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Risk-Based and Functional Security Testing

Security Testing
Describes some of the issues involved in testing the various interfaces through which software
communicates with its environment. These include:

Identification of architectural, design, and implementation risks

Risk-driven test creation

Dependency attacks

User Interface attacks

File system attacks

Design attacks

Implementation attacks

Penetration testing

Static vulnerability scanning

Test coverage

Test depth analysis

The primary objective is to improve the understanding of some of the processes of security
testing, such as test vector generation, test code generation, results analysis, and reporting. This
will help testers to improve the generation of test vectors and increase confidence in the tests of
security function behaviors.

Published: September 23, 2005 | Last revised: July 05, 2013

Author(s): C.C. Michael, Ken van Wyk, and Will Radosevich Maturity Levels and
Audience Indicators: L3 / L M SDLC Life Cycles: Testing Copyright: Copyright
Cigital, Inc. 2005-2007. Cigital retains copyrights to this material.

This article discusses the role of software testing in a security-oriented software development
process. It focuses on two related topics: functional security testing and risk-based security
testing. Functional testing is meant to ensure that software behaves as it should. Therefore, it is
largely based on software requirements. Risk-based testing is based on software risks, and each
test is intended to probe a specific risk that was previously identified through risk analysis.
Business Case for Security Testing
Software Security Testing
Functional Testing
Risk-Based Testing
Security Testing in the Software Life Cycle
Security Testing Activities
Relevant Metrics
Case Study

This document discusses the role of software testing in a security-oriented software development
process. It focuses on two related topics: functional security testing and risk-based security
Functional testing is meant to ensure that software behaves as it should. Therefore, it is largely
based on software requirements. For example, if security requirements state that the length of
any user input must be checked, then functional testing is part of the process of determining
whether this requirement was implemented and whether it works correctly.
Analogously, risk-based testing is based on software risks, and each test is intended to probe a
specific risk that was previously identified through risk analysis. A simple example is that in
many web-based applications, there is a risk of injection attacks, where an attacker fools the
server into displaying results of arbitrary SQL queries. A risk-based test might actually try to
carry out an injection attack, or at least provide evidence that such an attack is possible. For a
more complex example, consider the case where risk analysis determines that there are
ambiguous requirements. In this case, testers must determine how the ambiguous requirements

might manifest themselves as vulnerabilities. The actual tests are then aimed at probing those
vulnerabilities.Some authors use risk-based testing to denote any kind of testing based on risk
analysis. Basing tests on a risk analysis is a sound practice, and we do not mean to denigrate it by
adopting a narrower definition.
This document focuses on how risk-based and functional security testing mesh into the software
development process. Many aspects of software testing are discussed, especially in their
relationship to security testing. Nonetheless, this document is not intended as a primer on
software testing per se. Test engineers should be familiar with standard references for software
testing, such as [Binder 99], [Dustin 99], [Fewster 99], [Marick 94], [Beizer 95], [Black 02], and
[Kaner 99].

Business Case for Security Testing

From a technical and project management perspective, security test activities are primarily
performed to validate a systems conformance to security requirements and to identify potential
security vulnerabilities within the system. From a business perspective, security test activities are
often conducted to reduce overall project costs, protect an organizations reputation or brand,
reduce litigation expenses, or conform to regulatory requirements.
Identifying and addressing software security vulnerabilities prior to product deployment assists
in accomplishing these business goals. Security test activities are one method used to identify
and address security vulnerabilities. Unfortunately, in some organizations, this is the only method
used to identify security vulnerabilities.
Understanding the high-level benefits of security test activities is relatively easy to understand.
However, obtaining the real cost benefit of security test activities has historically been a difficult
The software testing and quality assurance community has done an excellent job of identifying
the cost benefits of conducting tests to identify software bugs early and often. If one considers
that security vulnerabilities are also a form of software bugs, the same conclusions can be made
for security testing. In parallel with the QA community, the security industry and law
enforcement community have been compiling statistics on the cost of security incidents over the
last ten years. The information gathered by both of these communities is helpful to understanding
the business case for security testing.

Development Process Costs

From a pure software development perspective, security vulnerabilities identified through
security testing can be viewed in the same manner as traditional software bugs that are
discovered through standard software testing processes. For the purpose of this discussion,
traditional software bugs are those deficiencies identified through non-security-related test
functions such as unit- and subsystem-level tests, integration and system-level tests, or stress,
performance and load tests.

It is a commonly accepted principle within the software industry that software bugs exposed
earlier in the development process are much cheaper to fix than those discovered late in the
process. For example, software bugs uncovered by a developer during unit tests generally
involve only the developer and require a relatively small amount of effort to diagnose and
correct. Conversely, the same software bug identified after the product has been deployed to the
customer may involve a large number of personnel and internal processes to diagnose and
correct, and therefore may cost significantly more. Examples of these personnel include
1. help desk personnel who take trouble calls
2. support engineers who diagnose and confirm the problem
3. developers who identify and implement code fixes
4. QA personnel that perform regression tests
5. support personnel that package and distribute patches
6. mangers that control the process
Support processes required to address and resolve the deficiency include
1. help desk support
2. defect tracking management
3. QA test support
4. patch release management
These additional personnel and processes contribute to the significant expense of correcting
software defects after deployment. According to NIST, the relative cost of repairing software
defects increases the longer it takes to identify the bug [NIST 02a]. For example, NIST estimates
that it can cost thirty times more to fix a coding problem that is discovered after the product has
been released than it would have cost if the problem was discovered during unit testing. Other
sources, such as IBM, have placed these costs at up to one hundred times more expensive.

Accordingly, the same benefits and cost savings associated with traditional test functions can be
realized throughout the software development life cycle with security test functions. Examples of
these activities include security tests during the unit, subsystem, and integration test cycles, in
addition to security tests during the system test cycle.
As managers are increasingly concerned with controlling and minimizing project costs, security
testing throughout the life cycle provides the setting to identify security vulnerabilities early on,
when they can be addressed and corrected in a more cost effective manner.

Non-Development Process Business Costs

In addition to the development costs outlined above, it is important to note that security
vulnerabilities can have a much greater financial impact on an organization than traditional
software bugs. Financial impact can affect both the software development organization and the
end customer organization that uses the software.
Security issues attributed to an organization can cause damage to the organizations reputation or
brand, contribute to lost sales or lost customer goodwill, or result in liability and legal issues. As
an example, CardSystem Solutions, a leading provider of payment processing solutions,
disclosed in May 2005 that information on 40 million credit cards had been compromised. As a
result of the credit card disclosure, Visa and American Express discontinued business with
CardSystems, resulting in significant revenue loss for the company. It is likely that the national
press coverage will continue to hamper short-term sales prospects for the company. CardSystems
has also been named in a class action lawsuit.
Financial losses may also come in the form of reduced stock market capitalization. As reported in
the Journal of Computer Security [Campbell 03], publicly traded companies that have had
information security breaches involving unauthorized access to confidential data may experience
a significant negative market reaction. This loss directly and immediately affects company

As further evidence, the 2008 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey [Richardson 08]
noted that the average financial loss of reporting organizations subjected to theft of proprietary
information was $241,000, and those reporting losses due to unauthorized access to information
averaged $288,618.
These examples highlight the potential financial impact of security vulnerabilities to the overall
business. These vulnerabilities can be addressed by implementing security best practices,
including security testing, within the software development life cycle to identify and resolve
security issues. Security vulnerabilities that are identified and resolved prior to deployment
reduce the overall financial responsibilities and risks to the development and deploying

The overall goal of security testing is to reduce vulnerabilities within a software system. As
described above, these vulnerabilities, at a minimum, will require additional technical
troubleshooting and development effort to fix if not exposed before deployment. The cost impact
of addressing these vulnerabilities is straightforward to assess. However, in the worst case
scenario, security vulnerabilities can adversely impact a companys reputation or brand, resulting
in lost sales or litigation and severely impacting the financial well-being of the business.
Organizations that implement security best practices throughout the software development life
cycle understand that addressing issues early can result in cost savings. Security testing is one
activity that is used to reduce these vulnerabilities and control potential future costs.

Software Security Testing

At one time, it was widely believed that security bugs in a software system were just like
traditional bugs and that traditional software assurance techniques could be equally well applied
to secure software development.
However, security-related bugs can differ from traditional bugs in a number of ways:

Users do not normally try to intelligently search out software bugs. An enterprising user
may occasionally derive satisfaction from making software break, but if he or she
succeeds it affects only that user. On the other hand, malicious attackers do intelligently
search for vulnerabilities. If they succeed, they cause problems for other users, who may
be adversely affected. Compounding the problem, malicious hackers are known to script
successful attacks and distribute them. In other words, a single, hard-to-find vulnerability
can cause problems for a large number of users, while a hard-to-find bug causes problems
for only a few users.

Developers can (and do) learn to avoid poor programming practices that can lead to
buggy code. In contrast, the list of insecure programming practices is long and continues
to grow by the year, making it difficult for developers to keep current on the latest
exploits. Since most developers are not currently trained in secure programming

practices, security analysts carry a greater burden in verifying that secure programming
practices are adhered to.

Security testing is often fundamentally different from traditional testing because it

emphasizes what an application should not do rather than what it should do, as pointed
out in [Fink 94], where the authors distinguish between positive requirements and
negative requirements. While security testing may sometimes test conformance to
positive requirements such as user accounts are disabled after three unsuccessful login
attempts or network traffic must be encrypted, there is a far greater emphasis on
negative requirements in security testing. Examples of negative testing include outside
attackers should not be able to modify the contents of the web page or unauthorized
users should not be able to access data. This shift in emphasis from positive to negative
requirements affects the way testing is performed. The standard way to test a positive
requirement is to create the conditions in which the requirement is intended to hold true
and verify that the requirement is really satisfied by the software. On the other hand, a
negative requirement may state that something should never occur. To apply the standard
testing approach to negative requirements, one would need to create every possible set of
conditions, which is infeasible.

Many security requirements, such as an attacker should never be able to take control of
the application, would be regarded as untestable in a traditional software development
setting. It is considered a legitimate practice for testers to ask that such requirements be
refined or perhaps dropped altogether. But many security requirements can be neither
refined nor dropped even if they are untestable. For example, one cannot reliably
enumerate the ways in which an attacker might get control of a software system (which
would be one way to make it more testable) and obviously one cannot drop the
requirement either.

The result is that secure software development is intrinsically harder than traditional software
development, and because of this, testing also has an expanded role. Software testing also has
other strengths that can be leveraged during secure software development:

In many software development settings, testing is the only dynamic analysis that the
software is ever subjected to. A dynamic analysis is one that involves executing the
software. Some kinds of problems are easier to detect dynamically than statically,
especially problems involving pointers or long-range data and control flow.

Testing can help confirm that the developers did not overlook some insecure
programming practices. Static analysis is useful for this purpose too, but distinguishing
true vulnerabilities from unexploitable ones is often easier when dynamic analysis and
static analysis are combined.

A vulnerability is usually taken more seriously if there is a known exploit for it, but
developing exploits is the domain of penetration testing (see the BSI module on that

Testing can be used to help identify and mitigate risks from third-party components,
where development artifacts like source code and architecture diagrams are unavailable.

Testing can be used to provide metrics of software insecurity and help raise the alarm
when software is seriously flawed from the security standpoint.

Every design artifact views the software system at a certain level of abstraction. Clearly,
an architecture diagram views the software at an abstract level corresponding to the
system architecture, but even the source code is an abstract view of the software. For
example, C code does not explicitly show that the strcpy() function can cause a buffer
overflow; one has to know in advance that strcpy() is dangerous. Attackers like to find the
abstractions used by developers and work their way around them (in other words, find the
developers implicit assumptions and see what happens when those assumptions are made
to be untrue [Hoglund 04], [Whittaker 02, Whittaker 03], [Wysopal 07]). No person or
group can view a software system at all possible levels of abstraction, but testing can help
by perhaps finding (at least some) flaws that are not visible in the design artifacts.

Of course, secure programming is much more than just security testing. In fact, it is often argued
that testing is only a small part of the process (see [McGraw 04] or [Howard 06] for example).
Nonetheless, testing has a role to play, and given the fact that it is very difficult to find all
security related problems in a software system, no effective mitigation strategy should be

Functional Testing
Functional testing is meant to test a whether a software system behaves is as it should. Usually
this means testing the systems adherence to its functional requirements. Since requirements exist
at different levels of abstraction throughout the software development process, functional testing
also takes place throughout the test process and at different levels of abstraction. For the sake of
clarity, it should be noted that many test plans also use functional testing to refer to a specific
test phase. For example, it can refer to the testing of executable files and libraries. As is often the
case, there is a certain lack of uniformity in the terminology associated with software testing.
Functional testing is a broad topic that the literature on traditional software testing covers in
great detail. In this document, we will only discuss this activity in broad strokes, while
encouraging test engineers to consult standard references, such as those listed at the end of the
Introduction, in order to get greater detail. This document also emphasizes the aspects of
functional testing that are related to software security.
To understand the nature of functional testing, it is useful to understand the role of functional
requirements in software development. Requirements generally come from two sources: some
are defined up front (e.g., from regulatory compliance or information security policy issues), and
others stem from mitigations that are defined as the result of risk analysis. A requirement usually
has the following form: when a specific thing happens, then the software should respond in a
certain way. For example, a requirement might state that if the user closes an applications GUI
window, then the application should shut down. This way of presenting requirements is

convenient for the tester, who can simply bring about the if part of the requirement and then
confirm that the software behaves as it should. For example, a typical requirement may state that
a users account is disabled after three unsuccessful login attempts or that only certain characters
should be permitted in a URL. These requirements can be tested in traditional ways, such as
attempting three unsuccessful login attempts and verifying that the account in question was
really disabled, or by supplying a URL with illegal characters and making sure they are stripped
out before processing.
The testers life is also simplified by the common practice of ensuring that every requirement can
be mapped to a specific software artifact meant to implement that requirement. This helps
prevent chaotic code, but it also means that the tester who is probing a specific requirement
knows exactly which code artifact to test. Generally, there is a three-way mapping between
functional requirements, code artifacts, and functional tests.
Negative requirements create a challenge for functional testing. The mapping of requirements to
specific software artifacts is problematic for a requirement such as no module may be
susceptible to buffer overflows, since that requirement is not implemented in a specific place.
Such requirements are sometimes known as negative requirements because they state things
that the software should not do, as opposed to what the software should do. Often, such
requirements can also be expressed as risks, as in there is a risk of certain software modules
being compromised with buffer overflow attacks. In this document, negative requirements will
be treated separately in the section on risk-based testing.
Although negative requirements often have a high profile in secure software development, one
should not overlook the importance of positive requirements in security testing. When risks are
identified early enough in the SDLC, there is time to include mitigations for those risks (also
known as countermeasures). Mitigations are meant to reduce the severity of the identified risks,
and they lead to positive requirements. For example, the risk of password-cracking attacks can be
mitigated by disabling an account after three unsuccessful login attempts, and the risk of SQL
insertion attacks from a web interface can be mitigated by using an input validation whitelist that
does not contain characters necessary to perform this type of attack. These mitigations also have
to be tested, not only to help confirm that they are implemented correctly, but also to help
determine how well they actually mitigate the risks they were designed for.
One other issue that deserves special emphasis is that developers might not understand how to
implement some security requirements. If a test fails, the developers might also fail to understand
what went wrong, and the resulting fix might be a kludge. This can happen with any type of
requirement, but security requirements can be a special source of problems, since most
developers are not security experts. In one case, it was found that a web application was
vulnerable to a directory traversal attack, where a URL containing the string .. can be used to
access directories that are supposed to be forbidden to remote clients. After the software was
repaired, it was found that developers had simply blacklisted part of the URL used in the original
test. Security testers should be aware of common misunderstandings and plan tests for them.
When bugs are fixed, it should also be kept in mind that the fix might not be subjected to the
same scrutiny as features that were part of the original software design. For example, a problem
that should normally be detected in design reviews might slip through the cracks if it appears in a

bug fix. Sometimes, software that has been repaired is only retested by running the original test
suite again, but that approach works poorly for the kinds of problems just described.
It should be emphasized that functional testing should not provide a false sense of security.
Testing cannot demonstrate the absence of problems in software, it can only demonstrate
(sometimes) that problems do exist [Dijkstra 70]. The problem is that testers can try out only a
limited number of test cases, and the software might work correctly for those cases and fail for
other cases. Therefore, testing a mitigation is not enough to guarantee that the corresponding risk
has really been mitigated, and this is especially important to keep in mind when the risk in
question is a severe one.
At the start of this section, we stated that functional testing is meant to probe whether software
behaves as it should, but so far we have focused only on requirements-based testing. A number of
other techniques are summarized below, and the reader is also referred to the BSI module on
white box testing, which covers many of these test techniques in detail.
However, there is one other area of testing still to be covered in this document, namely riskbased testing, which focuses on testing against negative requirements or, in other words, on
probing security-related risks. Whether risk-based testing should be regarded as a subset of
functional testing is largely a matter of ones taste in terminology, but due to its significant role
in secure software development we discuss it separately in Risk-Based Testing.

