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Human Mental Abilities

Lecture 5
Leonardo Gabales
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Introduction to Major IQ Tests

There are a more than 10,000 different


standardized tests of cognitive abilities
available - they differ with respect to the
domain of mental abilities that are assessed

(For various reasons) some tests are used


more often than others here, we review:

The Stanford-Binet Test

The Wechsler Intelligence Tests


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Linking Theory & Practice

Early test-development & interpretation was influenced by the


prevalent theory of the time - g theory (the 1st Wave of Test Interpretation)

Developments in theories of intelligence (e.g., Gf-Gc theory) led to the


construction of new tests & post hoc interpretations of existing tests
in a more differentiated manner (the 2nd & 3rd Waves of Test Interpretation)

Assessment of general intellectual functioning - e.g., the SB provided


a single composite intelligence score IQ

Profile analyses become more prevalent - e.g., the WAIS-R provided


Verbal, Performance, & Full-Scale IQ scores

More recently, theory-based test development & interpretation has


become more prevalent

E.g., The Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery-III (WJ-III) is


based explicitly on CHC theory
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The Stanford-Binet

Binet & Simon developed their first test battery in 1905


(the test was revised in 1908 & 1911)

They were particularly concerned with the development of a test


that would "objectively" assess performance of school children in
order to identify dull children

They considered many different types of problems but


kept only those that had high predictive validity for
school achievement

As a result, their scale contained items of a more abstract &


complex nature than had been previously employed in tests of
mental ability

The scale, properly speaking, does not


permit the measure of the intelligence,
because intellectual qualities are not
superposable, and therefore cannot be
measured as linear surfaces are
measured.
(Alfred Binet)
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There is nothing about an individual as


important as his IQ.
(Lewis Terman)

Development of the Stanford-Binet

During WWI it was translated into English & was


standardized at Stanford University in 1937 - the
most recent revision (the 5th) was carried out in
2003

Many aspects of test development were repeated with


subsequent tests & many new intelligence tests used
scores on the Stanford-Binet as a criterion in
validation studies
Hence, it is important to consider the principles
involved in the construction of this test
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Development of the Stanford-Binet

Items were assigned mental age levels on the


basis of typical performance of children at a
particular age information gathered in the
process of test standardization

A millimeter is short; a kilometer is


was
assigned to age 7 because about 50% of the children
at that age provided a correct answer
What do we mean by
(Constant,
Courage, Skill, Juggler)? is assigned to age 12
because, again, about 50% of children at that age
provide correct answers to these questions
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Development of the Stanford-Binet

Children were given not only items that


corresponded to their own age but also items
assigned to different ages

If a child whose chronological age was, say, 8 years


managed to solve items that were assigned to the
age of 10, he/she was said to have mental age of 10

Development of the Stanford-Binet

In early versions of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was calculated


by a very simple formula:
IQ = (Mental Age/Chronological Age)*100

if Mental Age>Chronological Age, IQ is above average


if Mental Age<Chronological Age, IQ is below average

Thus, an 8 year old who performs at the level of an average 10 year


old would have an IQ of 125: (10/8) x 100 = 125

This is referred to as Ratio IQ

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Ratio IQ

Allows comparison of intellectual performance across age levels

E.g., 2/4 * 100 = 50 vs 10/12 * 100 = 83

BUT: It only works if mental age increases parallel with age

What would be an agelevel-typical task for a


43year old?

age

What does it mean if a 50


year old has a mental
age of 25?
intellectual ability
time
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The Stanford-Binet IV

The 1986 revision of the Stanford-Binet (SB-IV)


has a very high reliability coefficient (r=.90 for
total test score; SEM is about 5)

Test manual provides several types of evidence


for its validity:

e.g., Assessment by teachers

Gifted group: an average IQ of 121


Learning disabled group: an average IQ of 75

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The Stanford-Binet IV

Earlier versions of the SB had a large number of verbal


items

The 1986 version is based on Gf/Gc theory & has a more


balanced composition of verbal (i.e., largely Gc) & non-verbal
(i.e., largely Gf) items

The test consists of 15 scales, chosen to represent 4


major cognitive areas:

Verbal reasoning
Abstract/visual
Quantitative reasoning
Short-term memory

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SB-IV Tests

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SB-IV Tests

Vocabulary: Given to all participants (since


routing test)

Naming pictured items (1-14);


Defining spoken words (15-46)

E.g., The word is charlatan. What does charlatan


mean?
Pass: fake, quack, impostor, con artist
Query: bad person, a cheat, two-timer, acts cunning or sly
Fail: joker, romantic, noble, imaginary or make-believe
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SB-IV Tests

Bead Memory

Locating beads in a pictorial array (1-10)


Arranging beads on a stick to match a pattern
presented for 5 seconds (11-42)

Quantitative

Counting or arranging dice (1-12)


Solve verbally presented numerical problems (13-40)

E.g., A piece of furniture is priced at $600. If it is paid for


in 24 monthly instalments, the payments are $30 each
month. How much more does it cost to pay for piece of
furniture in monthly payments than to pay the full price at
the time of purchase?
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SB-IV Tests

Memory for Sentences

Repeating sentences of successively greater length


E.g., it was raining this morning, so the children
carried umbrellas to school

Pattern Analysis

Fitting shapes to form boards (1-6)


Arranging black-and-white blocks to match a given 2D pattern
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SB-IV Tests

Comprehension

Identifying body parts (1-6)


Answering questions on practical and social matters (7-42)
e.g., why should doctors be licensed?

