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Gas to Liquids Technology (GTL) Australias

Fuel Future?
Valrie Sage
CSIRO Petroleum Resources Gas Processing and Conversion
SPE Engineering Australia Seminar 07.09.2009

Outline
What is GTL ?
What is the current transport fuels situation?
Why using GTL technology to transform natural gas?
GTL Challenges
CSIRO GTL Research
Conclusion

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

What is GTL ?
The Chemistry Behind GTL

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Background GTL process


Hydrocarbon
feedstock

Syngas
production

Hydrocarbon
production

Product
targeting

Fischer Tropsch

Product upgrade

30%

10%

Air Separation
30%

Natural Gas

Oxygen

Reformer /
Partial Oxidation
30%

Syngas
CO + H2

Coal
Gasification
Biomass

Hydrocarbon
+ steam,
CO2, O2

CO + H2

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

-(CH2)-n
Light HCs
Waxes
Water
CO2
Oxygenates

-(CH2)-n

Syngas Production
Syngas Production
Steam reforming

CH4 + H2O CO + 3H2

Dry reforming

CH4 + CO2 2CO + 2H2

Partial oxidation

CH4 + O2 CO + 2H2

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
n CO + 2n H2 -(CH2)n + H2O
Conditions
Optimum H2:CO = 2:1
Transition metal-based catalyst Fe, Co, Ni, or Ru
High temperature (> 300 C, Fe catalysts)
Low temperature (~ 200 C, Co catalysts)
Pressure > 2 MPa
CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

GTL Products
GTL base oil
Lubricant for vehicle engines, gearboxes and transmissions

GTL gas oil


Use in conventional diesel engine
Cleaner burning and lower emissions

GTL kerosene
Cooking, lighting and dry-cleaning fuel
Higher energy density and lower emissions
Tested as a jet fuel in an Airbus A380 flight

GTL normal paraffin


Virtually identical to oil-derived paraffin

GTL naphtha
Higher paraffin content
CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

The Current Situation


Transport Fuels Sources

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Fossil Fuels
Oil, Gas, and Coal
Upside
Convenient and versatile
High energy density
Well established global
infrastructure
Easy to transport
Easy and Safe handling

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Downside

Finite resource
Major GHG source
Impact on ecosystems
Large capital investments, long
pay-out times
Used as a geopolitical weapon
May get too expensive (Oil)

Oil Peak time?

The median forecast is calculated from 14 models that are predicting a peak before 2020
95% of the predictions sees a production peak between 2008 and 2010 at 77.5 - 85.0 mbpd
Source: The Oil Drum; http://www.theoildrum.com/story/2006/11/13/225447/79
CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Energy from Renewable


Hydrogen
Can be made from a range of sources (water, coal, gas,
biomass, nuclear, wind and solar)
Issues
Production costs, especially if produced from renewable
Carbon dioxide co-production
Distribution, delivery, and storage

Solar / Wind
Renewable, clean, safe, and unlimited
Issues

Intermittent
Low energy density
Land required
Impact on ecosystem ?
Grid infrastructure not ready

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Alternative / Renewable Feedstock


Biomass

Renewable
Home-grown
CO2-neutral ?
Issues

Energy and GHG balance is precarious


Low energy density
Limited output because of land requirements
Fuels vs. Food ?
Harvest failure
Soil exhaustion (danger of monocultures)
Deforestation
Water requirements

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

The Alternative Route to Fuels


Alternative Feedstock
Natural Gas
Coal

Products

GTL

XTL
CTL

Transport Fuels
Chemicals

Biomass

BTL

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

XTL Processes
Process

Gas to Liquid
(GTL)

Coal to Liquid
(CTL)

Biomass to
Liquid
(BTL)

