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# EXPERIMENT 1

## TIME RESPONSE OF A SECOND ORDER SYSTEM

AIM: To study the time response of second order system.
APPARATUS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Function Generator
CRO
Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

0 10 K

THEORY:
The transfer function which relates input voltage and capacitor voltage is
VC(S) / Vi(S) = 1/ (LC S2 + RC S + 1)
The characteristic equation is
LC S2 + RC S + 1= 0 (or)

S2 + (R/L) S + 1 (L/C) = 0

## By comparing with a standard characteristic equation we get,

= (R/2) (C/L)
Where

and

n = 1 / (LC)

= Damping Ratio
n = Undamped natural frequency

PROCEDURE:
1. Switch ON the Main supply and observe the signal source output by varying potentiometer
2. Apply Square wave or step input by varying amplitude potentiometer.
3. Make sure signal source is connected before the input of the second order system.
4. Now select square wave signal. Draw the input square wave signal.
5. Connect the output of square wave signal source to second order system using RLC.
6. Adjust the resistance value in the RLC circuit for different damping factors.
7. For different values of damping factor, observe second order response.

## 8. Verify time response specifications theoretically and practically.

TABULAR COLUMN:
R(k)

L(mH)

C(F)

R
= 2

Wn=

Wd=Wn(1-2)

1
LC

C
L
Set1
0< <1
Set2
=1
Set3

0.445

47

0.47f

0.225

21276.5

20743.15

47

0.047

21276.5

47

0.047

1.5

21276.5

23787.85

FORMULAE:
1. n = 1/LC
2. = (R/2) (C/L)
3. tr = [( tan-1(1-2)/ ]/( n((1-2))
4. tp = / (n((1-2))
5.

Mp = e((-)/( 1-2))

6. td = (1+ 0.7 )/ n
7. ts = 4/ n for 2% tolerance band
CALCULATIONS:

1) a) = 2

C
L

=0.2225

b) =1
c) =1.25
Mp = e((-)/( 1-2))
=

(0 .2225 )

1(0.2225)2
/
)

=0.1
2) Wn=

1
LC

=21276.5

Wd=Wn(1-2)
=21276.5 (0.2225)
=20743.15

tr =

Wd

= 3.567*10-13 ms

GRAPHS:

RESULT: The time response of second order system has been studied and the time.
Viva-Voice Questions
1. What is Time Response?
2. Define Delay Time, Rise Time, Peak Time, Peak Over Shoot, Settling Time?
3. Define type and order of a system?
4. Distinguish between Type and Order of a system?
5. What is Steady State Error?
6. The damping ratio of system is 0.6 and the natural frequency of oscillation is 8 rad/ sec.
Determine the rise time.
7. Define Positional Error Constant and Velocity Error Constant?

EXPERIMENT - 2
CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNCHROS
AIM:
1. To study synchro transmitter.
2. To Study synchro transmitter and receiver pair.
APPARATUS:
1. Synchro transmitter Receiver pair trainer kit.
2. Patch chords.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## Fig: 2.1. Synchro transmitter and receiver pair

THEORY :A synchro is an electromagnetic transducer commonly used to convert an angular
position of a shaft into an electric signal. The basic synchro is usually called a Synchro
Transmitter. Its construction is similar to that of a 3-Phase alternator. The stator is of laminated
silicon steel and is slotted to accommodate a balanced 3-Phase winding which is usually of
concentric coil type and is Y connected. The rotor is a dumbbell construction and wound with a
concentric coil. An AC voltage is applied to the rotor winding through slip rings.

This voltage causes a flow of magnetizing current in the rotor coil which produces a
sinusoidally time varying time varying flux directed along its axis and distributed nearly
sinusoidally, in the air gap along stator periphery. Because of transformer action, voltages are
induced in each of the stator coils. As the air gap flux is sinusoidally distributed, the flux linking
any stator coil is proportional to the cosine of the angle between rotor and stator coil axis and so
is the voltage induced in each stator coil. The stator coil voltages are of course in time phase
with each other.
The classical synchro system consists of two units.
1. Synchro Transmitter
PROCEDURE :
SYNCHRO TRANSMITTER
1. Switch ON the transmitter unit that provides supply to the transmitter rotor.
2. Set the Transmitter rotor angle to 0
3. Note down the voltages across the stator terminals i.e., VS1S2, VS2S3, VS3S1 by connecting
the corresponding terminals to the voltmeter provided.
4. Vary the transmitter rotor angle in steps of 30 , and note down the voltages across the
stator terminals for every step.
5. Plot the characteristics of synchro transmitter by taking angular position on X axis
and voltages of stator on Y axis.
1. Connect the stator terminals of the transmitter S1, S2, S3 to the corresponding stator
terminals of the receiver S11, S21, S31 .respectively.
2. Switch ON the supply to the transmitter and rotor.
3. Vary the rotor position of the transmitter (from 0 to 360) in steps and note down the
4. If the transmitter rotor position matches with the receiver position, then the system is
synchronized. If there is any difference between both the positions, note down the
difference as error.
5. Plot the characteristics by taking the transmitter rotor angle on X axis and receiver rotor
angle on Y axis.
TABULAR COLUMN:
Synchro Transmitter:
S.NO
1
2
3

0
30
60

Vs3s1
0.1
33.8
58.9

Vs1s2
60.3
34.5
1.1

Vs2s3
59.8
68.6
60.7

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330

69.1
60.1
36.2
0.9
-33.9
-59.1
-68.8
-59.7
-33.5

## Synchro transmitter & Receiver Pair:

S.N
O
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Rotor position
of transmitter
in degrees
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240

Rotor position of
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240

GRAPHS:
SYNCHRO TRANSMITTER
Transmitter angular
position

Stator induced line voltage

Vs1s3

Vs3s2

Vs2s1

Vs1s3

33.7
34.9
59.6
0.4
68.9
32.6
60.3
59.3
-34.8
-68.9
-0.3
-59.6
-33.5
-34.9
-60
-0.4
-69.2
-35.1
All Voltages are in Volts

RESULT : The working of synchro transmitter and synchro transmitter and receiver pair are
studied and the corresponding characteristics are drawn.
Viva-Voice Questions
1. Define the term "synchro."?
2. Name the two general classifications of synchros?
3. List the different synchro characteristics and give a brief explanation of each?
4. Explain the operation of a basic synchro transmitter and receiver?
5. What are the applications of synchro pair?
6. Draw the five standard schematic symbols for synchro and identify all connections?

