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AN Series

Maintenance
and Parts Manual
www.altec.com
Altec Industries, Inc. reserves the right to improve models and change specifications without notice.

749-20011
2013
Copyright 2013 by Altec Industries, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used or reproduced by any means, or stored in a
database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher. Making copies of any part
of this publication for any purpose other than personal use is a violation of United States copyright laws.

Preface
This unit is the result of Altecs advanced technology and quality awareness in design, engineering, and manufacturing. At the time of delivery from the factory, this unit met or exceeded
all applicable requirements of the American National Standards Institute. All information,
illustrations, and specifications contained within this manual are based on the latest product
information available at the time of publication. It is essential that all personnel involved in
the use and/or care of this unit read and understand the Operators Manual.
Given reasonable care and operation, according to the guidelines set forth in the manuals
provided, this unit will provide many years of excellent service before requiring major maintenance.
The scope of this manual is limited to periodic maintenance. It does not cover methods that
may be required to inspect and repair major damage to the unit. Impacts to and excessive
forces on the hydraulic utility equipment, through vehicular accidents, rollovers, excessive
loading, and the like, may result in structural damage not obvious during a visual inspection.
If the hydraulic utility equipment is subjected to such impacts or forces, a qualified person
may need to perform additional testing such as acoustic emissions, magnaflux or ultrasonic
testing as applicable. If structural damage is suspected or found, contact Altec for additional
instructions.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from component failure. Continued use of a mobile
unit with hidden damage could lead to component failure.
Never alter or modify this unit in any way that might affect the structural integrity or operational
characteristics without the specific written approval of Altec Industries, Inc. Unauthorized
alterations or modifications will void the warranty. Of greater concern, is the possibility that
unauthorized modification could adversely affect the safe operation of this unit, resulting in
personal injury and/or property damage.

Danger
Death or serious injury will result from unprotected contact with energized conductors.
Non-insulating units have no dielectric rating. Maintain safe clearances, as defined by
federal, state, and local authorities, and your employer, from energized conductors.
No unit can provide absolute safety when in proximity to energized conductors. No unit is
designed or intended to replace or supersede any protective device or safe work practice
relating to work in proximity to energized conductors. When in proximity to energized conductors, this unit shall only be used by trained personnel using their companys accepted
work methods, safety procedures, and protective equipment. Training manuals are available
from a variety of sources.
Set-up requirements, work procedures, and safety precautions for each particular situation
are the responsibility of the personnel involved in the use and/or care of this unit.

Table of Contents
About This Manual ............................................................................................................ 1
Safety Instructions ............................................................................................................... 1
Disclaimer of Liability ........................................................................................................... 2
Structures ............................................................................................................................. 2
Equipment Storage ............................................................................................................... 2
Protective Measures ...................................................................................................... 3
Cleaning the Unit and Fiberglass .......................................................................................... 3
Plastic ............................................................................................................................ 3
Care of Exterior Surfaces .............................................................................................. 4
Tightening of Fasteners ........................................................................................................ 4
Lockwiring ............................................................................................................................ 5
Inspection Marks .................................................................................................................. 5
Pins ...................................................................................................................................... 5
Bearings ............................................................................................................................... 6
Inspections ........................................................................................................................... 6
Rotation Bearing Cap Screw Inspection Procedure ....................................................... 7
Rotation Bearing ............................................................................................................ 8
Rotation Gearbox Mounting Cap Screws ..................................................................... 10
Lubrication .......................................................................................................................... 11
Lubrication Chart and Diagram ..................................................................................... 12
Rotation Bearing Replacement ........................................................................................... 14
Rotation Bearing Cap Screws ............................................................................................. 16
Adjustment of Rotation Pinion to the Rotation Bearing ....................................................... 16
Boom Alignment ................................................................................................................. 17
Hydraulic Plumbing, Hoses, and Fittings ............................................................................ 18
Fittings and Valve Cartridges ............................................................................................. 18
Torque and Tightening Procedures .............................................................................. 18
Single Handle Control and Control Handle Covers .............................................................. 19
Atmospheric Vents ............................................................................................................. 20
Oil Filtration ........................................................................................................................ 20
Oil Selection ....................................................................................................................... 20
Changing the Oil ................................................................................................................. 20
Visual Inspection of Hydraulic Oil ...................................................................................... 21
Flushing the Hydraulic System ........................................................................................... 21
Air Bleeding ........................................................................................................................ 22
Troubleshooting Procedure ................................................................................................. 22
Engine Throttle Control ....................................................................................................... 23
Removing the Rotary Joint ................................................................................................. 23
Leveling Cable Inspection, Replacement, and Adjustment ................................................. 23
Inspection of Leveling Cables ...................................................................................... 23
Replacement of Leveling Cables .................................................................................. 24
Procedure for Removing Leveling Cables and Rods .................................................... 24
Installation ................................................................................................................... 25
Adjustment of Leveling Cable Tension ......................................................................... 26
Non-Overcenter Cam Valve ................................................................................................ 28
Main System Pressure/Standby Pressure Adjustment ...................................................... 28
Standby Pressure ........................................................................................................ 28
Main System Pressure ................................................................................................ 29
Pilot System Pressure Adjustment .............................................................................. 29
Tool System Pressure Adjustment .............................................................................. 29
Setting Main Control Valve Flow Controls/Boom Function Speed ............................... 30
Pump Flow ......................................................................................................................... 30
Upper Boom Stow .............................................................................................................. 32
Holding Valves ................................................................................................................... 32

