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ffiYffitrffiffififfifu?ffiTffiY

OF FUEL CCI\4tsUSTION

AND RELATED PFIOCESS INDUSTRIES

Evelyrn Fl. Laurito

Chernicai Ingineerlng Department

Universify of Santo Tomas

f{#,"-l

Book Store

ouAD ALpHA cEtur RuNl' ei"DG.

125 Pioneer St., [4andali.rvor]q City

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leol 3torc

ftilt lt't'tNtl coPYRlcHT. 1994 bt F velvrr lt I aurito

of Publicatioirr, i991

ill r lElrlc rcserved.

f{l lrar I rrl this book may be

t Fpt

lrlur.rr l in aly fbrm or by

Errr nlr,ril:;, r:xcept brief quotations

l,rr,r I r'r,rrr!, without permission Irr r+r lltrrE lr.orn the Author.

Ft l'li't ( r,r lilicate of

HeEli-lrrrlr,rr No. SP 594

I ttnt, ,l l,t'

!,;,r

I .,,/,r rt', f ,i11111.1,;17phic

ArLt & /)rittii;;g ):'rc,s.s

+'i 16,t1,i1,11t,',1

'

t

I

',r'

, lrrr1.t,. ,\on .IO.Se, l.{.'-.

isBN 971-0&5782.7

CCNTENTS

Freface

CHAPTER

I

rNr*o,ucrtoN

1.1

1r)

l.\.,

COMPLE]E COMBUSTION

THEOREnCAL OXTGEN

.

."

"."

"

THEORETIC-qL A]R FOl1 COMBUSTTON

1.5 PERCENT EXCESS AiR

1.6 INCOMPTETE COidBUSTION

PA6F-

i

1

)

4

5

2 GASEOUS FUEIJ

2.1 CLASSIFICATTON

a) Nai.unl Gas".

b) Manufactured Gases

2.2 \TOLIJMR MEASUREMENI

2.3 CAII)RIFIC VALUES OF GASEOUS FUEIS

".

2.4 CArcUIA IONS BA.SEE ON FLJEL ANALYS;S .,

2.5 CAI-ORJFIC VALUE LOSSES

a) Dr:e to Incomplete Coinbustjon

b) Due to Sensible Fleat;".":.

c) Due to t-lnccndensed WaLer \/apor

6

6

6

7

I

Ii

t5

i5

r6

t6

rt

CAiCULIiTIONS BI.SED Cl{ FLIJE GAS A}IAJJSIS

ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS

PROBIf,MS

'".,,

""""""' 29

LIOUID FUEI.S

3.1

oa

t)

Qr)

,,1,

3.4

3.5

CArcUIATIONS BASED

ON PARNAL ANALYSIS OF THE FLUE GAS

PROBWMS

'.

-

'-,.

:

'

i.'.'

".

43

"' ""'' " ": :". "', " "' 47

SOLTD FIJEI-s

4. r CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID FUEIS

a)

Natural

So1id Fuels

b).arUficia.l Solid Fuels

,'

'.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

""""

:"

"

"

"

" "'

j"""""'

4.2 ANALYSIS OF SOLID FUEI,S".J a)' Proximate AnalYsis

b)

UlUmate AnaJysis

"""'"."""""',:'

4.3 EMPIRICAL pguATioNS Oi{ coAL

AI{ALYSIS AND CAI'ruFIC VALUES "

a) Dulong's Ponnula

ui caa.riood Equauon '

-

COMBUSTION CAI'I,II.ATIONS

"

"'

".

' ""

49

49

49

50

50

50

50

51

51

5I

(e

rrl

5

+.5

COAL COMBUSTION }l/iTH NO

CON,IBUSTIBLES

LOSI' IN LHE RI;FUSE

1

-."

PR.OBTEMS

tra

60

4.6 COAL COMBUSRON WITH

COMBUSNBIES I,OST IN THE FEFUSE

al

Uncoked Cod I-ost i:: the $efuse,'",

":l,'.""""""

b) Coked Coal lnst in the Refuse""

'."""" ;" -""".'

c) Combination of Coked and Uncoked Co-al "''""

62

62

62

62

78

SIJLFUR AT{E' TTS COMPOUNDS

5.1 SULFIJR- COMPOUNDS ,."

'."

