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STANDARD MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS

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STANDARD MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS


LOW ALLOYED STEELS FOR
PRESSURE VESSELS

Application to 1 Cr 0.5 Mo &


1 Cr 0.5 Mo with clad or overlay
(IN-42.1)

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Table of Content

1.
2.

SCOPE ........................................................................................................................... 4
REACTORS MANUFACTURING ................................................................................... 5
2.1 Base Material Plates.............................................................................................. 5
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3

2.2

Base Material Forging............................................................................................ 9


2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3

3.

4.

5.
6.

Steel making process/heat treatment.................................................................. 5


Chemical analysis................................................................................................ 5
Mechanical properties ......................................................................................... 8
Steel making process/heat treatment.................................................................. 9
Chemical analysis................................................................................................ 9
Mechanical properties ......................................................................................... 9

WELDING ..................................................................................................................... 10
3.1 General ................................................................................................................ 10
3.2 3.2. Welding Processes ....................................................................................... 10
3.3 Welding Consumables Chemical Analysis........................................................... 11
CLADDING OR WELD OVERLAY............................................................................... 12
4.1 Cladding............................................................................................................... 12
4.2 Weld Overlay ....................................................................................................... 12
4.3 Ferrite Content..................................................................................................... 13
4.4 Nozzles and Manways ......................................................................................... 13
POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT (BY VESSEL FABRICATOR) .............................. 14
NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING BY FABRICATOR .................................................... 15
6.1 Minimum requirements ........................................................................................ 15
6.2 Weld Repairs ....................................................................................................... 15
6.3 Pressure Testing:................................................................................................. 15

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GENERAL COMMENTS
The information given hereafter for "Base Metal Quality" and "Welding" results from
AXENS/IFP wide and significant experience in the low alloyed steels made pressure vessels
specification/operation and mostly in the field of hydro-processing and reforming units.
Specific codes, as well as Client and Engineering Contractor Standards may also influence
the choice in materials and methods. Therefore, the given specifications shall be considered
as minimum requirements and should consequently be used by the Engineering Contractor
during call-for-bid.
The data given here, are defined in the aim at giving an appropriated quality and safety level
for these critical equipments. It should not in any case interfere with Contractors
specification relative to design, manufacturing and inspection of the equipment. In case of
any discrepancy between specifications, and for lack of any official derogating decision
issued by the Owner or the Contractor, then the more stringent requirement shall govern.

PREAMBLE
The use of 1 Cr 0.5Mo is very common in process vessels when a fine balance between
both mechanical characteristics at high temperature and resistance to hydrogen attack are
focused. Despite the identified benefits of this grade, they can also exhibit less desirable
characteristics to be taken into account.
Creep and reheat cracking phenomena may occur in the 1 Cr Mo when the welded
components are being subjected with post weld heat treatment or have been exposed to high
temperature service as well. These risks shall be properly anticipated during design and
manufacturing phases and at least reduced through the choice of steel, by specifying low
impurity levels and by adopting appropriated welding and heat treatment sequences.

CAUTION : 1.25Cr-0.5Mo low alloyed steel grade should basically be limited to the
equipment for which the calculated base metal thicknesses are kept below 100 mm
(4 inches) and that whatever the specification is. Once the estimated thicknesses are above
this limit, it is then highly recommended to get the vendors opinion poll on case-by-case
basis (at least, the vessel geometry and MDMT to be considered).
Above 150 mm (6 inches), the 1.25Cr-0.5Mo shall not be specified; in that case, the 2.25Cr1.0Mo steel grade shall be considered within the call-for-bids.