Winch Brake .......................................................................................................................


Upper Controls Interlock Trigger .........................................................................................
Outrigger Interlock Switches ..............................................................................................
Testing ...............................................................................................................................
Dielectric ......................................................................................................................
Structural .....................................................................................................................
Stability ........................................................................................................................
Appendix
Glossary
Service Tools and Supplies
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist
Accessory Checklist
Torque Values
Basic JIC Symbols
Hydraulic System Schematics
Troubleshooting Chart
Dielectric Test Forms
Stability Test Forms

33
34
35
35
35
36
37

About This Manual


This manual provides instruction to safely inspect, repair,
and troubleshoot the unit. Charts and figures are provided
to support the text. Because options vary from one model
to another, some figures may only be a representation of
what is actually on the unit.
Knowledge of the information in this manual combined with
proper skills and training in hydraulic, electrical, and
mechanical systems, provide a basis for safely maintaining the unit. Read and understand the applicable procedure
before beginning.
Contact the following organizations for additional information.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
A92.2 for aerial devices; A10.31 for digger derricks
American Public Power Association
(Safety Manual for an Electric Utility)
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
American Welding Society (AWS)
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
European Committee for Standardization (CEN)
Fluid Power Society (FPS)
Hydraulic Tool Manufacturers Association (HTMA)
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA)
Dealers, installers, owners, users, operators, renters,
lessors, and lessees must comply with the appropriate
sections of the applicable ANSI standard.
The Appendix contains reference items to help maintain
the unit. A glossary of industry terms is provided for your
convenience. This glossary provides an understanding of
the industry terms and phrases used in Altec manuals.
Throughout the manual, the term unit is used to describe
the Altec device, subbase, outriggers, and the associated
interface with the vehicle.
Additional copies of this manual may be ordered through
your Altec representative. Supply the model and serial
number found on the serial number placard and the manual
part number from the front cover to assure that the correct
manual will be supplied.
This symbol is used throughout this manual to
indicate danger, warning, and caution instructions. These instructions must be followed to
reduce the likelihood of personal injury and/or property
damage.

The terms danger, warning, caution, and notice represent


varying degrees of personal injury and/or property damage
that could result if the preventive instructions are not
followed. The following paragraphs from ANSI publications explain each term.
Danger
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, will result in death or serious injury. This
signal word is to be limited to the most extreme
situations.
Warning
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, could result in death or serious injury.
Caution
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. It
may also be used to alert against unsafe practices.
Notice
The preferred signal word to address practices not
related to personal injury.

Safety Instructions
It is essential that all personnel involved in the care of this
unit read and understand the Operators and Maintenance
Manuals. Safety alerts throughout the manuals highlight
situations in which accidents can occur. Give special
attention to all safety alerts.
The safety information in this manual applies only to the
maintenance of this unit. Although procedures have been
written to protect the mechanic and other personnel, there
is no safety system to account for human error or negligence.