5.2 BURNiNG OF nXW SUFUR ""

a) Calculations Baslt' on

Raw Sulfur Anatlsis' ".- ;

;-

" " "''

b) Catculations

t

Based on Andsis

of Bunrer G'as

'"

"-,".' " " "'

"

'."'"'':"

'

'-:

" "'' " " "'

81

81

82

"'"""""""" 84

5.3 ROASTING OF IRON HfzuTES":"""""."""",;'r"' 86

.'

5.4

PRODUCTIGN

OF H2S-O4 AND OLEI-llvl '

"-

'""

90

,) Co.rt ct

Process."

""""'.""' 90

' s.6 glsut,rrrr LIguoR PRoDUCTIoIq " QR]BLEMS "

"

""

PRODUCNON OF UME

6.1

LIME PRODUCilON .' "

:

;.,

6.2 O{-CL.IIATIONS BASED ON

'.',

98

,

,-.-.- r

I01

 

r04

6.3

\rii

Dedicoted lo the Memory of nny Mentor:

Prof,'sduardo M. Igqacio Jr.

O ur

Qre.at

1)esire is

tfiat Eatfr One of /ou

'lt'ttp tts 5{ts Eagerness to

.

tfie En{, so ifrit tfie

Ifirryt you g{ope for Witt Comz True.

9{e6. 6:17

PREFACE

Fuel combusUon

consututes an tmportant step in iilmosI aJry

t

is desired. Thus

,t. r,.ra

impoi.*i;;;;;hivl,

"di-g.rreration

the Cn.rir.", i".#

u

pr*p*.il

c-hemical process

industry-wh*r*

tlre study of combusrion ls mosr

of Chenri cal

Engin eSring which

,"o*p^"es

lndultry It is for tliis ieason that this -o-ook has r

It js the autlior:s objeclive

indusbies' It is afso trre

tle

rhat"rhror.rgh t.h,; bil{irr. "Cir*,rr.or

*"r"t

,.o , .'o*,.

"

"J""1"?

and r.e,ateJ- fro"

.of book wilr'expose

Stoichiometry

Engir:eering student is provideci

concepts encountered

rn fuer combustion

{1thor's

hope that this the sojution

student to a meth.odbJory

for

proble*rs

that wiII developl6ls:6aiy,cal

minA anJ ir.fp f.,,1iu"f,l.

compiicated topic that

L"J., *or.

other related engineering problerns.

Fuel combuslion

js

Lhr's book can only

and volume reliaUons

such a vast and

cover thaf part whjch oeas"m$:

among fhe fuel, a:r inA pioJu.tu of

of heat

]osses are a-lso ir"r.,Ju,l to

for power g.n

are

*trorr.

described u,jthin

l}eir srr;;;

U,:"_,

combusLio," calcuration

de[ermine ti:e

Di{ferent g,pes of fuels-

arnount of heat avaj]able -"ul,Ol

6ar. Uq"tri

problem statements to famiiiarize

and u-ses. ot,er proces.s indus.rres

Bisulfite and Lime production

the stude,t n"ith

"r;

;;;;;;;:;:,;

ha,e been incrudecr

similan ty in stoi chi om etri c ca] c-ulai r

Ttre

approach of th-is book is rnturr);,

problems" irodr

because of iheir

on. *,i, ."",;;;;;' .o,r,pr,u.o;;.;;;.roru

sample caicutatior* Ld pir"r,".- f rorri.il"-u rr,

ansl/ers have been lncruded to aid the student in his -qrudy.

h.-

Although cornputauons are

basicaly

Materiai Balance calculauons, further simpli-fied by diyiding

up

ii

ifi"

appiied rir";gh;;

"o*iotationai

tlle solution of problems have been

t /rern into cAsES or TypES each with u

irt)proach. The Systemi

Itt rlccordar:ce

rrrrits worldu.ide.

