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K. N. Gyftakis, D. Athanasopoulos, J. Kappatou

specific design parameters on the double-cage induction motor

behavior. The study is carried out using FEM analysis. Three

double rotor bar induction motors have been simulated and

their electromagnetic characteristics are compared to each

other. The differences in the three motors' design are: the first

one has a single rotor cage and the other two have double

rotor cage with different materials for the upper and inner

rotor bars. The simulations performed, offer an insight and

comparison between the three motors electromagnetic

variables and behavior under the same speed operation, as

well as under the same applied mechanical load.

Index Terms--Bar material, Design, Double-cage, FEM

analysis, Induction motors.

I.

INTRODUCTION

conducting bars are characterized by higher starting

torque, lower starting current and normal efficiency at

nominal speed, compared to the standard NEMA's class A

induction motors [1]. The upper rotor bar contributes during

the starting of the motor because the magnetic flux does not

penetrate deep into the rotor core, due to increased leakage

flux, and also because of the skin effect. Upper and inner

rotor bars contribute at nominal speed both, because of the

low slip frequency and also because of the strongly

magnetized rotor body. Due to the above characteristics,

common double cage induction motors applications are:

conveyors, crushers, stirrers, compressors, loaded pumps,

etc [2], [3]. Despite their higher manufacturing cost, these

motors give solution in applications, where the motor needs

to start loaded and continue to carry the load at nominal

speed. This is an advantage compared to the standard

NEMA class A induction motor, which is characterized by

difficult starting due to the increased starting stator current

[2].

Double bar induction motors can be divided into two

large categories, depending on the construction of the rotor

cage. If both, the upper and the deep bar, are from the same

material, they are short-circuited to the same end-ring and

the rotor has one cage, similar to the standard class A

induction motor. On the other hand, if the two bars are from

different materials, then the upper bars are short-circuited

independently from the deep bars and the rotor is

manufactured with two cages. Usually, when two different

conducting materials are implemented into the rotor, the

material of the greatest resistivity, forms the outer cage, in

order to improve the motor's starting behavior. The middle

area of the rotor slot between the upper and the deep rotor

bars can be of iron or dielectric material and it is a subject

of interest and research [4].

2010", of the Research Committee of the University of Patras, Greece.

concerning double cage induction motors. In [5] the authors

have presented a numerical method for the estimation of

double cage induction motor parameters from standard

manufacturer data. In the same work, it is also indicated

that the leakage flux of the inner cage is always greater than

the one of the upper cage. Furthermore, through the

appropriate design of the rotor slots, the skin effect can be

used to benefit for high starting torque or high breakdown

torque in double cage induction motors [6]. On the other

hand, it has been shown in previous publications that the

outer cage of double cage induction motors is vulnerable to

failure due to its structure and applications [3], [7], [8].

Also, because the manufacturing cost is increased with the

double cage structure [1], special care should be given

through the design process of these motors concerning not

only their electromagnetic characteristics but also their

general behavior (thermal, vibrations, etc) and reliability.

This can be achieved, as mentioned in [9], with oversized

rotor bars and good quality magnetic plates.

In this paper, the dependence of the electromagnetic

characteristics of double cage inductions motors, on the

specific manufacturer design options is studied. For this

purpose, three different induction motor models have been

created and studied with FEM analysis. The stator of the

three models has been kept intact, as well as the number

and shape of rotors bars. In the first model, both the upper

and inner rotor bars are from aluminum, whereas in the

other two the upper bar is from aluminum and the inner bar

from copper. Moreover, what differs in the last two models

is the middle slot area, between aluminum and cooper,

which is considered as iron for the first and dielectric for

the second. In sections III-V, the three models will be

examined under FEM AC time-harmonic analysis, whereas

in section VI they will be examined under FEM transient

analysis which takes the rotor movement into account, in

order to extract both their spatial and time-dependent

electromagnetic characteristics. In all simulations, FEM

analysis will take into account the non-linear magnetic B-H

characteristic of the rotor and stator iron core, which was

extracted from the manufacturers data.

II.

observe in Fig. 1-a that the rotor bar is consisted by a single

material, which is in this case aluminum. In Fig. 1-b and

Fig. 1-c the other two models are presented. In these

models the upper and inner rotor bars are independent and

from different materials. The upper bar is from aluminum

whereas the inner from copper. Moreover, the middle bar

area between upper and inner bars is considered to be air

for the case presented in Fig. 1-b model and iron for the

case of Fig. 1-c model. The number of rotor slots for all

models is 28 and the rotors are considered un-skewed.