Danger
Death or serious injury will result from unprotected
contact with an energized conductor. This unit does
not provide protection from contact with or proximity
to an electrically charged conductor when you are in
contact with or in proximity to another conductor or
any grounded device, material, or equipment. Maintain safe clearances from energized conductors.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from careless or
improper use of the unit. The mechanic bears ultimate
responsibility for following all regulations and safety
rules of their employer and/or any state or federal law.

Maintenance Manual 1

Notice
Maintenance personnel must be trained in safe service
procedures.
Work practices may expose maintenance personnel to
hazardous materials. Before using any chemical, read and
understand the manufacturers label and the material
safety data sheet (MSDS). These sheets explain emergency and first aid procedures and waste disposal methods. Properly dispose of oil and hazardous materials.

Caution
Injury can result from slipping and falling. Use care
and suitable work platforms during maintenance.
Maintenance procedures may require the use of ladders,
platforms, scaffolding, etc., to access the unit. Provide
suitable work surfaces clear of obstructions for maintenance procedures. Do not stand or walk on surfaces that
are not intended as such.
General Maintenance Information
Read and understand the complete procedure
before beginning.
Remove the pressure in a hydraulic circuit before
disconnecting its components.
Use lifting devices of suitable capacity to support
and handle components.
Use a test block to adjust the relief setting on
counterbalance holding valves.
Be aware of your surroundings.
Fully open all shutoff valves after servicing the unit.
Complete the required procedures before returning
the unit to operation.
After completing a procedure, check the oil level in
the hydraulic reservoir and add oil if necessary.
Many inspections require the removal of covers. After
the inspection is complete, replace the covers before
returning the unit to service.

Disclaimer of Liability
Altec Industries, Inc. will not be liable for unauthorized
alterations or modifications of the unit. Altec Industries,
Inc. will not be liable for improper or abusive operation of
the unit.
Do not alter or modify this unit in any way that might affect
its structural integrity, dielectric integrity, or operational
characteristics without specific written approval from
Altec Industries, Inc.
Unauthorized alterations or modifications will void the
warranty. However, of a greater concern is the possibility

2 Maintenance Manual

that unauthorized changes could adversely affect the


units operation that could endanger personnel and/or
damage property. Altec will not be responsible for unauthorized alterations or modifications that cause death, serious injury, and/or property damage.
Altec Industries, Inc. assumes no liability for any personal
injury and/or property damage related to the use of this
manual when performing testing, operating, maintenance
and/or repair procedures on this Altec unit.

Structures
The basic structural components are the pedestal, turntable, lower boom, upper boom, and the outriggers. The
steel structures are made in the form of a closed box
structure in order to resist torsional loading as well as
tension, compression and bending loads to which the unit
may be subjected. Careful consideration has been given
to the elimination of stress risers caused by sharp cornered openings and abrupt changes in section, to minimize the possibility of fatigue cracks forming.
Periodic inspection of the structures is recommended to
be certain that there has been no deformation, abnormal
wear or abrasion, interference between moving parts, or
cracking of the welds on structural members. Any such
problem found should be brought to the attention of an
Altec representative so that the cause can be determined
and steps taken to prevent a recurrence.

Equipment Storage
Mobile hydraulic equipment needs maintenance when
stored, or not used, for extensive periods of time. Depending upon the climate, lack of use may begin to have a
negative effect in as little as two weeks. Storage for a
period of several months will almost certainly produce
some deterioration of the equipment.
Rust will form on unprotected ferrous metal surfaces very
quickly and water will collect inside unit structures. In dry
climates, gaskets will begin to shrink during long periods
of non-use, and lubricants will lose their ability to provide
lubrication. In cold climates, condensation may occur in
fluid reservoirs and other components.
Even when protective measures have been taken prior to
storage, some degradation of performance must be expected when the equipment is put back into use.
One of the most noticeable effects of prolonged periods of
non-use is seal deformation. By its nature, hydraulic
equipment generally has a number of heavy, cylindrical
actuators. As these components are allowed to rest in one

position for a period of time, the seals on the piston will


tend to flatten along the loaded side. Since the seal
material is synthetic, its elasticity is limited and it may not
resume its original shape completely. At best, there will be
some failure to seal well for a short period of time after
putting the equipment back into use. At worst, the seal will
never resume its original shape and will have to be
replaced.

When washing inside the pedestal with the cover off, do


not spray water on or around the fill cap of the oil reservoir.
This could spray water inside the oil cap.