Some Functional Test Techniques

Ad hoc testing (experience-based testing) and exploratory testing
Derive tests based on testers skill, intuition, and experience with similar programs. This is also
called exploratory testing. This kind of testing is only effective when done by trained or
experienced testers to flesh out special tests not captured in more formal techniques. Ad hoc
testing can take advantage of the specialized instincts of security analysts, and it also comes into
play when a tester has discovered indirect evidence of a vulnerability and decides to follow up.
Penetration testing tends to have an exploratory flavor.
Kaner, C.; Falk, J.; & Nguyen, H. Testing Computer Software, 2nd ed., Chapter 1. New York,
NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
Bach, J. Exploratory Testing and the Planning Myth. (link is external)
Marick, B. A Survey of Exploratory Testing. (link
is external)
Requirements-based testing

Given a set of requirements, devise tests so that each requirement has an associated test set.
Trace test cases back to requirements to ensure that all requirements are covered. In security
testing it can also be useful to build test cases around ambiguities in the requirements.
Hamlet, D. & Maybee, J. The Engineering of Software, Chapter 7. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley,
RTCA, Inc. DO-178B, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment
Certification. Washington, D.C.: RTCA, Inc., 1992.
Specification-based testing and model-based testing (API testing is a subset)
Given a specification (or even a definition of an interface), test cases can be derived
automatically and can even include an oracle. This sometimes requires a specification created in
a formal language (which is not often encountered). An alternative form is to create a program
model, especially based on interfaces, and derive tests from the interface model. Test cases can
also be created by hand based on a specification, but this is much more of an art. In security
testing, it can be useful to test situations that are not covered in the specifications.
Zhu, H.; Hall, P.; & May, J. Software Unit Test Coverage and Adequacy, Section 2.2. ACM
Computing Surveys 29, 4 (December 1997): 366-427.
Robinson, H. Intelligent Test Automation. Software Testing & Quality Engineering (Sept./Oct.
2000): 24-32.
(link is external).
Equivalence partitioning
Divide the input domain into a collection of subsets, or equivalence classes, which are deemed
equivalent according to the specification. Pick representative tests (sometimes only one) from
within each class. Can also be done with output, path, and program structure equivalence classes.
Jorgensen, P. C. Software Testing: A Craftsmans Approach, Chapter 6. CRC Press, 1995.
Kaner, C.; Falk, J.; & Nguyen, H. Testing Computer Software, 2nd ed., Chapter 7. New York,
NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
Hamlet, D. & Maybee, J. The Engineering of Software, Chapters 7 and 20. Boston, MA:
Addison-Wesley, 2001.
Meyers, G. The Art of Software Testing. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1979.
Boundary value analysis
Choose test cases on or near the boundaries of the input domain of variables, with the rationale
that many defects tend to concentrate near the extreme values of inputs. A classic example of

boundary-value analysis in security testing is to create long input strings in order to probe
potential buffer overflows. More generally, insecure behavior in boundary cases is often
unforeseen by developers, who tend to focus on nominal situations instead.
Jorgensen, P. C. Software Testing: A Craftsmans Approach, Chapter 5. CRC Press, 1995.
Kaner, C.; Falk, J.; & Nguyen, H. Testing Computer Software, 2nd ed., Chapter 7. New York,
NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
Robustness and fault tolerance testing
A variation on boundary value analysis where test cases are chosen outside the domain in order
to test program robustness to unexpected and erroneous inputs. Also useful for probing fault
tolerance and error handling. Errors can lead to insecure conditions, such as the disclosure of
sensitive information in debugging messages or core dumps. Error handlers are also notorious for
containing security bugs.
Jorgensen, P. C. Software Testing: A Craftsmans Approach, Chapter 5. CRC Press, 1995.
Kaner, C.; Falk, J.; & Nguyen, H. Testing Computer Software, 2nd ed., Chapter 7. New York,
NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
Decision table (also called logic-based testing)
Decision tables represent logical relationships between conditions (for example, inputs) and
actions (for example, outputs). Derive test cases systematically by considering every possible
combination of conditions and actions. Security testers often focus on conditions that are not
covered in the requirements or specifications.
Beizer, Boris. Software Testing Techniques, Chapter 10. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold,
1990 (ISBN 0-442-20672-0).
Jorgensen, P. C. Software Testing: A Craftsmans Approach, Chapter 7. CRC Press, 1995.
State-based testing
Model the program under test as a finite state machine, and then select tests that cover states and
transitions using diverse techniques. This is good for transaction processing, reactive, and realtime systems. In security testing, it can often be useful to try to force transitions that do not
appear in higher level design artifacts, since vulnerabilities often appear when software enters an
unexpected state.
Beizer, Boris. Software Testing Techniques, Chapter 11. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold,
1990 (ISBN 0-442-20672-0).
Jorgensen, P. C. Software Testing: A Craftsmans Approach, Chapter 4. CRC Press, 1995.

Control-flow testing
Control-flow based coverage criteria aim at covering all statements, classes, or blocks in a
program (or some specified combinations). Reduce the program to a directed graph and analyze
the graph. Decision/condition coverage is one example. The aim is to detect poor and potentially
incorrect program structures. This is often infeasible for all but trivial programs. Coverage
analysis is discussed in the BSI module on white box testing.
Beizer, Boris. Software Testing Techniques, Chapter 3. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold,
1990 (ISBN 0-442-20672-0).
Jorgensen, P. C. Software Testing: A Craftsmans Approach, Chapter 9. CRC Press, 1995.
Hamlet, D. & Maybee, J. The Engineering of Software, Chapter 20. Boston, MA: AddisonWesley, 2001.
Data flow-based testing
Annotate a program control flow graph with information about how variables are defined and
used. Use definition-use pairs (often called d/u testing) such that where V is a variable, d is a
node where V is defined, and u is a node where V is used and there is a path from d to u. The aim
is to detect poor and potentially incorrect program structures. Data flow testing is often used to
test interfaces between subsystems. Data-flow analysis is discussed in the BSI module on white
box testing.
Beizer, Boris. Software Testing Techniques, Chapter 5. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold,
1990 (ISBN 0-442-20672-0).
Hamlet, D. & Maybee, J. The Engineering of Software, Chapter 17. Boston, MA: AddisonWesley, 2001.
Usage-based and use-case based testing
Base tests on use of the product in real operation by creating an operational profile or creating a
set of use cases. It is sometimes possible to infer future reliability from test results (given a
statistically correct operational profile). Do this by assigning inputs to a probability distribution
according to their occurrence in actual operation.
Jorgensen, P. C. Software Testing: A Craftsmans Approach, Chapter 14. CRC Press, 1995.
Lyu, M. Handbook of Software Reliability Engineering, Chapter 5. McGraw-Hill/IEEE, 1996. (link is external).
Pfleeger, S. L. Software Engineering: Theory and Practice, Chapter 8. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 1998 (ISBN 013624842X).

Cockburn, A. (link is external)

Wiegers, K. Software Requirements. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999.
Code-based testing (also called white box testing)
Use the control structure, the data flow structure, decision control, and modularity to design tests
to cover the code. Use coverage analysis (e.g., white box) to assess test completeness and
goodness. This technique is a superset of control flow testing and data flow testing. White box
testing is covered in a separate module of the BSI portal.
Beizer, Boris. Software Testing Techniques, Chapter 3. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold,
1990 (ISBN 0-442-20672-0).
Jorgensen, P. C. Software Testing: A Craftsmans Approach, Chapter 4. CRC Press, 1995.
Hamlet, D. & Maybee, J. The Engineering of Software, Chapter 20. Boston, MA: AddisonWesley, 2001.
Marick, Brian. The Craft of Software Testing: Subsystems Testing Including Object-Based and
Object-Oriented Testing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1994.
Fault-based testing
Intentionally introduce faults during testing to probe program robustness and reliability.
Determining which kind of faults to introduce and how to observe their effects is a challenge.
Experience with this method is necessary for it to be useful. Code-based fault injection is
discussed in the BSI module on white box testing.
Voas, Jeffrey M. & McGraw, Gary. Software Fault Injection: Inoculating Programs Against
Errors, 47-48. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
Protocol conformance testing
Use a programs communication protocol as a direct basis for testing the program. This is useful
when a program is supposed to accept a protocol. In combination with boundary-value testing
and equivalence-based testing, this method is useful for web-based programs and other Internetbased code. Protocol-based testing is especially important for security testing in web-based
applications, since the easiest way for remote attackers to access such applications is through
web protocols (or their buggy implementations, as the case may be). Protocol-based testing is
discussed in the BSI portal on black box tools.
Sun, Xiao; Feng, Chao; Shen, Yinan; & Lombardi, Fabrizio. Protocol Conformance Testing
Using Unique Input/Output Sequences. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co., 1997.
Load and performance testing

Testing specifically aimed at verifying that the subsystem meets specified performance
requirements (e.g., capacity and response time). Load and stress testing exercise a system to the
maximum design load and beyond it. Stressful conditions can expose vulnerabilities that are
otherwise hard to see, and vulnerabilities can also be caused by the mechanisms that software
uses to try to deal with extreme environments. Developers are often focused on graceful
degradation when they create these mechanisms, and they overlook security.
Perry, W. Effective Methods for Software Testing, Chapter 17, New York, NY: John Wiley &
Sons, 1995.
Pfleeger, S. Software Engineering Theory and Practice, Chapter 8, Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall PTR, 1998.
Security testing
The use of a variety of testing techniques specifically to probe security. There are two major
aspects of security testing: testing security functionality to ensure that it works and testing the
subsystem in light of malicious attack. Security testing is motivated by probing undocumented
assumptions and areas of particular complexity to determine how a program can be broken.
Howard, Michael & LeBlanc, David C. Writing Secure Code, 2nd ed. Redmond, WA: Microsoft
Press, 2002, ISBN 0735617228.
Howard, Michael & Lipner, Steve. The Security Development Lifecycle. Redmond, WA:
Microsoft Press, 2006, ISBN 0735622142.
Viega, John & McGraw, Gary. Building Secure Software: How to Avoid Security Problems the
Right Way. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley Professional, 2001 (ISBN 020172152X).
Wysopal, Chris; Nelson, Lucas; Zovi, Dino Dai; & Dustin, Elfriede. The Art of Software Security
Testing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Symantec Press, 2007, ISBN 0321304861.
Run-Time Verification
Run-time verification seeks to validate that an application conforms to its security requirements
and specifications by dynamically observing the applications behavior in a test environment.
Requirements such as all authentication credentials must be encrypted while in transit can thus
be dynamically verified through observation.
Howard, Michael & Lipner, Steve. The Security Development Lifecycle. Redmond, WA:
Microsoft Press, 2006, ISBN 0735622142.

Risk-Based Testing
Recall that in security testing, there is an increased emphasis on negative requirements, which
state what a software system should not do. Tests can be developed in a number of ways for

negative requirements. The tests should be derived from a risk analysis, which should encompass
not only the high-level risks identified during the design process but also low-level risks derived
from the software itself.
When negative requirements are tested, security testers typically look for common mistakes and
test suspected weaknesses in the application. The emphasis is often on finding vulnerabilities,
often by executing abuse and misuse tests that attempt to exploit the weaknesses in the
application. In addition to demonstrating the presence of vulnerabilities, security tests can also
assist in uncovering symptoms that suggest vulnerabilities might exist.
It was stated earlier that requirements can be expected to contain mitigations for many risks.
Mitigations generally result in positive requirements, but the fact that some risk has a mitigation
does not imply that it should be ignored during risk-based testing. Even if a mitigation is
correctly implemented, there is still a need to ask whether it really does mitigate the risk it is
intended for. Each mitigation generates a positive requirementthe correct implementation of
the mitigation strategybut it also generates a negative requirement stating that the mitigation
must not be circumventable. To put it another way, the mitigation might not be sufficient for
avoiding the underlying risk, and this possibility constitutes a risk in and of itself.
Unfortunately, the process of deriving tests from risks is somewhat of an art, and depends a great
deal on the skills and security knowledge of the test engineer. There are many automated tools
that can be helpful aids during risk-based testing [Black Box Testing], but these tools can
perform only simple tasks, while the hard tasks are still the responsibility of the test engineer.
The process of test creation from negative requirements is discussed in greater detail below.

Defining Tests for Negative Requirements

As a basis for defining test conditions, past experience comes into play in two ways. First, a
mature test organization will have a set of test templates that outline the test techniques to be
used for testing against specific risks and requirements in specific types of software modules.
Test templates are usually created during testing projects, and they accumulate over time to
record the organizations past experience. This document does not provide test templates, but the
attack scenarios of [Hoglund 04], [Whittaker 02], [Whittaker 03], and [Wysopal 07] can be used
for this purpose.
Another way to derive test scenarios from past experience is to use incident reports. Incident
reports can simply be bug reports, but in the context of security testing they can also be forensic
descriptions of successful hacking activity. Furthermore, vulnerability reports are often followed
by proofs of concept to demonstrate how the reported vulnerability is actually exploitable.
Sometimes these proofs of concept are actual exploits, and sometimes they simply show that a
vulnerability is likely to be exploitable. For example, if a buffer overflow can be made to cause a
crash, then it can usually also be exploited. Sometimes it is enough simply to find evidence of
vulnerabilities as opposed to actual exploits, so these proofs of concept can be used as the basis
of test scenarios. When devising risk-based tests, it can be useful to consult IT security
personnel, since their jobs involve keeping up to date on vulnerabilities, incident reports, and
security threats.