1450

Furthermore, the stator is designed accoording to a real 4pole single-cage induction motor and has

h been kept the

same for all models with 36 stator slots. The stator circuits

form a delta wound and the phase resistaance was measured

in the laboratory through DC current injeection. The models

are fed by symmetrical sinusoidal 3-phasse 380V and 50Hz

system.

along the depth of the rotor baars is presented for the three

models. The skin effect is preesent in all cases, provoking

significant current displacemeent inside the bars towards

their surface. At the same tim

me, there is not any current

flowing through the middle bar area, which does not

contribute to the torque producction in the models B and C,

since it is not made from conduucting material.

a)

a

a)

b)

b

b)

c)

Fig. 1. The three simulated motors. a) Single aluuminum rotor bars. b)

Upper bar from aluminum, inner bar from copper annd air between them. c)

Upper bar from aluminum, inner bar from copper annd iron between them.

to as: model A, B and C from now, where model A

corresponds to Fig. 1-a, model B to Figg. 1-b and finally

model C to Fig. 1-c.

c

c)

Fig. 2. The magnetic flux distribution at starting for a) model A, b) model

B and c) model C.

In Fig. 2, the magnetic flux distribuution for the three

models at starting, is presented. It is obvious that the

p

less into

magnetic flux lines in models B and C penetrate

the rotor core, compared to model A.

d

amplitude

Furthermore, in Fig. 3 the current density

1451

RRENT VERSUS SPEED

CHARACTE

ERISTICS

versus speed for the three motoors are presented respectively

in Fig. 4-a and Fig. 4-b. Moddel A is characterized by the

greatest starting and pull-out toorque as well as the greatest

stability area. On the other hand,

h

for speed greater than

1350rpm, one may observe that the model A presents

significantly lower electromaggnetic torque than the other

two models, as well as lower sttator current.

The starting behavior of models B and C, has no

significant difference than thee model A and at the same

time, for the same speed valuues they are characterized by

importantly greater output pow

wer. The present remark is of

great value if one considers thaat for applications such as the

pumps, the motors are comppared under specific speed

values (eg. 1450rpm and 2950rrpm).

Furthermore, in Fig.4-c,d,e,f, the motors' power factor,

efficiency, input and outpput power are presented

respectively. Model A is characterized by greater power

factor and greater efficiency foor every speed. Also, its input

power is greater than the others

o

for speed less than

1200rpm and the same stands for

f its output power for speed

less than 1300rpm. Models B and

a C, compared to model A,

have both greater input pow

wer for speed greater than

1200rpm and greater output power

p

for speed greater than

1300rpm.

a)

b)

c)

Fig. 3. The current density amplitude along the deppth of the rotor bars at

starting for: a) model A, b) model B and c) model C.

In TABLE I, one can see the values off torque and stator

current amplitude for the three simulated models at starting.

The stator current is practically the saame for the three

models. Also, the electromagnetic torquee has been slightly

reduced in models B and C. The modell B has 5.3% less

starting torque than the model A, whereaas model C 3.2%.

Models B and C present lower total baar resistance, than

model A. As, a consequence their electrom

magnetic torque at

starting was expected to be significantly less than model's

A. This does not happen and the differrence between the

starting torque of the three models is small. This small

difference presented in the motors startinng behavior occurs

from the fact that, although in models B and

a C the total bars

resistance is lower due to the copper, thhe leakage flux is

greater compared to model A as seen befoore in Fig. 2.

TABLE I

TORQUE AND STATOR CURRENT AMPLITUDE FO

OR THE 3 MODELS

Model

A

B

C

Torque (Nm)

79.26

75.05

76.69

a)

b)

56.1

56.3

55.6

1452

V.

c)

three models at the same speed 1470rpm, are presented.

The electromagnetic torque as well as the mechanical

output power of model B is 40% greater than the model A,

whereas for the model C it is 35.7%. At the same time,

model B draws 21.4% more stator current and model C,

20% respectively than the model A. The power factor has

increased for both models B and C, but on the other hand

their efficiency has decreased, compared to the model A.

The results indicate that for fixed speed, double-cage

induction motors present much greater output power than

double bar single cage motors, at the cost of lower

efficiency and increased stator current. In order to be more

precise and accurate in order to compare the three models,

it is important to make one more step and examine the

motors behavior under the same load operation.