Protective Measures

Operators and maintenance personnel should make sure


there is no build-up of tree branches, etc. in the area of the
leveling cable sheave at the platform and the area of the
lower boom near the turntable. This is most likely to occur
on units used in tree-trimming work.

If it is known that equipment will be stored for a month or


more, some steps should be taken to preserve the
equipment.
1. The best preservative is to fully cycle (operate) the
equipment once weekly if even for a short time.
2. Coat exposed ferrous (iron or steel) bare metal surfaces with a light grease or heavy oil compatible with
system hydraulic oil. This includes cylinder rods,
shafts, gears, linkages, and unpainted parts.
3. Top off fluid reservoirs to allow as little air space as
possible, to limit the effects of condensation. Remove
excess oil before operating to limit the chance of
overflow when cylinders are cycled.
4. Cover or wrap exposed rubber or neoprene parts with
an ultraviolet resistant covering to shield the parts
from sun exposure.
5. Unplug electrical connectors and apply a dielectric
grease or an aerosol product designed for protecting
electrical connectors. Plug the connector back together.
6. Cover switch panels and control panels to prevent
direct intrusion of rain or moisture, while allowing air to
circulate over the panel.
7. Cover personnel platforms to prevent the accumulation of water in the platform.
8. Shield fiberglass components from the sun and other
elements, if stored outside.

Cleaning the Unit and Fiberglass


Any piece of equipment which is kept clean and neat
looking is the reflection of a maintenance department
which has pride in its work. It will also have a positive effect
on the operators. They are more likely to treat the unit with
reasonable care if they see that the maintenance crew
cares enough to keep it looking good.

It is common for debris to accumulate in the bottom of the


platforms or liners. Regularly clean out all such material
because of the abuse to the platform or liner bottom
aggravated by the weight of the lineman standing on it.

The interior and exterior of the fiberglass boom and lower


boom insert must be kept in good condition to preserve the
dielectric integrity of the insulating components. Clean the
interior as necessary using a pressure washer and mild
detergent. After pressure washing, thoroughly rinse the
interior to remove detergent and elevate the booms to the
vertical position for draining and drying. Wash the exterior
of the upper boom, lower boom insert, and the fiberglass
platform with a mild detergent, using care not to make
surface scratches. After the exterior surfaces are clean
and dry, polish them with Formula 5 Clean N Glaze
Compound or an equivalent. The booms should be polished by hand, not with a buffer. Nothing should be used
for coating a fiberglass component which will reduce the
dielectric strength or cause surface flashover.
In the event that cuts or deep scratches are discovered in
the fiberglass components, it is recommended that an
Altec representative be contacted to evaluate the effect of
the damage on structural integrity and to determine if the
damage is repairable. Surface nicks that only effect the
gelcoat can be filled with a gelcoat kit. Fill the nick and
sand smooth with a 600 grit wet or dry sandpaper. Clean
afterwards with Formula Five Clean n Glaze compound.

Plastic
Plastic covers on the unit are covered with an acrylic
surface to protect the plastic from damage from ultraviolet
damage. Use a pressure washer and mild detergent to
clean plastic covers. Rinse with clean water to remove any
detergent residue.

Notice
Using solvents (such as acetone, MEK, or lacquer
thinner) can damage plastic covers. Use only isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) to clean plastic covers.
In some situations, pressure washing may not remove all
of the contaminants from plastic covers. Use isopropyl
(rubbing) alcohol to clean this type of contamination.

Maintenance Manual 3

After the covers are clean and dry, hand polish using an
automotive type wax.