Finally, threat modeling can be leveraged to help create risk-based tests. For example, if
inexperienced hackers (e.g., script kiddies) are expected to be a major threat, then it might be
appropriate to probe software security with automated tools; hackers often use the same tools.
Some of these tools are described in the BSI module on black box testing tools. Threat modeling
should be carried out in any event as part of a secure software development process, and it is
described in its own BSI module.
Below, we discuss some thought processes that may be helpful in creating new tests for negative
Understanding a Software Component and Its Environment
When testing against negative requirements, one of the test engineers first tasks is to understand
the software and its environment. It is important to understand the software itself, but it is also
important to understand the environment, and in fact this issue may deserve even more emphasis
because not all interactions with the environment are obvious. A software module may interact
with the user, the file system, and the system memory in fairly obvious ways, but behind the
scenes many more interactions may be taking place without the users knowledge. This
understanding can be aided by a controlled environment like the one described above, where
software behavior can be observed in detail.
Two types of environmental interactions have to be considered, namely, corruption of the
software module by the environment and corruption of the environment by the software module.
Regarding the environment as a potential threat is part of defense in depth, even when
considering parts of the environment that have their own protection mechanisms. As for
corruption of the environment, recall that there may not be enough time to test every component
of the software system, and that the components not currently under test are part of the
environment. If the component under test can corrupt the systemperhaps in cooperation with
other components that happen to be in an unexpected statethis constitutes a direct threat to the
system just as if the component itself were vulnerable.
Some environmental interactions to be considered are

user interactions

interactions with the file system

interactions with memory

interactions with the operating system via system calls

interactions with other components of the same software system

interactions with dynamically linked libraries

interaction with other software via APIs

interaction with other software via interprocess communication

interactions with global data such as environment variables and the registry

interactions with the network

interactions with physical devices

dependencies on the initial environment

The biggest challenge is to avoid overlooking an interaction altogether; that is, remembering to
even ask whether the software can or should trust the entity that it is interacting with. Still, it is
appropriate to prioritize these interactions according to how realistic it is to view them as part of
an attack. For example, the operating system is normally in charge of protecting real memory,
and if it fails to do so this is regarded as a security bug, so the main goal is to check for ways that
the attacker might corrupt real memory rather than assuming it to be corrupted. Similarly, the
tester might well assign low priority to attacks where the attacker would have to break a properly
validated encryption scheme.
Understanding the Assumptions of the Developers
Attackers attack the assumptions of developers. That is, developers have a certain mental view of
the software, and that mental view does not cover every possible thing that the software can do.
This state of affairs is inevitable because software is too complex for a human to carry a
complete, detailed mental picture of it. Nonetheless, the testers job is to find the developers
assumptions, violate those assumptions, and thereby try to uncover vulnerabilities. Often,
developers assumptions come in the form of abstractions that can be anything from a design
diagram to a datatype to a stereotypical view of how the software will be used. An abstraction
can predict and explain certain software behaviors, but by nature there are other things that it
does not predict or explain. Part of the testers job is to break the abstraction by forcing
behaviors that the abstraction does not cover.
Any mental picture is an abstraction; by nature it hides some details in order to provide a
coherent big picture. The designers and developers also had certain abstract views of the
software in mind, as did previous testers, even though those abstractions might not always have
been selected with much conscious thought. For example, an architecture diagram shows the
software at one level of abstraction, the high-level source code shows it at another, and the
machine code at still another. Interactions between the software and the environment are
represented as abstractions too.
A program written in a high-level language is an abstract representation of the actual software
behavior, but if there is a compiler bug it may not reflect the softwares true behavior. In C/C++,
the notorious string buffer is an abstraction that fails to reveal how the characters in a string can
affect the program counter. A high-level architecture diagram is a different kind of abstraction
that does not show how an attacker might interfere with communication between modules.

Therefore, developers whose abstract view of a system is based on the architecture diagram often
fail to foresee such attacks.
This relates to the process of test creation in another way: the process of devising software tests
is driven by the testers own mental picture of how the software system works. For example,
[Whittaker 02] suggests (in the context of ordinary testing) that testers adopt an abstraction
where the software has four classes of users, namely, the file system, the kernel, human users,
and other applications. In this abstraction, program inputs and outputs are mediated by the
kernel. Within this view, a testers mental picture of program behavior depends on whether the
software is viewed as high-level code, object code, machine code, or perhaps even microcode. At
a completely different level of abstraction we might say that the software does not receive input
at all but rather supplies instructions to a microprocessor, which in turn receives input from other
In security testing, there is no correct level of abstraction because any manageable abstraction
hides something, and whatever is hidden might turn out to be exploitable by an attacker. Instead
of trying to find one mental abstraction that is somehow better than the others, the goal is simply
to avoid being dogmatic about this issue and instead try to find behaviors and interactions that
were previously overlooked.
Building a Fault Model
A fault model consists of hypotheses about what might go wrong with a piece of software
[Leveson 95]. In other words, the tester must ask what kinds of vulnerabilities can exist in a
system of this type and what kinds of problems are likely to have been overlooked by the
Often the most important classes of vulnerabilities to consider may be the most common ones,
that is, the vulnerabilities targeted by security scanners, reported in public forums, and so on.
These include buffer overflow vulnerabilities, format string vulnerabilities, cross-site scripting
vulnerabilities, and so on. These kinds of vulnerabilities are undesirable in almost any setting. IT
security personnel can also be a useful resource for keeping track of current vulnerabilities.
Application-specific security requirements lead to a second class of potential vulnerabilities,
where an attacker has the ability to circumvent or otherwise undermine application-specific
security. The fact that these vulnerabilities are not common to a large class of applications makes
it more difficult to hypothesize about specific faults, since there is less experience to draw on
both in the public domain and (most likely) in the testers own body of past experience. Of
course, it is extremely valuable if the tester can find past work on similar systems, and this
potential avenue should not be ignored, but it is more predictable to start with the risk analysis.
Significant portions of the risk analysis might already be based on examination of the software
the analysis may document potential bugsso it may already constitute a significant part of the
fault model.
Finally, many traditional software bugs can also have security implications. Buggy behavior is
almost by definition unforeseen behavior, and as such presents an attacker with the opportunity

for a potential exploit. Indeed, many well-known vulnerabilities, such as buffer overflow, formatstring, and double-free vulnerabilities, could cause a software crash if they were triggered
accidentally rather than being exploited. Crashing software can also expose confidential
information in the form of diagnostics or data dumps. Even if the software does not crash as the
result of a bug, its internal state can become corrupted and lead to unexpected behavior at a later
time. Finally, error handlers themselves are a frequent target of malicious attacks. Attackers
probing a new application often start by trying to crash it themselves. For these reasons,
traditional software faults have to be considered during security testing as well.
One important difference between security testing and other testing activities is that the security
tester is emulating an intelligent attacker. This has several implications. Most importantly, an
adversary might do things that no ordinary user would do, such as entering a thousand-character
surname or repeatedly trying to corrupt a temporary file. Security testers must consider actions
that are far outside the range of normal activity and might not even be regarded as legitimate
tests under other circumstances. Secondly, an attacker will go straight for the programs weak
spots, so the tester must think like the attacker and find the weak spots first. Finding ninety
percent of an applications vulnerabilities does not make the application less vulnerable; it only
reduces the cost of future fixes and increases the odds of finding the remaining problems before
attackers do.
Needless to say, testers must also be aware of other standard attacks such as buffer overflows and
directory-traversal attacks. Even though commercial software is increasingly immune to such
attacks, this immunity stems largely from increased caution on the part of development
organizations. The security tester shares responsibility for sustaining this state of affairs.
Other vulnerabilities may be no less obvious even though they are specific to a given application.
For example, a developer may simply trust input from a given source, without having seriously
considered the possibility that the input might be corrupted by an attacker. Applications might
also write information that is trusted elsewhere without considering whether the attacker can
influence what gets written.

Security Testing in the Software Life Cycle

Activities related to testing take place throughout the software life cycle. Preparatory activities,
especially test planning, take place even before there are any artifacts to test.
At a high level, it is useful to think of software testing as being embodied by the test plan, since
it describes the entire test process. Like risk analysis [Risk Management], test planning is
holistic in that it takes place throughout the software development process, and fractal in that
similar activities take place at different levels of abstraction.
Figure 1. A simplified diagram showing the relationship between risk analysis and test

Test planningand hence testingis intrinsically related to risk analysis. Risk analysis also goes
on throughout the development process, and it leads not only to the identification of risks but
also to the definition of mitigations for those risks. It is often a good idea to devise tests that
probe specific risks identified during risk analysis; this leads to risk-based testing. On the other
hand, it is also necessary to devise tests for mitigations. These are usually functional tests, and
they help determine whether the mitigations have been implemented correctly or implemented at
all. Since risk analysis is an ongoing and fractal process throughout software development, new
information is always becoming available for the test plan, and test planning becomes an
ongoing process as well.
The Start of the Software Life cycle
Usually, the first stage in the software life cycle is when an organization determines the need for
a software product. Sometimes [Grance 04] this is called the initiation phase of the software life
cycle. In a sense, this phase defines what the software product is going to be.
Preparations for security testing can start even before the planned software system has definite
requirements and before a risk analysis has begun. For example, past experience with similar
systems can provide a wealth of information about how attackers have typically tried to subvert
similar systems in the past.
More generally, the initiation phase makes it possible to start a preliminary risk analysis, asking
what environment the software will be subjected to, what its security needs are, and what impact
a breach of security might have. This information provides an early focus for the process of test
planning. If risk analysis starts early, it will also be possible to take a security-oriented approach
when defining requirements.
Security Testing and the Requirements and Design Phases
The process of software development starts by gathering requirements and developing use cases.
In this phase, test planning focuses on outlining how each requirement will be tested. Some
requirements may appear to be untestable, and if test planning is already underway, then those
requirements can be identified and possibly revised to make them testable.
It is important to remember that test planning involves more than just laying out a series of tests.
For example, the test plan must also encompass test management and test automation, map out

the various phases of the test process including entry and exit criteria, and provide an estimate of
the resources needed for each activity (these aspects of test planning will be discussed in greater
detail below). A good test process requires many preliminary activities before testing can begin,
and some of those activities can take time and/or be subject to delays. Mapping out the elements
of the test plan should begin in the requirements phase of the development life cycle in order to
avoid surprises later on.
It is also useful for a more detailed risk analysis to begin during the requirements phase. Testing
is driven by both risks and requirements, and risks are especially important to consider in
security testing. While traditional non-security related risks are linked to what can go wrong if a
requirement is not satisfied, security analysis often uncovers severe security risks that were not
anticipated in the requirements process. In fact, a security risk analysis is an integral part of
secure software development, and it should help drive requirements derivation and system design
as well as in security testing.
The risks identified during this phase may lead to additional requirements that call for features to
mitigate those risks. Mitigations are solutions that are developed to address a particular security
risk. The software development process can be expected to go more smoothly if mitigations are
defined early in the life cycle, when they can be more easily implemented.
The testing process is based on developing test cases for mitigations as well as risks and
requirements. If mitigations are planned for a particular risk, then security testing focuses on
those mitigations as well as the underlying risk itself. If there is time pressure, it is often a
legitimate strategy to spend less time testing against a risk that has a mitigation, on the
assumption that a mitigated risk is less severe. For example, suppose the application being
developed is a web server, and it is determined that there is a risk of injection attacks. Injection
attacks involve the insertion of special characters into URLs, so the usual mitigation for this risk
is to preprocess each URL to ensure that it only contains characters from a certain legal
character set. That requirement can be tested by verifying that the offending characters really are
being rejected. Ultimately, the software design may call for a specific module that performs the
necessary preprocessing work, and this makes the testers task simpler because the necessary
tests might only have to be conducted on that particular module.
The example above illustrates how mitigations can turn a negative requirement into a positive
requirement. The negative requirement is the web server should not be susceptible to injection
attacks and the positive one is only legal characters should be permitted in a URL, where the
definition of legal is also part of the requirement. It is often the case that positive requirements
are easier to test than negative ones. Of course, mitigations should not lead to a false sense of
security; after all, the system might be susceptible to injection from other vectors than URLs, or
else a software flaw might make it possible to bypass the preprocessing module. In other words,
there might still be negative requirements that have to be tested. However, the presence of the
mitigation lets testers spend less time trying out obvious injection attacksonly a few may be
needed to confirm that the mitigation was implemented correctlyand therefore the testers can
spend more time looking for more subtle injection vulnerabilities. The presence of the mitigation
changes what has to be tested (and in most cases it also creates greater confidence in the final

Security Testing in the Test/Coding Phase

Functional security testing generally begins as soon as there is software available to test. A test
plan should therefore be in place at the start of the coding phase and the necessary infrastructure
and personnel should be allocated before testing starts.
Software is tested at many levels in a typical development process, though the actual test
activities may vary from project to project and from organization to organization. For example,
the first test stage often focuses on individual functions, methods, or classes and is known as unit
testing. Subsequently, there might be a stage for testing modules that represent individual
libraries or individual executables, and these might be tested for their adherence to the
requirements as well as for correct integration with one another. The next stage might be to test
small subsystems containing several executable modules and/or libraries, again checking
adherence to requirements and integration. Eventually the entire system is ready to be tested as a
whole, and it too may be tested against the requirements as well as being tested for proper
integration. The complete system may also go through a number of subsequent test stages,
including tests for usability, tests in the operational environment, and stress testing. The above is
not meant to be a description of all test processes, much less a prescription for how to test; it is
simply meant to give the reader a feeling for what a test process might consist of.
This document does not attempt to catalog every possible testing activity. Instead, it will discuss
several broader activities that are common to most test processes, some of which are repeated at
different times for components at different levels of complexity. We will discuss the role of
security testing in each of these activities. The activities discussed below are

unit testing, where individual classes, methods, functions, or other relatively small
components are tested

testing libraries and executable files

functional testing, where software is tested for adherence to requirements

integration testing, whose goal is to test whether software components work together as
they should

system testing, where the entire system is under test

Unit Testing

Unit testing is usually the first stage of testing that a software artifact goes through. There is no
fixed definition of what a unit is for the purposes of unit testing, but usually the term connotes
individual functions, methods, classes, or stubs. Since unit testing generally involves software
artifacts that cannot be executed by themselves, it usually requires test drivers. Unit testing is by
nature functional testing, since there is nothing to integrate yet. It is listed separately here
because it differs in other fundamental ways from later test activities.

