of which will
result in lower emission roads.

1.2.

Purpose of the Toolkit

The Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Toolkit for Highway Construction and Rehabilitation
(ROADEO), with the support of a user manual, will guide users through various stages and
activities of road construction and rehabilitation, help them identify the sensitive areas to GHG
emissions, and provide them with various mitigation options considering cost and benefit
implications. With the Toolkit, decision makers, designers and technicians in the highway sector
may easily compare various alternatives in construction, and optimize their practices to
minimize GHG emissions and maximize energy efficiency. It is envisioned that this Toolkit could
be used on both new and existing projects.

1.3.

Approach followed to develop the toolkit

The preparation of the Toolkit involved the following nine activities:


Task 1: Undertake a broad assessment of GHG emission related to the transport sector
Task 2: Complete a detailed literature review on GHG emissions from road construction and
rehabilitation activities
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in
Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 8
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

2.

Task 3: Review of current road construction and rehabilitation practices in three East Asian
developing countries
Task 4: Select recent case studies in each country with detailed analysis of GHG emissions
Task 5: Perform GHG emission calculations
Task 6: Identify gaps between best practices from developed countries and practices in pilot
developing countries and proposals for improving the situation
Task 7: Assess costs and benefits of each alternative practice proposed in Task 6
Task 8: Develop the Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Toolkit for Road Construction
and Rehabilitation
Task 9: Complete the User Manual to accompany the Toolkit

Purpose of this Background report

The purpose of this background report is to present the findings of the study that led to the
development of the toolkit. It is intended to provide non-specialists with an introduction to main
issues related to GHG emissions due to road construction in East Asia. While it was not
possible to investigate all details, and to cover the very wide range of situations met on all road
projects, efforts were made to identify orders of magnitude, extents, impacts, converging and
diverging appreciations from the road community on some topics.
Thus, this report will hopefully provide detailed information gathered during the preparation of
the toolkit, and make it available to users for their studies.
This document does not describe the functions of the ROADEO tool, which is the topic of the
User Manual. Reference can be made to this document.

3.

Structure of this Background report

To make the document user friendly, it has been structured in several volumes. Each of these
volumes covers an aspect of the GHG emissions.
Volume 0 Main body (this document): provides general information, and an executive
summary of the documents content.
Volume 1 Introduction to GHG emissions from road construction
Volume 2 Review of current road construction practices in East Asia
Volume 3 Lower GHG emissions alternative practices for road construction
Volume 4 Economic and financial analysis of road construction GHG emissions

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 9
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Chapter 2 - General analysis of road


construction emissions

1.

GHG emissions in road construction

1.1.

Road transport GHG emissions globally and by region

In 2005, transportation was the second largest source of energy related emissions or about
13.9% of total emissions. Road transportation accounts for about 90 to 95% of the transport
sectors contribution to GHG emissions.

Figure 1. Road transport emissions as part of global and transport GHG emissions
The information in the table below shows that road transport in Asia is a major contributor to
transport GHG emissions. Asia is the region constructing the largest amount of new roads at the
moment, and represented in 2005 37% of manmade GHG emissions.
Table 1 Regional breakdown of road transport share in transport GHG emissions
Region

Road transport contribution to


transport sector

World
Asia
Europe
North America

72%
95 to 100%
93%
85%

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 10
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

1.2.

Region

Road transport contribution to


transport sector

Central America and Caribbean


Middle East and N. Africa
South Africa
Sub-saharan Africa
Oceania

n.a.
n.a.
more than 50%
n.a.
84%

Rationale for focusing on road construction activities

While road construction GHG emissions only represent 5-10% of total GHG emissions in the
sector, they are growing rapidly, especially in Asia due to major ongoing road programs to
support economic development.
The mitigation efforts are relatively easy to manage, and can have noticeable impacts (which is
of interest to IFIs like the Bank) compared to actions on road traffic.
Moreover, most road agencies in Asia are not yet aware of the impact of their activities on GHG
emissions, even though Asia is at the center of road construction actions. It is therefore
important to raise the awareness of the stakeholders to improve current practices and to
facilitate more informed decision making.

2.

Main issues

An assessment of GHG emissions of road construction was performed on typical road


sections of various types or categories. In the absence of the order of magnitude of various
issues, this was expected to provide an indication of:
The respective importance of various parts of the road network on GHG emissions, through
a comparison of construction emissions of various categories of roads having different
characteristics (geometry, pavement, structures) and ranging from expressways to unpaved
rural roads.
The contributions of various components of the project, from pavement to structures,
earthworks, road furniture, drainage
The calculations were made on simplified assumptions, and were performed with the Changer
tool developed by the International Road Federation (IRF).

2.1.