EXPERIMENT - 3
EFFECT OF P, PI, PID CONTROLLER ON A SECOND ORDER SYSTEM
AIM:

## To study the effect of proportional, integral, differential, controllers on a

second order system.
APPARATUS:
1. Microprocessor based PID controller trainer kit.
2. Patch chord
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## Closed loop system with PID controller

BLOCK DIAGRAM :-

THEORY :A controller is a device introduced in the system to modify the error signal and to
produce a control signal. The controller modifies the transient response of the system.
9

Proportional Controller (P-Controller): The P-Controller is a device that produce a control signal u(t) which is a proportional
to the input error signal e(t).
U(t)

e(t)

U(t) = Kp e(t)

## On taking Laplace Transformation of above eq.

U(s) = Kp E(s)

--- 1

U(s) / E(s) = Kp

--- 2

Eq. 1 & 2 gives the output of the P-Controller for input E(s) and transfer function of
the P-Controller respectively.
From Eq. 1, we can conclude that the P-Controller amplifies the error signal by an
amount of Kp. Also the Introduction of the controller on the system increases the
loop gain by an amount of Kp. Increase in loop gain improves the steady state
tracking accuracy and relative stability and also make the system less sensitive to
parameter variations. The draw back in P-Controller is that it leads to a constant
Proportional plus Integral Controller (PI-Controller): The PI-Controller is a device that produces a output signal consisting of two terms
one is proportional to error signal and the other is proportional to the integral of error
signal.
U(t)

--- 1

## Where Kp = Proportional gain Constant

Ti = Integral Time
On taking Laplace Transformation of above eq. with Zero initial conditions
U(s) = Kp E(s) + (Kp/Ti) (E(s)/s)

--- 2

## U(s) / E(s) = Kp (1+ 1/Tis)

--- 3

Eq. 2 gives the output of the PI-Controller for input E(s) and eq. 3 is the transfer
function of the PI-Controller respectively.
The advantages of both P-Controller and I-Controller are combined in PI-Controller.
The Proportional action increases the loop gain and makes the system less sensitive to
variations of system parameters. The integral action eliminates or reduces the steady
state error. The integral control action is adjusted by varying the integral time.

10

Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Controller (PID-Controller): The PID-Controller is a device that produces a output signal consisting of three terms
one is proportional to error signal and the second is proportional to the integral of
error signal and third is proportional to the derivative of the error signal.
U(t)

--- 1

## Where Kp = Proportional gain Constant

Ti = Integral Time Constant
Td = Derivative Time Constant
On taking Laplace Transformation of above eq. with Zero initial conditions
U(s) = Kp E(s) + (Kp/Ti) (E(s)/s) + KpTd E(s) s

--- 2

## U(s) / E(s) = Kp (1+ 1/Tis + Tds)

--- 3

Eq. 2 gives the output of the PID-Controller for input E(s) and eq. 3 is the transfer
function of the PI-Controller respectively.
PROCEDURE:
PROPORTIONAL CONTROLLER
1. Select DC source set the amplitude of a dc source to some predefined value.
2. Connect the PID output to time constant 1 input, connect time constant -1
output to feed back input VF. Set the PID parameter P-20.00, I and D = 0.
Now start the PID controller. It shows run. Note down V s, VF , Error and PID
output.
3. Repeat this for different values of proportional gain and tabulate the result.
PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL CONTROLLER
1. Select DC source set the amplitude of DC source to some value.
2. Connect DC source to set input Vs connect PID output to time constant 1
input, time constant 1 output to feed back input VF
3. Set P to some value, I to some value andd to zero now start the controller.
Note down Vs, VF, Verr and PID output voltages. Repeat this for different
values of P and I, gain and tabulate then readings.

11

## 1. Repeat the above with P and D gain settings keeping I gain at 0.

2. Tabulate the readings of Vs, VF and Verr and PID output.

## PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL DERIVATIVE CONTROLLER

1. Repeat the above process for different P, D and I gains.

TABULAR COLUMN:
P CONTROLLER:
No load o/p voltage=89mv, voltmeter o/p voltage=1.2volt.
S.NO

Applied

Indicated o/p
voltage(digital)
MV
1
1k
79
2
470
70
3
64
330
PROPORTIONAL + INTEGRAL ACTION(P+I):

Meter o/p
voltage(analog
)V
2.2
2.45
3.4

## No load o/p voltage=101mv, voltmeter o/p voltage=1.4volt.

S.NO

Applied

Indicated o/p
Meter o/p
voltage(digital) voltage(analo
MV
g)V
1
1k
101
2.7
2
470
101
4.2
3
101
5.3
330
PROPORTIONAL + INTEGRAL + DERIVATIVE ACTION (P+I+D):
No load o/p voltage=100mv, voltmeter o/p voltage =1.4v.
S.NO

Applied

1
2
3

1k
470
330

Indicated o/p
voltage(digital)M
V
100
100
100

Meter o/p
voltage(analog)
V
2.6
4.2
5.2

RESULT: Hence the steady state performance of an analog P, PI & PID controller has
been studied with second order system.
Viva-Voice Questions
1. What is a controller?

12

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## What is the difference between a compensator and controller?

Write a brief note about Proportional Controller?
Write a brief note about Derivative Controller?
Write a brief note about Integral Controller?
Write a brief note about PID Controller?
Compare the performance of PI and PD controller?
8. Which controller is used for improving the transient response of the system?
9. Which controller is used for improving the steady state response of the system?
10. What is the purpose of PID controller?

EXPERIMENT - 4
LAG AND LEAD COMPENSATION MAGNITUDE AND PHASE PLOT
AIM:
2. To study lag compensation.
13

## 3. To study lead lag compensation.

APPARATUS:
1. Trainer kit.
2. Function generator.
3. Connecting wires.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
1. LAG NETWORK:

THEORY
LAG COMPENSATOR
A compensator having the characteristics of a Lag network is called a lag
compensator. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to a lag network, then in steady state the
output will have a phase lag with respect to input.
Lag compensation results in a large improvement in steady state performance
but results in slower response due to reduced bandwidth. The attenuation due to the
lag compensator will shift the gain cross over frequency to a lower frequency point
where the phase margin is acceptable.
The general form of lag compensator transfer function is given by:
G(S) = (S+T) / (S+P) = (S + 1/T) / S + 1/BT Where, T > 0 and B >1
14

## A compensator having the characteristics of a Lead network is called a Lead

compensator. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to the lead network, then in steady state
the output will have a phase lead with respect to input.
Lead compensation increases the bandwidth, which improves the speed of
response and also reduces, whereas there is a small change in steady state accuracy.
Generally, Lead compensation is provided to make an unstable system as a stable
system.
A Lead compensator is basically a high pass filter so it attenuates high
frequency noise effects. If the pole introduced by the compensator is not cancelled by
a zero in the system, then lead compensation increases the order of the system by one.
The general form of Lead compensator transfer function is given by:
G(S) = (S+T) / (S+P) = (S + 1/T) / S + 1/aT Where, T > 0 and a<1
This unit consists of the following sub units: 1. Sine wave source.
2. Digital phase angle / frequency meter
3. Digital voltmeter.
4. Network.
PROCEDURE:
1. Circuit is to be connected as per the circuit diagram.
2. Give a sinusoidal function as input using a function generator with an
amplitude of 3V.
3. Select various frequencies and give as input to the lag, lead and lag lead
compensating networks.
4. Note the phase angle from the phase angle meter and tabulate the input and
output voltages for different frequencies.
5. Calculate the phase angle theoretically and verify with the indicated value.
6. Draw the frequency and phase plots.
FORMULAE:

15

TABULAR COLUMN:
R=10k,C=0.1mfd,Vi=30volts RMS.
S.NO

Freq(Hz)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

60
70
90
100
200
300
500
700
900
1000

Indicate
d phase
angle
72
66
60
58
38
28
18
13
10
10

Indicate
d Vo/Vi
0.9/3
1.2/3
1.5/3
1.6/3
2.4/3
2.7/3
2.9/3
2.9/3
2.9/3
2.9/3

Calculate
d Phase
Angle
72.5
66.26
60.62
57.87
38.62
27.95
17.66
12.81
10.00
9.04

Calculate
d Vo/Vi
0.20
0.40
0.49
0.53
0.78
0.88
0.95
0.97
0.98
0.98

2. LAG NETWORK
R=10k,C=0.1fd, Vi=3 volts RMS
S.N
O

Freq(Hz
)

1
2
3
4

26
65
100
200

Indicate
d phase
angle
10
22
32
52

Indicate
d V0/ Vi
2.8/3
2.7/3
2.6/3
1.86/3

16

Calculate
d Phase
Angle
9.2
22.2
32.12
51.47

Calculate
d Vo/Vi
0.986
0.926
0.846
0.622

5
6
7
8
9

300
400
600
800
1000

61
68
75
80
80

1.4/3
1.1/3
0.8/3
0.6/3
0.45/3

62
68
75.1
78.74
80.97

0.468
0.369
0.256
0.195
0.157

RESULT: Hence, the Lag & Lead compensation networks are studied.
Viva-Voice Questions
1. Write a brief note about Lag Compensator.
5. Which compensation is adopted for improving steady response of a negative unity
feedback system?

6. Which compensation is adopted for improving both steady state and transient
response of a negative unity feedback system?

7. What happens to the gain crossover frequency when phase lag compensator is used?
8. What happens to the gain crossover frequency when phase lead compensator is used?
9. What is the effect of phase lag compensation on servo system performance?

EXPERIMENT - 5
CHARACTERISTICS OF MAGNETIC AMPLIFIERS
AIM:
1. To study series connected magnetic amplifier.
2. To study parallel connected magnetic amplifier.
APPARATUS:
1. Magnetic amplifier trainer kit.
2. Latches.

17

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
1. SERIES CONNECTED

## Series connected magnetic amplifier

2. PARALLEL CONNECTED

## Parallel connected magnetic amplifier

THEORY :The Magnetic Amplifier sometimes called the Mag Amp. The Magnetic Amplifier
is an electromagnetic device for amplifying electrical signals. It uses a non-linear
property of a certain class of Transformer cores. The Magnetic Amplifier has certain
advantages over other types of amplifiers. These include (1) High efficiency (up to 90
%) (2) Reliability (Long life, Free from maintenance and reduction of spare parts
inventory) (3) Ruggedness (Shock and Vibration resistance, high overload capability
and free from effects of moisture (4) No warm up time.

18

The Magnetic Amplifier has no moving parts and can be hermetically sealed within
a case similar to the conventional dry type transformer.
However, the Magnetic Amplifier has a few disadvantages i.e. It cannot handle
low-level signals, It is not useful at high frequencies, it has a time delay associated
with the magnetic effects and the output waveform is not an exact reproduction of the
input waveform (poor fidelity) etc.
PROCEDURE:
SERIES CONNECTED MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER
The complete circuit diagram for conducting this experiment is built in the unit
itself.
1. Keep slide switch in position 0 which will be indicated by an indicator, after
the unit is switched ON.
2. Keep control current setting knob at its extreme left position which ensures
zero control current at starting.
3. With the help of plug in links, connect following terminals on the front panel
of the unit.
a) Connect Ac to A1
b) Connect B1 to A2
c) Connect B2 to L
4. Connect 100W fluorescent lamp in the holder provided for this purpose and
switch ON the unit.
5. Now gradually increase control current by rotating control current setting knob
clockwise in steps and note down control current and corresponding load
current.
6. Plot the graph of load current Vs control current.

## PARALLEL CONNECTED MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER

The procedure is same as for series connected magnetic amplifier but connections of
the terminals on the front panel of the unit are made as follows:
a) Connect Ac to A1
b) Connect A1 to A2
c) Connect B2 to L
19

d) Connect B1 to B2
TABULAR COLUMN:
SERIES CONNECTED
S.NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

## Control Current IC(mA)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

100
120
140
200
230
260
290
310
340

PARALLEL CONNECTED
S.NO

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

240
270
300
360
400
420
425
425
425

GRAPHS:

20

## Parallel Connected Magnetic amplifier

RESULT:
Hence the series and parallel magnetic amplifiers are studied and corresponding graphs are
plotted.
Viva Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

## What is a magnetic amplifier?

What are the applications of magnetic amplifier?
Describe various methods of changing inductance?
Describe saturable core reactor?
Give the purpose of saturable reactor in magnetic amplifier?
7. Describe in detail the circuitry of magnetic amplifier?

EXPERIMENT - 6
CHARACTERISTICS OF AC SERVOMOTOR
AIM:

21

servomotor.

APPARATUS:
1. Trainer kit
2. Multimeter
3. Patch Cards
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## THEORY :1. AC Servomotor :-

22

The motors that are used in automatic control systems are called Servomotors.
When the objective of the system is to control the position of an object then the
system is called Servo Mechanism. The servomotors are used to convert an
electrical signal (control Voltage) applied to them into an angular displacement of
the shaft. Then can either operate in a continuous duty or step duty depending on
construction.
There are different varieties of servomotors available for control system
applications. The suitability of a motor for a particular application depends on the
characteristic of the system, the purpose of the system and its operating
conditions. In general, a servomotor should have the following features.
1. Linear relationship between the speed and electric control signal.
3. Wide range of speed control.
4. Linearity of mechanical characteristics throughout the entire speed range.
5. Low mechanical and electrical inertial.
6. Fast Response.
Depending on the supply required to run the motor, they are broadly classified as
DC Servomotor and AC Servomotor.
An AC Servomotor is basically a 2-Ph induction motor except for certain special
design features. A 2-Ph servomotor differs in the following 2 ways from a normal
induction motor
i.

The rotor of the servomotor is built with high resistance, so that its X/R
ratio is small which results in linear speed-torque characteristics. But
conventional induction motors will have high value of X/R ratio which
results in high efficiency and non-linear speed-torque characteristics.

ii.

The excitation voltage applied to two stator windings should have a phase
difference

of

90.

2. Construction of AC Servomotor :The AC Servomotor is basically a 2-Ph induction motor with some special design
features. The stator consists of two pole pairs mounted on the inner periphery of

23

the stator, such that their axes are at an angle of 90 in the space. Each pole pair
carries a winding. One winding is called reference winding and the other is called
control winding.