During unit testing, the emphasis is usually on positive requirements. Positive requirements state
what software should do as opposed to saying what it should not do. The unit under test is
usually there to implement one or more requirements, and the goal is to confirm that it really
does implement those requirements.
Generally, unit testing is integrated into the development setting. The responsibility for unit
testing often falls on the shoulders of those who are most capable of writing the test drivers,
namely, the developers themselves. In some cases there are also dedicated testers who interact
with individual developers and test the artifacts of those developers.
This integration of unit testing and software development is not only motivated by the need for
test drivers, it also makes the test process more efficient. Later stages of testing might make use
of limited resources such as specialized tools and a customized test environment. It is not
efficient to use these resources for finding bugs that are immediately obvious once the software
is executed, especially if those bugs prevent further testing. This says nothing of the time that is
lost by sending buggy software back and forth between the test and development environments
countless times in order to fix simple and obvious bugs.
In spite of being the responsibility of the developers, a discussion of which security principals
must be included in unit tests should be included in the test plan. This helps ensure that
developers know what they must test, that testers know what they should expect from the
developers, and that the developers have the resources they need to do that part of their job.
When planning unit tests for security, care should be taken not to underestimate the possible
security threats to components deep inside an application. It must be kept in mind that the
attacker's view of the software environment may be quite different from that of the ordinary user.
In other words, the attacker might be able to get at the software in ways that an ordinary user
might not. For example, if a component reads data from a file, it might be appropriate for that
component to validate that data on the assumption that an attacker might have corrupted it. If a
component makes assumptions about inputs provided by a usereven when those inputs are
being checked elsewhereit may be appropriate to validate the assumptions in the component
itself, because these assumptions are best understood by the components developers. Checking
such assumptions locally also simplifies later maintenance in case those assumptions change.
When evaluating potential threats to a software component, one should also keep in mind that
many attacks have two stages: one stage where a remote attacker gains initial access to the
machine, and one stage where the attacker gains control of the machine after gaining access. For
example, an attacker who subverts a web server will initially have only the privileges of that web
server, but the attacker can now use a number of local attack strategies such as corrupting system
resources and running privileged programs in corrupt environments. Therefore, defense in depth
demands that local threats be addressed on systems that are assumed not to have malicious users,
and even on machines that supposedly have no human users at all. Here again, it is appropriate to
ask what assumptions a component makes about its environment and whether those assumptions
are being checked. Attack trees [Schneier 00b] are a common method used to identify and model
security threats that require multiple stages to execute.
Testing Libraries and Executable Files

In many development projects, unit testing is closely followed by a test effort that focuses on
libraries and executable files.
Usually test engineers, rather than software developers, perform testing at this level. A greater
level of testing expertise is needed, and this is particularly true of security testing because the
testers need to be up to date on the latest vulnerabilities and exploits. More generally, security
testing is a specialized talent, and it may be too expensive to hire full-time software developers
that have this talent in addition to being skilled at development. The test environment can also be
complex, encompassing databases, stubs for components that are not yet written, and complex
test drivers used to set up and tear down individual test cases. In security testing, there may also
be a need for specialized technology that crafts customized network traffic, simulates fault and
stress conditions, allows observation of anomalous program behavior, and so on. Aside from the
fact that this technology would be expensive to replicate throughout the development
environment, building and using it may also require the specialized expertise of a test engineer.
It is useful during functional testing to carry out code coverage analysis using a code coverage
tool. This helps in isolating program parts not executed by functional testing. These program
parts may include functions, statements, branches, conditions, etc. Such an analysis helps to

focus and guide testing procedures

assess thoroughness of testing

identify code not executed by tests

check adequacy of regression test suites

keep in sync with code changes

Coverage analysis can be especially important in security testing. Since a determined attacker
will probe the software system thoroughly, security testers must do so as well. Error handling
routines are notoriously difficult to cover during testing, and they are also notorious for
introducing vulnerabilities. Good coding practices can help reduce the risks posed by error
handlers, but it may still be useful to have testware that simulates error conditions during testing
in order to exercise error handlers in a dynamic environment.
Libraries also need special attention in security testing. Components found in a library might
eventually be reused in ways that are not evident in the current system design. Libraries should
be tested with this in mind: just because a library function is protected by other components in
the current design does not mean that it will always be protected in the future. For example, a
buffer overflow in a particular library function may seem to pose little risk because attackers
cannot control any of the data processed by that function, but in the future the function might be
reused in a way that makes it accessible to outside attackers.
Furthermore, libraries may be reused in future software development projects, even if this was
not planned during the design of the current system. This creates additional problems. First, the

persons who developed the library code might not be available later, and the code may not be
well understood anymore. This will make security testing harder when the library is reused, so
initial testing should be thorough. Secondly, vulnerabilities in the library will have a greater
negative impact if the library is reused in many systems. Finally, if the library is used widely,
malicious hackers might become familiar with its vulnerabilities and have exploits already at
hand. This makes it especially important to audit and test library functions early on. Perhaps the
most notorious example of a vulnerable library function is the strcpy()function in the standard C
library, which is susceptible to buffer overflows. For many years, calls to strcpy() and similarly
vulnerable functions were one of the chief causes of software vulnerabilities in deployed
software. By the time strcpy()s vulnerability was discovered, the function was in such
widespread use that removing it from the standard C library would have been infeasible. The
story of strcpy() contains a moral about the value of catching vulnerabilities as soon as possible
and the expense of trying to address vulnerabilities late in the life cycle. (On the other hand, it is
hard to imagine how the authors of strcpy() could have foreseen these problems in the 1960s, so
the there is also a moral about the limitations of secure software engineering in the face of
unknown classes of vulnerabilities.)
Integration Testing

Integration testing focuses on a collection of subsystems, which may contain many executable
components. There are numerous software bugs that appear only because of the way components
interact, and this is true for security bugs as well as traditional ones.
Integration errors are often the result of one subsystem making unjustified assumptions about
other subsystems. A simple example of an integration error occurs when library functions are
called with arguments that have the wrong data type. In C, for example, there need not be a
compiler warning if an integer value is passed where an unsigned integer value is expected, but
doing so can change a negative number to a large positive number. One way that this can lead to
a vulnerability is if the variable in question is used as a buffer length; it can circumvent whatever
bounds checking was done by the calling function. An integration error can also occur if the
caller and the callee both assume that the other function was responsible for bounds checking
and neither one actually does the check.
In fact, the failure to properly check input values is one of the most frequent sources of software
vulnerabilities. In turn, integration errors are one of the most frequent sources of unchecked input
values, because each component might assume that the inputs are being checked elsewhere. (It
was mentioned earlier that components should validate their own data, but in many systems this
is an ideal that has to be sacrificed for reasons of efficiency.) During security testing, it is
especially important to determine what data can and cannot be influenced by a potential attacker.
Error handlers were already mentioned above in the section on functional testing, but they can
also lead to integration errors because of unusual control and data-flow patterns during error
handling. Error handling is one more form of component interaction, and it must be addressed
during integration testing.
System Testing

In the late stages of a software development process, the entire system is available for testing.
This testing stage can (and should) involve integration and functional tests, but it is treated
separately here because the complete system is the artifact that will actually be attacked.
Furthermore, certain activities relevant to software security, such as stress testing, are often
carried out at the system level. Penetration testing is also carried out at the system level, and
when a vulnerability is found in this way there is tangible proof that the vulnerability is real; a
vulnerability that can be exploited during system testing will be exploitable by attackers. Under
resource constraints, these are the most important vulnerabilities to fix, and they are also the ones
that will be taken most seriously by developers.
It was stated above that the complete system is the artifact that will be attacked. This is true even
though an attacker can usually execute individual components once he or she gains access to a
local machine. In order to gain that access it is often necessary to first subvert an outward-facing
software system. The most common example is a system that provides some network service and
is therefore accessible to the world at large, but there are also other cases where an attacker is
forced to deal with an entire software system. For example, an attacker in one protection domain
may be attacking another, or an attacker who controls one layer of an operating system might be
attacking another layer. While defense in depth demands that individual executable programs be
secure, it also demands rigorous security at the system level to help prevent attackers from
getting a toehold in the first place.
Often, penetration testing is associated with system-level testing. Penetration testing makes the
most sense here, because any vulnerabilities it uncovers will be real vulnerabilities. In contrast,
earlier test stages take place in an artificial environment that might not represent the true
environment closely enough. Furthermore, some system components might be represented by
stubs in earlier test stages. The case study in the Case Study section describes a system where
poor version control caused a fault to remain hidden until system testing. The moral of these
examples is the importance of testing the actual artifact that will be deployed, especially in
activities like penetration testing, where the goal is to uncover real vulnerabilities.
Stress testing is also relevant to security because software performs differently when under
stress. For example, when one component is disabled due to insufficient resources, other
components may compensate in insecure ways. An executable that crashes altogether may leave
sensitive information in places that are accessible to attackers. Attackers might be able to spoof
subsystems that are slow or disabled, and race conditions might become easier to exploit. Stress
testing may also exercise error handlers, whose importance was already emphasized above.
Security testers should also look for unusual behavior during stress testing that might signal the
presence of unsuspected vulnerabilities. Stress testing is a time when components are likely to
have to deal with unexpected situations, and many vulnerabilities come about because of
conditions that developers were not expecting.
The importance of functional and integration testing at the system level should not be
overlooked. During earlier test phases, some components are likely to have been replaced by
stubs, and system testing is usually the first time that the system actually does the same things it
will do after deployment.

The Operational Phase

The operational phase of the software life cycle begins when the software is deployed. Often, the
software is no longer in the hands of the developing organization or the original testers.
Traditionally, beta testing is associated with the early operational phase, and beta testing has its
counterpart in the security arena, since white-hat hackers may examine the software in search of
However, beta testing is not the last word because the software system may become vulnerable
after deployment. This can be caused by configuration errors or unforeseen factors in the
operational environment. Vulnerabilities can also creep into an existing system when individual
components are updated. Assumptions that were true about those components during
development may no longer be true after new versions are deployed. It may also be that only
some components are updated while others are not, creating a mlange of software versions
whose exact composition cannot be foreseen in any development setting. This makes the
vulnerabilities of the composite system unforeseeable as well. Some subsystems might also be
customized on site, making it harder still to maintain a big picture of the software system and its
potential vulnerabilities
The risk profile of the system might also change over time, and this creates a need for continuing
security audits on systems deployed in the field. This can happen when the system is used in
ways that were not foreseen during development, or when the relative importance of different
assets grows or diminishes. For example, an organization might unknowingly protect critical
information with encryption methods that are no longer considered secure.
The risk profile can also change when new vulnerabilities are uncovered in existing software
versions. In fact, there may be entirely new classes of vulnerabilities that were not foreseen
during development. For example, a format string vulnerability exists when an attacker can
control the first argument of a C/C++ print statement (these vulnerabilities are discussed
elsewhere in the BSI portal). Before they were recognized as vulnerabilities, it is difficult to
imagine how any development effort, no matter how meticulous, could have systematically
avoided them. The danger of a simple statement like print(working_directory) was simply not
recognized. In general, malicious attackers know about vulnerabilities soon after they are
discovered. A responsible development organization will release a patch, but software users
might not apply the patch. This creates a drastic shift in the systems risk profile.
A related issue is that encryption techniques used by a software system can become obsolete,
either because increasing computational power makes it possible to crack encryption keys by
brute force or because researchers have discovered ways of breaking encryption schemes
previously thought to be secure.
These issues create the need for security audits in deployed systems. Ideally, the audits should be
performed by security professionals, and many test activities, especially those associated with
system testing, can be useful here too.

Unfortunately, security audits often consist of checklists and scans by automated tools. This
makes it necessary to leave the discussion of security testing in the software life cycle on a
somewhat negative note. Too often, organizations place too much faith in weak, automated
testing tools as the sole means of conducting security audits. Such testing tools usually run a
series of canned tests simulating known attacks, although to be fair they also check software
versions and run other checks that do not directly involve penetration attempts. These tools have
their place, but they should not be the sole means of maintaining security in a deployed system.

Security Testing Activities

This section discusses several activities associated with software testing, emphasizing the role of
security. It is not intended as a specification for a test process, but it highlights several parts of
the process that are especially relevant to security testing.
Risk Analysis
The main ingredient of a secure software development process is risk analysis. Risk analysis
serves two main purposes in testing: it forms the basis for risk-based testing, which was
discussed in the Risk-Based Testing section, and it also forms the basis for test prioritization.
The need for test prioritization arises because there is rarely enough time to test as thoroughly as
the tester would like, so tests have to be prioritized with the expectation that tests with lower
priority may not be executed at all. Risk analysis can be used to rank test activities, giving
priority to tests that address the more important risks.
The technical risks identified in the risk analysis should identify threats and vulnerabilities to the
system to guide testing effort. The risks identified should be used to

develop an overall test strategy, which includes defining scope, selecting applicable
testing techniques, defining acceptable test coverage metrics, defining the test
environment, etc.

develop particular tests based on threats, vulnerabilities, and assumptions uncovered by

the analysis. For example, tests could be developed to validate specific design
assumptions or to validate controls (or safeguards) put in place to mitigate certain risks.

increase test coverage and test focus in risky areas identified by the analysis, specifically
vulnerable portions of the software. For example, a specific component or functionality
may be more exposed to untrusted inputs, or the component may be highly complex,
warranting extra attention.

select test data inputs based on threats and usage profiling created by risk analysis. For
example, analysis could reveal that the system may be vulnerable to a privilege escalation

Risk analysis is discussed elsewhere in the BSI portal, but it is mentioned here because it is an
important prerequisite for the other activities discussed in this section.
Creating a Test Plan
The main purpose of a test plan is to organize the security testing process. It outlines which
components of the software system are to be tested and what test procedure is to be used on each
one. A test plan contains more than a simple list of tests that are to be carried out. In general, the
test plan should incorporate both a high-level outline of which artifacts are to be tested and what
methodologies are to be used, and it should also include a general description of the tests
themselves, including prerequisites, setup, execution, and a description of what to look for in the
test results. The high-level outline is useful for administration, planning, and reporting, while the
more detailed descriptions are meant to make the test process go smoothly. Often, the test plan
has to account for the fact that time and budget constraints prohibit testing every component of a
software system, and a risk analysis is one way of prioritizing the tests.
While not all testers like using test plans, test plans provide a number of benefits.

They provide a written record of what is to be done.

They allow project stakeholders to sign off on the intended testing effort. This helps
ensure that the stakeholders agree with the elements of the plan and will support the test

Test plans provide a way to measure progress. This allows testers to determine whether
they are on schedule, and also provides a concise way to report progress to the

Due to time and budget constraints, it is often impossible to test all components of a
software system. A test plan allows the analyst to succinctly record what the testing
priorities are.

The reason that some testers dislike test plans is that they can constrain testers and prevent them
from following up on observations and hunches that could lead to unexpected discoveries. This
can be especially true in security testing, where the focus on negative requirements makes it
desirable to investigate unexpected anomalies found during testing. However, a testing effort
involving more than one person can easily deteriorate without a written plan. A good solution is
to let testers deviate from the specific tests outlined in the test plan, but simply require that these
changes be documented.
The information needed for test planning starts becoming available as soon as the software life
cycle starts, but information continues arriving until the moment that the actual software artifact
is ready for testing. In fact, the test process itself can generate information useful in the planning
of further tests.

Therefore, test planning is an ongoing process. At its inception, a test plan is only a general
outline of the intended test process, but more and more of the details are fleshed out as additional
information becomes available.
For larger projects, the test plan is typically broken down into test cycles. This occurs for two
reasons: first, the developing organization may modify software after problems are uncovered
and then send the software back to be retested. Secondly, it is often inefficient for testing to begin
only when development ends, so one component may be in testing while other components of the
same system are still under development. In the first case, test cycles are created by the need to
retest software that was already tested once before; in the second case, test cycles arise because
the nature of the development effort implies that different modules will be tested at different
In creating the test plan, inter-component dependencies must be taken into account so that the
potential need for retesting is minimized. In an ideal world, the testing organization would be
able to actually specify the order in which components are tested, ensuring that each module is
tested before other modules that might be dependent on it. In practice this is not so easy because
the developing organization might be reluctant to change the planned sequence in which the
components are to be developed. It may be that the testing organization can do no more than take
these dependencies into account when creating the test plan.
Usually, a test plan also includes validation of the test environment and the test data. This is
necessary because, for example, the test environment may fail to reflect the intended operational
environment and crash the software, or the test data may be generated automatically and have an
incorrect format.
Within each cycle, the test plan should map out the test cases that should be created during the
test execution process. A test case typically includes information on the preconditions and
postconditions of the test, information on how the test will be set up and how it will be torn
down, and information about how the test results will be evaluated. The test case also defines a
test condition, which is the actual state of affairs that is going to be tested; e.g., the tester creates
the test condition in order to see how the software responds. The process of actually devising test
conditions is a challenging one for security testing, and discussed in a separate section below.
The goal of test planning is to make the test process itself as automatic as possible, which not
only makes the process go more smoothly but also makes it repeatable. Therefore the test plan
should provide as much guidance as possible. In addition to the items already discussed, the test
plan should specify what the tester should be looking for in each test, and if specific test
preparations are required, then these should be included in the test plan too.
A typical security test plan might contain the following elements:


Software Under Test Overview

Software and Components

Test Boundaries

Test Limitations

Risk Analysis

Synopsis of Risk Analysis

Test Strategy


Test Approach

Items Not To Be Tested

Test Requirements

Functionality Test Requirements

Security Test Requirements

Installation/Configuration Test Requirements

Stress and Load Test Requirements

User Documentation

Personnel Requirements

Facility and Hardware Requirements

Test Environment

Test Case Specifications


Unique Test Identifier

Requirement Traceability (what requirement number from requirement document

does test case validate)

Input Specifications

Output Specifications/Expected Results

Environmental Needs

Special Procedural Requirements

Dependencies Among Test Cases

Test Automation and Testware


Testware Architecture

Test Tools


Test Execution

Test Entry Criteria

QA Acceptance Tests

Regression Testing

Test Procedures
Special requirements
Procedure steps

Test Schedule

Test Exit Criteria

Test Management Plan

Definitions and Acronyms

Establishing the Test Environment

Testing requires the existence of a test environment. Establishing and managing a proper test
environment is critical to the efficiency and effectiveness of a testing effort. For simple
application programs, the test environment may consist of a single computer, but for enterpriselevel software systems, the test environment may be much more complex, and the software may
be closely coupled to the environment.