International (SI)

with the shjft from English Cusio-mary units to SI

It is

the author s hope that this book lr.lil

Engineerirrg

help not only the

,trr**

il;;

(lhernical

student but also students of

as well as those pr.p*irrg i;,

Iirrflineering disciplinel

l,l r:enSure Exarninations.

tastly,

acknowredgments have to be gpen to those wh. have

ngr, i::

the_prepaiation of rhls book- To

rry h";sband;

a,d moral

providing arl the material

teaghing me all the ireeded

computer

of

p}epar:auo" *a-""*p"t.uon

ig';"., ro, rr.rra6;; ilil

;"roy

of which have!.o*a*a

-

lree, of great

I)ean Alberto-laurito,,for

trrrpport and for

pauently

s'{tware that have facilitated the

grroblems; to the Iate prof. Bduaido

vrrlurninous

notes in stpichionlebDr,

llre hasis foy the computational upprou."li pr.".oted in uirJ"lx,

rrls. to both these

rrrrl'.qrorriding usefuf

people ror'taung-time to^review this

manuscript

suggesu"rr"" n',ully, and above ax, 1;t

to the

Lard

arrrgnty,

whose

Light,

Guid-

pu*I,,r.le all trrr:oJgnout the

not

wl,lehe?t.d

grytttude

,r(:e and lr:sp lauon helped me to

1rt elraration of this

book. I feel wtthout Hirn, this bborr iouta

Irirvt: treen a realit5r.

- ^-":

t)velyn R. Laurito

,

.

CHAPTER f,

INTRODUCTION

'fr

I

DEFINITION

'COIv{tsUSTIONis a unit pro.*ui in which oxidalion reaction

reactjons

ar:e terrrjed

as

takes place. However not ait oxidation

c.qmblstion, e.g., oxidation of toluene tt: benzaldehyde, oxlcla-

tiorr of h;rdrogen chloride to chlonne, etc are not normally ternred

": :u.rybustion processeq, Qqqlbustioq ]s

whigh gne- of t}e rg"q,c(ants ii

an:e]

the evolution

13

:s:d

in

a chbmical reiction in

o"yg*r, f.om tt e ait and the other

by :

g;";ra]Iy

{gaseous, iiq.ria, soiiffi_g,pusuqn-1s,1g,gomp_q4ied

of ligh.t ana neat,6-d thus}und[smAa is

the generalion of heat to suppiy energltbtir-e"proeess-

industries.

I,2

COMPLETE COMBUSTION

The complete

combustion of a fuel mezrns that a]l of its

gasified: all of the carbon 1',1,putever

to carbor-i dioxjde:

aJi of llie

combusubie components are

forrn it may

exjst in the fuel) jsbr:rned

hvdrogen js

converted to water anei all sulfur to

sulfur dioxide. j

2,, s-r-urr.ti i;CI\40.t.ii.,.

und

ernorma-r oxidizing conditJo:rs, furnace

o^f gomprix ,;;J;r.

this f,ooi.

rror."er,

rrrg pjace co:'r.sist

riona-l puryoge_s of

combi.rstion tak_

;omputa_

o.i,o;;:;;,

.sl,ral] be conSjdeied.

v+L r.rL.,wEVCr, Lne

f.he fo,owing

IOilOwin$ f

reacuons

C+or=Co,

. H2+1/2,Or= HrO

S +Or =

SO, -l

t,,,,. f.t complete combustio]r of any organic fueJ is represented

( '''ll*(')vs, * r/2 [2w +x/2 +zz-;v] 02 = s7 coz + x/2Hro + z So,

T.3 THEORETICAL OXYGEN

'l'rreoreticai o:rygen

is

r,rr' The *1il;,;;irr"o"ir

Yv

vr

the

o.lygen

lrr r:'r

ll[Yl:('ll:

requirecr

for compiete corn_

rhe rheorerica,r

d.;;;i"ing

\r('Lcrirli

Met'rrod l:

The

tion

indivirruaJ^!aranced equation for

of eac.

comb,rsuul. rlllntten.

the

The

the oxida-

car grygen is

rhdoreri-

sum ririi"the oxl,ger: used jn

each complete combur;;;:

l''r,l tt1ilt,

De-termine the

qulred

gases

cor. ";;'*t%

theoretjcal

moles of dry

more

of

for the cornbusrl"".i"ne

contajnj:rg 6g6 ff"S, iq

-

cuH,,,.

a:r re_

refinery

a l1r' 57o/o C"LJ., 2;/a

Solutioru

.