## The exciting current in the winding should have a phase

displacement of 90. The supply used to drive the motor is single phase and so a
phase advancing capacitor is connected tone of the phase to produce a phase
difference of 90. The rotor construction is usually squirrel cage or drag cup type.
The squirrel cage rotor is made of laminations. The rotor bars are placed on the
slots and short circuited at both ends by end rings. The diameter of the rotor is
kept small in order to reduce inertia and to obtain good accelerating
characteristics.
The drag cup construction is employed for very low inertia applications. In this
type of construction the rotor will be in the form of hallow cylinder made of
aluminium. The aluminium cylinder itself acts as short circuited rotor conductors.
The speed-Torque curves of AC Servomotor are non-linear except in the low
speed region. In order to drive a transfer function for the motor, some linearizing
approximations are necessary. A servomotor operates at high speeds, therefore the
linear portions of speed-torque curves can be extended out of the high speed
region by use of dashed lines. But even with this approximation, the resultant
curves are still not parallel to each other. This means that for constant speeds,
except near Zero speed, the torque does not vary linearly with respect to input
voltage.
3. Transfer Function of AC Servomotor :Let

## Tm = Torque developed by Servomotor

q = angular displacement by servomotor
= d /dt = Angular velocity
Tl = Torque required by load
J moment of inertia of load and rotor
B= Viscous frictional co-efficient of load and rotor.
K1 = slope of control phase voltage Vs torque characteristics
K2 = slope of speed torque characteristics
Torque developed by motor (Tm) = K1ec - K2 d /dt
Load Torque = J (d2/dt2) + B (d/dt)

24

## J (d2/dt2) + B (d/dt) = K1ec - K2 d /dt

On taking laplace transform of above eq. with zero initial conditions
J s2 (s) + Bs (s) = K1Ec (s) K2S (s)
==>

## (Js2 +Bs+K2s) (s) = K1Ec(s)

(s) / Ec(s)

= K1 / (Js2 +Bs+K2s)
= [K1 / (B+K2)] / [s (J/(B+K2))s +1]
= Km / (Tms + 1)

## Where Km = K1 / (B+K2) = Motor gain constant

Tm = J/(B+K2) = Motor time constant
Hence the transfer function of AC Servomotor has derived.
PROCEDURE:
1. Study all the controls carefully on the front panel.
2. keep the switch SW3 in upward position, indicating that the armature circuit
of D.C. machine is not connected to auxiliary power supply 12V dc. Switch
SW2 should be in OFF position.
3. Ensure P1 and P2 are in fully anticlockwise position.
4. Now, switch on SW1 and also switch on SW2 . You can observe that AC
servomotor will start rotating and the speed will be indicated by the meter M1
on the front panel.
5. With SW3 in OFF condition, vary the speed of the A.C. servomotor by
moving P1 in clockwise direction and note the e.m.f. generated by the D.C.
machine. Enter the results in tabular column.
6. Now switch SW3 in OFF condition, switch ON SW2 and keep the pot P1 in
minimum position. You can observe that the A.C. servomotor starts moving
with speed being indicated by the RPM indicator. You can measure the
reference winding

## voltage (about 100v A.C.) and control winding voltage

(which is variable byP1). Note the speed of A.C. servomotor. Now switch on
SW3 and start loading A.C. servomotor by controlling pot P2 in a slow
fashion. Note down corresponding values on Ia and N.
7. Now you may set control winding voltage to a new value of 30volts after
switching OFF SW3. Again repeat the process as indicated in step No. 6
8. Plot the speed torque characteristics for various values of control winding
voltages.

25

Tabular column:
Control voltage Vc = 15 volt.
S.No

Ia(mA

Speed N

Eb

P(mw)= Eb* Ia

TORQUE (gm-cms)

.
1

)
000

(RPM)
1375

volt
1.375

mW
00

00.00

100

1300

1.300

130

09.37

200

1225

1.225

245

19.46

300

1175

1.175

352

29.19

400

925

0.925

370

38.92

500

750

0.750

375

48.65

S.No

Ia(mA

SPEED N

Eb

## Pmw= Eb* Ia (mW)

TORQUE (gm-cms)

.
1

)
0

(RPM)
1425

volt
1.425

100

1375

1.375

137.5

9.73

200

1300

1.300

260

19.46

400

1175

1.175

470

38.92

500

1050

1.050

525

48.65

600

975

0.975

585

58.38

0.800

560

68

700
800
Control voltage Vc = 25 volt.

TORQUE (gm-cms)

1450

1.45

Eb* Ia (mW)
0.0
0.0

200

1350

1.35

270

19.46

400

1250

1.25

500

38.92

600

1150

1.15

690

58.38

700

1050

1.05

735

68.11

P1.01910 60
TORQUE=
2 N
GRAPHS:

26

## Back EMF Characteristics

Torque-Speed Characteristics
RESULT: Hence, the speed-torque characteristics of an AC Servomotor are studied and
the graphs are drawn.

Viva Questions:
1. What are the main parts of an ac servo motor?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of an AC servo motor over dc servo
3. motor?
4. Give the applications of Ac servomotor?
5. Define servo mechanism?
6. What is the difference between regulator & servomechanism?
7. What are the components of AC position control?
8. How is position control achieved?
9. What are the applications of AC servomotors?
10. What is meant by the dynamic response of DC servomotor?
11. Why a revolver is used in Ac servo motor?

EXPERIMENT - 7
SPEED TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SERVO MOTOR

27

## AIM: To plot speed torque characteristics of a DC Servomotor.

APPARATUS:
Multimeter-(0-200)v
DC servomotor kit
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

THEORY :The types of DC Servo Motors are (i) Series Motor (ii) Shunt Motor (iii) Permanent
Magnet Motor. A DC Servo Motor can be controlled by varying either the field
current or the armature current. DC Servo Motors offers higher efficiency than that of
AC Servo Motors of same size, but radio interference is a problem in some
applications.
Most of the DC Servo Motors used in low power applications are of the PM type.
The ease of controllable speed along with the linear torque-speed characteristics
makes the DC Servo Motor ideal for servo mechanism applications. The torquespeed curve is quite similar to that of the AC Servo Motor. These motors are
available in 6, 12 and 24 V models making them applicable to solid-state circuitry.
By comparison, the DC Servo Motor has some advantages over AC Servo Motor. The
DC Servo Motor inertia is greater than that of the AC Servo motor. This greater
inertia is due to the wound armature and commutator, which produces a heavier rotor.
The DC Servo Motor does not require any standby power whereas the AC Servo
Motor continuously draws power for its main (reference) winding.

28

## Such DC Servo Motors are popular in compact systems such as pneumatic

control and robotics systems and in automatic control machines. DC Servo Motors in
some modern servomechanism may be one of the brush less types, which lend
themselves to easy computer control Alone the same lines, the stepping motor has
become a valuable type to be used as a servo motor.
PROCEDURE:
1. Adjust spring balance so that there is minimum load on the servomotor. Note
that you have to pull the knob K1 in the upward direction to apply load on the
servo motor. You may make use of holes to apply a fixed load on the system
by using a locking screw.
2. Ensure the pot P1(speed control) is in Max. anticlockwise position. Switch ON
the supply and slightly press the control knob in anticlockwise direction so
that soft start relay is turned on and armature voltage is applied to the armature
from zero onwards.
3. Connect a digital or analog multimeter across the terminals marked armature
to measure armature voltage in the range 0-35 volts.
4. Adjust P1 so that Va =10 volts and P2 so that Vf = 20volts.
5. Note down T1,T2 and speed and enter the results in tabular colulmn.
6. Keeping Va = 10 volts, adjust T1 upto 500gm. In suitable steps to get a set of
7. Now for Va =15,20,25 volts etc repeat step no. 6
TABULAR COLUMN:
(A).Vf=20v and Va=15v
S.n T1gm T2gm T1o
s
s
T2(gms)
1
50
15
35
2
100
20
80
3
150
30
120
4
300
60
240
5
400
80
320
6
500
100
400
(B) Vf=20v and Va=20v
S.no