Pass: to make sure he/she knows what he/she is doing; so people


know they are qualified
Query: for safety of patient; patient will feel secure.
Fail: so wont hurt; would be lawsuits, etc.

Absurdities

Indicating an unusual or impossible aspect of a picture


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SB-IV Tests

Memory for Digits

Repeating a sequence of digits forwards and


backwards
e.g., 5-7-8 .8-1-7-4-9-3-2-6-5

Copying

Constructing a pattern with blocks (1-12)


Drawing copies of simple geometric designs (13-28)
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SB-IV Tests

Memory for Objects

Recalling pictured items presented briefly (1 sec) e.g.,

Matrices

Completing a matrix by selecting an item from an array


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SB-IV Tests

Number Series

Completing a series of numbers by determining the


rule
3, 5, 7, 9, 11, __, __
(13, 15)
2, 6, 4, 12, 10, 30, 28, __, __
(84, 82)

Paper Folding & Cutting

Determining how a folded piece of paper would


appear when unfolded

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SB-IV Tests

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SB-IV Tests

Verbal Relations

Explaining similarity between items


e.g., gold, silver, platinum, NOT iron

Pass: expensive; precious/rare metal

Query: value; beautiful; heavier; decorative metals


Fail: shiny; metals; minerals; etc
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SB-IV Tests

Equation Building

Arranging numerals and arithmetic signs to


form an equation
2 3 5 +
=?
(2 + 3 = 5)
2 4 5 6 9 + - x = ?
(2 x 4 5 + 6 = 9)

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SB-IV: Concluding Remarks

The SB-IV:

Combined old tasks & new theory (Thorndike &


Lohman, 1990, p. 126)
Offers a total score as well as profile scores
Has an easy, flexible & versatile administration
format, & good psychometric properties (validity &
reliabilities)

Major weaknesses of the SB-IV:

The (un-)representative normative sample


Disputed factor structure
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Wechsler Adult Intelligence


Scale
WAIS-III

David Wechsler
(1896-1981)

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Historical Trajectory

1939 Wechsler Bellevue Adult Intelligence


Scale

1955 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

1981 WAIS-R

1997 WAIS-III

2008 WAIS-IV

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Wechslers Definition of
Intelligence
Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the
individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to
deal effectively with his environment.

Global because it characterizes individuals


behavior as a whole
Aggregate because it is composed of elements or abilities
that are qualitatively differentiable

Wechsler, 1939
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Proclamation of incompleteness

Measure what can be measured

Analysing measures

Factor analysis
Taxonomy of measures --> theories of
intelligence

Difficulties in measuring creativity, wisdom,


learning agility

Ergo: Our account of intelligence is limited

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Basic Description of the WAISIII

Individual Administration

Duration: 60 to 80 minutes

Depending on subsets, goal, and examinee

Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Adults,


Aged 16 89 Years

Scale Composition

14 Subtests

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The WAIS Tests

In all Wechsler's tests, items that have the same


format are grouped together to form what is called a
subscale

Sometimes, tests that do not have items grouped are called


the "omnibus" tests of intelligence - the early versions of the
Stanford-Binet test were omnibus tests of intelligence

The WAIS differs from the Stanford-Binet test in that


subscales contain items that are identical across the
age groups

Thus, a person at the age of 20 will do the same items as


the person at the age 70
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Picture Completion
What important part is missing?

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Vocabulary
I want you to tell me the meaning of some words
Tell me what means
1. Bed

3.

Penny

Sanctuary
18. Designate
17.

Encumber
32. Tirade
31.

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Digit Symbol-Coding
Look at these boxes. Notice that each has a number in
the upper part and special mark in the lower part. Each
number has its own mark.

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Digit Symbol-Coding
Now look down here where the squares have numbers
in the top part but the squares at the bottom are empty

In each of the empty squares, put the mark that


should go there. Like this (Test presenter puts in the
first 4 symbols)

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Similarities
In this section, I am going to read two words to
you, and I want you to tell me how they are
alike.
1. Piano Drum

11. Work Play

13. Egg Seed

19. Enemy Friend


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Block Design
Material: 4 to 9 identical
blocks
Task: to replicate models or
pictures of two-colour
designs.