Global emissions

The global GHG emissions for the construction of 1km section of each type of road are as
follows:
Table 2 Typical unit GHG emissions of various road categories (t CO2 eq. /km)

Emission (t CO2 eq. /km)


Factor
equivalent
Expressway

to

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Expressway

National
Road

Provincial
Road

Rural
Road Gravel

Rural
Road DBST

3234

794

207

90

103

100

24.5

6.4

2.8

3.2

Page 11
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

We can thus see that the construction of 1 km of expressway emits as many tons of CO 2 as
4km of national roads, 15km of provincial roads, and about 33km of rural roads.

2.2.

Emissions per Item of work and per type of road

In the following table, the emissions produced by (i) the extraction/production of construction
materials, (ii) their transport and (iii) the consumption of engines used for their laying have been
gathered by items of works:
Table 3 Typical breakdown of GHG emissions by work items for various road categories (t CO2
eq. /km)
Emissions
(t C02 eq./km)

Expressway

National Road

Provincial
Road

Rural Road Gravel

Rural Road DBST

Earthworks

161.40

15.89

12.00

2.74

2.68

Pavement

1333.86

424.66

157.30

72.20

85.53

Culverts

238.48

51.45

16.69

11.85

11.57

Structures

1067.99

119.39

20.57

3.03

2.95

Road Furniture

432.40

182.42

0.00

0.00

0.00

Total

3234.12

793.81

206.56

89.82

102.74

Figure 2. Emission per item of work per type of road


Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in
Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 12
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Structures and road furniture represent almost 50% (46,4%) of the emissions for the
construction of an expressway. Choices regarding these items are thus of paramount
importance to limit the GHG emissions of the project.
For national roads, the safety barriers represent alone one quarter of the global emissions
during the construction. Changes in practices regarding these items (for instance wooden
barriers would then have a very significant impact on the final footprint of the project.
For all the other roads, pavement is the major GHG producer, and the main parameters to be
looked at are, as developed below, regards transportation emissions (distance to the concrete
factory, distance to the quarry/borrow pit, etc.)

2.3.

Emissions per phase of work and per type of road

Table 4 Typical breakdown of GHG emissions by generator for various road categories (t CO2 eq.
/km)
Emissions (t C02 eq.)

Transport emissions

Material emissions

Machines emissions

Total

Expressway

1003.71
235.00
66.08
19.83
25.91

2121.83
522.62
111.52
55.51
62.35

108.58
36.19
28.96
14.48
14.48

3234.12
793.81
206.56
89.82
102.74

National Road
Provincial Road
Rural Road - Gravel
Rural Road - DBST

Figure 3. Emission per GHG generator per type of road

For expressway and national roads, GHG emissions from the fabrication/extraction of
construction materials represent the main GHG contributor, about 90% of the global emissions;
it is less important for provincial and rural roads, about 80%.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 13
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Material transport is also a significant GHG producer, with around 25% for expressway and
national roads and up to 20% for provincial and rural roads.
These two elements are hence the ones to be considered to improve significantly the GHG
impact of a construction project.

3.

Current road construction practices in East Asia

Current design practices in the three case study countries have largely been influenced by
western standards, mainly American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
(AASHTO). The inadequacy of these standards with regard to local conditions, construction
methods, equipment, maintenance strategies and overloading enforcement currently
implemented in these countries often leads to premature fatigue and deterioration of road
networks.

Project implementation practices are mainly characterized by the following aspects:


Road projects are mainly funded from domestic sources in China, whereas ODA accounts
for about 25% in Indonesia and 40% in Vietnam. Private investment has been increasing in
all three selected countries over the past years, enabling a change in packaging and
contracting practices.
Construction markets are generally dominated by local contractors, with a significant share
of state-owned companies, using substandard equipment and lacking capabilities in
implementing the latest construction methods, except for China where major construction
companies are using advanced practices. The involvement of foreign contractors, which
could help promote technology transfer, has so far been limited to large projects where their
contribution among consortiums has often not been significant. The use of Design and Build
or EPC contractors is slowly developing, resulting in more efficient project implementation
and management. Quality assurance approaches are, however, not yet widespread and
need to be encouraged.
Procurement practices do not consider GHG emissions as a criterion for evaluation of bids.
Similarly, environmental management policies, either governed by local regulations or by
IFA guidelines, do not require GHG monitoring during construction.
Modern and old technologies coexist depending on the size and type of project.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 14
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Figure 4. Impact of technology on emissions: asphalt plant in poor condition compared