Supply

Abundant reserves,
especially in WA

Large reserves

Supply might be an
issue

GHG Emissions

Comparable to oil
refining
Reduction through
technology improvement

Higher than oil


refining
Significant reduction
through CCS

Most promising
technology for GHG
emission reduction

Technology

Industrially proven but


further R&D required

Industrially proven
but further R&D
required

Further R&D
required

Status

Industrial units already in


operation

Large scale
industrial units
already in operation

Pilot plant only

Future

Commercial plants under


construction

Large plants
planned

Prototype plant
planned

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Well to Wheel GHG Emissions (syn-diesel)

From ASFE Position Paper: Emissions from Synthetic Fuels, Alliance for Synthetic Fuels in Europe (ASFE), January
2007 (http://www.synthetic-fuels.org/documents/20070221124435_ASFE%20Position%20Paper%20on%20Emissions.pdf)
CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Is GTL the Answer?

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Gas Reserves in Australia

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Australias Future Alternative resources


Australias unique situation and individual problems
need Australian individual solution
Australia specific problems
Liquid poor but gas rich
Reliance on other countries for oil import
Distances

Abundant coal and gas reserves


Potential of large scale synfuel production

Natural gas represents one of the best feedstock for


synthetic fuels production
Large natural gas reserves in Australia, especially in WA
Reduced GHG emissions
CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Australian Situation
Government's Energy White Paper
GTL
CTL
Other alternative fuels

CTL
Linc Energy project
Underground coal gasification (UCG)
In-situ conversion of coal to a Syngas (heat, pressure steam)
Syngas converted into Synfuel in FT reactor

Prospects for carbon capture and sequestration

GTL
No facility as yet
Focus on production of GTL middle distillate (diesel and jet
fuel)

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Benefits of GLT
Security of supply
Available in increasing volumes

Fuel source self sufficiency


Environmental performance local emissions
Cleaner products (middle distillates)
GTL Fuels
Lower emissions
Virtually sulphur and aromatic free diesel
Reduction in particulate (PM-10) and hydrocarbons emissions when
used in diesel engines

Higher cetane number (75-80)

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Benefits of GLT (cont)


Compatibility
Can be used in existing engines and refuelling infrastructure
No need for complete replacement of vehicles, refineries and
distribution systems

Cost effectiveness
Existing infrastructure
Local production
Reduction in crude oil import

Diversification
Stranded and associated gas reserves use
BTL and CTL applications

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Economics
Economic viability
Required selling price of the fuel produced through GTL have to
be above the break even mark by a significant amount

Large scale GTL plant in the middle east


Without CCS
Expected to be competitive with oil down to approximately $20
per barrel

Recent advances by the oil company Shell have seen


synthetic fuels start to become profitable.
GTL plant in Qatar
Claims that process will remain competitive with traditional
diesel unless the price of crude falls below $20 per barrel

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Other Alternatives to GTL for Gas Transformation


Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Deep refrigeration required (-162 C)


Energy density: 60% of that of diesel fuel
Special ships for transport
Large investments for liquefaction and re-gasification terminals
Long term contracts required

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

Pressurisation (200-220 bar)


Special ships for transport
Less expensive than LNG
Lower energy density than LNG (42%) or conventional diesel (25%)
Competitive only for small distance and volume

In both cases, the receiving end product is still gas


CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

The GTL Answer


GTL represents one of the best alternative to produce
synthetic / transport fuels
Use of remote, stranded and off-shore Australian gas reserves
Security of supply
Cost effective synfuel production

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

GTL Around the World


Existing large scale commercial GTL - FT process plants
Sasol (South Africa) - Mossgas
Coal and natural gas as feedstock
Variety of synthetic petroleum products
Synthol reactors (fluidized bed): 45,000
bbl/day for GTL
Slurry bubble reactor: 2,500 bbl/day

Sasol/Chevron (Qatar) - Oryx

Natural gas feedstock


Variety of synthetic petroleum products
Slurry bubble reactor
34,000 bbl/day

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Shell (Malaysia) - Bintulu

Natural gas as feedstock


low-sulphur diesel fuels products
Multitubular fixed-bed reactor
Co based catalysts
15,000 bbl/day