Basis I mole of gaseous fuel

HZS +

(0.06)

3/2:.fu,=,S02 + HZO

tu

I,:l

(0.05)

/2 o,= H,o

IJ

-ts', Y"5 :do= 3 eO, + 4 HrO

n

'r,4.t

,

p^o|.ro + t3/2

(0.3)

3, = 4 COz + 5 I{rO

IrvTt?onueroN i 3

*:o ",'',: ?.Y#}fff": /2rc.05) + 5(0"5a n ru,,r(Q"so)

Method 2: Tg compo-nents of the fuel are broken down

:

'

"llonorrairrg_

and

uto*" of carb,o;:";"r#;;["-

For .odpi*t.

more

or;

rnro

gen

combustion, each

moles of o4ygen present.

"io-*-

c- i[uro** t

each atom sutfur requlres r mli. a",;;;.I,i*

H requires r

/4

mole

0*

Th; l;il *?i1.,

ur

o,

the fuer is subtracted frn*

to give the

,r

A:

,;

"q"".LILq"

theoretica-r o, from air" The ralionare

!e{o!; ;,

amount of O- is

fuel frr_, "Oir?., ,n."/r*,

behhd this is ti:at

tafren from the

air, the

together wlth it. Thus:

cHAprE - 2

GASEOUS FUELS

7. T CLASSIFiCATION GF GASEOUS FUELS

b<

fuels of value in

';i:rr:ous

Irvrl,',,,,,nrbon

Commerce inciude ,atural

solely for.use

as fuels,

The

o,

gases, gases manufactured

'rrrrl ;lirses obtajned as by-prod""i"^ or sr;me jndushes.

lrrll,rrri'{ classificatiorr

r oI nt I rf ,r-(,ia_l importance.

.of giseous r,-,ers

,"J"a""

"r",_[."

,r) Natura.l

,.\ ::1

t

t)

rvr

u,ith petroleum

"u.

^_*::"j:ited

or wirh

oi) deposils, wjth

-*

":r-"

the decay of o4ganic ;i;

itrlulac[ure gases

(r )

From Woo_By disLillaUon or carborrizatiou (Wood

Cas)

CjstjllaLjo:r or

carbor:izaUon .(peot Ga-s)

carbonizaUon {Coal Cas)

(2) Frorn peal_By

(iJ) From CoaJ_By

" By gasificaUon

(j) in atr (Froducer {iiJ in ajr arrd steam

(::1

Gas)

{Water Gas)

Gas)

,, O, a::ld stearr: (Lttrgi

' By h-v*drogenation

As a

p.tmace

b1',-product of rhe redu cuo,. of ores (Blasr

Gas)

(4) From Petroleum and

n

.

o

oji shale

By crachng (.Reflnerrr, Gas)

By hydi:ogenaUon (Ort

Cqs)

.

By u'ater gas reacUon (Orl Go51

,r

ai nxjdauon tCrit Cas)

:

(5) From Carl:ides wirh

(6) By Electrollzsjs wjttr

water (Aee{risn.1

eiectncity (FJr1

2.2 VOLIJME MEASURENfiENT

dtions'"i."" ia -J-"yj' fJ rl::",ilt;

a,r d temp erature, these coi

when ttte volume of a gas js given.

Cornrnon Conditions for Gas Vohrme Measurerqents are:

I tan d :rd te,m p erature

-,

anci pre-ss r*re(s. t. p . )

which is 0"C and 760 mnr FIg

Norrna.l Temperaturg and , which is 3l|[a.:fig_g*g]trg.