to a new one

Key issues in construction practices for specific work components include the following:
Earthworks are usually not optimized except for major projects (excessive height of
embankments to avoid grade separation and/or flooding, inappropriate definition of earth
moving programs, use of small-sized equipment, limited use of soil stabilization)
Drainage systems are frequently under-designed or missing on minor roads, and
deficiencies in the implementation and maintenance of structures often result in flooding and
high maintenance requirements
Pavement: even on major projects, the life duration of flexible pavement happens to be
shortened because of under-design (e.g. not taking into account overloading), inappropriate
equipment (e.g. old mixing plants), deficiency of suitable materials (hard bitumen and
aggregates) and lack of maintenance. Cement-concrete pavement has not been extensively
used, and aggregate recycling is usually not implemented.
Structures: design and implementation practices for structures generally meet international
standards. Improvements in the quality of locally manufactured cement-concrete is required
to lengthen the duration life and more modern cement plants often translates into lower
emissions per ton of cement produced.
Road furniture: metallic and concrete guiderails are commonly implemented on expressways
and national highways, thus generating significant GHG emissions.
The analysis carried out on GHG emissions for typical road sections shows that the construction
of expressways would generate far more GHG per kilometer than for other road categories.
Pavement (only flexible pavement was considered in this analysis) would generally be the major
GHG emissions source, but the share of GHG emissions from structures is quite significant for
expressways, as is the share of metallic guiderails for national roads.
Applying this analysis to selected countries shows that possibilities for reducing GHG emissions
may significantly vary depending on the current length, distribution of road networks by type and
their assumed extension in the coming years.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 15
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Table 5 Orders of magnitude of GHG emissions related to the road construction program in three
East Asian countries over 2009-2019.
Indonesia

Vietnam

China

CO2 emissions (t
eq CO2)

2009-2019

2009-2019

2008-2020

2008-2020

2008-2020

2008-2020

Expressway

6,054,048

20%

13,696,941

54%

79,873,000

25%

National Road

11,706,139

39%

5,848,337

23%

115,683,000

37%

Provincial Road
Rural Road
paved
Total

4,992,098

17%

2,208,218

9%

54,169,000

17%

7,189,451

24%

3,708,669

15%

63,983,000

20%

29,941,737

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

25,462,165

313,708,000

Page 16
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Chapter 3 - Development of a calculation


tool

1.

Need for tools

Concern about climate change and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted action in most
sectors and spurred the development of decision tools to help make choices transparent and
illuminate their contribution to GHGs; transportation is no exception.
Early development of tools focused on the transportation activities themselves and sprung from
much earlier studies and tools for energy efficiency and consumption. Given the smaller
contribution to GHG emission from road construction and maintenance, it is only recently that
studies have looked at these activities contribution and tools have just started to be developed.
The choice of materials and techniques for road construction and maintenance has a wide
variety of impacts ranging from local pollution and environmental degradation to the contribution
to greenhouse gases and climate change; Manufacturers and engineering companies have
conducted studies on the GHG contribution of their material and alternate construction
techniques. For example some studies have shown that concrete and cement are responsible
for 50% to 160% times more emissions than asphalt. Recycling at the end of the life cycle may
also provide substantial gains.

Figure 5. Total CO2 emissions over a 40 years period for a 1 km long and 13 m wide road
during construction, maintenance and operation (lighting, traffic lights, winter treatment)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 17
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

2.

Assessment of existing tools

To assess the existing situation, several emissions calculation tools have been assessed.

Figure 6. Some of the tools reviewed


Based on their suitability, the areas covered and their ease of use, the review focused on three
tools in more detail:
Changer calculator, from IRF
Vicroads calculator
Egis calculator, based on Bilan Carbone from Ademe
The assessment was done on three case studies selected in three pilot countries (China,
Indonesia and Vietnam).

2.1.

Main principles of existing tools

All existing tools share the same principle; they combine:


Materials, which are elaborated from basic materials having emissions factors through a
process which adds emissions. This includes by extension the clearing activities
Transport (mostly of materials) at various stages of the construction process (supply of
plants, supply of site, on site) having emission factors
Construction process having emission factors through the emissions of construction
equipment
Others, to a lesser extent, such as personnel transport, management expenses, etc
Therefore, all tools are simple calculation tools combining these generators, and adding up
emissions from the various stages of the construction process and from various components of
the works.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 18
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Figure 7. Simplified calculation process for materials

2.2.

Comparison of calculations of existing tools

The results of the comparisons made between various existing tools underline the following
points:

Total GHG emissions from one kilometer road construction project (China and Indonesia
case studies) range from 700 to 1,700 t-eq CO2. Total GHG emissions from one kilometer
road maintenance / rehabilitation project (Vietnam case study) comprise between 300 to
500 t-eq CO2. This is consistent with the simplified calculation made on typical roads.

Depending on the calculator (and therefore data sources for emissions factors), total GHG
emissions for a same case study can vary from a large range of value; the relative
difference is consistent (around 15%) for Indonesia case study, it is more mixed for Vietnam
(from 15% to 30%) and China case studies (from 0% to 30%). This is rather limited,
especially when one considers that emission factors vary.

Materials embodied energy and transport activities represent the most important part of total
GHG emissions, more than 80%; On-site impact represent less than 5%;

Regarding the calculators, GHG emissions evaluation performed with EGIS calculator
appears in between the two others and GHG emissions evaluation performed with VicRoads
(respectively CHANGER) appears as the greater (smaller) evaluation, except for the
Vietnam case study evaluation.

2.3.