TABLE II

ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR THE 3 MODELS AT 1470RPM

models

Speed (rpm)

Torque (Nm)

Stator Current (A)

Output Power (W)

Cos

Efficiency

d)

e)

A

1470

27.38

8.84

4213

0.63

0.94

B

1470

38.36

10.73

5902

0.74

0.92

C

1470

37.15

10.61

5717

0.72

0.92

component of the magnetic flux density, in the middle of

the air-gap and for speed 1470rpm, is presented for the

three simulated models. The relative position of the rotor

and stator are the same and as a consequence the even rank

harmonics do not present any difference between the three

models. The even rank harmonics are indicative of the airgap asymmetry in space, for a specific relative position

between rotor and stator. Furthermore, harmonic rank

numbers indicative of the saturation, such as 3 and 9, have

slightly increased in models B and C compared to model A,

but this is easily explained if one thinks that the stator

current is increased in models B and C (Table II).

Moreover, the stator MMF harmonics such as 5, 7 etc as

well as the rotor MMF harmonics such as 13, 15 etc have

increased about 4dB in the models B and C compared to

model A. In order to compare the spatial harmonic index of

the three models, their THD has been calculated as an

amplitude ratio. The model A presents THD equal to

44.1%, whereas for model B it is 48.7% and for model C it

is 48.3%.

f)

Fig. 4. Characteristics versus speed: a) Electromagnetic torque, b) Stator

current amplitude, c) Power factor, d) Efficiency, e) Input power and f)

Output power for the three motors.

1453

30Nm and secondly 60Nm. The presented results have been

extracted after the models reachhed steady-state.

In Fig. 6, the electromagnnetic torque versus time is

presented for all models forr applied load 30Nm. The

electromagnetic torque oscillattions are similar for the three

models because the load torquee is low.

a)

a)

b))

b)

c)

Fig. 6. The electromagnetic torque foor a) model A, b) model B and c)

model C, for applied mechanical load 30Nm.

3

Also, in Fig. 7, the electrom

presented for all models for appplied load 60Nm. Model A

and B present similar torque oscillation while Model C

presents about 6% greater electtromagnetic torque pulsation.

c)

Fig. 5. The spatial harmonic index of the radial com

mponent of the magnetic

flux density for the: a) Model A, b) Model B and c) Model C.

a)

ME LOAD

In this paragraph, the three models willl be simulated and

compared while operating under thhe same applied

mechanical load. The analysis, also for these cases, takes

into account the non-linear B-H magnetiic characteristic of

the stator and rotor iron core. Two cases are

a examined. The

1454

b))

and C is greater than the moddel A. The model C presents

26% greater stator current thann the model A. Furthermore,

the model A is characterized by the greater power factor,

which is 15% greater than the model

m

C.

TABLE

E III

ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR APPLIED MEECHANICAL LOAD 30NM FOR THE 3

MODE

ELS

c)

models

Speed (rpm)

Torque (Nm)

Stator Current (A)

Output Power (W)

Cos

Efficiency (%)

A b) model B and c)

Fig. 7. The electromagnetic torque for a) model A,

model C, for applied mechanical load 60Nm.

for the two cases examined. In Fig. 8-aa, the applied load

torque is 30Nm, whereas in Fig. 8-b, it is 60 Nm.

A

1470.44

30

5.66

4617

0.8366

85.6

B

1480

30

5.76

4646

0.87

81.3

C

1478

30

6

4641

0.74

91.7

TABLE

E IV

ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR APPLIED MEECHANICAL LOAD 60NM FOR THE 3

MODE

ELS

models

Speed (rpm)

Torque (Nm)

Stator Current (A)

Output Power (W)

Cos

Efficiency (%)

a)

b)

Fig. 8. The speed versus time for the three models for the case of: a) load

torque equal to 30Nm and b) load torque equal to 600Nm.

A

1423.66

60

11.5

8940

0.9

75.6

B

1446.5

60

11.6

9084

0.89

77.5

C

1428.3

60

14.5

8970

0.75

72.3

radial component of the air-ggap magnetic flux density is

presented for the three modeels, when the applied load

torque is 30Nm. The 3rd harrmonic, which indicates the

saturation, has the greatest valuue in model A. The model A

presents THD equal to 43% whhereas for model B it proved

to be 49.1% and for model C it is 43.3%.

the same applied mechanical load comppared to the other

two models. Furthermore, one may obserrve in Fig.8-b, that

the model C operates at a middle speed value between the

other two models. But, as the mechaniccal load decreases,

the model C tends to operate at speed sim

milar to the model

B (Fig. 8-a).

In Table III and IV, the analysis resuults for the case of

applied load torque 30Nm and 60N

Nm are presented

respectively.