For security testing, it is often necessary for the tester to have more control over the environment
than in other testing activities. This is because the tester must be able to examine and manipulate
software/environment interactions at a greater level of detail, in search of weaknesses that could
be exploited by an attacker. The tester must also be able to control these interactions. The test
environment should be isolated, especially if, for example, a test technique produces potentially
destructive results during testing that might invalidate the results of any concurrent test activity.
Although it is not a good practice, it often happens that establishing the test environment is
deferred until a week or so before the test execution begins. This may result in delays for starting
execution, significant cost overruns, and encountering numerous problems at the onset of
execution due to an inadequate or untested environment. The leader of the test stage will be
responsible for ensuring that the architecture or technical environment team is beginning the
process of establishing the environment during test planning so that it is ready to use for
The environment must be ready for the initial code migration two to four weeks prior to
execution. Databases should also be populated via conversion programs or file load facilities.
Once the environment is set up, a testing resource, in conjunction with a resource involved in
setting up the environment, should execute portions of the test to ensure that the environment is
set up correctly. This saves time up front by reducing the number of problems specifically related
to the environment and ensures that all testers are productive at the onset of the test execution. In
addition, this test serves as the inspection of the exit criteria of the environment setup.
Keep in mind that as the testing process progresses, environments from previous stages of testing
will still be needed to support regression testing of defects.
Just prior to execution, the leader of a test stage will need to ensure that architecture and
technical support personnel are allocated to support the environment and a support schedule is
developed by areas of expertise (DBAs, network specialists, etc.), identifying a primary and
secondary contact for each day of execution. This support schedule should be distributed to the
test executors.
Setting up this operational environment early on prevents unforeseen testing delays that might be
caused by nonessential setup errors. It also helps ensure a thorough understanding of risks
associated with the operational environment.
This preparatory activity can best be understood by thinking of testing as an activity closely
analogous to software development, involving its own requirements, specifications, support
tools, version control, and so on. In a well-planned software development process, developers
should not get stuck because of missing tools, missing information about how modules will work
together, confusion about software versions, and so on, and the same is true of a well-planned
test process.
Like risk analysis, test planning is a holistic process. It is also fractal in the sense that similar
activities take place at different levels of abstraction: there is often a master test plan that outlines
the entire test process, augmented by more detailed test plans for individual test stages,

individual modules, and so on. For example, the master test plan for a web server might state that
unit testing is carried out by developers, followed by module testing performed by test engineers,
integration testing in a straw-man environment, system testing in a simulated real environment,
and stress testing with specialized tools (a real test plan generally includes more phases than
this). Each of these test phases might have its own test plan, and for each phase there may be a
test plan for each artifact that is being tested.

Relevant Metrics
Gerald Weinberg once stated, Its possible to meet any goal on a software project so long as the
quality standard is not fixed. Its true. Its simple to make a project appear as if its running on
schedule when you dont have to meet any quality standard. Every status report needs to show
objective measures of progress, such as how many tests have been executed and how many are
passing. It should also show a cumulative graph of the number of defects reported and the
number fixed. Without this information, it is meaningless to claim that a project is on schedule.
Both the quantity and quality of testing needs to be measured to help make a quantifiable
assessment about how well the software has been tested. Unfortunately, there are no industrystandard metrics for measuring test quantity and test quality, although several published papers
have proposed such measures. In general, test metrics are used as a means of determining when
to stop testing and when to release the software to the customer.
The test criteria to be considered and the rationale behind using these criteria are described

Test requirements criteria: One of the purposes of testing is to demonstrate that the
software functions as specified by the requirements. Thus every software requirement
must be tested by at least one corresponding test case. By having traceability from test
cases to functional requirements, one can determine the percentage of requirements tested
to the total number of requirements. Thus, test requirement metric is defined as the ratio
of requirements tested to the total number of requirements.

Test coverage criteria: Testing should attempt to exercise as many parts of the software
as possible, since code that is not exercised can potentially hide faults. Exercising code
comprehensively involves covering all the execution paths through the software.
Unfortunately, the number of such paths in even a small program can be astronomical,
and hence it is not practical to execute all these paths. The next best thing is to exercise as
many statements, branches, and conditions as possible. Thus, we can define the test
coverage criteria such as statement coverage, branch coverage, etc. Standard off-the-shelf
coverage tools can be used to monitor coverage levels as testing progresses.

Test case metric: This metric is useful when it is plotted with respect to time. Essentially,
such a plot will show the total number of test cases created, how many have been
exercised, how many test cases have passed, and how many have failed over time. This
project-level metric provides a snapshot of the progress of testing?where the project is
today and what direction it is likely to take tomorrow.

Defect metrics: This metric is also very useful when plotted with respect to time. It is
more informative to plot cumulative defects found since the beginning of testing to the
date of the report. The slope of this curve provides important information. If the slope of
the curve is rising sharply, large numbers of defects are being discovered rapidly, and
certainly testing efforts must be maintained, if not intensified. In contrast, if the slope is
leveling off, it might mean fewer failures are being found. It might also mean that the
quality of testing has decreased.
Ultimately, the effectiveness of testing can only be deduced when data on defects is
collected in actual operational use after the software is released. It is recommended that
defects found during actual operational use be measured consistently at two standard
points after delivery to the user(s), such as three and six months. (This will clearly
depend on the release schedule. For example, a six month sampling period will not be
appropriate for software with a four month release schedule.)

Test case quality metric: Test cases fail when the application under test produces a
result other than what is expected by the test case. This can happen due to several
reasons, one being a true defect in the application. Other reasons could be a defect in the
test case itself, a change in the application, or a change in the environment of the test
case. A test case can be defined to be of high quality whenever it finds a true defect in the
application. Test case quality metric can be defined as the ratio of test case failures
resulting in a defect to the total number of test case failures.

The most important of these metrics are defect metrics. Defect metrics must be collected and
carefully analyzed in the course of the project. These are very important data. Some of these
metrics may require that the problem tracking system be modified.
Information to track about each defect includes

date found

date resolved

status (open: need attention by owner; resolved: decision or fix made, needs verification
by QA; concluded: resolution verified by QA)

resolution (fixed, deferred, cannot reproduce, rejected - not a bug, duplicate)

brief description

detailed description (steps to reproduce, expected results, actual results, notes)



waiver status (used after code freeze)

reported by

assigned to

found in (build version)

fixed in (build version)

product area


error type (from error taxonomy)

fix effort (in hours)

how found (test case ###, exploratory)


audit trail of any changes to the problem report

The following is a brief description of the priority and severity fields in a defect report.
Priority: This is a measure of the probability that the failure mode can occur in the field during
typical usage, such as a scale from 1 (most damage) to 5 (least damage).
Severity: This denotes the absolute severity of the failure mode in question, regardless of
probability of occurrence. The scale could be as follows:
1. loss of data, system completely unusable (cant use system, user is blocked)
2. loss of functionality with no workaround
3. loss of functionality with a workaround
4. partial loss of functionality
5. cosmetic or trivial


All time-oriented metrics should be measured on a daily scale. These metrics should be
automated so they are updated on a daily basis. The reports should be available for the whole
system and on the level of individual product areas.
These are the major reports to produce. Others may be useful, depending on the circumstances:

total open, by priority

stop-ship problems (as indicated by waiver field)

find rate, by severity (daily and 15-day rolling average)

resolution type versus severity for all resolved problems (total and last 15 days)

unreviewed problems, by priority

unverified resolutions (a.k.a. QA backlog)

who found (by function)

reopen rate, over time (number of problems with resolutions that were rejected by QA,
and thus reopened rather than concluded)

Collection Protocol
The problem database should be maintained primarily by the test team. All problems found by
anyone during and after functional testing must be logged in the database. Encourage the
developers to submit problems to testers for entry into the database, since the alternative is that
many problem reports wont be logged at all.
This protocol can be enforced easily by requiring that all changes made after code freeze are
associated with a problem number. Prior to each build, the change list is then compared to the
problem tracking system.
Problems found by customer engineering, and ultimately the customer, are also important to
How To Use the Metrics
Defect metrics are vital to the successful management of a high assurance test project. A
complete treatment of the subject is beyond the scope of this report. However, here are a few
important points to keep in mind:

Defect metrics should be used by the test manager and the project manager, on more or
less a daily basis, to review the status of the product, scan for risks, and guide the testing
effort toward areas of greatest risk.

The product should ship with 0 open problem reports, and 0 resolved but not verified. All
problem reports should be resolved and verified.

We do not recommend a find rate requirement (e.g., no defects found for a week) for
shipping the product, since such requirements are arbitrary and subject to accidental
abuse. We do recommend reviewing each and every problem found in the final third or
quarter of the project and using that information to question the efficacy of the test effort
and to re-analyze technical risk. This is far more useful than an aggregate find rate at
apprising management of the products readiness to ship.

While we dont advocate a find rate requirement for shipping, a 15-day rolling average
defect find rate that drops substantially below the highest fifteen day rolling average find
rate for important bugs (say, the top two severity or priority categories) in the project
should trigger inquiry into whether a new release is needed or whether new tests or test
techniques should be employed. Keeping the important problem find rate as high as
possible throughout the project is an important goal of the test team.

The problem reopen rate is an indicator of the competence of the testers, the health of the
relationship between testing and development, the testability of the product, and the
thoroughness of developers in investigating and resolving problems. In general, the
reopen rate should start low (less than 1 out of 10 resolutions rejected) and get steadily
lower over the course of the project.

Case Study
Although it is strongly recommended that an organization not rely exclusively on security test
activities to build security into a system, security testing, when coupled with other security
activities performed throughout the SDLC, can be very effective in validating design
assumptions, discovering vulnerabilities associated with the application environment, and
identifying implementation issues that may lead to security vulnerabilities.
For example, an organization had assembled a large software development team to build a highprofile Internet-based gaming system. The gaming system was planned to augment an existing,
government-sponsored, paper-based gaming system. Understanding the broad and potentially
significant security implications relating to the system, the development organization made every
effort to design security into the product. A security architect was involved with the development
effort from initial requirement generation through system delivery. Security activities were
conducted throughout the SDLC to ensure that security was built into the system. These included
the following:

Security-based requirements were developed.

Security-based risk assessments to identify areas of greatest risk to the business and the
technology platform were completed.

Findings from the risk assessments were addressed in the security architecture and

Security-based design and architecture reviews were conducted.

Security training was provided to developers.

Code reviews were conducted on security-critical components.

Despite these efforts, an issue associated with the input validation component was identified
during system-level security testing. Although input validation was engineered into the overall
design and the component had been previously approved in both design and code reviews, there
was an issue. The source of the problem was later identified to be associated with the build
process. An incorrectly functioning and previously rejected input validation component had
made its way into the final build. Had it not been for the final system-level security test activity,
the system would have been deployed with the faulty input validation mechanism.

Some additional material in this document was provided by Girish Janardhanudu and Carol
Lemberg. Some other material is taken from internal Cigital, Inc. documents whose authorship
cannot be definitely attributed but includes James Bach, Brian Marick, Kamesh Pammeraju, and
Danny Faught.

acceptance testing
Formal testing conducted to enable a user, customer, or other authorized entity to determine
whether to accept a system or component. [IEEE 90]
ad hoc testing
Testing carried out using no recognized test case design technique. [BS-7925]
The process of confirming the correctness of the claimed identity. [SANS 03]
black box testing
Testing that is based on an analysis of the specification of the component without reference to its
internal workings. [BS-7925]
buffer overflow

A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process tries to store more data in a data storage
area than it was intended to hold. Since buffers are created to contain a finite amount of data, the
extra informationwhich has to go somewherecan overflow into the runtime stack, which
contains control information such as function return addresses and error handlers.
buffer overflow attack
See stack smashing.
See fault.
capture/replay tool
A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored
can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. [BS-7925]
compatibility testing
Testing whether the system is compatible with other systems with which it should communicate.
A minimal software item for which a separate specification is available. [BS-7925]
conformance testing
The process of testing that an implementation conforms to the specification on which it is based.
Data exchanged between an HTTP server and a browser (a client of the server) to store state
information on the client side and retrieve it later for server use. An HTTP server, when sending
data to a client, may send along a cookie, which the client retains after the HTTP connection
closes. A server can use this mechanism to maintain persistent client-side state information for
HTTP-based applications, retrieving the state information in later connections. [SANS 03]
The degree to which software conforms to its specification. [BS-7925]
cryptographic attack

A technique for successfully undermining an encryption scheme.

Cryptography garbles a message in such a way that anyone who intercepts the message cannot
understand it. [SANS 03]
The set from which values are selected. [BS-7925]
domain testing
Testing with test cases based on the specification of input values accepted by a software
component. [Beizer 90]
dynamic analysis
The process of evaluating a system or component based on its behavior during execution. [IEEE
Dynamic Link Library (DLL)
A collection of small programs, any of which can be called when needed by a larger program that
is running in the computer. Small programs that enable larger programs to communicate with a
specific device such as a printer or scanner are often packaged as DLL programs (usually
referred to as DLL files). [SANS 03]
Cryptographic transformation of data (called plaintext) into a form (called cipher text) that
conceals the datas original meaning to prevent it from being known or used. [SANS 03]
The inability of a system or component to perform its required functions within specified
performance requirements. [IEEE 90]
A manifestation of an error in software. A fault, if encountered, may cause a failure. [RTCA 92]
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The protocol in the Internet Protocol (IP) family used to transport hypertext documents across an
internet. [SANS 03]

integration testing
Testing performed to expose faults in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated
components. [BS-7925]
interface testing
Integration testing in which the interfaces between system components are tested. [BS-7925]
isolation testing
Component testing of individual components in isolation from surrounding components, with
surrounding components being simulated by stubs. [BS-7925]
The essential center of a computer operating system, the core that provides basic services for all
other parts of the operating system. A synonym is nucleus. A kernel can be contrasted with a
shell, the outermost part of an operating system that interacts with user commands. Kernel and
shell are terms used more frequently in UNIX and some other operating systems than in IBM
mainframe systems. [SANS 03]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
A unit of the U.S. Commerce Department. Formerly known as the National Bureau of Standards,
NIST promotes and maintains measurement standards. It also has active programs for
encouraging and helping industry and science to develop and use these standards. [SANS 03]
negative requirements
Requirements that state what software should not do.
operational testing
Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component in its operational environment. [IEEE 90]
A port is nothing more than an integer that uniquely identifies an endpoint of a communication
stream. Only one process per machine can listen on the same port number. [SANS 03]
Environmental and state conditions that must be fulfilled before the component can be executed
with a particular input value.