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Arithmetic

3. How much is $4 plus $5? (time limit 15 sec)

14. What is the average of these numbers: 10,


5, 15? (time limit 60 sec)

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Matrix Reasoning

for each picture there is a part missing. Look at


the aspects of each picture carefully and choose the
missing part from the five choices.

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Digit Span
Forward

I am going to say some numbers. Listen


carefully, and when I am through, I want you to
say them right after me. Just say what I say.
2. five-eight-two

(ISI: 1 sec., lower voice at the end)

8. 7-1-3-9-4-2-5-6-8
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Digit Span
Backwards

Now I am going to say some more numbers. But


this time when I stop, I want you to say them
backward.

List length varies from 2 to 9 digits

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Information

5. What is a thermometer?

10. Who was Martin Luther King, Jr.?

24. What was Marie Curie famous for?

28. Who wrote Faust


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Picture Arrangement
These pictures tell a story about a worker
building a house, but the are in the wrong
order. Put them in the right order so they will
tell a story that makes sense.

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Picture Arrangements
Presentation

Solution

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Comprehension

Now Im going to ask you to tell me some solutions to


everyday problems or social concerns:

Why do people wash their clothes?

Tell me some reasons that we have a parole system.

What does this saying mean? Shallow brooks are noisy.

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Symbol Search

check whether either of the two symbols


on the right matches any of the symbols on
the left
120 seconds,
60 items

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Letter-Number Sequencing

Numbers and letters are


presented aurally

Reproduction of

numbers first in
ascending order

then letters in
alphabetical order

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Object Assembly

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Proclamation of incompleteness

Wechsler: test does not claim to measure all


what constitutes general intelligence
(intelligence in general?)

What we can expect from an intelligence


scale is that it measures essential aspects of
intelligence so that it can be used as a more
or less reliable index for the global ability of a
given examinee
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Wide Variety of Intelligences?

Education-based knowledge
Language, numbers, shapes
Concrete, abstract
Speeded, un-speeded
Memory
Abstract reasoning, rule inference
Practical knowledge

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One or many Intelligence(s)?


What should we expect?

Reasonable assumptions:

Being good in one task may carry a price in being poor at


others

Not true

All tests correlate positively

seeing spatial patterns vs. verbal skills


focus on details vs. speed
speed vs. memory

(.30 - .80)

Positive manifold

Is it just g after all?!

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Just Spearmans g?
not quite

tests

tests

All animals are equal, but some animals are


more equal than others
All tests are positively related
But there are groups of tests that display
especially high relationships to each other:

Vocabulary, Information, Similarities, Comprehension


Arithmetic, Digit Span, Letter-Number Sequencing

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Mental abilities measured in


the WAIS III
Verbal
Perceptual
Comprehension Organization

Vocabulary

Similarities

Information
Comprehension

Picture Completion
Block Design
Matrix Reasoning
Picture
arrangement

Working
Memory
Arithmetic
Digit Span
Letter-Number
Sequencing

Processing
Speed
Digit
Symbol-Coding
Symbol Search

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WAISIII Subtests for IQ Scores


Verbal

Vocabulary
Similarities
Arithmetic
Digit Span
Information
Comprehension

Performance

Picture Completion
Digit Symbol-Coding
Block Design
Matrix Reasoning
Picture Arrangement

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WAIS Psychometric Properties

This test has a very good reliability & a small


standard error of measurement:
Reliability
SEM

Verbal IQ

.97

2.74

Performance IQ

.90

4.14

Full Scale IQ

.96

2.53
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Factorial structure of the WAIS-III


(Deary, 2001, p. 128)

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IQ Scores

In all recently developed tests of intelligence, the


concept of 'mental age' has been abandoned

The IQ score now represents a measure of the


difference between a persons ability & the
average performance level of all people of that
age

Thus, an IQ of 100 means that a persons performs at


the same level as the average person of his own age,
& IQ of 115 means that the person is one standard
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deviation above the average

The WAIS & Other Measures

WAIS Full Scale IQ score correlates about .50 with


school marks & has a high correlation (~.85) with the SB

The WAIS has been employed in some research at the


University of Sydney:

Results suggest that average Full Scale IQ for the 1st Year
students is 115

This is about one standard deviation higher than the average IQ of


the population

The lowest score obtained by a university student was 99 &


there were many cases of IQ higher than 130

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The WAIS & Other Measures

Interestingly, the average IQ scores for Performance &


Verbal scales differ from Full Scale average

The average Performance IQ is about 110 - closer to the


average of the population
The average Verbal IQ score, on the other hand is 122.

Thus, our University students tend to be considerably


better than the population at large in verbal ability

Uni students seem to be selected mainly on the basis of their


verbal achievement in school & on exams

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Summary

The link between theory & practice


Major tests of intelligence the SB &
the WAIS

The proclamation of incompleteness

IQ scores & the concept of mental age


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