Characteristics and limitations of existing tools

The following has been observed:

Although interfaces vary from summary (excel based) to more sophisticated, the
architectures of the assessed calculation tools are the same: emissions related to on site
activities (construction equipment mostly), transport of materials and production of materials
are assessed through the multiplication of quantities by unit emission factors.

The quantities used require detailed information on the project construction, such as the
number of equipment of each type present on site, their production time. Detailed
information is also required regarding the type of transport, and sometimes material
composition (e.g., the quantities of aggregates and binder in concrete, so that transport

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 19
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

emissions can be calculated for aggregates from quarry to batching plant, and cement from
cement plant to batching plant). This is very heavy and often not available at upstream
stages, restricting the usage of the tool to informed specialists and to downstream stages.

Sometimes, the levels of details vary (diameter of trees cut, age of trees cut are requested
while major approximations are made on other topics (overall fuel consumption)

Figure 8. CHANGER data input screen

The quality of reports provided by tools varies. However, and in general: the breakdowns of
emissions are not given according to types of works, which makes the use of results difficult:
one cannot know, on which aspects of construction to focus to reduce emissions. The use of
results is not easy in the absence of exporting of results in practical editable soft format.

The emissions factors vary from one tool to the other. This does not create major problems;
as long as the user can modify these factors to suit the specific conditions of the project. In
some cases though (Changer) this is not possible. It is even difficult to extract the emissions
factors used for a calculation (going through screen captures).

The ease with which new materials, transport modes or vehicles, or construction equipment
can be added is generally easy. This operation is sometimes impossible. This may prevent
users from comparing alternative construction methods as would be presented by
contractors during implementation (materials alternatives for example).

The coverage of construction activities is not always very clear and complete. Earthworks,
road furniture, structures or others are difficult to take into account. Transport is simplified,
and sometimes limited to road transport while water and rail may play a significant role.

The figures below show sample graphic outputs from Vicroads and Egis (Changer does not
provide such outputs). The information provided cannot be directly used for example:
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in
Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 20
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

In the Vicroads tool, if there are concrete barriers, their contribution cannot be identified).

In the Egis tool, the contributions of various concrete components are not identified, and
there might be pavement and structural concrete.

Figure 9. Emissions from a ring road section in France - EGIS calculator

Figure 10. Breakdown of emissions from a ring road section in France - EGIS calculator

3.

Functions of the proposed tool

The above reasons led to the proposal to develop a tool, with the following principles:

The tool should be open and transparent, allowing:

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 21
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

a. Addition of new equipment, new materials, and new transport modes


b. Easy access to and modification of GHG generator characteristics, including
emission factors. Thus, the addition of an expandable emission factors
database was considered to be crucial

The tool should be easy to use even at upstream stage, assisting users (including nonengineers) to assess the quantities of GHG generators from project macro-quantities. This
involved the development of a model

The tool should be useful to planners and designers. It might be used at downstream stage
for assessing / comparing bids or construction method statements.

The reporting should be useful to the decision making (engineering, planning) process to
optimize the project; therefore, the tool should identify impacts of decisions

Figure 11. Proposed report format - ROADEO tool

The tool should be used to identify, propose, and assess the impact of alternative
construction or management practices

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 22
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Figure 12. Sample best practice data sheet ROADEO tool

4.

Assumptions, modeling and calibration

For the cases when the user, at the upstream stage, does not have the required details to
perform the emissions calculation, a model has been designed in 2 stages:

A first stage calculates quantities of items of road works, based on general characteristics of
the project. The output of this stage is a bill of quantities at feasibility study stage and the
work items are broken down into work series reflecting the types of works.

A second stage calculates the quantities of generators of GHG emissions based on the
quantities of items of road works and on general characteristics of the project. These
generators have been broken down into materials, transport, equipment and others.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 23
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Figure 13. Screenshot of the upstream data entry module of the ROADEO tool
The following table summarizes the 26 model parameters (17 for stage 1, 9 for stage 2) to be
defined by the user.
Table 6 List of parameters used for the summarized description of the road
Parameter
%ECD:
%ELD:
%EWB:
%GLP:
%MNT:
%RCK:
%URB:
%WDB:
CBR:
EAL:
ECS:
L:
LW:
MW:
NBL:
OST:
PST
RTP:
STH:
SW:
TBM:
TSB:
TSM:
TSW:
TUN:
WTP

description
length of existing cross drainage as a percentage of requirement
length of existing longitudinal drainage as a percentage of length of road
parameter reflecting the balance between cut and fill
general longitudinal profile
length of road in mountainous terrain as a percentage of road length
volume of rocky soil as a percentage of volume of soil
length of the road project crossing urban areas as a percentage of road length
number of bridges to be widened as a percentage of number of bridges
California Bearing Ratio
Equivalent standard axle (8.2t) loading ESAL
Existing cross section
road project length
lane width
median width
number of lanes
Overlay structure type
pavement structure type
Road type
Area where subgrade has to be treated with hydraulic binders
shoulder width
Type of barrier material
type of structure (standard bridges)
type of structure (major bridges)
Type of structure (wall)
length of tunnel (not used pending further development)
works type