Care of Exterior Surfaces


Altec units are manufactured out of structural steel,
galvanized steel and/or aluminum components with differing resistance to corrosion. While Altec uses components,
designs and coatings that maximize corrosion resistance,
regular cleaning and maintenance is necessary to preserve the finish over the life of the equipment.
Frequent and regular washing will lengthen the life of your
new equipments painted finish and components. Wash
your equipment and truck body frequently with warm or
cold water to remove dirt and preserve the original luster
of the paint. Never wash the equipment in direct sunlight
or when the metal surfaces are hot to the touch as it may
cause streaks on the finish. Caution must be used in
selecting detergents and degreasers that may damage the
finish. Use only commercially available automotive grade
cleaners. High pressure washing systems should be used
with caution, with the tip of the nozzle maintained at a
distance of 12" (30.5 cm) or more from the surface.
It is particularly important to wash the unit and body during
winter months as salt and other ice melting products are
extremely corrosive and can damage the vehicle. Other
corrosive environments that would necessitate additional
washing may include coastal areas, farming communities
where chemicals are sprayed, or mining operations.
Waxing of the exterior is typically not required, however
waxing will provide additional protection and help restore
the finish to the original luster. This may not only improve
appearance, but will likely extend the service life of your
truck body and equipment.
It is important to repair any chips or scratches that occur
to prevent further corrosion. If the paint damage exposes
primer, then a liquid touch up paint may be used. Damage
that extends to unpainted metal must be primed prior to
applying a top coat. Touch up paint for standard Altec
colors may be ordered by calling 1-877-GO ALTEC. Your
local auto body shop can assist you with matching a
custom color.
Equipment that is used in harsh environments and off road
use needs to have more routine washing and maintenance
to the under body area. When the equipment is washed it
should washed on the underside as well and routinely
checked for any damage to the paint/undercoat. Any
damage discovered should be touched up accordingly with
a good rust preventative material and/or undercoat. This
will help prevent corrosion that could spread from these
areas that are not easily seen.

4 Maintenance Manual

Tightening of Fasteners
A variety of fasteners are used on the unit. Different
fasteners have different inspection and installation requirements depending on their use and design. This
section explains different fasteners used on the unit,
torque specifications, and the use of thread locking and
anti-seize compounds.
The standard grade of fastener used on the unit is a zinc
plated, SAE Grade 5, steel cap screw. SAE Grade 8 cap
screws, or special high strength cap screws, are used in
highly loaded areas. A variety of other fasteners such as
socket head, flat countersunk head, and button head cap
screws are also used on the unit.
Check all fasteners for tightness as recommended by the
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
The following is a list of fasteners to which particular
attention should be given.

Subbase fasteners
Outrigger attachment fasteners
Rotation bearing mounting cap screws
Rotation gearbox mounting cap screws
Lower boom insulator attachment cap screws
Upper boom base end attachment cap screws
Boom tip attachment cap screws
Winch mounting cap screws
Platform mounting cap screws
All pin retainer cap screws

A properly installed cap screw applies a clamping force


equal to or greater than the load applied to it. A cap screw
installed at less than the recommended torque value does
not provide enough clamping force. The cap screw may
fatigue, causing it to loosen or fail. If the cap screw is
torqued beyond the recommended torque value, the elastic range of the cap screw may be exceeded. This may
result in premature failure of the cap screw.
When checking fastener torque value, check at 90 percent
of the original value. For example, if the torque value for a
cap screw is 100 foot-pounds (136 Nm), check the cap
screw for tightness at 90 foot-pounds (122 Nm).
The following fasteners require torque values that differ
from common torque charts.
Fasteners

Foot-Pounds (Nm)

Platform mounting cap screws


Lower boom insulator attachment cap screws

55 (75)
142(193)

Upper boom base end attachment cap screws

70 (95)

Boom tip attachment cap screws

70 (95)

Many general application fasteners would not normally


require an installation torque or lubrication but instead
would be installed using sound mechanical practices. If it
is desired to more closely control the fastener clamp load
it is recommended that a copper-based anti-seize compound be applied. Refer to Torque Values in the Appendix
as a guide to determine the proper cap screw torque value.

Lockwiring
All critical fasteners on the unit must be Iockwired. This
includes bolts through forged pin retainers in pins, all
turnbuckles on leveling cables and insulator rods, and
certain other mounting or retaining bolts. Lockwires must
be installed in a way that tends to pull the fastener in the
direction which would tighten it. An aircraft type wire
should be used. It should be relatively soft. This wire is
easy to work with and will produce neat and effective
Iockwires.
Twist lockwires between the fastener and the anchor point.
At least three full twists should remain on the standing end
of the Iockwire when it is trimmed off. Overtwisting a
Iockwire will tend to work harden the wire which may cause
it to break.
Pliers used in Iockwiring should have smooth, flat surfaces to minimize working or cutting the wire, thus weakening it. With a small amount of practice, a mechanic can
become skilled at installing neat and effective Iockwires.