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1. SCOPE
These specifications are to be applied to the equipment fabricated with 1.25Cr-0.5Mo low
alloyed steel and 1.25Cr-0.5Mo low alloyed steel weld overlaid or clad with austenitic
stainless steel and built in accordance with the ASME code as applicable.
Design code (as reference)

ASME Section VIII, Div. 1

Pressure Vessels

ASME Section VIII, Div. 2

Pressure Vessels - Alternative rules

ASME Section II, Part A

Ferrous Material Specifications

ASME Section II, Part D

Properties

EN 10028 Part 2 & 3 (2003)

Flat products made of steels for pressure purposes

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2. REACTORS MANUFACTURING
2.1 Base Material Plates
The plates to be used for the fabrication of the equipment shall comply with the basic
requirements of the ASME Sect. II, Part A & Part D specification SA-387 Gr. 11, Class 2 and
SA-20 supplemented by following additional requirements:

2.1.1 Steel making process/heat treatment


As generally specified for this kind of critical equipment, all plates should preferably be
ordered from steel made by the electric furnace and vacuum degassing process.
Nevertheless, basic oxygen furnace process with heated ladle refining and vacuum
degassing may also be considered as acceptable.
All plates shall be thermally treated either by annealing, normalizing-and-tempering, or, when
permitted by the purchaser, accelerated cooling from the austenitizing temperature by air
blasting or liquid quenching, followed by tempering,
Heat treatments holding time shall be sufficient to obtain an uniform temperature throughout
the plate.
The tempering temperature shall be adapted so as to give the required mechanical
properties after post-weld heat treatment. It shall consequently be noted that, depending on
cases, the Minimum temperature of Tempering may sometimes be higher than the one
defined for the final Post-Weld Heat Treatment of the equipment.

2.1.2 Chemical analysis


2.1.2.1 Operating temperature above 380C
For applications for which equipment will be operated above 380C, potential metallurgical
embrittling phenomena shall be properly anticipated. Countermeasures including specific
chemical analysis given here-below shall consequently be considered and that whatever the
values specified by the construction codes.
Transient operations above 380C, if any, shall be on case-by-case discussed with
Contractor/Owner on operating phases basis so as to determine the appropriated approach
to be followed in term of chemical analysis specifications.
In the aim at allowing future upgrading of the equipment leading to operating temperature
above 380C, the specific chemical analysis here below shall also apply.
The specific chemical analysis of the present steel grade, to be operated above 380C, shall
then be in conformity with ASME specification SA-387 requirements with the following
restrictions:

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- The expected level of the main impurities shall be as follows (by Heat Analysis):
Acceptable limitations
C (*)

0.15% max

0.010% max

(target 0.008%)

0.005% max

(target 0.002%)

Ni

0.25% max

Cu

0.20% max

O2

30ppm max

P + Sn

0.015% max

(target 0.012%)

(*) for Forgings : C content can be limited to 0.16% max


- While the other indications here below, given for information, are corresponding to the
typical chemical compositions which should also be met for such kind of application (by
Heat Analysis):
Typical limitations
Si

0.65% max

Al

0.04% max

0.010% max

Sn

0.010% max

As

0.012% max

Sb

0.004% max

N2

80 ppm max

Nb

0.010% max

Ti

0.01% max

Even if the risk of Temper Embrittlement is normally much more moderate for this grade than
for higher alloyed steels, the "J" factor shall in any event verify the relation hereafter for
lowering of the reheat and creep phenomena risks:

J lower than 180 (target 150)


with J = (Si + Mn) * (P + Sn) * 104

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All elements mentioned here-above, specified in weight percentages have to be checked on


ladle and on product.
Notes:
-

Susceptibility to temper embrittlement phenomena has forced steel producers to


restrict tramp elements contents, mainly P, Sb, Sn, As (in order of decreasing severity
in weight percent basis) which elements can detrimentally diffuse to the grain
boundaries while steel is held within the embrittling temperature range.

This criterion and also the specified impurities level shall uniformly be guarantied for
the whole vessel, including the shell, heads and all other plates made pressure
retaining parts as well (e.g. nozzle parts, elbows, etc.).

2.1.2.2 Operating temperature below 380C


For applications for which equipment will be operated below 380C, chemical analysis of the
present steel shall be in conformity with the European Code (13CrMoSi5-5 of part EN100282 as equivalent) standard requirement as minimum applicable.
-

Transient operations above 380C, if any, shall be on case-by-case discussed with


Contractor/Owner on operating phases basis so as to determine the appropriated
approach to be followed in term of chemical analysis specifications.

In the aim at allowing future upgrading of the equipment leading to operating


temperature above 380C, the specific chemical analysis described in chapter 2.1.2.1
here before shall apply.

