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Tutorial of Process Control

Lecture 2

INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORM


1
Example (1): find Laplace inverse for F(s)= s ( s+2 )

Sol: by using partial fraction


=

A1 A2
+
s S+ 2

1
1
A1= s ( s+2 ) = 2
s
1
1
A2= s (s +2) = 2
( s +2 )

1
1 1 1
1
1 1
= l

L1 {F(s)}= l 2 s
s ( s +2 )
2 ( s+2 ) 2

1
= 2

1 2 t
e
2

(s+1)
Example(2): find Laplace inverse for F(s)= = s (s +2)

Sol: by using partial fraction


A1 A2
Sol: = s + S+ 2
(s +1)
1
A1= s ( s+2 ) = 2
s

Tutorial of Process Control

Lecture 2

( s+1)
1
s
(s
+2)
A2=
)= 2
( s +2 )

{F(s)}=

l1

1
1
1
1
1

= l1
2 s 2 ( s+2 ) 2
s ( s +2 )

2 t

- 2e

= 2

S +3

Example(3): find Laplace inverse for F(s)= s 3+7 s 2+10 s =


s +3
S (s + 7 s+ 10)
2

Sol: by using partial fraction


(s +3)

= s (s +2)(s+ 5) =
A 1 (s )[
A1

A1
A2
A3
+
s (s +2) + (s +5)

(s 3)
]s 0
s (s 2)(s 5)

3
0.3
10

A 2 (s 2)[
A2

1
6

A 3 (s 5)[
A3

(s 3)
]s 2
s (s 2)(s 5)

(s 3)
]s 5
s (s 2)(s 5)

2
15

Tutorial of Process Control

Lecture 2

0.3 1 1
2
1

F(s)= s 6 ( s+2 ) 15 (s+5)


1 2t 2 5 t
L1 { F(s)}= 0.3 e e
6
15
3
Example (4): find Laplace inverse for F(s)= (2 s+ 5)3

Sol:

3
3
= L1
3
8
( 2 s+ 5 )

[( ) ]
1
5
s+
2

3 ( )t
= t2 e 2
8

Example(5) : find Laplace inverse for F(s)= 3 s2 +12 s2 49

Sol:

L1

] [

8
3
8/3
3/7
+ 2
=L1 2
+ 2 2
3 s +12 s 49
s +12/3 s 7
2

8 1 2
L [ 2 ]
23
s +4

3 1 7
4
3
L 2 2
sin 2t + sinh 7 t
+ 7
=
3
7
s 7

1
Example(6) : find Laplace inverse for F(s)= s 2 s+ 2
2

1
Sol: we can rewrite F(s)= (s1)2 +1
L1 { f ( s ) ] =e t sin t
5( s+2)
Example(7) : find Laplace inverse for F(s)= s (s+ 1)( s+3)
2

Sol:F(s)=

A1 A2 B1 B2
+ 2 +
+
s
s+ 1 s +2
s

Tutorial of Process Control

Lecture 2

d 2
A1= ds s F ( s) s=0

A1

d 5(s 2)
ds (s 1)(s 3)

s 0

5(s 1)(s 3) 5(s 2)(2s 4)


(s 1) 2 (s 3) 2
25

A2

5(s 2)
10
)s 0
(s 3)(s 1)
3

5(s 2)
5
) s 1
2
s (s 3)
2
5(s 2)
5
B2 2
) s 3
s (s 1)
18
B1

F(t)=

25 10 5 t 5 3 t
+ t+ e + e
9
3
2
18

H.W Find the inverse transform of each of the following.

(1) F(s)=
(2) F(s)=
(3) F(s)

6
1
4

+
s s8 s3
19
1
7

+ 3
s+2 3 s5 s

6s
3
+ 2
= s +25 s + 25

(4) F(s)=

5 s+ 2
( s+1 )( s+2 )2

Initial value theorem:


4

Tutorial of Process Control

Lecture 2

T0 determines the value of the time function when t=0


lim f (t ) lim sF (s )
t 0

Example(1): find the initial value of the f(t)=2u(t)+3cost u(t)


2 3s
+
F(s)= s s 2+1

lim f (t ) lim sF (s )
t 0

lim s

[2+ 1+ 12 ]=5
s

s+ 1
Example(2): find the initial value of the F(s)= s+ 2

lim f (t ) lim sF (s )

t 0

lim s

s+ 1
s+ 2

s 2+ s
= s+ 2 =
the numerator polynomial is of lower order than the denominator polynomial.
In case if IVT is applied we get as the initial value.
this is not possible in practical circuits

Final value theorem:


To determines the steady-state value of the system response
lim f (t ) lim sF (s )

S 0

Example(1): find the final value of the f(t)for the Laplace inverse
1

is F(s)= s (s 3+ 3 s 2+3 s+1)


5

Tutorial of Process Control

lim f (t ) lim sF (s )

Sol:

Lecture 2

lim s

S 0

S 0

lim

S 0

1
2
s (s + 3 s +3 s+1)
3

1
(s +3 s +3 s+ 1) =1
3

Example(2): find the final value of the f(t)for the Laplace inverse
1

is F(s)= s (s +4)
lim f (t ) lim sF (s )

Sol:

lim s

S 0

S 0

1
1
=
s (s +4) 4

H.W: find the final and initial values of the f(t) for the Laplace
inverse in the following:
1- F(s)=

8
s (s + 2 s+10)
2

'

2- y (t)+7 y (t ) +12 y (t)=0, y ( 0 )=1, y ( 0 )=2


'

3- y (t) + y (t )=1, y ( 0 )=0, y ( 0 )=0

Special function
1- Step function

Tutorial of Process Control

Lecture 2

2- Pulse function

A
A as
F(s)= s - s e
A
as
= s (1e )

3- Impulse function

Tutorial of Process Control

Lecture 2

4-Ramp functiom

5-Sine Function