*

press-ti.rl (]rJ"fp)

or

Q"c sla ?60 aAXt -

Qlagdard

Tgrlperature and kessure{STp)

Hg or

which ts OO"F and S0'

15.56"C arrd 760 mm Hg

Drgcpldtrons mears no water vapor js presenl i,,r+,- !L

![-u't e!.n-dE-ons ireans r}re gas is sati:ratlo *ii

at STP

-*r

l]Y

*t

-

g*

water vapor

.\t ScLturaiort Partial Piessurq of w.arer ji.l

= \/rnn,-

-

,qyur. rres_S

D

ur:€

gas

At padja.l

Sa,iur:aUoq"

= \/apor pressurr r: (%Rll/ jO0)'

IN'lR(ji-rl.jCil0N z 5

I' tn1, | ,\,unpie

I by Method 2:

t1.r'.1,, I rrrole of glseous fuel

!i

i!

ilr-r !r,

Llt tl

.ta

A?S

) 0.06

():t0

I ()o

o.06

ATC

r.71

0.02

r.2a

oo,

L,JO

ATH

4.12

0.1

4.56

9.00

'7.78

:ry

%

0.02

4.02

',, !l.J I O 06 + 7.78/4 _ 0.0? = 4.gI S Ansu;er

I I

II II ()I\'I IICAL AIR FOR COMBUSTION

irrr r'1r'(ir 'rl ;rrr" is air.that

"* rr' r| ( l') Air fr-rrcombustio.,

r,

ri"

contains the exact aniount

alarroqi.nsis assumed

of

1 i. r'r | -' ttrtl i' l'l'i, NZbyvolume. IV2in airlsnon-combustible

-, r

to be

a::d

.r ,lllrrr,rrl lo the O2in thJa:r.

1,ty1,1,

'11i1, ,11

iir',r

t

r

i ,,i,r,,ll

,A llrrnace js fir-ed with

,'ioolr C,

rirc rnoles

lrusLion of one kg of oi1:

petroleurn

oil containing

lA%H,30lo S, t% N and 3o/o O. Deterrnlne

theoretjcd_]

air requiieJ ior tHe com_

lt,i:;is: I lg'of fuel ojl

;,,tt / )') + 3/3; + t3/4'

,

rr,

= 0.0991 7

,.1 ri.:; r.i:ci.

I "5 FERCENT EXCESS AIR

In

actual practice, theo::etical. ajr is not

sufficjenl, to get

in c'mplete

gas

compl ete.

or parUal

combu sli on. Tw o_ob*iou s phen 0menon 0f

combustion a-re CO and H2 formation jn fire flue

and the presence of

uhburrred eombustibles in the refuse fcrr

suppiy or eacess o2 supply is a r,ust ior

js

"

defined as follows:'-

solid fuels. Excess air

complete comblrstion" It

Excess Oz = Actual O, $ufnly - Theo O-

E-rcess O^

7,0 Excess Ai-r = ;-.:-

. -#-

ua

-7.

rneoreucal

-

x l0ti

!y_p1,:9 9z_

Theo 0,

----- x5t

I:l_gz_ y , orr

*. ,^n

(,z--

Supplied 0, - Excess O, ^ '"

The act,a-l Percentage Excess fur

depe,crs on t.he fuer ,serr

for combustion. NormaJtygaseous fuels re qurre very rrt[le excess

or; liquid fuels require s'rlewhatmore vo excess o, depending o.

their characteristics; solid fi:els requrle maxirnum excess o

i .6

INCOMPLETE COMEUSTION

Incon:plete combustion

sincb thls should have Lieen

cf f'uel repr,eser:Ls a loss of heat

given off foi

,ddruonal power use

had the fuel been complete.ry brur::t. IrrdicaLars of incomplete

exhar:st

ccimbustion are the presence of ccr, H" a-riri sool in the

gas as well as urrburned combustjbl6s nr Lhe relusr.