locations on the unit. Many are visible to the operator


during daily inspections.
If any inspection marks are found to be cracked or broken
during inspection, the original mark must be totally removed. The fastener torque must be checked (if no
damage is evident) or the fastener replaced and torqued (if
damage is evident), and the inspection mark reapplied.
The inspection lacquer (refer to Service Tools and Supplies in the Appendix) should not be used after the
expiration date printed on the container.
Use the following procedure to apply a new inspection
mark.
1. Remove the majority of the original inspection mark by
chipping it off with a chisel or other cutting method. Do
not damage the surface on the nut, fastener, washer,
and part or structure being attached to.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from improper use
of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper
use and disposal.
2. Be sure the cleaning operation is performed in a wellventilated area. Remove the remaining residue using
inspection lacquer cleaner (refer to Service Tools and
Supplies in the Appendix). Apply the cleaner to a rag
and completely remove the inspection stripe.
3. Properly torque the fastener.
4. Clean the area where the inspection stripe is to be
applied with a soft clean cloth and acetone.

Figure 1 Forged Pin Retainer


5. Start at the center of the cap screw and apply a 1/32
to 1/16 thick stripe of inspection lacquer to the head of
the cap screw, across the washer, and onto the
surface of the parent material. The stripe should
extend 1/8 to 1/4 onto the parent material.
Figure 2 Two Bolts
The Iockwires used to secure the turnbuckles and adjustments on the Ieveling cables and Ieveling rods are
illustrated in the section on cable replacement and adjustment.

Inspection Marks

6. The stripe must be continuous across the surfaces. If


it is not, remove the stripe with cleaner and reapply the
inspection lacquer properly.

Pins
All pins on the unit have been plated to prevent rusting and
to provide long wear for those pins mating with selflubricating bearings.

Nuts or cap screws with locking patch element used in


combination with inspection marks are used at specific

Maintenance Manual 5

Pins which are non-rotating or static connections are zincplated to prevent rusting.
Pay particular attention to the lubrication information to
assure proper lubrication of those pins and parts which
require it. It is also important to know which pins and parts
do not require lubrication. Pins mated with self-lubricating
bushings do not require lubrication.
The pin retention means used on the unit are shown in
Figure 3. When inspecting the forged pin retainers, Iook for
bent or broken stems. The stem could bend or break if the
pin that it is retaining tries to turn. On the lower boom
cylinder, this might indicate a lack of Iubrication of the
spherical bearings. A bent pin retainer on the idler sheaves
would indicate that the sheave is binding up. The weld on
pins with welded caps must be inspected. A cracked weld
or an elongated bolt hole indicates that the pin may be
trying to turn. If this is the case, replace the pin and
bearings. A sheared pin would also indicate binding
bearings and the connection should be disassembled and
necessary parts replaced.

Lockwire

Lock
Washers

Cylinder Eye

The main rotation bearing on the unit is a shear ball bearing


with integral bullgear machined on the outer race. The
outer race is solidly bolted to the pedestal top plate on a
machined surface and the inner race is bolted to the
machined bottom surface of the turntable. The mounting
bolts are 3/4 -10 UNC alloy cap screws x 21/2 long. A
hardened washer is used beneath the head of each cap
screw. The mounting bolts are tightened to 325 footpounds torque and should be retorqued if any indication of
looseness appears. Properly lubricated, this bearing should
give many years of satisfactory service.
The lower boom cylinder is equipped with spherical bearings to assure alignment.
The main hinge pin for the lower boom, the upper boom
cylinders, the platform shaft, and the links at the elbow are
equipped with self-lubricating bearings. Also the platform
rotator pins, platform rotator cylinders, jib tilt cylinders, jib
tilt support bracket, and fiberglass jib sleeve are equipped
with self-lubricating bearings.

Inspections
Proper unit maintenance will reduce downtime, lower
operating and repair costs, and extend equipment life.
Safety alone justifies a preventive maintenance program.

Stem

Forged Pin
Retainer
Retaining
Ring
Weld

Bearings

Rollpin

Retaining
Ring

Bearing

Retaining
Plate

Pin

End Plate

Lockwire
Pivot Tube

Figure 3 Pin Retainers


Other welds to inspect are anywhere a change in cross
section takes place on the booms, turntable, or pedestal.
Pay particular attention to where the lower boom cylinder
meets the turntable and lower boom.