The chemical analysis of the present steel grade, to be operated below 380C, shall be in
conformity with the European Code restrictions given by heat analysis including but not
limited to the followings:
Acceptable limitations
C

0.17% max

0.015% max

0.005% max

Ni

0.30% max

Cu

0.30% max

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2.1.3 Mechanical properties


2.1.3.1 Test Specimens
As per code requirements SA20 / SA370 unless otherwise specified by the project.
The Impact Tests shall be carried out after heat treatments simulating those anticipated
along the fabrication that is post-forming heat treatment and intermediate HT, if any, and also
final PWHT.
The Mechanical Tests shall be carried out after heat treatments simulating those anticipated
along the fabrication that is post-forming heat treatment, intermediate HT, if any, and final
PWHT plus additional heat treatments to anticipate potential repair (number to be defined by
Contractor/Owner).
All tensile, impact and hardness testing on heat affected zones shall be carried out on
samples from production weld test plates.

2.1.3.2 Tensile properties


Tensile tests shall be carried out at room temperature (Tensile tests at design temperature
may eventually be requested for information, depending on the Contractor specification).
Room temperature tensile properties shall meet the requirements of the material standard.
Yield strength at design temperature shall meet the value taken into account in calculation
notes (Ultimate Tensile Strength will be given for information).
Note: For Creep range calculation, Yield and Ultimate Strength may be given for information
at the Owner/EPC discretion.

2.1.3.3 Impact test properties


Charpy V-Notch (CVN) impact testing is required for all pressure retaining components,
welds and heat affected zone.
The average of three impact test values at testing temperature shall not be less than 40ft.lb
(55J) without individual value below 35ft.lb (47J).
Testing temperature shall be the lower of the Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
and -18C (0F).
Note: One shall note that sulfur does act on resilience properties and sulfur content shall
consequently be kept as low as possible to obtain high CVN energy.

2.1.3.4 Hardness properties


The material hardness shall not exceed 220 HB.

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2.1.3.5 Responsibility for Base material Tests


Mechanical tests may be performed by the base materials Manufacturer or the reactor
Manufacturer. The Mechanical Tests shall allow ensuring that the minimum mechanical
properties required will be met after all anticipated heat treatments of the reactor during and
after fabrication.

2.2 Base Material Forging


2.2.1 Steel making process/heat treatment
Forging including those used for shell, heads and nozzles, shall conform to all requirements
of ASME Specification SA-336 F11, Class 2 and the additional requirements given for plates
defined in corresponding paragraph here before.
Forgings for which weight does not exceed 4540 kg (10000Lb) may also be supplied per
ASME Specification SA-182 F11, Class 2.
As generally specified for this kind of critical equipment, all forgings should be ordered from
steel made by the electric furnace and vacuum degassing process. Nevertheless; basic
oxygen furnace process with heated ladle refining and vacuum degassing may also be
considered as acceptable.
Note: The Forgings used for shell parts will preferably be made from hollow ingots.

2.2.2 Chemical analysis


In addition to the requirements of ASME Specifications SA-336 or SA-182, the specific
restrictions listed for Plates shall be fully applied.

2.2.3 Mechanical properties


All impact testing requirements given for Plates are applicable for Forging.

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3. WELDING
3.1 General
The vessel Manufacturer shall not subcontract fabrication involving welding to others without
the written approval of the Contractor.
The plate, or forging edge preparation for welding as well as the nozzle openings will be
carried out by machining. Flame cutting may sometimes be allowed by the Contractor
provided the heat affected zone is completely removed by machining or grinding (ex: Nozzles
openings in shell or head).

3.2 Welding Processes


Welding processes are:
- SAW : Submerged Arc Welding
The Manufacturer and brand name or grade of all welding consumables shall be
specified in the welding procedure and submitted to the Contractor for approval.
- SMAW : Shielded Manual Arc Welding
Only low hydrogen electrodes shall be used (refer to ASME II Part C SFA 5.5).
Dedicated procedure for electrodes drying/conditioning shall be submitted to Contractor
for approval.
- GTAW : Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (mainly for nozzles).
Remark:
- FCAW : Flux Cored Arc Welding may be considered as acceptable.
- GMAW : Gas Metal Arc Welding may be used for welds not subjected to pressure.
Notes:
-

All the pressure retaining welds in hydrogen service, including the internals welded on
pressure parts, have to be full penetration type. If this is not possible, there will be a
vent drill-hole of the not welded area. External attachments are not concerned.