A formal specification for communicating; the special set of rules that end points in a
telecommunication connection use when they communicate. Protocols exist at several levels in a
telecommunication connection. [SANS 03]
Appearing to be random, when actually generated according to a predictable algorithm or drawn
from a prearranged sequence.
race condition
A race condition exploits the small window of time between a security control being applied and
the service being used. [SANS 03]
The registry in Windows operating systems is the central set of settings and information required
to run the Windows computer. [SANS 03]
regression testing
Retesting of a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not
been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made. [BS-7925]
A capability that must be met or possessed by the system/software (requirements may be
functional or non-functional). [BS-7925]
requirements-based testing
Designing tests based on objectives derived from requirements for the software component (e.g.,
tests that exercise specific functions or probe the non-functional constraints such as performance
or security). [BS-7925]
reverse engineering
Acquiring sensitive data by disassembling and analyzing the design of a system component
[SANS 03]; acquiring knowledge of a binary programs algorithms or data structures.
risk assessment
The process by which risks are identified and the impact of those risks is determined. [SANS 03]

security policy
A set of rules and practices that specify or regulate how a system or organization provides
security services to protect sensitive and critical system resources. [SANS 033]
A system entity that provides a service in response to requests from other system entities called
clients. [SANS 03]
A virtual connection between two hosts by which network traffic is passed. [SANS 03]
The socket tells a hosts IP stack where to plug in a data stream so that it connects to the right
application. [SANS 03]
Computer programs (which are stored in and executed by computer hardware) and associated
data (which also is stored in the hardware) that may be dynamically written or modified during
execution. [SANS 03]
A description, in any suitable form, of requirements. [BS-7925]
specification testing
An approach to testing wherein the testing is restricted to verifying that the system/software
meets the specification. [BS-7925]
SQL Injection
SQL injection is a type of input validation attack specific to database-driven applications where
SQL code is inserted into application queries to manipulate the database. [SANS 03]
stack smashing
The technique of using a buffer overflow to trick a computer into executing arbitrary code.
[SANS 03]
state transition

A transition between two allowable states of a system or component. [BS-7925]

state transition testing
A test case design technique in which test cases are designed to execute state transitions. [BS7925]
static analysis
Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. [BS-7925]
static analyzer
A tool that carries out static analysis. [BS-7925]
stress testing
Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified
requirements. [IEEE 90]
A skeletal or special-purpose implementation of a software module used to develop or test a
component that calls or is otherwise dependent on it. [IEEE 90].
syntax testing
A test case design technique for a component or system in which test case design is based on the
syntax of the input. [BS-7925]
system testing
The process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements. [Hetzel
test automation
The use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to
predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting
test case
A set of inputs, execution preconditions, and expected outcomes developed for a particular
objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific
requirement. [IEEE 90]

test suite
A collection of one or more test cases for the software under test. [BS-7925]
test driver
A program or test tool used to execute software against a test suite. [BS-7925]
test environment
A description of the hardware and software environment in which tests will be run and any other
software with which the software under test interacts when under test, including stubs and test
drivers. [BS-7925]
test plan
A record of the test planning process detailing the degree of tester independence, the test
environment, the test case design techniques and test measurement techniques to be used, and the
rationale for their choice. [BS-7925]
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Training and Awareness

Published: September 26, 2005 | Last revised: August 07, 2013

Author(s): Carol Sledge and Ken van Wyk Maturity Levels and Audience
Indicators: L3 / M SDLC Life Cycles: Deployment Copyright: Copyright
Carnegie Mellon University 2005-2012.

This article provides guidance on training and awareness opportunities in the field of software
security. It examines the state of the practice of commercial/non-profit software security training
and awareness offerings and makes recommendations for goals and curricula contents.
State of the PracticeCommercial
State of the PracticeAcademic
Best Practices in Training and Awareness
Measuring Knowledge
Business Case
Commercial Training Examples
Academic Curricula Sampling

This document is intended to provide guidance on training and awareness opportunities in the
field of software security. It examines the state of the practice of commercial/non-profit software
security training and awareness offerings and makes recommendations for goals and curricula
An effective training program is vital to adopting new software development practices. And,
because software security is still an emerging and rapidly changing field, there are few
experienced developers who are familiar with the sorts of practices described here in the Build
Security In (BSI) portal. As such, a clearly defined training and awareness campaign is
particularly important for this effort. Indeed, Microsoft considers developer training to be a vital
component of its Security Development Lifecycle (SDL), and makes annual training a
requirement for all of its software engineers [Howard 2006].
A commonly heard gripe in the industry is that academic curricula do not adequately address
software security issues. We take a brief look here at offerings from universities and colleges in
the United States, in particular those associated with the National Security Agency (NSA) and
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Centers for Academic Excellence in Information
Assurance. When possible, it is a good idea to guide training and choice of academic programs
by a recognized common body of knowledge (CBK). The DHS-sponsored Software Assurance
Curriculum Project (SwACP) in 2010 released a Master of Software Assurance (MSwA)
Reference Curriculum, which contains a CBK [Mead 2010]. The curriculum is recognized by the
IEEE Computer Society (IEEE-CS) and Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) as

appropriate for a masters program in software assurance. This formal recognition signifies to the
educational community that the MSwA Reference Curriculum is suitable for creating graduate
programs or tracks in software assurance. February 2012 saw the release of the strawman draft of
the Computer Science Curricula 2013 (CS2013) by the ACM and the IEEE-CS [Sahami 2012].
Information Assurance and Security is one of two new knowledge areas in CS2013. Information
Systems Security Certification Consortium, Inc. (ISC) develops and maintains the (ISC) CBK,
a compendium of information security topics.

State of the PracticeCommercial/Non-Profit

To assess the state of commercial training offerings available today, we examined the publicly
available documentation, syllabuses, etc. from numerous commercial/non-profit organizations.
We looked for training that emphasizes as much of the BSI concepts as possible, including the
best practice activities, knowledge base topics, and available tools. We also looked for training
that is largely process agnostic, as are the concepts laid out in BSI.
The good news is that there are indeed many offerings to choose from. They range in size and
scope, and they cover a broad spectrum of aspects of software security. The biggest strength in
the available courses is that most of them provide a good amount of detail on the technical nature
of current problems and available solution sets. There are also more role-based offerings, such as
the Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional (CSSLP) offered by (ISC).
That said, the bad news is that a number of the available commercial courses appear to suffer
from various shortcomings, at least with regard to the approaches presented in BSI. What follows
is a brief description of those shortcomings, along with recommendations on how to avoid or
alleviate them.

Security software vs. software security. According to their syllabuses, many of

the software security training offerings spend a great deal of time describing
security functionality (the use of encryption, identification and authentication
mechanisms, etc.). Although these security functions are vital ingredients of
software security, they are essentially security ingredients. The topic of
software security goes far beyond a simple list of security ingredients.

Knowledge vs. practices. Similarly, many of the training offerings focus on

individual problems (e.g., buffer overflows) and their respective point
solutions. Avoiding these pitfalls is also vital to writing secure software, but
much else needs to be covered for the training to be as effective as it needs
to be.

Network and operating system focus. Although not as common as the above
two shortcomings, some of the available training offerings appear to present
a network and operating system centric point of view to the issues of
developing secure software.

While all of the above elements are important to cover in a software security training program,
what we feel is principally lacking in a number of the course offerings is adequate coverage of

security processes that are necessary to incorporate software security into the development
processes and practices. These should be at least similar to those presented in the Best Practices
area of BSI. Further, an emphasis should be placed on some high-value best practice activities
such as abuse case analysis, architectural risk analysis, risk-based testing, and code review
practices and tools.
At least the situation is steadily improving, with numerous high-quality courses recently
becoming available. There are improved courses and certifications, and, as mentioned earlier, the
more holistic software development security assurance process embodied in Microsofts Security
Development Lifecycle. SDL embeds security processes into the software development lifecycle
to make it more secure. These security processes include, security requirements, threat
modeling, static analysis, dynamic analysis, security review and product incident response
[Chess 2012]. Additionally, Microsoft makes SDL information and tools available to (external)
developers on its website (link is external) and blog (link is external).
The Denim Group has donated its ThreadStrong secure software development courses to U.S.
universities to help students learn how to build more secure software.More information including
how universities can apply for a complimentary license is available on the CERT website.
The software assurance community as a whole is building upon earlier efforts and provides
information, methods and frameworks, which can be used by individuals and organizations, and
incorporated into course offerings (non-academic and academic.) According to The Software
Industrys Clean Water Act Alternative, Robert A. Martin and Steven M. Christey the
Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE)CWE is co-sponsored by MITRE and the National
Cyber Security Division of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. offers the industry a list
of potentially dangerous software contaminants, and the Common Weakness Scoring System
(CWSS) and the Common Weakness Risk Analysis Framework (CWRAF) provide a standard
method to identify which of these contaminants are most harmful to a particular organization,
given the softwares intended use. CWE, CWSS, and CWRAF efforts are being adopted by the
community and integrated into static-analysis offerings and other solutions [Martin 2012].
Among others, SANS publically declared support and plans to incorporate CWSS. Likewise
EC-Counciland OWASP all declared their plans to work on using and evolving CWRAF to
meet community needs for a software error scoring system[Martin 2012]. The Top 25
CWEs represent the most significant exploitable software constructs that have made software so
vulnerable. Addressing these will go a long way in security software, both in development and in
operationSee the list of Top 25 CWE Most Dangerous Software Errors on the Software
Assurance Community Resources and Information Clearinghouse website for more.. The CWE
site also contains other information for self-directed training.

State of the PracticeAcademic

Within academia, a number of colleges and universities are now offering optional senior-level
undergraduate and graduate courses in software security. These courses tend to be broader in
focus than their commercial/non-profit counterparts, in that they include discussions on the sorts
of best practice activities mentioned above in addition to discussions of common vulnerabilities.
Additionally, a number of community colleges may also offer courses in this area. A number of

these community college offerings are aligned with commercial offerings and/or certifications.
Departments and programs such as Computer Information Systems are likely to teach
applications development. To facilitate more community college offerings, the Department of
Homeland Security (DHS) sponsored the Software Assurance Curriculum Project (SwACP),
which has produced a report [Mead 2011] and article [Hawthorne 2012] focusing on community
college courses for software assurance. The courses are intended to provide supplementary
education for students with prior undergraduate technical degrees who wish to become more
specialized in software assurance or to provide students with fundamental skills for continuing
with graduate-level education. Since community colleges exist to serve their immediate
constituencies, industry may find faculty and programs willing to incorporate additional secure
software topics and courses. Community colleges are of particular importance, as many
practitioners utilize these (less expensive) community college offerings for additional training
choosing courses based on their particular needs, and not necessarily with the intent of obtaining
(another) degree or certification.
With respect to four-year undergraduate and graduate schools, one excellent source of programs
are those academic institutions that have obtained (and are currently designated as) Centers for
Academic Excellence (CAE) in Information Assurance Education (IAE). This designation is
jointly sponsored by the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Department of Homeland
Security (DHS) and awarded for a period of five years. Recently CAEs in IA two-year Education
and Training were added. The currentAs of July 3rd, 2012. list of CAE/IAE academic institutions
(those in 42 U.S. states, plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) can be obtained at the
NSA website.
As an example, selecting Stevens Institute of Technology (NJ) from that list on the NSA website
will take you to the Center for the Advancement of Secure Systems and Information Assurance
(CASSIA) (link is external). Scrolling down to Academic Programs will show a list of
undergraduate degree programs, masters programs, doctoral programs, and graduate certificates
available. Knowing the names of the programs and certificates can help locate the specific
information in the various departmental sites.
As was the case for appropriate community college courses, some professionals may choose to
take particular courses for continuing professional development/education purposes. For those in
senior level positions or those who already have advanced degrees, it may be that they choose to
take courses for professional enhancement, rather than matriculate for a degree or certification.
There is certainly room for optimism in these findings, while at the same time there is also room
for improvement. For example, a strong argument for integrating discussions of secure design
processes, avoiding buffer overflows, and similar topics into the more general computer science
courses could easily be made; why not teach students to avoid strcpy() and the like in an
Introduction to C course? Integrating software security into the entire curriculum is bound to be
more effective than offering it as a senior-level elective course. Fortunately, some faculty are
doing this. For example, Dr. Steven Hadfield and other faculty within the Department of
Computer Science at the U. S. Air Force Academy have used a cross-curricular approach to
integrate software assurance and secure programming concepts across their course offerings
[Hadfield 2011, 2012]. Additionally, there are other efforts to provide faculty with materials. Dr.

Blair Taylor of Towson University led a group of educators to produce modules related to
security injections. "Security injections are strategically-placed security-related modules for
existing undergraduate classes. The combination of lab exercises and student-completed
checklists in these security injections has helped us teach security across the curriculum without
adding extra pressure on already-overburdened undergraduate degree programs"This work was
funded under National Science Foundation grant DUE-0817267. [McKay 2012]. These materials
are available at the Towson University website (link is external) .
For some organizations, it may make sense to partner with academic institutions or faculty to
offer specific courses, training, etc. Large organizations may decide to go even further. Recently
Northrop Grumman and the University of Maryland teamed to develop a curriculum to produce
graduates who can enter the workforce with an eye toward cybersecurity defense. Northrop
Grumman will provide financial support and, in the fall of 2013, the university will develop 45
students per year in the Advanced Cybersecurity Experience for Students (ACES) program. The
students, from majors including computer science, engineering, business, public policy and
social sciences, will live together in a learning-living program and use state-of-the-art
laboratories in the yearlong capstone project [McKay 2012].

Best Practices in Training and Awareness

As stated above, we feel that a best practice software security training program today should
encompass the various best practices, knowledge bases, and tools presented in BSI. Further,
training and awareness initiatives should plan forat a minimumthree target audiences: senior
decision makers, engineering managers, and software developers. Each of the audiences should
receive training that addresses its needs, naturally. The most fundamental goals and objectives
for each audience follow.

Senior decision makers

For a software security initiative to succeed in an organization, the organizations senior
decision makers need to support the initiative with their buy-in. Therefore, an awareness
training program should be presented to them that clearly articulates the need for
software security and the difficulties faced in delivering secure software. The training
should also succinctly describe the best practices necessary to accomplish those

Engineering managers
Likewise, engineering or software development managers (across all of the organizations
and disciplines involved in the overall development process) also need to buy into a
software security initiative. Additionally, however, they need to have a thorough
understanding of the software security practices that their organization will be
incorporating into its development processes and specifically what their suborganizations will need to do as a result. This is essential for managers to understand for
purposes of project planning and execution. Thus, managers should be provided training
content that describes the need for software security, as well as a thorough description

and understanding of their organizations software security practices. The training should
emphasize, where possible and feasible, the levels of effort for each software security
activity involved, how to identify areas for improving existing software security practices
(e.g., evaluate and improve), as well as methods for measuring a development
organizations software security effectiveness. It may be beneficial to tailor the training
content by audience somewhate.g., development managers are likely to have different
specific needs and interests than test and quality assurance managers. In this case, the
disciplines that each audience are directly responsible for should be emphasized and
covered in more detail than the others.