T1gms

T2gms

1
2

50
100

10
20

T1T2(gms)
40
80

Torque=T*3.5cms Speed(RPM
)
122.5
635
20
600
420
550
840
425
1120
350
1400
275

Ia(amps
)
0.25
0.35
0.40
0.65
0.80
1.10

Torque=T*3.5cms

Speed(RPM)

Ia(amps)

140
280

875
825

0.25
0.35

29

3
150
40
4
300
50
5
400
70
(C)Vf=20v and Va=25v

160
250
330

560
875
1155

750
675
600

0.50
0.65
0.80

S.no

T1gms

T2gms

Torque=T*3.5cms

Speed(RPM)

Ia(amps)

1
2
3
4
5
6
Graph:

50
100
250
300
400
500

15
30
40
50
65
85

T1T2(gms)
35
120
210
250
335
415

122.5
420
735
875
1172.5
1452.5

1085
1000
925
875
800
725

0.30
0.45
0.60
0.70
0.85
1.00

3000
2500
2000
Va=25v

1500

Va=20v
Va=15v

1000
500
0
122.5

20

420

840

1120 1400

## Speed versus Torque for Different Characteristics

Result: The effect of Feedback on DC Servomotor has been studied with the help of
Torque-sped characteristics.
Viva Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## What are the applications of D.C Servo motor?

What are the types of D.C. Servo motor?
Write the formula for the torque in case of D.C. servo motor?
Compare ac and dc servo motors
Where it is used?
Explain Working Principle of D,C servo Motor?
Draw the circuit of D.C servo Motor?

30

EXPERIMENT - 08
ROOT LOCUS, BODE PLOT FROM MATLAB
AIM: To analyze frequency response of a system by plotting Root locus, Bode plot and
Nyquist plot using MATLAB software.

PROCEDURE

31

## 1. Click on MATLAB icon.

2. From FILE menu click on NEW button and select SCRIPT to open Untitled window
3. Enter the following program in untitled window.
For Root Locus Plot:
%Root Locus Plot
clear all;
clc;
disp(Transfer Function of given system is : \n);
num = input (Enter Numerator of the Transfer Function:\ n);
den = input (Enter Denominator of the Transfer Function :\ n);
G = tf(num,den);
figure(1);
rlocus(G);
For Bode Plot:
%Bode Plot
clear all;
clc;
disp(Transfer Function of given system is : \n);
num = input (Enter Numerator of the Transfer Function : \ n);
den = input (Enter Denominator of the Transfer Function : \ n);
G = tf(num,den);
figure(2);
bode(G);
%margin(G); It can be used to get Gain Margin, Phase Margin etc
[Gm,Pm,Wpc,Wgc] = margin(G);
disp(Phase Cross Over frequency is : \n);
Wpc
disp(Gain Cross Over frequency is : \n);
Wgc
disp(Phase Margin in degrees is : \n);
Pm
disp(Gain Margin in db is : \n);
Gm = 20*log(Gm)
Gm
if (Wgc<Wpc)
else
disp(Closed loop system is stable)

32

if (Wgc>Wpc)
else
end
disp(Closed loop system is unstable)
disp(Closed loop system is Marginally stable)

4. Save the above program by clicking on SAVE button from FILE menu (or) Ctrl+S
5. Run the program by clicking RUN button (or) F5 and clear the errors (if any).
6. Observe the output on the MATLAB Command Window and plots from figure
window.
Using Bode plot:
num = input(enter the numerator of tf);
den = input(enter the denominator of tf);
sys= tf(num,den);
bode(sys);
[gm, pm, weg , wep]=margin(sys)
gmbd = 20 * log 10(gm)
if((pm>0)&(gmbd>0))
disp(the given system is stable);
else
if((pm= =0)&(gmbd= =0))
disp(given system is marginally stable);
else
disp(given system is unstable);
end
end
MODEL GRAPHS:
ROOT LOCUS PLOT:

BODE PLOT:
33

OUTPUT:
Phase Cross Over frequency is:
Wpc =
Gain Cross Over frequency is :
Wgc =
Phase Margin in degrees is :
Pm =
Gain Margin in db is :
GM =
14.6 THEORETICAL CALCULATION:
1. Phase Margin:
1. For a given Transfer Function G(s), get G(j) by placing s= j.
2. Separate Magnitude and Phase terms from G(j).
3. Equate magnitude of G(j) to ONE and get value, this is called Gain Cross
Over Frequency (gc)
4. Substitute gc in place of G(j), get the phase angle ().
5. Now Phase margin (PM) = 180 +
2. Gain Margin:
1. For a given Transfer Function G(s), get G(j) by placing s= j
2. Separate Magnitude and Phase terms from G(j).
3. Equate imaginary part to ZERO and get value, this is called Phase Crossover
Frequency (pc)
4. Substitute pc
in real pat, get the corresponding gain (K).

34

## 5. Now Gain Margin (GM) = 20 log10(1/K)

3. Maximum Allowable Gain:
1. For a given Transfer Function G(s), place K in the numerator and get the characteristic
equation Q(s) = 1 + G(s).
2. Get Q(j) by placing s = j.
3. Separate imaginary and real terms from Q(j).
4. Equate imaginary part to ZERO and get values, these values called Imaginary Cross
Over points.
5. Substitute in real pat and equate real part of G(j) to ZERO and get the corresponding
gain (K).
6. This gain is called maximum Allowable Gain (Kmax ) or Limiting value of the Gain for
stability.
TABULAR COLUMN:

RESULT: Hence Root Locus Plot, Bode Plot and Nyquist plot of given transfer function has
been plotted and verified with theoretical calculations.

Viva Questions:
1. What is gain margin and phase margin?
2. What is gain cross over frequency and phase crossover frequency?
3. What are the different types of stability conditions?
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of root locus, bode & nyquist plot?
5. What are the advantages of frequency response analysis?
1. What is complementary Root Loci?
2. What are contours?
3. How can you analyze the stability of system with bode, nyquist?

35

EXPERIMENT - 09
PSPICE SIMULATION OF OPAMP BASED DIFFERENTIATOR AND
INTEGRATOR CIRCUITS
AIM:
To simulate the op amp based differentiator circuit using pspice
a) Simulate the practical differentiator circuit given below(fig1) using PSPICE and plot the
transient response of the output voltage for a duration of 0 to 40ms in steps of 50sec the opamp which is modeled by the circuit has R i= 2m, R0=75,R1=10k and C1=1.5619f,
Ao=210 .
5

36

b) Simulate the practical integrator circuit given below(fig2) using PSPICE and plot the
transient response of the output voltage for a duration of 0 to 40ms in steps of 50sec the opamp which is modeled by the circuit has R i= 2m, R0=75,R1=10k and C1=1.5619f,
Ao=210

APPARATUS:
Pspice software
Computer
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE
1. Click on PSPICE icon.
2. From FILE menu click on NEW button and select Text file to open untitled window
3. Enter the following program in untitled window.