Only approved WPS with WPQR are to be used for fabrication. Welding procedures
submitted to the contractor shall include details variables and welding parameters for
each used welding process. Qualification test shall be made using filler metal, flux
and / or inert gases of same type, brand, chemistry and size as the ones to be used
on work.

Coupons to be used for Qualification test shall be heat treated in the same manner as
specified for the plate test as given in 2.1.3.

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3.3 Welding Consumables Chemical Analysis


The deposited weld metal shall basically match with the nominal chemical composition of the
base material and the mechanical properties of the deposited weld metal shall meet those of
the base material.
Note: Main alloying components such as Chromium and Molybdenum contents of the weld
deposits shall be within the range specified in ASME Section II, Part C for the specified
electrodes.
Material Certificates shall be delivered for each batch, lot, diameter of covered electrodes,
wire/flux combination to be used for fabrication.
Note: A procedure for flux conditioning so as to guarantee a potential diffusible hydrogen
content consistent with the recommendations of the welding consumables manufacturer shall
be submitted to contractors approval. As the same manner, the procedure for electrodes
conditioning shall also be submitted for approval.
Furthermore the high purity level of the steel shall be such that P, Sn, Sb and As be as low
as possible to meet BRUSCATO parameter in the weld deposit X:

X lower than 20 ppm (target 15 ppm)


with X = (10P+ 4Sn+5Sb+As) / 100

(All chemical elements specified in ppm)


Note: Contractor may require for some PMI (Positive Material Identification) to be applied on
deposited metal in the aim at checking the steel grade conformity.

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4. CLADDING OR WELD OVERLAY


4.1 Cladding
High-Alloy clad materials shall be in accordance with the ASME Section II, Part A,
Specification SA-264 for Chromium-Nickel Steels.
Cladding shall be 3mm minimum thickness SA-240 or as specified on the drawings. A
140MPa minimum shear strength per SA-264 is required. The clad plate shall be
ultrasonically examined in accordance with SA-578 supplementary requirements S7 using
Level 1 acceptance criteria.

4.2 Weld Overlay


Generally speaking (when clad is specified as SS 321 or SS 347, or overlay is specified as
SS 347, on data sheet), the weld overlay is applied using a two-layers technique as follows:
- First layer: 309L SS
- Second layer: 347 SS (type SS321 shall not be permitted)
- Minimum effective thickness of undiluted alloy (after final machining if any) shall be
those required on equipment data sheet specification.
However, single layer weld deposit overlay (type 309LNb as typical) may be used provided
the fabricator can demonstrate to the contractor the use of a qualified and acceptable
procedure.
Note 1: When clad is specified as SS 317L or overlay is specified as SS 317L on data sheet,
the weld overlay is applied using a two-layers technique as follow:
- First layer: 309LMo SS or 309L SS
- Second layer: 317L (Single layer not allowed)
Note 2: The number of weld layers in production shall not be less than the number of layers
deposited for weld overlay procedure qualification tests.
When required by the Owner/User, a method to evaluate the weld overlay for susceptibility to
hydrogen disbonding shall be agreed between the fabricator and owner/user. In such a case,
the Owner/User shall define testing requirements and acceptance criteria. An example of a
standard disbonding test may be found in ASTM G 146.
Welding processes are the same than in paragraph 3-2, using strips or wires for SAW
process.
GMAW process is not allowed, except for structural attachments welding on overlay.
FCAW with gas shielding may also be used for some limited location such as overlay on CrMo joint, internal support rings, etc.
Both of GMAW and FCAW processes shall be authorized by the Contractor. As the
same manner, the use of Electroslag (ESW) process remains subject to Contractors
acceptance.
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4.3 Ferrite Content


The ferrite content (FN) of the weld deposits will be less than 8, but more than 3 to prevent
hot cracking.
Ferrite content is typically determined by the as-deposited chemical composition and the
WRC-diagram.

