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Finite Element Analysis of Vacant Tubular


Members under Static Loading considering the
Tip Shapes of Load
Article in Applied Mechanics and Materials June 2014
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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 575 (2014) pp 497-500


Online available since 2014/Jun/25 at www.scientific.net
(2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.575.497

Submitted: 28.04.2014
Accepted: 28.04.2014

Finite Element Analysis of Vacant Tubular Members under Static


Loading considering the Tip Shapes of Load
Mahmud Kori Effendi 1,a, Shuhei Zaitsu1, Hiromitsu Kawaguchi1,
Akihiko Kawano1, Shintaro Matsuo1 and Keigo Tsuda2, Masae Kido2
1

Department of Architecture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581,


Japan
2

Department of Architecture, University of Kitakyushu, 1-1 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu


City,Fukuoka,808-0135 Japan
a

pak_kori@yahoo.com

Keywords: Vacant Steel Tubular Members, Contact Analysis, FEM analysis, MSC. Marc

Abstract. FEM analysis of MSC. Marc program is used to simulate the models. Three-dimensional
FEM model with contact analysis between deformable body of specimens and rigid body of load are
studied. The isotropic material and The Von Mises yield criterion are used and kinematic hardening is
used as a flow plasticity model. The effect of various shapes of loading tips is investigated. The
load-displacement were established. The results of these works are expected to be a useful reference
for analyzing structures under various shapes of loading tips either static or dynamic loading.
Introduction
The past tsunami that occurred in Japan and Aceh caused tremendous damage mostly to the buildings.
The buildings generally were totally destroyed, but few buildings still remain standing even though
stricken by strong tsunami. The damage of the building is caused by not only the tsunami wave but
also tsunami debris. The collisions between structural building and tsunami debris such as wood,
ship, storage tank, etc. are topics which are recently studied. The variety of the tsunami debris is
modelled as several of tip shapes of loading in static analysis of structural building. The comparison
of tip shapes of loading is studied in this paper. FEM analysis of MSC. Marc is used as method for
analysis the contact between the load and the structural building specimens.
Finite Element Analysis
Material Properties. The material properties of specimens are modelled with fully nonlinear
isotropic characteristics. MSC. Marc (2012) expects the stress-strain data to be entered as true stress
and true plastic strain. Youngs modulus of the square or diamond and circular vacant tubular
members are 189000 MPa and 211000 MPa, respectively. Poissons ratio for all members is 0.3. The
Von Mises yield criterion and kinematic hardening are used as the flow plasticity model. A parameter
study of specimens can be seen in Table. 1.
Table 1 Parameter study of specimens

Fig. 1 Loading Tip shapes

Specimen

D or b
[mm]

t
[mm]

Span (L)
[mm]

Section

Cvs

114.3

3.25

996

Circular

Svs
Square
100.0
3.01
996
Dvs
Diamond
Note : D=outside diameter of the tube, t=thickness of the tube

All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP,
www.ttp.net. (ID: 133.5.144.125-22/10/14,02:55:35)

498

Materials Engineering and Automatic Control III

60
Type 4

50

Type 3

Load (kN)

40

Type 2

30
Type 1

20
10
0

Fig. 2 Element meshing

10

20
30
40
50
Displacement (mm)

60

70

Fig. 3 Load-Displacement relationships of Svs

60

60

Type 4
50

Type 4
Type 3

50

Type 3

Type 1
40

Type 2
Load (kN)

Load (kN)

40
30
Type 1
20
10
0

30
Type 2
20
10

10

20

30 40 50 60
Displacement (mm)

70

80

10

20
30
40
Displacement (mm)

50

Fig.4 Load-Displacement Relationships of Cvs Fig.5.Load-Displacement Relationships of Dv5