In Table III, for applied load equal too 30Nm, both the

models B and C operate at greater speedd and draw greater

stator current than the model A. Moreoverr, the efficiency of

model C is much greater than the model A (about 6.1%).

On the other hand, model's B power factor is greater than

b

the power

the model A about 3.4%. The difference between

factor and the efficiency of models B and C can be

explained. Model C is characterized byy greater leakage

rotor flux because of the iron area betweeen the upper and

inner rotor bars. As a consequence, its poower factor will be

less than model B, which leads to improveed efficiency.

In Table IV, it is obvious that the efficiiency of the model

B is greater than the other two modeels. Same as the

1455

a)

VIII.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

b)

[7]

[8]

[9]

REFERENCES

S. Han, Evaluation of the Detectability of Broken Rotor Bars for

Double Squirrel Cage Rotor Induction Motors, 2010 IEEE Energy

Conversion Congress and Exposition, ECCE 2010 - Proceedings ,

art. no. 5617950, pp. 2493-2500, 2010.

Motors and generators, NEMA standards pub. MG 1-2006, 2006.

H.A. Toliyat, G.B. Kliman, Handbook of electric motors, 2nd

edition, Marcel Dekker, 2004.

I. Boldea and S.A. Nasar, "The Induction Machines design

handbook", 2nd Edition 2010 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, pp.

23-24.

J. Pedra and F. Corcoles, Estimation of Induction Motor DoubleCage Model Parameters From Manufacturer Data, IEEE Trans. on

Energy Conversion, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp 310-317, June 2004.

S. Williamson and C.I. McClay, Optimization of the Geometry of

Closed Rotor Slots for Cage Induction Motors, IEEE Trans. on

Industry Applications, Vol. 32, No. 3, May/June 1996

T.A. Lipo, "Introduction to AC machine design", Wisconsin

Power Electronics Research Center, University of Wisconsin, 2004.

] M.G. Say, "The performance and design of alternating

current machines", Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons LTD., London, 1955.

M.A. Saidel, M.C.E.S. Ramos and S.S. Alves, Assessment and

Optimization of Induction Electric Motors Aiming Energy Efficiency

in Industrial Applications, 19th International Conference on

Electrical Machines, ICEM 2010, Rome, Italy, 6-8 Sep. 2010.

IX. BIOGRAPHIES

Konstantinos N. Gyftakis was born in Patras, Greece, in May 1984. He

received the diploma in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the

University of Patras, Patras, Greece in 2010. He is a PhD candidate in the

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras.

His research activities are in FEM design, fault diagnosis and optimization

of electrical machines. He is an IEEE member, member of IEEE PES and

Magnetics Society, member of the HELIEV (Hellenic Institute of Electric

Vehicles) and finally member of the Technical Chamber of Greece. (Email: kosgyftak@upatras.gr)

c)

Fig. 9. The spatial harmonic index of the radial component of the magnetic

flux density for the: a) Model A, b) Model B and c) Model C, when 30Nm

mechanical load is applied.

VII.

He is a senior undergraduate student at the Department of Electrical and

Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Greece. Currently, he pursues

his diploma thesis focusing on FEM design and electromagnetic analysis

of double-cage induction motors. (E-mail: athanas_3@yahoo.gr)

CONCLUSION

induction motors have been studied using FEM analysis.

Since the models B and C have two different rotor cages,

their manufacturing cost will be greater than model A. On

the other hand, the comparison between their characteristics

reveals that the use of different materials for the upper and

inner rotor bars presents several advantages compared to a

single aluminum double bar induction motor. The

comparison of the 3 motors for the same speed operation

showed that: the models B and C present much greater

output power as well as greater power factor and almost the

same efficiency, than the model A. The simulation results

under the same mechanical load for the three motors

indicated that: for high load operation model B presented

2% greater efficiency than the model A, while for low load

operation the model C was characterized by 6.1% greater

efficiency than the model A. For both models B and C, the

advantage of greater efficiency came at the cost of lower

power factor and slightly greater stator current. Finally,

depending on the specific application criteria, the

optimization of the design of models B and C could lead to

even better characteristics, and this is considered as

promising future work.

diploma in Electrical Engineering from the University of Patras, Patras,

Greece and the PhD from the same University in 1991 in the field of

Electrical machines and Power Electronics. She is Assistant Professor in

the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of the

University of Patras. Her teaching and research activities are in

electrical machines, power electronics, modeling and design using FEM,

faults diagnosis in electrical machines. (University of Patras,

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, 26500 RionPatras, Greece, Tel: +30 2610/996413, Fax: +30 2610/997362, E-mail:

joya@ece.upatras.gr)

1456

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