L

r

r

t

r-r'l"r.rlr.:;iO;riEi-li)'

T]-ie Vann- D.-^^.----

Dquerion il6ffi:::.:t

""'*ruted bl usins Anroine,s

lqgVp=A* B

C+T

u,ll(jre \,? is in

mm Hg: T js jn

l,irr.rvarcr A= 7.9668f

"C

B =-iois.z,

ci22g

I

CALORI'r]C

ir) 'lhe balorific

given off

bv

,rf the fuei

tclnperature

;rrrrbient

V4IU-ES

_O.E G4SEOUS FUETS

v;alue) o1'a

rirer

is

oirnousii.;;

;;'::-',]

-rsUorr of

a

t.", p.r"

^

2s"c

;l;;

r,l *"

;*:S:::rT

the

compJete

rhe hear

"."t

'j].'-

unjl quanUry

&t sonre rcfa-o^^^

*

":: ff _ Ill.I."

ffiI.:,.,,:*en

as ".

h#f#.?

;";;.;:::[T

air lemperati.rre

may be used).

l,i

'l'y1.rcs of Calorjfic Values

"' ,?l;?il calo^fic v;;; tGc\'1 or Higher r{calins-va,ue

I

(',')

,,.,

falo,nfic Va.lue measurecl when

is,.r t1;jr#;tilnen

\r-r

-

-.

ri?^i

n

Y;*:*::: :;#:::L"

l'l r,r: *"lliq"

is in. tle

r'rrrbustion

Nct

Nt't

C;rln;t';^

caloririe

;I.T#

.,rnbustjon

rvater formerl by

tins varue

(LFrvl

J:iY

* ;" x:I;,.?tr

g.;.;;; ;;;.,

( |t:;(,ol:S Mt_XtUfeS

u lrllr. ll(,j =

rrj =

Heat of CombusLjon

{Refer to ,Appendix l)

mole fracli ii

cf qornp6nent r

ofgaseolts con-ljlollerrt i

'

**

*

, , ,,*

*-*

I

Total

rvhere Ir

=

= 44.04 M.l/lqmot of flp**-.,

i-atent Heat of Cr.:ndensaUon

Ca-ionfic Value

t basis

Lruiu

i,r Si a,-e exf.1e;sed

_

"Tjf

9l u ,JCr (MJi dry

[g',,0

roeB

'-::-t

u,hether ir js

\.f,,ffien

t i7

.

rku75-sMl']r Gooc-ieq=d

a

^al^.+tri^

Hivg, ,, rhe GCV or ti-ri

tC i,a_lue jS

OrOblern WjthOUt SpeCrfung

assumed to be rhe

which is usua,rr

XCri"lr ff"y n.

,t-,"'in,.'r*rue

3;'"":,.t"orific Valut "irr

Exaryle /: Calculate the

natural gas

composition:

0.40/a i-CoHio,

llf :

a) MJllorol

b) kcal/gmol

n'l

MJ/ks

gross and net calorific

value

of

a

at- 25"C which has the foiloio:ns

89.40/o CH., S% C.,H^"

,.gri;;';'*

0.60;6 n.C.,H ,a" a Zrt io, .,0 Jdi,ii.

d) MJrdry SCM

e) MJ/SCM

Solulion Basis: I igmoi of natur-al gas

CH,

u^I-t^

'*:l'

'8

j-a ri

0.894

0.05

0.019

0.0c).{

Hc,MJ/

kmol

.ROn o<

l 560.92

)ni1

i.

inxr{c

796.5I

78.05

tt r)

I

-

)

rr-C

4

H

( l()z

I!,,

l0

i

j

rl

0.006

0.007

0.02

I r

Hc,MJi

------T

! n x. H" I

945.52

.,rr-r I

0.06 I

ss

I

I

*',* ni

t28

4.12s1

I8.088

nvcrage molecular weisht of the as =

l/

Gross Calorific Value

a) MJllgrnot = 945.5?

li) kcd/gmot = g45.5, x (t/A.lB7)

r:) [4r r}u = 945 52:: (1/1B.0BB) =

18.088 kglksmot

)nR aa

= LLUIL'L

q1 17

(i) MJ i dSClv{=94_5-i2

MJ

:

o*o,.

213

kgmol 224m3 " 273+ l-i.56

.

