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Hydraulic structures

Hydraulic structures are anything that can be used to divert, restrict, stop, or
otherwise manage the natural flow of water. They can be made from materials
ranging from large rock and concrete to obscure items such as wooden timbers or
tree trunks. Dam, for instance, is a type of hydraulic structure used to hold water in
a reservoir as potential energy, just as a weir is a type of hydraulic structure which
can be used to pool water for irrigation, establish control of the bed (grade control)
or, as a new innovative technique, to divert flow away from eroding banks or into
.diversion channels for flood control
:Classification of hydraulic structures on the basis of function

Flow measurement structures
Division structures



to regulate the flow and

pass excess flow
to divert the main course
of water flow

gates, spillways, valves,

.or outlets
coffer dams, weirs,
canal headwork, intake
open channels,
pressure conduit, pipes,
canals and sewers
Drain inlets, infiltration
.galleries, wells
stilling basins, surge
.dams, check dams

Conveyance structures

to guide the flow from

one place to another

Collection structures

to collect water for

to prevent erosion and
structural damage

Energy dissipation structures

River training and water

stabilizing structures
Sediment and quality control
Storage structures
Shore protection structures

to maintain river channel

and water transportation
to control or remove
sediments and other
.storage of water
to protect banks

Levees, cutoffs, locks,

piers, culverts
racks, screens, traps,
sedimentation tanks,
.filters, sluiceways
dams or tanks
Dikes, groins, jetties,

Dams: A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams generally
serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or
levees (also known as dikes) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land
regions. Hydropower and pumped-storage hydroelectricity are often used in conjunction
with dams to generate electricity. A dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of
.water which can be evenly distributed between locations
Water Gates: Water control gates are used to control the mass flow of water or
wastewater in various environmental and process applications. They are usually square and
rectangular in shape and made of stainless steel or galvanized aluminum. There are many

different types of products. Bulkhead gates are supplied in one-piece panels and used in
flood control applications. These large water control gates are installed with a hoist or
crane and may include stop logs for ease of installation. Floating bulkheads consist of
individual sections that are floated in place and joined together. These water control gates
are designed for spillway openings and other areas that cannot use a bulkhead gate
Spillways: A spillway is a structure used to provide for the controlled release of flows from
a dam or levee into a downstream area, typically being the river that was dammed.
Spillways release floods so that the water does not overtop and damage or even destroy
the dam. Except during flood periods, water does not normally flow over a spillway. In
contrast, an intake is a structure used to release water on a regular basis for water supply,
hydroelectricity generation, etc. Floodgates and fuse plugs may be designed into spillways
to regulate water flow and dam height. Other uses of the term "spillway" include bypasses
of dams or outlets of a channels used during highwater, and outlet channels carved
..through natural dams such as moraines
Flumes: A flume is an open artificial water channel, in the form of a gravity chute, that
leads water from a diversion dam or weir completely aside a natural flow. Often, the flume
is an elevated box structure (typically wood) that follows the natural contours of the land.
These have been extensively used in hydraulic mining and working placer deposits for gold,
tin and other heavy minerals. They are also used in the transportation of logs in the logging
industry, electric power generation and to power various mill operations by the use of a
waterwheel. Examples of flumes are Venturi flumes and Parshall flumes
Wells: Water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving,
boring or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers. The well water is drawn
by an electric submersible pump, a vertical turbine pump, a hand pump or a mechanical
pump (e.g. from a water-pumping windmill. It can also be drawn up using containers, such
.as buckets that are raised mechanically or by hand
:Drain inlets
In the design of storm water drains, the openings used to drain storm water runoff into the
storm sewer system may be a curb inlet, gutter inlet, or a combination of the two. A major
part of the design procedure for storm drains is to use the design storm water runoff rate to
size the surface openings and/or curb inlets so that they can handle the storm water runoff.
In the design of storm water drains, the storm water curb inlet or gutter inlet opening can
be sized using orifice equations if the opening is completely submerged, or with a weir
.equation if the inlet opening is not submerged
Seawalls - Seawalls are usually massive, vertical structures used to protect backshore
areas from heavy wave action, and in lower wave energy environments, to separate land
from water
Bulkheads - These are vertical retaining walls to hold or prevent the soil from sliding
Water sewer: Effluent sewer is a wastewater collection system that pumps only the liquid
portion of sewage. At each home, a buried tank collects and passively separates solids from
the liquid effluent. High head pumps then pump the effluent through small diameter pipes

(typically 2" to 4") to downstream treatment. Because the system is pressurized, pipes can
.be laid just under the surface, along the ground's contour
Revetments - Revetments are a cover or facing of erosion resistant material placed
directly on an existing slope, embankment or dike to protect the area from waves and
.strong currents
Dikes and Levees - Dikes are typically earth structures (dams) that keep elevated water
.levels from flooding interior lowlands
Breakwaters - Breakwaters are generally shore-parallel structures that reduce the amount
.of wave energy reaching the protected area
Groins - Groins are the oldest and most common shore-connected, beach stabilization
Sills / Perched Beaches - Construction of a low retaining sill to trap sand results in what
.is known as a "perched beach," one that is elevated above its original level
Jetties and Piers - Jetties are shore-normal stone structures commonly used for training
navigation channels and stabilizing inlets. Pier structures are sometimes referred to as
Cofferdam: A cofferdam (also called coffer) is an enclosure within a water environment
constructed to allow water to be pumped out to create a dry work environment. Commonly
used for oil rig construction and repair, bridge and dam work, the cofferdam is usually a
welded steel structure that is temporary and is typically dismantled after work is
.completed. Its components consist of sheet piles, wales, and cross braces
Weirs: A weir is a small overflow dam used to alter the flow characteristics of a river or
stream. In most cases weirs take the form of a barrier across the river that causes water to
pool behind the structure (not unlike a dam), but allow water to flow over the top. Weirs are
commonly used to alter the flow regime of the river, prevent flooding, measure discharge
.and to help render a river navigable
Aqueducts: An aqueduct is a water supply or navigable channel (conduit) constructed to
convey water. In modern engineering, the term is used for any system of pipes, ditches,
canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose.[1] In a more restricted use,
aqueduct (occasionally water bridge) applies to any bridge or viaduct that transports water
instead of a path, road or railwayacross a gap. Large navigable aqueducts are used as
transport links for boats or ships