Future Large GTL Projects


Pearl GTL project - Qatar
Shell and Qatar petroleum joint venture
Expected production of 140,000 barrels per day of Fischer
Tropsch petroleum liquids starting in 2010 (first train) and 2011
(second train)

Escravos GTL Project Nigeria


Sasol Chevron
Expected to production of 34,000 barrels per day of Fischer
Tropsch synthetic fuel in 2011

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

GTL Challenges

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

GTL Challenges
GTL Plant
Large plants

Oxygen generation unit


Reformer
Fischer-Tropsch reactor
Post-treatment unit

High capital investment and operating cost

GTL Process
Exothermic and endothermic reaction
Side reactions
Large range of product
Poor selectivity

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Relationship to external environment


FT process still not very selective to desired products
Natural Gas
Coal
Biomass

Syngas production

30%
Oxygen
Steam
Carbon
dioxide
Solar

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

30%

Synfuel production

Product upgrade

30%

10%

Relationship to external environment


Remove the need for product upgrading step:

Courtesy JOGMEC / Nippon GTL


CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

GTL Opportunities
Reduce costs (capital and operational)
Reduce plant footprint
Plant usable for small operations
Associated gas (on or off-shore)
Stranded gas reserves (on or off-shore)

Novel GTL processes

Enhanced Fischer Tropsch processes


Direct liquid production
High-value targets
Minimise emissions
CO2 Sequestration

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

GTL Strategy @ CSIRO

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Description and Objectives


Stream Objective
Provide technologies that enable coal and gas derived low
emissions transport fuels to reduce significantly Australias
reliance on imported oil for transportation
Project Objectives
Synthetic liquid fuel
production from natural
gas / syngas
Modification/improvement
of the Fischer-Tropsch
(FT) process
Capability building

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Project Outcomes
Security of supply of
Synfuels
Cost effective production of
Synfuels
Valorisation of Australias
stranded natural gas
reserves
Diversification to other
feedstock (biomass, coal)

Gas Processing & Conversion Group


LNG pre-liquefaction
gas separations

H2 production
Synthetic fuel production

Fischer-Tropsch
synthesis

Synthesis gas production

Methanol
synthesis

Natural gas
Coal
Biomass

Non-conventional
GTL

Pre-sequestration
gas separations

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Product upgrade

GTL Research Strategy


Catalysis design
Co based catalysts more resistant than Fe based catalyst
Ru based supported slurry catalysts

Reactor design
Shift from fixed-bed reactor to slurry phase process
Improved heat removal efficient mixing

Gas recycling
Reduced plant footprint and capital cost

Process optimisation
Reaction conditions
Use of additives

Production of industrially significant data


Long runs without interruption (several months)
CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Purpose of GTL Research


No such facility in Australia
Capability building
Improvement of the GTL process
Selectivity
Mechanism
Plant footprint

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Conclusion

CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

Overall
Objectives of 20% energy production from renewable
resources by 2020
Fossil and Synthetic Transport Fuels are going to be
with us for a long time
Need other sources of energy diversification
Australia has real individual issues that chemists and
chemical engineers have to meet
Security of Supply
There is a real need to focus on these to ensure a fuel
supply for the future
CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

GTL benefits
Security of supply
Valorisation of stranded and off-shore gas reserves
Use of existing infrastructure
Develop a cost effective production of synthetic fuels
High performance fuels
Decrease of pollutant emissions

Build capability
Diversification
Platform for Biomass to Liquids (BTL) and Coal to Liquids
(CTL) products development
Production of other products such as oxygenates
CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009

CSIRO Petroleum Resources


Dr Valrie Sage
Research Scientist
Gas Processing and Conversion Group
Phone: 08 6436 8836
Email: valerie.sage@csiro.au
Web: www.csiro.au/science/Fischer-Tropsch-Process.html
www.csiro.au/science/Gas-Conversion-Processing-FuelFuture.html

Thank you
Contact Us
Phone: 1300 363 400 or +61 3 9545 2176
Email: Enquiries@csiro.au Web: www.csiro.au