Software developers
Software developers should receive training that provides them with a conceptual
foundation of software security, its importance to their organization, and the practices
used within their organization. They should gain practical knowledge about the benefits
of software security. Additionally, developers should receive technology-specific security
training in each of the technologies that are involved in designing, coding, and testing
software in the technologies that they work with. In the same manner that the training for
the management may be tailored by the audiences disciplines, the content for software
developers must emphasize the aspects of software development that they work on
directly. Further, it should be replete with code examples and hands-on exercises/labs to
help reinforce the course material [Howard 2006].

With these goals and objectives in mind, the following outlines are presented as guidelines for
developing organizational curricula for software security training.
Training Courses and Outlines by Audience
For each of the three audiences, it is particularly useful to clearly address the rationale for each
security activity. Where feasible, consider demonstrating the activity through exercises,
examples, and in-depth anecdotes from case studies.
Software security awareness training for senior decision makers should look similar to the
1. Introduction to software security problems
This training module should present an overview of the security problems faced today by
software developers. Its aim should be to convince the audience why traditional and
largely separate approaches to information security and software development are flawed
from a software security perspective. Further, it should present an accurate business case
that weighs the often conflicting goals of development and security.
1. Shortcomings of traditional perimeter-based network security solutions
2. Common software weaknesses

3. Balancing the different goals of security and software development

2. Software security activities to integrate into the SDLC
This module should provide a basic conceptual overview of software security activities
and their impact on the SDLC for the senior decision maker audience. It should
principally focus on describing the activities and their associated costsmonetary and
1. Requirements and specifications activities
2. Design time activities
3. Implementation activities
4. Test planning and testing
5. Deployment, operations, and maintenance issues
Software security awareness training for engineering management, as stated, should be
substantially similar to that provided to the senior decision makers, but with a somewhat
different core message. Specifically, instead of solely aiming to convince the audience of the
merits of software security, it should also ensure that the managers have the necessary
knowledge to implement and measure an appropriate set of software security practices. Their
training outline should look similar to the following:
1. Introduction to software security problems
This training module should delve into the security problems faced today by software
developers. Its aim should be to convince this management audience why traditional and
largely separate approaches to information security and software development are flawed.
Further, it should present an accurate business case that weighs the often conflicting goals
of development and security. For the engineering management audience, particular
attention should be paid to cost vs. benefit information, as theyre often the people within
an organization that are the most skeptical about the benefits of adding more activities to
the SDLC process.
1. Shortcomings of traditional perimeter-based network security solutions
2. Common software weaknesses
3. Balancing the different goals of security and software development
2. Software security activities to integrate into the SDLC

This module should be the core of the training content provided to the engineering
management audience. For the managers, particular focus should be given to describing
the processes involved and how to implement them, as well as methods of measuring
their teams progress and successes. Additionally, realistic program management
information should be provided, such as scheduling issues and typical level of effort
required for each activity.
1. Requirements and specifications activities
2. Design time activities
3. Implementation activities
4. Test planning and testing
5. Deployment, operations, and maintenance issues
Many of the same topics covered in the above two training curricula should also be covered for
the software developer audience; however, the focus here should shift dramatically from the
conceptual to the technical. A conceptual foundation must be presented, but the developers will
need specific technical information in order for them to do their expected software security tasks.
Additionally, where feasible and possible, hands-on exercises should be incorporated into the
training so that the developers can experiment with putting into practice the processes described
in the training material.
1. Introduction to software security problems
This training module should delve into the security problems faced today by software
developers. Its aim, quite simply, should be to convince the students that they should care
about software security in their work. (Realistic case studies can be highly beneficial
1. Shortcomings of traditional perimeter-based network security solutions
2. Common software weaknesses
3. Balancing the different goals of security and software development
2. Software security activities to integrate into the SDLC
This module should present the same basic concepts that were presented to the
engineering managers, but the principal focus should be on actionable recommendations
for the developers. The students should come away with a clear understanding of where
they fit into the software security program within their organization, what is expected of
them, and how they need to implement software security. Specific guidance and

recommendations should be provided for each of these processes that will help the
student internalize the correct behaviors as they apply to software security activities.
1. Requirements and specifications activities
2. Design time activities
3. Implementation activities
4. Test planning and testing
5. Deployment, operations, and maintenance issues
3. Know the enemy
To build software that can withstand attacks, it is essential to understand the nature of the
anticipated attacks and the concepts behind them, and in considerable technical detail.
This module should teach developers about their adversaries. The students should
understand who wants to attack their software, why, and how they are likely to go about
doing it. Common concepts such as buffer overflows, SQL injection, cross-site scripting,
and so on should be thoroughly described and, where feasible, included in hands-on
exercises/labs so that the students can best internalize the course material.
1. Threat analysis who are the attackers and what motivates them
2. Common software vulnerabilities explained in detail architectural flaws as well
as implementation bugs
3. Attack tools and methodologies
4. Knowledge base and tools
Whereas the previous module stresses the best practices that developers are to follow, this
module should arm the students with the necessary knowledge base and understanding of
the tools necessary to their jobs. The actual content delivered here to each student may
need to be further refined to the exact discipline of the student audience. For example,
software designers need to focus on the architectural risk analysis processes and specific
methodologies, whereas coders need to focus on code review methods and tools.
1. Risk analysis techniques (e.g., STRIDE, SQM, CLASP) (link is external)
2. Language-specific tips, pitfalls to avoid, rules, and guidelines
3. Tools for code analysis, testing, etc.
5. Code remediation

With the fundamentals out of the way, it is important to include training that includes
prescriptive information on how to design and implement safe software. The content
should be replete with code examples and should be specific to the languages,
frameworks, etc., in use by the developers. At a minimum, the courseware should include
example design and code patterns addressing the most egregious bugs and flaws found in
similar architectures and languages. It should include the OWASP Top 10 for web
developers, for example.
1. Top 10 security defects (by technology)
2. Safe coding examples and guidelines
3. Exercises/labs to reinforce
6. Security testing
An additional training topic that is often overlooked is security testing. Security testing
practices in far too many of todays software development organizations consists of little
more than a late-cycle penetration test. As weve seen in Adapting Penetration Testing for
Software Development Purposes, this approach is inadequate. One step in adopting better
testing practices is to train the development and testing team on how to do security
testing in depth [Howard 2006].
1. Fuzz testing
2. Penetration testing
3. Run-time verification
Of course, the above outlines are quite simplistic and generic views of the topics to be covered.
Additional examples of course are cited in the list at the end of this article, as well as in [Howard
2006]. Additionally, some worthwhile considerations in creating or selecting appropriate course
material might include the following:

Beyond the basics, courses should be as specific to the development

environments in use as possible.

Courses should include hands-on exercises/labs whenever feasible.

Course material should cite common defects with specific code examples.

Secure coding guidance should be prescriptive with ample code pattern

examples for the students to study from.

Instructors with exceptional communication skills are vital, but also look for
instructors with hands-on software development experience.

Once a firm conceptual foundation has been laid for the students, a library or repository of up-todate reference information should be made readily available to them. This should include
external sources of information such as books and published papers, as well as internal sources
such as (security vetted) design architectures, design documents, and source libraries.

Measuring Knowledge
A serious training initiative should take steps to verify and validate the students knowledge base,
but many questions quickly emerge [Howard 2006]. There are a number of software security
certification programs in the commercial and non-profit marketplace, which helps to address this
issue. There is also a need to validate the skills of individuals being trained so that not only do
they receive a certification, but we also know their specific quantifiable skills, from the technical
to the analytical [Kwon 2012]. At a minimum, however, development organizations should
mandate training attendance and record employee participation. If the organization tracks other
related security metrics (e.g., code defect density per thousand lines of code), it may consider
trying to correlate course attendance with defect density, but that is a degree of measurement that
few organizations can achieve.

Business Case
As the practice of software security catches on and grows throughout the software development
community, training and awareness initiatives are vital to adoption among developers and
managers alike. This is particularly the case as few professional software developers today have
undergone anything more than rudimentary on-the-job exposure to software security issues, and
probably not much in the form of academic instruction.
For software security best practices to be successfully adopted in industry, there must be seniorlevel buy-in. This can be accomplished in a number of ways, including a clear and concise
awareness training program that presents senior decision makers with the issues and tradeoffs
involved in delivering secure software.
Further, mid-level engineering management needs to be aware not just of the issues associated
with delivering secure software but with the software security best practices that they should be
incorporating into their groups development processes and methodologies.
Lastly, software developers themselves, from architects and designers through coders and testers,
need to be thoroughly trained in all of the above, plus all of the technology specifics involved in
designing, coding, and testing software in the technologies that they work with.
Without these things, it is highly unlikely that software security initiatives can succeed in a
substantial way. Trying to accomplish a software security agenda from a grass roots or bottom
up perspective is not likely to accomplish more than superficial change.


incident Any real or suspected adverse event in relation to the security of computer systems or
computer networks.

Non-Profit Training Sampling

International Council of E-commerce Consultants (EC-Council)
International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, Inc.,
The SANS Institute, Inc.


Chess, Brian & Wysopal, Chris. Software Assurance for the Masses. IEE
Security and Privacy 10, 3 (May-June 2012): 14-15.


Hadfield, Steve; Schweitzer, Dino; Gibson, David; Fagin, Barry; Carlisle, Martin;
Boleng, Jeff; & Bibighaus, David. Defining, Integrating, and Assessing a
Purposeful Progression of Cross-Curricular Initiatives into a Computer Science
Program, Proceedings of the 41st ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education
Conference. Rapid City, SD, Oct. 2011. IEEE, 2011.


Hadfield, Steve, Integrating Software Assurance and Secure Programming

Concepts and Mindsets into an Undergraduate Computer Science Program,
Proceedings of the 16th Semi-Annual Software Assurance Forum. Arlington,
VA, Mar. 2012. Build Security In, 2012.

[Hawthorne Hawthorne, Elizabeth K. " Infusing Software Assurance (SwA) into Introductory
Computer Science Curricula." Build Security In. (2012).


Howard, Michael & Lipner, Steve. The Security Development Lifecycle: SDL: A
Process for Developing Demonstrably More Secure Software. Redmond, WA:
Microsoft Press, 2006 (ISBN 977-07356-2214-2).


Kwon, Mischel; Jacobs, Michael J.; Cullinane, David;, Ipsen, Christopher G.; &
Foley, James. Educating cyber professionals: A view from academia, the private
sector, and government. IEEE Security and Privacy 10, 2 (March-April, 2012):


Martin, Robert A. & Christey, Steve M. The Software Industrys Clean Water
Act Alternative. IEEE Security and Privacy 10, 3 (May-June 2012): 24-31.


McKay, Jim. Cybersecurity Curriculum on Tap for University of Maryland

Students. Emergency
Management. (2012).


Mead, Nancy R.; Allen, Julia H.; Ardis, Mark; Hilburn, Thomas B.; Kornecki,
Andrew J.; Linger, Rick; & McDonald, James. Software Assurance Curriculum
Project Volume I: Master of Software Assurance Reference Curriculum
(CMU/SEI-2010-TR-005). Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon
University, 2010.
(link is external)


Mead, Nancy R.; Hawthorne, Elizabeth K; & Ardis, Mark. Software Assurance
Curriculum Project Volume IV: Community College Education (CMU/SEI-2011TR-017). Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 2011. (link is external)


Sahami, Mehran & Roach, Steve. CS2013 Strawman Curriculum Standard

now available. Computing Education Blog. (link is external) (2012).

Copyright Carnegie Mellon University 2005-2012.

This material may be reproduced in its entirety, without modification, and freely distributed in
written or electronic form without requesting formal permission. Permission is required for any

other use. Requests for permission should be directed to the Software Engineering Institute at (link sends e-mail).
The Build Security In (BSI) portal is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security
(DHS), National Cyber Security Division. The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) develops
and operates BSI. DHS funding supports the publishing of all site content.

Individual Certification of Security

Proficiency for Software Professionals:
Where Are We? Where Are We Going?
Published: January 23, 2009 | Last revised: May 21, 2013
Author(s): Dan Shoemaker SDLC Life Cycles: Deployment Copyright: Copyright
Carnegie Mellon University 2005-2012.

The software industry needs a universally acknowledged credential to document that a software
professional has all of the requisite knowledge and skills to produce a secure product. This article
describes some of the existing professional certifications in information assurance and emerging
certifications for secure software assurance.
Introduction: Reassuring Trust
A Common Proof of Security Competency for Software Professionals
Information Assurance Professional Certification Examples
Emerging Certifications for the Field of Secure Software Assurance
Concluding Remarks

Introduction: Reassuring Trust

It goes without saying that we should be able to trust people who do life-critical work. Thats the
reason my MD had to pass the medical boards, my lawyer had to pass the bar exam, and the
folks who fly me around the country have commercial pilots licenses. Formal certification of
capability is important in all of their cases because those people do things that require a high
degree of public trust. Accordingly, their fundamental capability has to be unquestioned.
Unfortunately however, the only proof of capability that software professionals can offer is the
unsubstantiated opinion of their peers. That begs an obvious question, which is "can we trust
them?" Or, to put this in more personal terms, when I am at 35,000 feet I would really like to be
assured that the people who created my aircrafts avionics system were up to the task.
When the only problem facing the industry was quality, it might have been acceptable to let
software people build products, without first finding out whether they were capable. However,
we cant afford to be so accommodating now that the exploitation of a single flaw might
conceivably bring down our entire cyber infrastructure. That leads us to the thesis of this
article: Given the critical importance of software in our society, the software profession has to
find a standard, commonly accepted way to attest to the security knowledge of its workforce.
Notwithstanding the fact that national security requires assurance of critical software at an
acceptable level of trust, common, industry-wide certification of individual capability would also
be a valuable business asset. Certification would let organizations know the actual capabilities of
the people they were hiring. Even better, it would also let companies manage their software work
with certainty since they would know in advance who was capable of producing secure products
and, more importantly, who was not.

A Common Proof of Security Competency for Software

The key concepts in this discussion are the terms security and commonly accepted.
Certification in the computer industry is a very profitable business. In fact, since the 1980s
certificates spanning the alphabet from A+ to Ubuntu Certified Professional have become
something of a cottage industry in the profession [Webopedia 2008]. That profit motive probably
also explains why more than 200 new certificate products were added to an already
overpopulated field in the past ten years [IEEE 2008].
Nonetheless, what we are discussing here is the need for a universally authoritative credential to
document that a software professional has all of the requisite knowledge and skills needed to
produce a secure product. Right now, there are vendor- or product-specific certifications that
relate to some aspect of securing a computer, such as networks, operating systems, and even
applications [MC MCSE 2008]. The problem is that none of the products on the market right
now certifies an individuals knowledge of secure development, sustainment, or acquisition
practice [MC MCSE 2008].
The idea of an omnibus certificate of security capability is a relatively new concept in the field of
software. However, it is not a new idea in the overall field of information assurance. That is

because, over the past 30 years, the professional capabilities of professionals in that field have
been underwritten by a number of established credentials. These certifications document that the
holder possesses a common understanding of the concepts, principles, and applications of IA,
as certified by that particular certification agent.