6 Maintenance Manual

This section contains information on properly inspecting


the hydraulic system, structures, individual unit components, and lubrication. Use the Lubrication Chart and
Diagram in this section when lubricating the unit.
A Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist is
provided in the Appendix. Use the checklist when performing routine maintenance and inspections to insure no
areas are overlooked. Components may be installed on
your unit that require additional maintenance at different
intervals outside the scope of the Preventive Maintenance
and Inspection and Accessory Checklists. Refer to these
component manuals for more information. Keep permanent, written, and dated records of all service performed on
the unit.
Routine maintenance is performed on different components of the unit at different times (refer to the Preventive
Maintenance and Inspection Checklist in the Appendix).
More frequent maintenance may be necessary if the unit
is operated under severe conditions. In addition to the
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist recommendations, follow these recommendations on new units.

Measure the turntable tilt before using a new unit.


Change the return line filter after the first 15 to 25 PTO
hours.
Gearbox manufacturers recommend an initial oil
change after the first 15 to 25 PTO hours.

Rotation Bearing Cap Screw


Inspection Procedure

Special high-strength 3/4 cap screws are used to secure


the rotation bearing to the pedestal and the turntable. The
rotation bearing cap screws are torqued at the factory to
325 foot-pounds. Rotation bearing cap screw heads may
be colored and/or plastic caps are installed over the heads
to help identify the new fasteners.

Notice
Only use Altec supplied cap screws and washers to
install the rotation bearing.
When rotation bearing cap screws or washers are removed, they must be replaced with new ones. Contact
your Altec representative for replacement fasteners.

looking for any evidence that a cap screw is loose. Check


for loose washers under the heads of the cap screws by
trying to turn each washer by hand. If movement is shown,
retorque all the cap screws using the Retorquing Procedure.
Annual Torque Inspection Procedure
Perform the inspection as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
Check that the cap screws are torqued to 295 foot-pounds
or 90 percent of the normal installation torque of 325 footpounds. Use an accurate torque wrench, calibrated on a
regular basis. If one or more of the cap screws are loose,
check the torque on all the cap screws as described in the
Retorquing Procedure. If the rotation bearing is replaced or
removed, follow the same inspection intervals.
Retorquing Procedure
Perform this procedure on the entire bearing race if any cap
screws were found loose at the visual or annual inspection.

Notice

Caution
Failure to keep the rotation bearing cap screws properly tightened may lead to fatigue failure of the cap
screws and consequent damage to the unit. Insufficient or uneven cap screw tightness may also contribute to reduced life of the rotation bearing.

Notice

Use a 3/4 drive click-type manual torque wrench,


accurately calibrated, for the installation of the rotation bearing cap screws. Torque the cap screws by
applying a smooth pull on the torque wrench without
jerking. Do not overtighten the cap screws.

Use a 3/4 drive click-type manual torque wrench,


accurately calibrated, for the inspection of these cap
screws. Torque the cap screws by applying a smooth
pull on the torque wrench without jerking. Do not
overtighten the cap screws.
Depending on the particular unit this procedure is being
performed on, various components will need to be removed to make the rotation bearing cap screws accessible for retorquing. It is important that experienced,
trained mechanics will perform this procedure and that
they are aware of the process needed to properly torque
rotation bearing cap screws.
1. Retorque according to the patterns in Figures 4 and 5.

If any cap screws are broken or missing, replace all the


fasteners in that race (refer to Rotation Bearing Cap
Screws). If a cap screw will not remain properly torqued
between normal inspections, further inspection may be
required.
Impacts to and excessive forces on the unit due to
vehicular accidents, rollovers, and excessive loading may
result in structural damage not obvious during a visual
inspection. A more detailed inspection by a qualified
individual may be required to determine if replacement of
the rotation bearing and fasteners is required.

11

1
6

8
3

10

4
7

5
Visual Inspection Procedure
Perform the visual inspection as recommended by the
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Visually inspect both sets of rotation bearing cap screws

12

Figure 4 Pedestal

Maintenance Manual 7

14

X
Rotation
Gearbox

11

10

12

13
4

Figure 5 Turntable
2. Begin with cap screw number 1 on the outer race and
torque it to 325 foot-pounds.
3. Continue around the pattern shown in the figure,
torquing each cap screw to 325 foot-pounds.
4. Retorque all cap screws to 325 foot-pounds again,
beginning at number 1. Go around in a circular pattern
this time instead of in the numbered order.
5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 on the inner race cap
screws, torquing each cap screw to 325 foot-pounds.