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

unit
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
m
m
m
m
u
list
list
%
m
list
list
list
list
m
list

Stage
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
1

Page 24
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

This model is highly simplified, is not based on engineering but rather on empirical data, and
does not intend to reflect real project values. Its intent is to provide rough estimates of tentative
nature for projects at a very initial stage. The model has been used on several projects to check
its accuracy, as shown in the table below.
Table 7 List of case studies used to calibrate the model
Project

Country

EINRIP

Indonesia

PRIP

Cambodia

NPP

Vietnam

STDP

Sri Lanka

RPPF

Sri Lanka

TIIP

Sri Lanka

Rui-Gan
Expressway

China

Type
National roads
Rehabilitation
Rural roads
Rehabilitation
National road
Rehabilitation
Expressway
New alignment
Provincial roads
Widening
National road
Widening
Expressway
New alignment

Comment
Including bridges

Asphalt overlay
No bridge

Surface treatment

While there are significant differences between the model and the project bill of quantities, the
model has shown the capability to approach real quantities with an accuracy of less than 40%
item by item, and with an overall accuracy that can be considered reasonable at upstream
stages. It must be noted that the impact of these differences on GHG emissions remain to be
assessed.

5.

Emissions factors

Significant issues regarding emissions factors include:


The various units used by tools (tons, cubic meters, etc.). This is not user friendly and could
be the source of errors as different densities are used to convert volumes into weights.
The various compositions used for composite materials. This is shown in the screenshot of
Changer below.
The assumptions made on some materials. This is mostly the case with cement as shown
below.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 25
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Figure 14. Screenshot of the materials emission factors Changer tool

Table 8 Emission Intensities within VicRoads, CHANGER and EGIS calculators

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 26
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

The emissions factors having a high impact and varying significantly include:
Cement
Steel
Electricity
They are partly related as slag can be used in cement concrete, while electricity is the source of
energy for recycled steel used for steel bars.

For example, and in order to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty of steel emission factors, a
specific study has been done on steel emissions based on the following ratios:
Table 9 Emission Intensities for steel according to various sources
Source

Year

kg CO2/ kg steel

ADEME
US EPA
US EPA
US EPA
OFEFP
AEA Technologie
MIES
SETRA

2006
1998
2002
2006
1998
2001
1999 - 2003
2009

3190
4162
4081
4081
3241
2970
1599
1027 - 1503

This should be the subject of further research. Current indications are that the range reported by
SETRA is the most accurate.
Electricity is related to power production (coal, petrol, gas, hydraulic, nuclear), which is highly
influenced by the region and even countries or plants. It is subject to variations in the medium
term as a consequence of power production strategies.
Users shall exert great care in selecting values or confirming default values that will be
proposed by the tool.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 27
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Chapter 4 - Alternative practices to reduce


GHG emissions

1.

Identification of alternative practices

The following provides indications on orders of magnitude of potential impacts of alternative


practices on various components of roadworks.
The list of proposed alternative practices is shown in the table below:
Table 10 List of alternative practices included in the ROADEO tool
Area

Code

Alternative practice

Parameters / Triggers

Work components & GHG


generators concerned

EAW

002

Use labor intensive


techniques for
excavation

OR(RTP=provincial road ;
RTP=rural road)

Earthworks (Transport,
Equipment)

EQU

001

Optimize location of
road safety barriers

GHG emissions from


barriers > 5% of total
emissions

EQU

002

Optimize street lighting

%URB>0

Equipment/furniture
(Materials, Transport,
Equipment)
Equipment/furniture
(Materials, Transport,
Equipment)

GEN

001

GEN

002

GEN

003

Implement adapted
geometrical standards

All

GEN

005

Organize workzone
traffic management

WTP = rehabilitation or
WTP = widening

General

PAV

001

Manage overloading

All

Pavement (Materials,
Transport, Equipment)

Optimize procurement
& contracts
Optimize transport

PAV

002

Use high modulus


asphalt concrete

PAV

003

Use warm and half


warm asphalt mixes

PAV

005

Use recycling

008

Consider gravel roads


and surface treatment
instead of bituminous /
cement concrete
pavements

PAV

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

All

General

All

All
Structures, Pavement,
Earthworks (Materials,
Transport, Equipment)

PST = bituminous
pavement on granular
materials
OR PST = bituminous
materials on hydraulic
bound materials
OR PST = bituminous
pavement on bituminous
bound materials
OR(RTP = provincial
road ; RTP = rural road)
OR(WTP =
rehabilitation ;WTP =
widening)
RTP = rural road
EAL < 4

Pavement (Materials,
Transport)

Pavement (Materials,
Transport)
Pavement (Materials,
Transport, Equipment)
Pavement (Materials,
Transport, Equipment)