## (a) Program for differentiator

VIN 1 0 PWL(0 0 1MS 1 2MS 0 3MS 1 4MS 0)
R1 1 2 100
RF 3 4 10K
RX 5 0 100K
RL 4 0 100K
C1 2 3 0.4UF
*SUBCKT CALL FOR OPAMP
XA1 3 5 4 0 OPAMP
.SUBCKT OPAMP 1 2 7 4
RI 1 2 2.0E+6
*VOLTAGE CONTROLLED CURRENT SOURCE WITH GAIN OF 1m
37

GB 4 3 1 2 0.1M
R1 3 4 10K
C1 3 4 1.5619UF
*VOLTAGE CONTROLLED VOLTAGE SOURCE WITH GAIN OF 2E5
EA 4 5 3 4 2.0E+5
R0 5 7 75
.ENDS
.TRAN 10US 4MS
.PRINT

TRAN

V(4,0)

V(1,0)

.PROBE
.END
(b) Program for Integrator
VIN 1 0 PWL(0 0 1NS -1V 1MS -1V 1.0001MS 1V 2MS 1V 2.0001MS -1V 3MS
-1V 3.0001MS 1V 4MS 1V)
R1 1 2 2.5K
RF 2 4 1MEG
RX 3 0 2.5K
RL 4 0 100K
C1 2 4 0.1UF
*SUBCKT CALL FOR OPAMP
XA1 2 3 4 0 OPAMP
.SUBCKT OPAMP 1 2 7 4
RI 1 2 2.0E6
*VOLTAGE CONTROLLED CURRENT SOURCE WITH GAIN OF 0.1M
GB 4 3 1 2 0.1M
R1 3 4 10K
C1 3 4 1.5619UF
EA 4 5 3 4 2E+5
R0 5 7 75
.ENDS
.TRAN 50US 4MS
.PRINT TRAN V(4,0)

V(1,0)

.PROBE

38

.END
4. Save the above program by clicking on SAVE button from FILE menu (or) Ctrl+S
5. Run the program by clicking RUN button (or) from Simulation menu select RUN
button and clear the errors (if any).
6. Observe the output from View menu select output file.
7. Observe the required plots at respective points by selecting Add Trace from Trace
MODEL GRAPH:

Differentiator:

Integrator:

39

RESULT:
Hence, the PSPICE simulation of op-amp based integrator and differentiator circuits
have been done.
Viva Questions:
1. What is an Operational amplifier?
2. What are the ideal characteristics of op amp?
3. What is Virtual Short?
4. What are the applications of op amp?
1. Explain how the waveform is converted in differentiator?
2. Explain how the waveform is converted in integrator?

EXPERIMENT - 10
LINEAR SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB
AIM:

40

To study the 1st and 2nd order system time domain response specifications and
compare with theoretical calculations when open loop system input with unity
feedback is given by G(s)=5/(s2+2s) and the system having the closed loop transfer

function

C ( s)
2
=
R (s ) s+ 2

## by MATLAB and simulation.

APPARATUS:
Computer with MATLAB software.
MATLAB PROGRAM:
1ST ORDER SYSTEM
The transfer function of 1st order system is
C ( s)
2
=
R (s ) s+ 2
Num=[0 2]
Den=[1,2]
S=f[num,den]
Step(s)
2ND ORDER SYSTEM:
5
The system with unity feedback is given by G(s)= s +2 s
2

Num=[0 0 5]
Den=[1 2 0]
g= tf[num,den]
s= feedback (g,1)
step(s)
OUTPUT:

41

and H(s)=1

EXPERIMENT - 11
STATE SPACE MODEL FOR CLASSICAL TRANSFER FUNCTION USING
MATLAB
AIM: To Transform a given Transfer Function to State Space Model and from State
Space Model to Transfer Function using MATLAB.
RESOURCES:
1. MATLAB 7 Software
2. Personal Computer.

PROCEDURE:
1. Click on MATLAB icon.
2. From FILE menu click on NEW button and select SCRIPT to open Untitled
window.
3. Enter the following program in untitled window.
PROGRAM:
a= input (enter 1 for tf to to ss conversion and 2 for ss to tf conversion);
If a= =1
num=input(enter the numerator of tf);
den= input(enter the denominator of tf);
[A,B,C,D] = tf 2 ss (num,den);
A,B,C,D
End
If a= =2
A=input(enter the system matrix);
B=input(enter the input matrix);
C=input(enter the output matrix);
D=input(enter the transmission matrix);
[num,den]=ss2tf(A,B,C,D);
Num,den
end
y=tf(num,den)
OUTPUT:
Transfer Function to State Space Model:
Transfer Function of given system is
Transfer Function:

42

2s^2 + 3s + 2
-----------------------------2s^4 + s^3 + s^2 + 2s
Corresponding State Space Model A, B, C, D are:
A=

-0.5000
1.0000
0
0

B=

-0.5000
0

-1.0000
0

1.0000
0

0
0

1.0000

1
0
0
0

C=

D=

## 1.0000 1.5000 1.000

Viva Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What are the disadvantages of transfer function?
What are the different functions in MATLAB?
What is workspace and command window?
How to call MATLAB in batches?
Explain Handle graphics in MATLAB?
7. Explain the following commands:
Acker, Bode, Ctrb, Dstep, Feedback, Impulse, Margin, Place, Rlocus, stairs

RESULT:
Hence, the given transfer function to state space model and state space model to transfer
function is transformed by using MATLAB

EXPERIMENT - 12
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER

43

## AIM: To verify truth tables of logic gates.

APPARATUS:
1. PLC Kit
2. Patch cards
3. PLC Softwrae
THEORY: A programmable controller, also known as programmable logic controller (PLC),
is a device designed to perform sequential logic control in which one event follows another in
a prescribed way to complete a task. An industrial machine may contain pushbuttons, limit
switches, timers, interlocks, etc. In the past, these devices had to be hard-wired to perform a
specific function, and they could not easily be modified to perform a different task. With a
programmable controller, however, all that is required is to change the controller's program
and possibly some of the connections to the inputs and/or output. Today, programmable
controllers are used for the control and operation of almost any machine, process, or
production line. The continued advancement of PLC technology and the partnership of PLCs
with computers and other digital devices are providing industry with sophisticated control
systems and advanced decision making processes.
A programmable controller is composed of three components as illustrated in Figure
1.1. These three components are the input/output (I/0) interface system, the central processing
unit (CPU), and a programming device.
The input/output system forms the interface by which field devices are connected to the
controller. The main purpose of the interface is to condition the various signals received from
or sent to external field devices. Incoming signals from sensors such as pushbuttons, limit
switches, analog sensors, motor starters, etc. are wired to terminals of the input interfaces.
Devices that will be controlled, like motor starters, solenoid valves, pilot lights, and position
valves, are connected to the terminals of the output interfaces.
The CPU section of a PLC has three components: The memory system, the processor,
and the system power supply. The memory system stores the program usually in the form of a
ladder diagram. The processor executes the control program stored in the memory system.
The system power supply provides all the necessary voltages required for the proper operation
of the various CPU sections.
The programming device allows the user to enter, change, or monitor a PLC program.
The programming device may be a CRT terminal, a hand-held unit with a display or a
personal computer. Four major languages can be used in programming the modern PLC.
These languages may use Boolean algebra equations, mnemonic commands, logic diagrams
and ladder diagrams. Some PLCs also permit BASIC language statements or allow the
programmer to use a special high-level control language. Ladder diagram logic, which is the
same as that for relay control circuits, is a popular choice for programming most PLCs.