4.4 Nozzles and Manways


Nozzles and Manways (neck, flange, blind) in clad vessels, or in clad section of vessels, shall
be of the same base material as the vessel and internally clad, or overlaid, with the same
high alloy.
Loose lining, lap-joint flanges, welding of nozzle of different material than the vessel is not
permitted.
The thickness of the cladding or overlay shall be at least equal to that of the cladding or
overlay of the vessel.

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5. POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT


(BY VESSEL FABRICATOR)
The equipment shall receive PWHT as required by ASME and/or applicable Code Cases.
Final PWHT modifies the microstructure of the weld metal and of the Heat Affected Zones. It
gives the best metallurgical asset of the weldment.
Unless otherwise specified by steel maker a typical recommended range of temperature
could be 655-700C Holding time by reactor manufacturer according to wall thickness and
code and taking into account the anticipated number of heat treatment cycles.
Note: Vessel Manufacturer has the full responsibility of the mechanical behavior of the
vessel. For this reason, PWHT specification shall be optimized and defined by himself (in
accordance with steel Manufacturer) so as to guaranty, at one and the same time,
mechanical and toughness characteristics on the delivered equipment. The given typical
temperature range may accordingly be reconsidered so as to get the fine balance between
strength and toughness.
Intermediate Heat treatment definition is under vessel vendor scope and shall be approved
by the Contractor:
- DHT (Dehydrogenation Treatment) to be typically performed.
- DHT uses to reduce the hydrogen content in the welds to prevent from hydrogen
induced cracking.
- This heat treatment, to be achieved before the weld is cooled down below the preheating temperature, is typically conducted at around 350C (min.2h). However if
vessel manufacturer has previous experience with lower temperature and holding time,
he may propose other conditions supported by data.
All welding (including potential weld repairs) will be completed before final PWHT excepted
where special care has been taken to avoid necessity of PWHT (buttering with high alloy
deposits).
Note: Local PWHT shall not be permitted. In case of any furnace size limitation, vessel
Manufacturer shall obtain specific derogation from the Contractor to perform local PWHT at
the closing seam of shell.

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6. NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING BY FABRICATOR


For vessels designed and constructed in accordance with the rules of ASME Section VIII,
Div.1, Inspection Plan and Testing Plan shall be submitted to Engineering (EPC) for
approval.
For vessels designed and constructed in accordance with the rules of ASME Section VIII,
Div.2, non destructive examination (NDE) as a minimum shall comply with the Table AF241.1.

6.1 Minimum requirements


Minimum requirements for NDE should typically include the following non-destructive tests:
- Radiographic examination (RT) on all pressure welds (prior to PWHT only, provided
that UT is made before and after PWHT).
- RT is not so effective after PWHT for detecting potential cracks. RT is sensitive for
volumetric flaw such as slugs inclusion but not sensitive for shape cracks which could
appear during PWHT. Nevertheless, the final decision, relative to RT examination
sequences, belongs to the Contractor.
- Ultrasonic examination (UT) for all pressure welds (prior/after PWHT and after
hydrotest).
- Positive Material Identification (PMI) on all alloyed material if any (cladding, overlay,
etc.).
- Mill test report shall be supplied for all materials.
- Magnetic Particles Examination (MT) after PWHT.
- Dye penetrant examination (PT) of all weld overlay surfaces after PWHT.
- Hardness measurement.
- In case of cladding and/or weld overlay, Ferrite checking (magnetic ferriscope) in
addition to ferrite evaluation based upon sampling and chemical analysis. Acceptance
criteria of ferrite content by magnetic ferriscope shall be 3% to 10%. Magnetic
instrument shall be calibrated and certified per AWS A4-2.

6.2 Weld Repairs


Major defects, such as cracks, lack of fusion or others leading to weld repair shall be officially
notified to contractor though Non-Conformance report to be considered within the QA/QC
procedure. Proposed repairing procedures shall be submitted to the contractor for
acceptance.

6.3 Pressure Testing


Hydrostatic test shall be performed after completion of all internal and external welding.
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IN-42.1-5.1 Std material spec Low alloyed steels for pressure vessels.doc