Information Assurance Professional Certification Examples

The certification of competency in information assurance is underwritten by a long list of wellvalidated and standard certification tests. Vendors on that list include ISC2, ISACA, SANS, ECCouncil, CompTIA, and many others. As examples, some of these certifications are described
The Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)
The CISSP is granted by examination and based on experience requirements [ISC2 2008]. The
exam is derived from the CISSP Common Body of Knowledge (CBK), which encapsulates ten
domains, or areas of information assurance knowledge. These ten domains are considered
comprehensive for information assurance work. Currently, the CISSP certification covers the
following ten domains [ISC2 2012]:
1. Access Control
2. Telecommunications and Network Security
3. Information Security Governance and Risk Management
4. Software Development Security
5. Cryptography
6. Security Architecture and Design
7. Security Operations
8. Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning
9. Legal, Regulations, Investigations and Compliance
10.Physical (Environmental) Security

One of the features of the CISSP is the requirement that it must be renewed every three years.
That renewal is based on the holders ability to document 120 Continuing Professional Education
(CPE) credits obtained since the previous renewal. These credits are typically derived from
formal continuing education conferences.

The Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) and the Certified Information Security
Manager (CISM)
Both of these are certification products of the Information Systems Audit and Control
Association (ISACA). Both certifications are based on knowledge captured in a four domain,
control objective based model called COBIT. The four domains of COBIT are [ISACA 2008b]
1. Planning and Organization
2. Acquisition and Implementation
3. Delivery and Support
4. Monitor

Each of the 34 high-level control processes that comprise these domains is implemented by
anywhere from 3 to 30 specific control objective activities, amounting to 318 total standard
activities specified for control of IT and information assets [ISACA 2008b].
The CISA is the more common of the two certificates since it predates the CISM by 25 years.
Because the focus of both certificates is on explicit and documentable controls rather than best
practices for security, the CISA in particular has more of an accounting and business flavor than
the technical and practitioner feel of the CISSP. Like the CISSP, however, the CISA documents a
specific set of skills and practices oriented toward ensuring the confidentiality, integrity, and
availability of information. On the other hand, the CISM certification is oriented toward the
assurance of information itself.
The CISA was introduced in 1978, while the CISM was introduced in 2003 [ISACA 2008a]. As
the name implies, the CISM is designed for managers, designers, and overseers of an
organizations overall information security program. Thus, the knowledge and competencies
certified by the CISM are more oriented toward the fulfillment of the management
responsibilities for information assurance rather than the technical aspects of the profession.
The SANS Global Information Assurance Certification (GIAC)
Like the CISSP, GIAC is a practitioner certificate designed to validate real-world skills. Its intent
is to provide assurance that a certified individual has practical awareness, knowledge and skills
in key areas of computer and network and software security [SANS 2008].
The GIAC is much more of a technical credential than the CISSP and the CISA/CISM. Also, the
GIAC specifically documents capabilities for more than 20 types of professional areas [SANS
2008]. So in that respect the GIAC is more a series of potential certifications that an individual
can earn rather than a general-purpose certification of information security knowledge. This fact
should be kept in mind in the discussion in the next section.
EC-Council Certification (C|EH, C|HFI, C|CSA, L|PT, E|NSA)

The International Council of E-Commerce Consultants (EC-Council) is a member-based

organization that certifies individuals in various e-business and information security capabilities.
Its most recognizable product might be the Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) credential. However,
it also offers Certified Forensics Investigator (CHFI), EC-Council Certified Security Analyst
(ECSA), and License Penetration Tester (LPT) certifications [ECC 2012].
These certifications are recognized worldwide in the sense that they have received endorsements
from the agencies of various governments around the globe, including the US Federal
Government. That endorsement was given substance through the inclusion of the Certified
Ethical Hacker certification program within Directive 8570. In that regard, EC-Council satisfies
DoD requirements for four personnel categories of Computer Network Defender (CND) service
providers: analysts, infrastructure support, incident reporters, and auditors [Mont 2010 (link is
The EC-Council certificates are similar to the SANS GIAC in that they provide substantive
certification for a specialized area of expertise. The areas are concentrated in the technical
specialties of information assurance, certified ethical hacker, certified computer hacking
forensics investigator, certified security analyst, licensed penetration tester, and certified network
security administrator. In that respect, EC-Council certificates address specific areas of need in
the profession. One area is secure programming, and that should be noted when reading the next

Certifications for the Field of Secure Software Assurance

More recently, we have observed an increase in training courses and certifications for secure
software development. It is not surprising that some of the same organizations with certification
products in information assurance would migrate into the field of software assurance. At present,
three certifications are being developed for two different client bases in the secure software
assurance community. These are the CSSLP (ISC2), which should appeal more to lifecycle
managers, and the EC-Council Certified Secure Programmer (CSP) and the SANS secure coding
assessment, which should appeal more to programmers themselves.
Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional (CSSLP)
The CSSLP parallels the CISSP in that it takes a holistic view of the entire process of software
development. As such, it is a general assessment of an individuals general security competency
across the software life cycle. Like the CISSP, the CSSLP assesses breadth of knowledge rather
than depth in any particular area. The CSSLP is based on a set of general best practices for
secure software assurance, which are organized into seven domains [ISC2 2008]:
1. Secure Software Concepts - security implications across the life cycle
2. Secure Software Requirements how to elicit security requirements
3. Secure Software Design how to embed security requirements in design

4. Secure Software Implementation/Coding - security functionality testing,

secure code development, attack and exploit mitigation
5. Secure Software Testing - testing for robustness and security functionality
6. Software Acceptance getting security into the software acceptance phase
7. Software Deployment, Operations, Maintenance and Disposal how to
securely sustain software throughout its useful life cycle

Like the CISSP, practitioners have to prove that they have three or four years of professional
experience in secure software work. The proof of competence comes from a qualifying exam that
is administered similar to that of the CISSP. In addition, once the CSSLP has been granted to an
individual, the certification must be maintained through continuing education [ISC2 2008].
Like the CISSP, the CSSLP is an attestation to a broad range of minimum competencies in secure
software work, rather than in-depth substantiation of mastery in some particular aspect of that
The SANS Secure Coding Assessment
The SANS Secure Coding Assessment, which is a part of the overall SANS Software
Security Institute certification, is designed to certify that the holder has the requisite set of skills
in secure coding. In this case, the objective is for the holder to achieve GIAC Secure Software
Programmer (GSSP) Certification. This is done through an exam process similar to the ones
utilized by SANS in the information assurance areas.
That is, rather than being a general assessment, these exams are tailored to specific applications.
In the case of the basic GSSP, it is possible for holders to be certified in four specific
programming languages. These are C/C++, Java/J2EE, Perl/PHP, and .NET/ASP [SANS 2008].
As with the other certifications, holders of the GSSP have to recertify, in this case every four
years. Current holders have to pass the test that is being utilized at the time of their recertification
[SANS 2008].
According to SANS, these tailored certifications will help organizations meet four objectives
[SANS 2008]. First, the exam can serve as a yardstick by which an organization can measure the
individual security knowledge of its programmers. That knowledge can then be leveraged into
focused training for each person. Second, the exam will also allow the organization to ensure that
any outsourced work is done by programmers who have a requisite level of security knowledge.
Third, it will help an organization structure its hiring processes to ensure that people who are
brought into the organization are competent to start work on day one, without additional costly
training. Finally, it will allow organizations to make more effective and efficient project
assignments by identifying individuals with advanced security skills.
Given SANSs traditional focus on technology, the desired effect of this certification will be to
provide attestation to the holders ability to avoid or find and fix common errors that lead to
security vulnerabilities in each of the languages in which they are certified. That will allow

managers to ensure a base level of security knowledge in each project, and it will also help
employers more objectively evaluate potential candidates for employment. Finally, it should also
serve as a comparative basis for those organizations with a large proportion of GSSPs on their
staff, to prove their worth when competing for business.
EC-Council Certified Secure Programmer
The aim of the EC-Councils Certified Secure Programmer and Certified Secure Application
Developer credentials is to provide the essential and fundamental skills to programmers and
application developers in secure programming [ECC 2012]. According to the EC-Council the
Certified Secure Programmer provides the basic foundation needed by all application developers
and development organizations to produce applications with greater stability and which pose
lesser security risks to the consumer. The Certified Secure Application Developer standardizes
the knowledge base for application development by incorporating the best practices followed by
experienced programmers into a single lifecycle certificate.
The Certified Secure Programmer and Certified Secure Application Developer certificates are
not language or architecture specific. They certified that the person holding them can exercise
secure programming practices to overcome inherent drawbacks in code [ECC 2012]. According
to the EC-Council, the distinguishing aspect of ECSP and CSAD is that, whether vendor- or
domain-specific certification, it exposes the aspirant to various programming languages from a
security perspective [ECC 2012].
People becoming EC-Council Certified Secure Programmers (ECSP), must pass the ECCouncils Certified Secure Programmer exam. The EC-Council Certified Secure Application
Developer (CSAD) requires two certificates. First the application must get an application
development certification from any one of the four EC-Councils recommended vendors:
Microsoft, Sun, Oracle, or IBM; then they must pass EC-Councils Certified Secure Programmer
Common Things a Software Security Professional Needs to Know
One obvious question is what are the common attributes in all of these certifications? Or, more
specifically, what are the common/general requirements critical to assess the ability of software
security professionals? The most practical way to answer that question is to simply compile an
unduplicated list of the knowledge categories of the bodies of knowledge (BOK) of the four
certification groups. That compilation reveals 22 potential learning/certification areas:
1. Secure Software Concepts (CSSLP), Introduction to Secure Coding (E/CES)
2. Secure Software Requirements (CSSLP)
3. Secure Software Design (CSSLP), Designing Secure Architecture (E/CES)
4. Secure Software Implementation/Coding (CSSLP)
5. Cryptography (GSSP, E/CES)

6. Buffer Overflows (E/CES)

7. Secure Software Testing Secure Application Testing (CSSLP)
8. Application Faults & Logging (GSSP)
9. Authentication (GSSP)
10.Authorization (GSSP)
11.Common Web Application Attacks (GSSP)
12.Data Validation (GSSP)
13.Language and Platform specific knowledge (GSSP, E/CES)
14.Software Acceptance (CSSLP)
15.Software Deployment, Operations, Maintenance and Disposal (CSSLP)
16.Secure Network Programming (E/CES)
17.Writing Exploits (E/CES)
18.Programming Port Scanners and Hacking Tools (E/CES)
19.Secure Mobile phone and PDA Programming (E/CES)
20.Secure Game Designing (E/CES)
21.Securing E-Commerce Applications (E/CES)
22.Software Activation, Piracy Blocking, and Automatic Updates (E/CES)
23.Writing Secure Documentation and Error Messages (E/CES)

Some of these are clearly high-level considerations (1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 14, 15, and 23). Other
elements have a low-level focus on specific concerns (5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, and
23). Finally, there are a large number of language- and platform-specific considerations, which
are folded into a single category (13). Given the diversity and broad range of these potential
areas of knowledge, the actual certification process would have to be tailored to the situation.
However, it might be fair to conclude that most of the knowledge requirements for the profession
are embodied in this group of 22 areas.

Concluding Remarks

The problem of understanding the huge variety of certificates represents one of the chief hazards
in using information assurance certification as a proof of capability. Because there are so many
certificates and because they mean different things, it is difficult for the general population to tell
what they are getting when they hire a CISA versus a CISSP, or a Security Plus versus a GIAC.
Thus the National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) was created to establish an
operational, sustainable and continually improving cybersecurity education program for the
nation [NIST 2010].The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides the
leadership for NICE. The overall aim of the NICE program is to ensure, coordination,
cooperation, focus, public engagement, technology transfer and sustainability. NICE provides a
definition of roles for secure software professionals in Area One, Securely Provision, of its
model. This area contains a range of software engineering functions and associated knowledge,
skills, and abilities (KSAs). These KSAs represent a solid first attempt to create a single point of
reference for understanding the range of professional certifications, since those KSAs can be
mapped directly to the knowledge requirements of each certification. In that respect, it is possible
to tell for the first time which certificate would satisfy which standard job role in the field.
In the same vein, the Department of Defense has issued a revision to DoD 8570.01-M [DoD
2008]. DoD 8570 specifies the knowledge and certification requirements for the employees of
the Department of Defense. This directive is important because it requires every full- and parttime military service member, defense contractor, civilian, and foreign employee with privileged
access to a DoD system to obtain a commercial certification credential. In that respect, it is the
first example of an across-the-board standardization of competency for security. Because the
commercial credential must be certified to ISO/IEC 17024 [ISO/IEC 2003] in order to be valid,
DoD 8570 ensures that employees of the Department of Defense all fit within a commonly
accepted framework for workforce capability. However, 8570 only deals with competencies for
the general field of information assurance.
With NICE and DoD 8570, governmental and industry leaders have begun to characterize the
global knowledge and skills necessary to ensure proper software engineering work. However,
NICE is still a work in progress and DoD 8570 is limited to one area of government. Therefore,
given the volatility of the standards development process, it is not clear whether either of these
represents the future of software security certification. It is clear that the current NICE workforce
framework addresses many good things, but there are also some clearly important areas that it
does not address, for example, secure supply chain and acquisition management. More
importantly, most of the 22 specific knowledge areas listed in the section above are really not
addressed. Nonetheless, because NICE is still a work in progress, it is not too late to include
considerations of those issues; and the KSA structure of the knowledge areas lends itself to
making dynamic changes.
Though the NICE model does not specifically address the skill set needed to ensure secure
programming competency, this model is a start. Given the history of certification, it would be far
preferable to have an explicit specification of the knowledge skills and abilities required to
ensure secure code in hand before the secure software certification training landscape becomes a
wilderness. Whether NICE will be able to provide that specification is yet to be determined.


[DHS 2008]
Department of Homeland Security. IT Security Essential Body of Knowledge (EBK): A
Competency and Functional Framework for IT Security Workforce Development, Sept. 2008.
[DoD 2008]
Department of Defense. DoD 8570.01-M, Information Assurance Workforce Improvement
Program, December 19, 2005; Revised, May 15, 2008.
[ECC 2012]
EC-Council, EC-Council at a Glance. Accessed 3/2012.
[IEEE 2008]
IEEE. CSDP, Is Certification Right for You? Certification Road Map: The Journey and the
Destination. IEEE Computer Society, 2008.
[ISACA 2008a]
Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA). Certification Overview. ISACA,
Oct. 2008.
[ISACA 2008b]
Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA). Control Objectives for IT
(COBIT). ISACA, Oct. 2008.
[ISC2 2008]
International Information System Security Certification Consortium (ISC2). CSSLP Certified
Secure Software Lifecycle Professional," Nov. 2008.
[ISC2 2012]
International Information System Security Certification Consortium (ISC2). CISSP Domains,
accessed 4/2012
[ISO/IEC 2003]
International Standards Organization/International Electronics Commission. ISO/IEC 17024 General Requirements for Bodies Operating Certification of Persons, April 2003.
[MC MCSE 2008]
MC MCSE. Certification Resources (link is external), 2008.
[NIST 2010]
National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Initiative for Cybersecurity
Education, May 2010, accessed 4/2012
[SANS 2008]
SANS. GIAC Secure Software Programmer, 2008.

[Schneider 2008]
Schneider, Laura. CSSLP The Certified System Security Lifecycle Professional,
(link is external), 2008.
[Webopedia 2008]
Webopedia. Computer Certifications, Sept. 17, 2008.
[Wikipedia 2008]
Wikipedia. Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), 2008.

Copyright Carnegie Mellon University 2005-2012.

This material may be reproduced in its entirety, without modification, and freely distributed in
written or electronic form without requesting formal permission. Permission is required for any
other use. Requests for permission should be directed to the Software Engineering Institute at (link sends e-mail).
The Build Security In (BSI) portal is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security
(DHS), National Cyber Security Division. The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) develops
and operates BSI. DHS funding supports the publishing of all site content.