44

During the operation, the CPU reads or accepts the input data or status of the field
devices via the input interfaces, executes the control program stored in the memory system,
and writes or updates the output devices via the output interfaces.

This process of

sequentially reading the inputs, executing the program in memory, and updating the outputs is
known as scanning.
Allen-Bradley's programmable controllers are efficient and effective in providing
industrial control. Allen-Bradley was one of the first companies to manufacture PLCs for
enhancing plant productivity. Allen- Bradley's PLC family of programmable controllers, are
among the most advanced and versatile PLCs worldwide. In the Industrial Control Lab we
have SLC-5/02 in the benches and PLC-5 and SLC-500 on the wall.
The logic implemented in PLCs is based on the three basic logic functions (AND,
OR, NOT). These functions are used either singly or in combinations to form instructions that
will determine if a device is to be switched ON or OFF. The most widely used languages for
implementing ON/OFF control and sequencing are ladder diagrams. It is easy to understand,
and most plant or industrial electricians are accustomed to working with elementary relay
diagrams. Since this type of instruction set is composed of contact symbols, it is also referred
to as contact symbology. The ladder circuit connections in the PLC are implemented via
software instructions. All the logical wiring can be thought of as being inside the CPU
(softwired as opposed to hardwired).
The complete ladder diagram can be thought of as being formed by individual
circuits, each circuit having one output. Each of these circuits is known as a rung. Therefore,
a rung is the contact symbology required to control an output in the PLC. A complete PLC
ladder diagram program then consists of several rungs, each controlling an output interface
which is connected to an output field device as shown in Figure 1.5.

Each rung is a

combination of input conditions (symbols) connected from left to right between two vertical
lines, with the symbol that represents the output at the far right. The symbols that represent
the inputs are connected in series, parallel or some combination to obtain the desired logic;
these input symbols represent the input devices that are connected to the PLC's input
interfaces. When activated, these devices either allow current to follow through the circuit or
cause a break in current flow, thereby switching a device ON or OFF. The input symbols on a
ladder rung can represent signals generated from connected input devices, connected output
devices, or from outputs internal to the controller.
In general, PLC architecture is modular and flexible, allowing hardware and software
elements to expand as the application requirements change. A PLC eliminates hardwired
control in favor of programmable control. Once installed, the control plan can be manually or

45

automatically altered to meet the day-to-day control requirements without changing the field
wiring.
Programming with RSLogix 500 Software
Creating a directory on your network drive
To work correctly, the software needs a directory for your RSLogix programs on your f drive.
Using either Windows Explorer or the My Computer icon on your desktop, create the
directory f:\RSLogix on your network drive.
Running RSLogix 500 and starting a new project
Double-click on the RSLogix 500 icon on the Windows desktop to start the software.
With a new project, before you can edit a ladder program, you must configure the controller
to reflect the actual hardware. The configuration procedure is outlined in section 2.2. Save
this configuration in your F:\RSLogix directory with a file name say PLC500CONFIG.RSS.
If you followed the configuration procedure the processor and I/O configuration has been
completed, for your next project you can skip section 2.2 and copy the PLC500CONFIG file
under a new file name, which you want to assign to your project.
Processor and Input/Output Configurations
The PLCs in S-340 have a 10-slot backplane with the following modules:

## You can go through the configuration process as follow:

Double-click on the RSLogix 500 icon on the Windows desktop to start the software. To
create a new project either click on the blank page icon or select New... from the File
menu. A dialog box requesting processor information should appear, as shown

46

Select the 1747-L524 5/02 CPU for the processor type and enter your bench number for the
processor name.
You should now see a project tree window and a window to enter your ladder logic.

47

Next, the chassis (the rack in which the modules are installed) and the individual modules
must be defined. Double-click on the IO Configuration icon in the project tree window to
access the I/O Configuration dialog box. In the Rack 1 pull-down menu select 1746-A10 10Slot Rack chassis. In slot 0 under Part # and Description you should see the 1747-L524 5/02
CPU 4K Mem. Next, the I/O modules are defined. To do this, highlight slot 1 and doubleclick on the 1746-IA16 input module. Place the same input module in slot 2. Use slot 3 and 4
to configure the 1746-OA16 output modules. Finally place 1746-NIO4V analog module in
slot 8.
A completed I/O Configuration dialog box is shown below.

Click on the X in the upper right corner to close the configuration dialog box.
You should now save the file by selecting Save As from the File menu. Save with a file
name say PLC500CONFIG. We will use this file as a starting point (the base project file) for

48

the remaining projects. For example, to start a new project you can copy the PLC500CONFIG
file under a file name, which you want to assign to your project say example Lab1a.
With RSLogix 500 Window in the OFFLINE mode, select the PLC500CONFIG file (i.e., the
base project file that you configured in section 2.2) and save it under a new name, for
example, Lab1a. You should see icons for the instructions you need for editing a program at
the top of the RSLogix 500 programming window. A detailed description of the instruction
appears in a balloon and on the status bar when you move the cursor over one of the
instructions. Click on the tabs below the icons if you dont see an instruction you need. Use
the following Step-by-step guide to edit the ladder diagram of Example 1 as shown in Figure
1.5.
1. Select the number of the first rung to begin entering instructions. The rung number
should now be highlighted in red.
2. Click on the examine if closed (XIC) icon. An XIC instruction should now be on the rung.
3. Enter the instructions address. There are two ways to enter the instruction address:
a. Click on the question mark and type in the address I: 1/0.
b. Click on the I1-Input under project tree and drag the desired address (I: 1/0) to the
instruction.
You may add a symbolic address. A symbol, once it has been associated with an address, can
be used for other instructions referencing its address. To add symbols, click on the instruction
and with address highlighted type over the address SP0 as the symbol for this instruction.
You may also add a description for the instruction. To add a description, right click on the
instruction and select Edit Description.

## A dialog box then appears for entering the

description. You may type START for the description of this instruction.
4. Click on the examine if open (XIO) icon. An XIO instruction should appear on the rung
next the XIC instruction. Follow step 3 for entering the address (I: 1/1), symbol (LS0), and
description Limit Switch.
5. Click on the output enable (OTE) icon. An OTE instruction should appear at the end of the
rung. For the addresses enter O: 3/0 and for the symbol type PL1.
6. Click on the branch icon. A branch appears with one end highlighted. Drag each end of the
branch to its proper location. A green box appears at each possible location when you drag the
branch ends.

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7. Select the bottom left corner of the branch and click on the XIC icon. An XIC instruction is
added to the branch. For its address you can type the symbolic address PL1 defined in step 5.
8. Select and double click on the End rung to insert a new rung. Add an examine if closed
(XIC) instruction and type PL1 for its address. Next add the output enable (OTE) instruction.
B3/1 (you may use B3 Binary icon under project tree and drug the desired address to the
instruction).

