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Tray dryer

A tray dryer is an enclosed insulated chamber in which trays are placed on top of each other
in trolleys. Tray Dryer are used where heating and drying are essential parts of manufacturing
process in industries such as chemicals, dye stuff, pharmaceutical, food products, colours etc.
The material to be dried either wet or solids are placed in the trays. Heat or mass transfer is
by circulation of hot air by electric heaters or steam in radiator coils. Blower fans are
installed inside to ensure proper circulation and transfer of heat. A control panel to control the
temperature and other parameters is fixed outside the dryer. These dryers are available in mild
steel or stainless steel. Tray dryer is used for drying of pigments, food, bakery, electrodes,
chemical and plastic powders.

Mechanism of drying
Wet solid is loaded in to the trays. Trays are placed in the chamber. Then, fresh air is
introduced through in let, which passes through the heaters and gets heated up. The hot air is
circulated by means of fans at 2 to 5 metre per second. Turbulent flow lowers the partial
vapour pressure in the atmosphere and also reduces the thickness of the air boundary layer.
The water is picked up by the air. As the water evaporates from the surface, the water diffuses
from the interior of the solids by the capillary action. These events occur in a single pass of
air. The time of contact is short and amount of water picked up in a single pass is small.
Therefore, the discharged air to the tune of 80 to 90 % is circulated back through the fans.
Only 10 to 20% of fresh air is introduced.

Moist air is discharged through outlet. Thus constant temperature and uniform air flow over
the materials can be maintained for achieving uniform drying. In case of the wet granules as
in tablets and capsules drying is continued until the desired moister content is obtained. At the
end of the drying trays or trucks are pulled out of the chamber and taken to a tray dumping

Pharmaceutical Applications

Tray dryer is used in the drying of the sticky materials.

Tray dryers are used in the drying of the granular mass or crystalline materials.

Plastic substances can be dried by the tray dryers.

Wet mass preparations, precipitates and pastes can be dried in a tray dryer.

In the tray dryers the crude drugs, chemicals, powders and tablet granules are also
dried and shows free flowing of the materials by picking up the water.

The handling of the materials, loading and
unloading of the materials can be done without
Each batch of the materials can be handled as
separate individually
The same equipment is readily adjusted for the
use in drying a wide variety of the materials.
Valuable products can be handled efficiently.

Requires more labour to load and unload.

Increases in the cost.

The process is time consuming.

Fluidized bed drying

Fluidized bed drying is the optimal method for controlled, gentle and even drying of wet
solids. The intensive mass transfer of the fluidized bed product makes this method
particularly effective and time-saving. The technology is also suitable for post-drying of
spray granulated or extruded products with very low residual moisture.
Fluidized bed drying can be used in the entire powder processing industry. In the
pharmaceutical industry, this innovative method has replaced the time-consuming tray
drying long ago. The drying process with fluidized bed drying reduces the drying time in the
drying oven by approximately twenty times. In addition, fluidized bed drying provides
controlled and uniform drying conditions compared to the uneven drying in trays.
Moreover, fluidized bed drying always takes place in a thermodynamic equilibrium. The
inlet air temperature must be selected such that only so much moisture evaporates from the
surface of the granulate as is transported through the capillaries from the interior of the
granulate to the surface. If the inlet air temperature is too high, a surface crust will most
likely form which will hamper or even prevent the moisture being transported from deeper
layers to the outside. This will delay the entire drying process rather than accelerate it.
For the process variants spray granulation, spray agglomeration or spray coating, it should
be noted that not only the moisture needs to evaporate until it has reached a defined residual
value, but also that drying takes place during the entire spray process. Too high inlet air
temperatures can lead to insufficient liquid bridges, instable granulate structures or
inhomogeneous looking films.

Mechanism of drying
The fluidizing fan provides the motive force for the air that will fluidize the material. This
fluidizing air flows from the fan through ductwork to the combustion chamber, where the air
is heated. The hot air flows from the combustion chamber to the fluid-bed dryer's air
distribution plenum, then flows upward through an air distribution plate (with a series of
holes) or tuyeres (nozzle-like devices), evenly distributing the airflow upward into the
dryer's drying chamber. A conveyor or rotary airlock valve at the feed inlet controls the wet
feed to the drying chamber, where the material falls into a fluidized bed above the air
distribution plenum. In the fluidized bed, the particles rapidly move about in random order.
Each particle is fully exposed to the hot fluidizing air, which quickly transfers heat to the
particle and promotes fast drying. As a result of the fluidization effect and the direct contact
between the particles and hot air, the bed forms a mixture of almost homogeneous
temperature and moisture.

It takes less time to complete drying that is Many organic powders develop electrostatic
20 to 40 minutes. Compared to 24 hours of charges during drying. To avoid this efficient
tray dryer.
electrical earthing of the dryer is essential.
Handling time is also short. It is 15 times The turbulence of the fluidised state of
faster than the tray dryer.

granules may causes attrition of some

materials resulting in the production of fines

It is available in different sizes with the However, by using a suitable binding agent
drying capacity ranging from 5 to 200 kg per this problem can be solved. Fine particles

may become entrained and must be collected

by bag filters.

The thermal efficiency is 2 to 6 times greater

than the tray dryer.

Pharmaceutical applications

It is used for the popularly drying of the granules in the production of the tablets.
It is used for the three operations such as mixing, granulation and drying.
It is modified for coating of granules.

Steam distillation
It is a distillation process with open steam as such it is a process in which the steam is in
direct contact with the distilling system. It can be carried out batch wise or continuously.
Steam distillation is possible under the following conditions:i.

When the material to be distilled does not react with the steam.
When the desired product which are the volatile material or the non-volatile residue is
practically immiscible with water (insoluble in water).

With steam distillation it is possible to separate substance at a temperature lower than their
normal boiling points
Typical example of steam distillation include concentration and purification of essentials oils
for perfumery, deodorisation of fats and oils and purification of long chain fatty acids.

Pharmaceutical applications

To separate high boiling substances from non-volatile impurities

To separate relatively small amount of volatile impurity from a large amount of

The material to be distilled is thermally unstable where the decomposition of the

material might occur if direct distillation were used as such heat sensitive materials.
When the material cannot be distilled by indirect steam heating even under low
pressure because of the high boiling temperature.