Element Meshing and Boundary Conditions. The various types of the tip shapes of loading are
shown in Fig. 1. The element meshing of circular, square and diamond members can be seen in Fig. 2.
The supports of the model are fixed in displacement y and z axis, but free in x displacement and in z
rotation axis. The displacements of mid span node of models in x axis are constrained to stabilize the
analysis. The loading is modelled as rigid body and only surfaces of the loading are used as bodies.
The element type 75 by MSC Marc (2012), four-node thick shell element, with six degrees of freedom
per node: those are three displacements (u, v and w) and three rotations (X, Y and Z) are used with
total 2880 shell elements. The loading is applied by giving an incremental displacement at the top of
the rigid body from zero until target displacement.
Contact Analysis. The contact interaction in this analysis is between rigid bodies and deformable
bodies. The contact tolerance by default is calculated by the program as the smaller value of the
smallest element length or 25% of the smallest shell element thickness. Bias factor 0.95 value is used
to avoid the close node from coming into contact and separate again.
Results and Discussion
Load-Displacement Relationships. The load-displacement of circular, square and diamond
members can be seen in Fig. 3, 4, and 5. The initial slope of the load-displacement relationships of all
loading tip shapes give almost the same results. The plastic curve region give up and down response,
but for type 2 it gives relatively smooth results. The bigger diameter of loading tips shows higher peak
load.

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 575

499

Fig. 6 Failure Modes of Specimens


50

Marc-Svs

Exp-Svs

40

Load (kN)

30

20

10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Displacement (mm)

Fig. 7 Test setup of static loading type 3

Fig. 8 Load-displacement Relationships of Svs:


Experimental and FEM analysis of type 3
50

50

Marc-Cvs

40

40

Exp-Cvs

Marc-Dvs
30

Load (kN)

Load (kN)

30

20

Exp-Dvs

20

10

10

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Displacement (mm)

70

80

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Displacement (mm)

Fig. 9 Load-displacement Relationships of Cvs: Fig. 10 Load-displacement Relationships of Dvs:


Experimental and FEM analysis of type 3
Experimental and FEM analysis of type 3
Failure Modes. Fig. 6 shows the failure modes of FEM analysis. The type of tip shapes of loading
affected the failure modes of specimens. Most of the failure modes are local deformation under the
loading. For circular tubular members, the failure modes of specimens of top surface follow the

500

Materials Engineering and Automatic Control III

shapes of tip shapes of loading. The failure modes of square tubular members are local deformation
under the loading. Local buckling occurred in type 1, 3, 4 of loading. The failure modes of diamond
tubular members are local deformation under the loading. The local buckling occurred in all types of
loading.
Verification with the Experiment. The verification of the FEM analysis model is conducted only
for type 3 loading shape. The experiment is conducted at Kyushu University, Japan. LVDT
Transducer and Laser Displacement Sensor are used to record the displacement top and bottom side
of specimens. Strain gauges are placed at bottom mid-span and quarter span of specimens. The
experimental test setup can be seen in Fig. 7. The load-displacement relationships of square, circular
and diamond tubular members of FEM analysis and experimental result are shown in Fig. 8, 9, 10.
The displacements are measured from bottom side of the specimen. The comparison of failure modes
of circular, square and tubular members is shown in Fig. 11. It is shown that the FEM analysis results
almost the same failure modes as those of experimental results.

Fig. 11 Failure modes: Experimental and FEM analysis of type 3


Conclusion
FEM analysis was shown to be an effective method for analysis vacant tubular members under static
loading with various tip shapes of load. The results of this work are expected to be a useful reference
for analysis the structural analysis under various shapes of load either static or dynamic loading.
Acknowledgement
This study was financially supported by the Scientific Research Grant (B) H25- H27 No. 25289186,
Steel structure research and educational grant project H25. One of the authors thanks the Indonesian
Directorate of Higher Education Program (DIKTI) for a doctoral scholarship.
References
[1] MSC.MARC/MENTAT: Users Guide, MSC.Software Corporation, 2012.
[2] Xiao, Han, et al. "Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Filling Roll Bending of
Aluminum Alloy Integral Panel." Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 134.6
(2012): 061011.
[3] MSC.MARC/MENTAT: Volume B: Element Library, MSC.Software Corporation, 2012.
[4] Stachowicz F., Litwin P., Frcz W.: Experimental and numerical study of open structural profile
bending process. Arch. Metall. Mater., 50 (2005), 905-919.

Materials Engineering and Automatic Control III


10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.575

Finite Element Analysis of Vacant Tubular Members under Static Loading Considering the Tip Shapes
of Load
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.575.497