Type INT_OTE_1 for the symbolic address, and Internal output for the

description.
9. Repeat step 8 to add an XIO and an OTE instructions for the last rung.
After you have placed all the instructions, make certain they are all addressed. As a shortcut,
you can drag addresses from one instruction to any other.
Verify the program logic
Click on the file verify or project verify icon, or select them from Edit menu, to verify the
program logic. If there are any logic errors in your program, a window appears below the
project tree and ladder logic windows. Correct any errors before proceeding on with the
lab.2.4
enter the Online Programming mode. Turn on the processor Main Power and download the
program of Example 1. The system displays a message stating:

If this is the correct files to download press Yes. If the processor was in the Run or Test mode
the PROG mode? Press yes to switch to the program mode. During the download procedure,
to the processor. After the program is downloaded, you can switch back to the desired mode.
Testing mode
Select the

test mode. The system displays a message stating, Are you sure you want to

## change processor mode to Test? Press Yes to test the program.

In the test mode the ladder diagram executes, but outputs are not enabled.

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To test the program press the start pushbutton SP0 the input address is forced, causing the
output for that rung to be true and they will appear in reverse video. Control contact across
pushbutton closes, sealing in the output coil PL1. On the second rung, since the condition is
true, the NO contact and its output will appear in reverse video, and the internal bit B3/1 is
turned on. On the third rung, the condition for an examine OFF is not true and the output for
the rung is not energized and will not appear in reverse video.
Close the toggle switch LS0. On the first rung, the NC contact LS0 opens, and the output coil
PL1 is turned off. On the second rung, the condition for an examine ON is not true and the
output for the rung is de-energized and will not appear in the reverse video. On third rung,
since the condition is true, the NC contact and its output will appear in reverse video, and the
internal bit B3/2 is turned on.

Running mode
Select the running mode. In the running mode the output is enabled, performing the Remote
Run intended operations. Press the start pushbutton and later close the toggle switch and
observe the events made during test procedure.
Saving a Project to a File
The project created in this exercise only exists in the computer memory. To save it to a file on
the hard disk of the computer, choose the Save or Save As command in the File menu.
This opens the Save Program As... dialog box. This box prompts you to type a project
filename (the processor name previously entered upon selection of the processor type is
suggested). Keep the processor name the same as the project filename (EXERC_1).
Make the following observations:
The path leading to the location where project files are to be stored is indicated at
the top of the dialog box;
The extension of project filenames is .RSS;
You can include a revision note and a version number with the project file.
Click the Save button in the dialog box. This will cause project EXERC_1 to be saved
Choose the Close command in the File menu to close project file EXERC_1.RSS. This will
cause project EXERC_1 to be removed from the computer memory and the RSLogix 500
window.
Close RSLogix 500. Turn off the computer.
AND Gate:
The function of an AND gate is simulated in the electric circuit displayed in Figure
below.

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Notice that the lamp will be on only when both switches are closed.
a two-input AND logic gate symbol, its Boolean expression, and its truth table is
shown in figure below

. In the truth table, you can see that there is only one set of inputs that produces a
logic high output.
From the ladder logic diagram shown below, it performs the function of a two-input
AND gate. When normally open inputs I:0/0 and I:0/1 are closed, output O:0/0 is energized.

OR Gates:
The function of an OR gate is simulated in the electric circuit displayed in Figure
below.

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Notice that the lamp will be ON when one or both of the switches are closed. Figure
below displays a two-input OR logic gate symbol, its Boolean expression, and its truth table.

The truth table shows a logic high output for all combinations of inputs except where
both A and B are low. When either input A, B, or both are on, the output is on.
Figure below displays a ladder logic diagram that performs the function of a twoinput OR gate. When either normally open (NO) inputs I:0/0, I:0/1, or both are closed, output
O:0/0 is energized.

NAND Gate:
The function of a NAND gate is simulated in the electric circuit displayed in Figure
below.

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Notice that the lamp will be off when both switches are closed. The NAND gate takes
its name from NOT and AND. Its outputs are the inverse of the AND gate. Figure below
displays a two-input NAND logic gate symbol, its Boolean expression, and its truth table.

Notice that the NAND gate can be built by connecting an AND gate in series with a
NOT gate. Using the De-Morgan theorem, sometimes also called the Bubble method, you can
convert a NAND gate to an OR gate with inverted inputs where (A B) = A + B.
Figure below displays that there are two different types of ladder logic diagrams that
perform the NAND function.

Both normally closed inputs I:0/0 and I:0/1 must be energized (opened) to turn off
the output O:0/0.
When both normally open inputs I:0/2 and I:0/3 are energized (closed), the relay
coil B3:0/0 is energized. Then the normally closed contact B3:0/0 is opened to turn off output
O:0/1.
NOR Gate:
The function of a NOR logic gate is simulated in the electric circuit displayed in
Figure below.

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Notice that the lamp will be ON when both switches are open. The NOR gate takes its
name from NOT and OR. Its outputs are the inverse of the OR gate.
Figure below displays a two-input NOR logic gate symbol, its Boolean expression,
and its truth table. Notice the NOR gate can be built by connecting an OR gate in series with a
NOT gate. Using the De-Morgan theorem, you can convert a NOR gate to an AND gate with
inverted inputs where (A + B) = A B.

Figure below displays that there are two different types of ladder logic diagrams that
perform the NOR gate function.

Both normally closed inputs I:0/0 and I:0/1 must be deenergized (remain closed) to
turn on the output O:0/0

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When both normally open inputs I:0/2 and I:0/3 are de-energized, the relay coil
B3:0/0 is de-energized. Then the normally closed contact B3:0/0 remains closed to turn on
output O: 0/1.
Result: All the truth tables of the logic gates have been verified using programmable logic
controller.

EXPERIMENT - 13
TRANSFER FUNCTION OF DC GENERATOR
AIM: To study the DC motor and DC generator characteristics DC motor speed-torque
characteristics Step response of DC motor.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Measurement of armature Resistance:

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure. Keeping field circuit open.
2. Motor shaft should not rotate.
3. Vary the input voltage from 0-100V from the controller and note dowr ammeter and
voltmeter readings and enter in the tabular column.
4. Calculate the Resistance = V/I
5. Repeat the same for different input voltages.
6. The average resistance value gives the armature resistance.

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## Measurement of armature Inductance:

PROCEDURE:
1. Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram. Keep field circuit open.
2. Vary the input AC Voltage from the controller and note down voltmeter and
Ammeter readings and enter in the tabular column.
3. Calculate za, xa and La
4. Repeat the same for different input voltages
5. The average Value gives the La.

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PROCEDURE:

## 1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

2. Keep the armature winding open
3. Vary the input DC Supply from the controller and note down voltmeter and
ammeter readings.V/l ratio will give the field Resistance
4. Repeat the same for different input voltage and find out RF.
5. The average value gives RF.

## MEASERMENT OF FIELD INDUCTANCE:

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure
2. Keep the armature winding openVary the input AC supply from the controller and note
own voltmeter and ammeter readings and enter in the tabular column.
3. Calculate Zf , Xf and Lf
4. Repeat the same for different input voltages.

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