:945_i2 [0+]21

= i9 9i

.A.ns

(') Al_ l5.S6"C using Altoine Equalion:

b-

lrr;f \lP = 7.96683 - 1668.2 l/{228+l r.56) =

I\4, r/ scM

n{'

ks moi

kg.mol " 224m{ '- ;73;1556

,.

-.

273

= ,

. , .= 9qSS2 x i,O4t4V,

= 3C2t .{\,S

13.i mm Hg

zb0 - 131

760

'2j l,ie( Cairirjfrc: Vialue

GASiOI rS Ftiir_-.I.S I

I

I

ToLal rnoles wat"er formed - atli/2 = 4:l2B12 = L.A64 kg rno)

NC\'= GCV -

Moles Water frorn Fuel Combustion

Total Moles of Frrel

x Lc c,f Warr:r

wtrere k

= Latent Heat of Condensatinn

= 44.04 MJ/i(,gmol af HZO

a) MJllginol = 945.52 - (2.064/t) (44041 = 854.62

b) kcal/gmol = S54 62 /4.18? = 204 tl

c)" MJ/kg = 854.62/t8.0BB = 47"28

d) MJIdSCM = 854.62 10.04221= 36"06

e) MJTSCM = 854.62 lO.O4I4Tl = 35.44

2.4 CAI-CIJLATIONS BAsED Or.J FUEI ANALYSIS

{CASE U

a) Fronr the cornplete anirlysrs ol the rLietr. ihr rhcr:rerical

o,a:!'gfn and Lj'le calorific va_lue ca;r he rjelerrrrined.

b) If data,n air (0/o exccss air or

arnoJ,t o[ air supp]jerl) is

cr_rrn;rletiorr of {.he

gi\/en togelhtr r.rrith lhe degree of

reaction, the follovr.i;tg can be ca_lcr_riated:

(l)

These-$!.ses are rronr:ally CL)r, CO.

Analysis iOr-_qat or CompleteJ of i_he prociur:ts r:l

corntrustjorr ca_lled [he flue gases or {lre stack gases.

SO" l_{, frce

02, li, zLnd i-1,O. Orsat aralvsis of tie gas ir j_,ll u,-il Coe*=

noi. ili,c;1ude r,,'ater.

*

1:r

Q, = :i:::: ?,: 'r i'i

't

,

- it

,',ii

l" ';71

fr,lrrr ,i,r' + N. Ir-,,r1 l,,i.l

6 r1r;;

;1r<1j'I iq

Ij^() =

rrtoist.Ll.c frOl: i'ucl ; irriJt\[urr-. llOrlr ;t i.

. ii,O ionned /l-orrr r:ornburslroLr ol l't.r e i

h-

Air-fuel Ratio

Stack gas-Fuel ralio

,,11."*1, effictencl, of combustion ca_n be ca-lculated

1,,,i:: f:".-"- :*: y : :_T

l.:;.ses,

,.*

tlrr:nnal

-neglecling

elficiency

.

of rhe rr-r er ald t_rr. ;";;;;

from the il;;

"?,

measures % of the

rneasu:

to por,

rt"

-,

".

heat input

urrrLrcrrLy {.rr

of uornouslron

combuslion

Itrirt from the fuel that can ta rsJ

.

r';rlcrrlatiorrs is rj:e DEW pAINTof

tlte flue gas. *I!r."ti

lts dew poJni

point. H,

;;;

a.nd So, Lo i";

;;r;O*

I u r-moistr:-re present jn tJ.e gas, the nilne. is

I

ll tlre flue

gases are cooled below fie Oew

rnav ciissorve Co,

.o

o=ir,*

,,1,1]:].:':1 :1d

l'lr.se acids *.

uoJ r?;;

L,rtrtltl(' 2: pure etha:lje is burned

ajr. Air ts sr-roplied at

substantiall),

completely

25"C, V4O

in 20o/o

lorrs arrd

ciry. Calculate;

a) Orsat analysis of tl-re products ,rf cornbu

bl F.dl, li,

c)

d)

ilreasr_ri-cd

:,-:pp1ierJ,/kg of luel.gas

Cnbic r::il.*;-s c{ ur/kg ethane

.Cr-rbic

rr)rll,ir-s of tiie prodrrcts of

i,rl, 400,,C, 100 kpa/kg

cl P;ritial prcs.suIL: oi wa(er in fh.:=

cofitbu stj,:n

, tlt ttrr,r r: Hasis: I kgnrole stia:ie or 30 kg

ethane

AIR

RIlilFqiFF

EVtiitd_:\

Stack

tnno

100 KPa

i't,re !-

,

tl,,

--r,

qr.