Page 28
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Area

Code

Alternative practice

Parameters / Triggers

Work components & GHG


generators concerned

PAV

009

Ensure low roughness

all

Pavement (Materials,
Transport, Equipment)

Soil stabilization

DCF > 3
DQA > 40
DQB > 40
CBR<7

Pavement (Materials,
Transport, Equipment)

PAV

010

PAV

012

STR

001

STR

002

Use fly ash in concrete

STR

004

Ensure recycling of
steel

GHG emissions from


metal > 10% of total
emissions

Structures (Materials,
Transport)

STR

006

Optimise alignment to
Minimise structures

MBA>0
SBA>0

Structures, Pavement,
Earthworks (Materials,
Transport, Equipment)

Take maintenance into


account during design
Make optimal use of
materials

EAL>5
(SBA + IBA + MBA)>0)

Pavement (Materials,
Transport)
Structures (Materials,
Transport, Equipment)

More alternative practices have been identified, but some of them could not be documented in a
sufficient manner. It is hoped that future developments will allow to better describe such
practices and to improve the ROADEO tool. Meanwhile, such other alternative practices are
described in the corresponding volume of this background report.
The sections below provide a summary description of the main findings on alternative practices.

1.1.

Transport

Transport of materials represents about 30% of the GHG emissions of a road project.
From that, about 50% are related to local transport (less than 25 km).
Reduction of emissions can be the result of the following actions:
Use of more efficient road vehicle fleets having a lower unit emission ratio. This can be
significant as the efficiency improves with the use of trucks with higher payload (50%
decrease in unit emission and savings of more than 20% in total transport emissions).
Modal shift from road to more efficient modes (rail or water having unit emissions 17 times
lower) over long distances. Further improvement can be up to 8% of the total emissions
after road transport has been optimized

1.2.

Earthworks

1.2.1. Rock excavation


Excavation in hard soil generates two to three times more GHG than in ordinary soil.
The use of drilling rigs rather than light drillers is twice as productive, but produces 35%
more GHG per cubic meter of rock excavated.
Productivity of labor intensive methods is 250 times lower, while involving three times more
labor. If labor emissions are considered to be neutral, this is a significant reduction in
emissions.
Explosives represent only five to seven percent of the emissions of the excavation process.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in
Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 29
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

The use of explosives for excavation seems to produce less GHG as shown in the table
below:

Table 11 Relative importance of explosives in GHG emissions from earthworks techniques


Excavation method

Output
3
(m /day)

Fuel
Consumption (l)

Explosives
(kg)

GHG (kg
CO2eq)

GHG (kg
3
CO2eq/m )

Hammer
Mining (light driller)
Mining (drilling rig)

1,000
1,250
2,500

864
480
1,725

500
1,000

2,160
1,469
4,851

2.2
1.2
1.9

Excavation and loading / transport to fill are of the same order of magnitude at around 2 kg
3
CO2eq/m of excavated rock.
Interestingly, and in spite of the health and safety aspects, which are less satisfactory than
with other methods, the local lightly mechanized technique is the most efficient in terms of
GHG emissions.

1.2.2. Soil treatment


Except in cases where materials are not available locally (within less than approximately 150
km), soil treatment is not very effective in terms of GHG emissions, due to the emissions of lime,
and to its transport.
It should be noted that studies are underway to assess interest of soil treatment in terms of
sustainable development with respect to other indicators than GHG emissions.

1.3.

Pavement

A number of alternative techniques have been identified and their potential impact assessed,
base on the use of different materials (recycled, high modulus asphalt), design (bituminous /
concrete structures, investment schedule) or construction technique (warm / half warm asphalt)
1.3.1. Pavement structure types
According to literature and based on an objective review of the corresponding results taking
into account the maintenance cycle, sstructures based on cement concrete have higher
emissions, structures based on bituminous concrete have lower emissions , and composite
structures have intermediate emissions. There is a factor from 1.6 to 3 between the higher
emissions factors (thick cement concrete layers) and the lower (bituminous structures).
Structurally optimized pavement structures (high performance bituminous mixtures,
Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements on bituminous base which according to
recent studies makes the most optimal use of materials for cement concrete pavement
structures) have lower emissions than the non optimized pavement structures
Orders of magnitude for the construction, maintenance and end of life of pavement
structures range from 65 to 175 kg/m.
Cold mixtures as well as recycling technologies and materials have lower emissions (a
factor of three when compared to hot mixture bituminous structures).
1.3.2. Investment and maintenance strategies
Maintenance represents 20 to 40% of the overall emissions of pavement over 30 years
indicating that tradeoffs exist between construction and maintenance with regard to both
cost and emissions.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 30
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

For the given life duration, taking into account the life cycle and standard maintenance
scenarios for both structure types, cement concrete structures are in general twice as much
GHG emitting as composite structures, while bituminous structures have the lowest GHG
emissions.
The relationship between maintenance and traffic depends on the investment strategy
(initial construction / maintenance). Maintenance strategies and catalogue biased towards
increased initial investment and the above studies may not fully reflect the whole range of
situations.