-ll'

.j,i

:i

# +6.

{

-yt.

&i.

ft

at Ca-rton = 2 at Hydrogen = 6

Theo C), = at C + aL H/4

)Css O, = 3.5(.2) = 0.7

O, f.rom air

q"5 + O.7 =

=

\

frorn alr = 4.2 179121)

- moies

Art

= 15"8

,s;ij()lis

r

2-614=3.5

CO, formed = lotal a[ C = 2

I{rO fornled = at H/2 = 612 = 3

Free O, = e-xcess A, = 0.7

al Orsat ,AnalSzsis of Cornbustjon Prociucts ,AJ\JS

GA.S

CO,

o2

N2'

Moles

Vo

2

10.81

0"7

3.78

15,8

85.41

18"5

b)

kg dry ak/kgfuel = il11i*8)A!l = 1e.33 ANS

:3 t)

c) ei9sry =

kg ettrane

!1?--'ljjl??9:#r 1#f-

-10

= 1671 ANS

d) ToLa-l rnol:s of comhusUon products = 18"5 + 3 = 2.i".5

'Pt

m3 stackgas

kg etlnne

P*,

moles *'aler

tota.l moles

e)

Ptv .,

I 00 x (3/21.51

101325 273+404

:i0

13 953 k-Pa ANS

l4

I ltr )tctitoMETi<l

l'lrrrnple 3; Pure met-hane is bur:ie,J with 40% excess ajr al,rj

25o/o of its carton conlent is converted to CO the

rest to COr. 9Or/o of ils hydrogen bums to rvater,

the rest remains as unbumed Hr. Air supplied is

at 23oC; 758 mm Hg urith 800/o RH, Calculate:

a) Orsat analysis of the combustion products

m' of air suppited per kg.methane

b) ms of combustion products at 35OoC ald

c)

riormal barometric prEssure per kg metftane.

.$olutton.' Basis: I Ig mole metharie

AIR

230C

758 mm t-{g

40 o,/o x'ss

Fuel

cH+

;rtC=l

,.+ .lt

Iil l1

- -

A

a

Bt.iRNER

'l'lreoOr=l+1/4=2

x'ss O, = 0.4(2) = 0.8

(), frorn anr = 2 +

0.8 = ?.8

'. ''

Stack Gas

3500C

1 atm

N., from ur = 2"8 x (79121) = 10.533

()t.)

(l(t

icL;neC

= 0.25 x I

+ rJ.25

ion,-red = I

- 0.25 = C 7i

Ilnbumed H, = ().1 x (4/2) = 0.2

u.

,l IrC fc:'inei = 0.!

lit'c r), = 0.3 t"

.t

i'i,i2) = l.E

'\ii.2':i)-i

+-{,lt:i2) = l.C)25

aJ

Orsat Analvsis

GAS

CO,

CO

H2

o2

N2

ANS

ilAstr()L;S i''i.;h.if, / l5

moles

o/a

0.75

5"88

0.25

1.96

0.20

1.57

i.0?5

8"03

to5_t8

82.56

12.758

at 23"C, log \rF = 7.9668i - 1668 2lll228+23): VP = 20'82

'

)n or{n s)

moles water from air = (2,8+10.533) * --"''-:"'"'

758 - 20.92(.8)

,r'

ait

b) kg methane

(z a*tos::+0.30i)x 22 4Y9,31lI

l6

=20.75 ANS

- = 0'30I

moles waler jn cotlbustioir produe:ts = C'301 + i "B =