Figure 15 . Cumulated GHG emissions for construction and maintenance activities depending on
pavement construction / maintenance strategy

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 31
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Figure 16. Comparison of distributed costs between initial construction and maintenance activities
depending on pavement construction / maintenance strategy

Staged construction seems to lead to significantly higher total emissions and the perpetual
pavement strategy seems to lead to slightly lower emissions than standard pavement
structure after 40 years
It should however be noted that the damage factor after 40 years is significantly lower (i.e.
better structural condition of the asset) in the case of perpetual pavement
Impact of maintenance operations on traffic has not been taken into account, which may
significantly impact the results for a T7 traffic class in TRL ORN31.
The above results do not take into account any discount rate.

1.3.3. Overloading and impact of standards


Significant discrepancies in GHG emissions can result from the use of different pavement
design standards (between 0 and 17% depending on traffic loads considered for this specific
case study, or even up to 45% in the latter comparison). For example Vietnamese standards
are based on empirical methods attempting to model pavement structures as two-layer or threelayer equivalent. Alternative standards are based on combining semi-empirical (AASHTO 1193,
TRL ORN 31) and analytical methods (AASHTO 2004, Austroads), which take into account the
fatigue performances of road materials.
The impact of overloading on thickness of pavement structures and on corresponding GHG
emissions is significant and has been assessed between 23 and 49% of pavement emissions
depending on standards considered.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 32
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

1.3.4. Roughness
For a given speed, the maximum range in consumption for different surface textures appears to
be about 2 Liter/100 km. Limiting rolling resistance due to pavement texture could lead to
significant savings in GHG emissions on the long term (i.e. over the life-cycle of a given road
section), although road safety requirements have to be concurrently considered.
The impacts of pavement roughness on GHG emissions are deemed much more significant
than those of texture. Improvements in pavement roughness, especially by reducing shortwavelength unevenness, could decrease fuel consumption by up to four liters/100 km as
assessed using a mathematical suspension model.
Actions to ensure low roughness (such as proper construction techniques) are therefore
important, although their impacts are difficult to estimate in advance.

1.4.

Structures

The construction of bridges involves the emission of about three tons of CO2 eq / m of
bridge deck.
The structures material has an impact, however, for a given structural type, this impact is
typically less than 15%
The structural type has a higher impact, for a given material. The table below summarizes
this impact; the more complicated the structure type, the higher the relative emission:
Steel is a major component of structures. Uncertainty on its emission factor, which relates to
its origin and the technology used to produce it (i.e., if it is recycled or not, the origin of
electricity, etc.), can have an impact of up to 30% for structure types making extensive use
of it (steel, composite)
Emissions due to maintenance could be considered as of the same magnitude as emissions
during construction.

The relative emissions of typical roads on an embankment, a viaduct and in a tunnel are
summarized in the table below:
Table 12 Comparison of GHG emissions from the construction of embankments, bridges and
tunnels
GHG
emissions
from
construction
Expressway
National
Highway
Provincial
Road
Rural Road

1.5.

Embankment
(tCO2eq/km)

Bridge
(tCO2eq/km)

Bridge /
embankmen
t

Tunnel (tCO2eq/km)
@420tCO2eq/(mxkm)

Tunnel /
embankmen
t

2,971

74,397

25

75,547

25

739

35,649

48

37,773

51

191

27,899

146

30,219

158

100

20,127

201

23,608

236

Equipment / road furniture

Over a life cycle, the relative importance of emissions due to barriers ranges
from four to 23% of GHG emissions due to pavement in the case of steel or concrete
barriers
from two to 12% in the case of wood barriers

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 33
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

There may be a significant interest in limiting the use of steel and concrete barriers where
possible through adequate and safe design (safety zone cleared of obstacles, removal of
aggressive spots, etc.), or to replace it by wood barriers when traffic volumes and loads are
low enough. The potential impact could be up to 50% of the length of barriers, or from 2 to
12% of the emissions of pavement. This requires anticipation in the geometric design, and
efforts during the design phase.

Lighting brings significant contribution, even more so when operation is taken into account.

2.

Integration into the toolkit

The identified alternative practices have been included in the tool. For some of them, their
relevance to a particular situation can be summarily assessed through the values of parameters
(e.g. high traffic, presence/absence of materials, relative importance of emissions due to a part
of the works, etc.).
Datasheets describing the main issues, potential impacts and reference materials ( such as
sources) can be activated to provide the user a first level of guidance to optimize the project.
Additional guidance may be found in the technical volumes of this background report.
Again, this toolkit shall not replace a sound engineering study, which is almost systematically
required to design the alternative practice. However, the toolkit is providing the information to
the users, for them to assess where major possibilities of optimization lie, and the extent of such
optimization. It also provides guidance on the engineering efforts to be deployed to achieve
these optimizations.

3.

Economic and financial analysis

According to the current level of carbon market price, the level of the discount rates to be
adopted for financial analysis, but also considering the conditionality to be met for benefiting
from carbon credits likely to be generated through the CDM, carbon pricing can probably not be
considered as a realistic incentive for developing the GHG friendly alternative practices that
have been identified in the Task 6 report for road construction, rehabilitation and
maintenance. Indeed, considering the potential revenues of carbon credits likely to be
generated by emission reductions has very limited impact on the financial viability of the
practices that have been analyzed. Accordingly, projects aimed at developing such practices
would most probably not meet the additionality criterion of the CDM and would not be eligible to
benefit from carbon credit. It has been checked that a dramatic increase of the carbon market
price from 15 US $/t to 100 US $/t or changes in other parameters (market price growth rate,
discount rate, etc.) would not substantially change these conclusions. One of the reasons of
these results is the limitation of the duration of the evaluation period to 21 years maximum,
which is the maximum duration of the crediting period during which a GHG friendly project
promoters can benefit from carbon credits generated by their emission reductions.
On the contrary, considering the economic benefits from GHG emission reductions significantly
enhance the economic return of project aimed at developing the GHG friendly alternative
practices that have been identified.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 34
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

This is particularly true for alternative practices impacting life-duration of the road and/or
maintenance operations: the present value of economic benefits from GHG emission
reductions, including those occurring in the long-term, are significant and reach about 10% or
even more of the total net benefits generated by applying such alternative practices;
nevertheless, most alternative practices studied in the present report are intrinsically
economically viable and there is no case where a GHG friendly alternative practice is not
economically viable without considering benefits from GHG emission reductions and becomes
viable when such benefits are considered.
One of the main reasons of the significant positive impact of the economic benefits from GHG
emission reductions on the economic return is that the much longer duration of the evaluation
period adopted for the economic analysis, together with the low discount rate, allows taking
account of the very long term intergenerational benefits from GHG emission reductions

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 35
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

Chapter 5 - Conclusions

1.

Main outcomes

The main contributions of the study under which this background report has been prepared can
be summarized as follows:
Progress in understanding the main contributions to GHG emissions from road construction
activities. This has been done for various types of projects (covering a broad scope from
access controlled divided carriageways roads to unpaved rural roads) and various work
components (earthworks, pavement, drainage, structures, road furniture, etc.)
Development of an open, transparent, flexible emissions calculation tool that can be used at
any stage of a project and provide information for decision making. Inputs can be entered at
planning level (17 parameters to describe the road); at design level (based on a bill of
quantities) or at implementation (as other available tools do, using quantities of materials,
detailed description of logistics and construction equipment used). This involves a model,
which is being calibrated based on data collection from several projects in Asia.
This tool is a major improvement for road planners and designers, and brings functionalities
that did not exist before.
Identification and documentation of alternative practices to reduce GHG emissions from
construction activities. While the identified actions cover all work items, as well as
institutional or planning issues, it can be expected that other will be identified and can be
integrated in updates of the toolkit. The calculation tool includes these actions and assists
the user in selecting applicable alternatives to reduce GHG emissions.
Carbon finance has been explored, as a support to the implementation of such alternatives.
It has been found that financial benefits resulting from such implementation are far lower
than potential costs savings due to such actions. Market price of carbon should be more
than 10 times higher for such mechanism to have an interest (except for optimization of
materials transport). However, economic analysis based on the social cost of carbon and on
a longer assessment period, indicates a higher interest for implementing alternative
practices.

2.

Challenges ahead

While progress has been made, significant challenges remain ahead, including:
The absence of a unified source of information in East Asian countries (and in general) on
GHG emissions.
The uncertainty (or lack of general agreement) on the values of emissions of some major
contributors to road activities emissions (cement, steel, etc.), in relationship with the life
cycle assessment. This is partly due to the lack of clarity regarding the role of byproducts,
and of the end of life treatment (including recycling)
The variation of GHG generators during the life cycle, and the difficulty for road planners
and designers to assess them. GHG emissions highly vary depending on the precise
location of materials sources (quarries, soil treatment, as well as the origin of cement,
bitumen, and steel), on the choice of construction technology (such as the type of asphalt
mixing plant), or even on the construction schedule (such as the need to work during rainy
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in
Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 36
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation

season). The comparison of orders of magnitude between the variations due to the above
factors, and the gains due to optimizations, makes it difficult to define an optimized design at
early stages.
All stakeholders (road agencies, consultants, contractors, concessionaires) need to become
aware that their actions at all stages of a project can contribute to reducing the CO2 burden.
Establishment of a users community, and improvement of the toolkit based on experience
gained while using it and on the feedback of users. Initially, it is envisioned that the tool will
be used to assess road projects impact and optimize the most significant practices.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation in


Road Construction and Rehabilitation
A Toolkit for Developing Countries

Page 37
Executive Summary: Introduction to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road
Construction and Rehabilitation