Rotation Bearing
The turntable rotates on a shear ball bearing called the
rotation bearing. The inner race is mounted to the turntable. The outer race of the rotation bearing is mounted to
the pedestal. The outer race has gear teeth that mesh with
the rotation pinion. The bearing provides for very low
torque rotation.
Monitoring Bearing Wear
The internal bearing clearance will increase slightly during
the break-in period. It should then remain essentially
constant for many years if the bearing is properly lubricated and not overloaded. As the bearing raceway begins
to wear, the clearance will increase. It should increase
steadily at first and accelerate toward the end of bearing
life.

Take an initial turntable tilt measurement when the unit is


delivered. This will provide a baseline for future bearing tilt
measurements. Future bearing tilt measurements will be
compared to this baseline to determine how much the
bearing tilt has increased since the initial (new bearing)
measurement. The greatest portion of the measured
turntable tilt results from structural deflection rather than
bearing internal clearance. It is important that the deflection be held constant by using the same measurement
procedure each time. Keep a maintenance log to monitor
the bearing inspections and turntable tilt measurements
during the life of the unit.
Bearing Replacement Criteria
The rotation bearing must be inspected and evaluated.
The recommended bearing inspection procedures include
the following items.
Monitoring the trend of turntable tilt measurements
Bearing inspections and turntable tilt measurements
can be used to determine when a bearing should be
replaced. Generally, an increase in turntable tilt of
0.065 above the initial tilt measurement indicates
that the bearing may be reaching the end of its useful
life. Other factors related to the condition of the
bearing must also be considered. Determine if the
increase in the turntable tilt measurements has been
steady or if it shows a trend of accelerated wear (refer
to Figure 6). Example 1 shows a steady increase in
wear, which is normal. Example 2 shows an accelerated increase in wear which would indicate bearing
replacement may be necessary. If the tilt measurement has reached 0.065 above the initial (new bearing) tilt measurement, and periodic measurements
show a trend of accelerated wear, replace the bearing.
500 Hour/6 Month
Inspections
1

Example 1
0.112

Example 2
0.110

0.114

0.114

0.116

0.122

Figure 6 Turntable Tilt Measurements


An increase in bearing clearance is one sign of bearing
wear. Periodic bearing tilt measurements will help determine when bearing replacement is necessary. Perform
bearing inspection and turntable tilt measurements as
recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. More frequent inspections are required when the total increase in turntable tilt measurement
reaches 0.050.

8 Maintenance Manual

Because the major portion of the measured turntable


tilt results from structural deflection, the total tilt
measurement varies from model to model. For example, overall turntable tilt measurements approaching 0.200 are not uncommon on some models, even
on bearings which have not reached the end of their
usable life. Severely worn bearings could have a
measured turntable tilt as much as 0.500 or more in

addition to other prominent symptoms of wear such as


unusual noise and roughness. Therefore, the total
turntable tilt measurement itself should not be used to
gauge a bearings remaining usable life. The change
in turntable tilt and the trend toward accelerated wear
is more important than the total tilt measurement
itself.
Evaluating the feel of the unit
If there is no trend toward accelerated wear, consider
the feel of the unit during load reversals. Operators
may notice an increase in the tilting or rocking of the
turntable.
Checking for rotation bearing noise and roughness
Determine whether there is any presence of roughness or noise in the rotation bearing during rotation.
Severely worn bearings commonly exhibit grinding,
snapping, and popping noises during rotation. These
noises may indicate the bearing has broken ball
spacers, split ball bearings, or excessive galling, the
presence of which would require immediate bearing
replacement. Popping or clicking noises might also be
caused by broken or improperly torqued bearing fasteners, a warped mounting surface, or worn teeth. A
check of the fastener torque and the rotation bearing
grease purged during lubrication will usually determine
if bearing noise is due to internal or external problems.
Inspecting the condition of the purged bearing grease
Grease from a well worn, poorly maintained, or damaged bearing will typically contain fairly large rust or
metal particles, instead of metal dust specks which
might be found in any bearing. Fairly large rust or metal
particles indicate the bearing has reached an accelerated wear condition and immediate bearing replacement is required. The presence of rust indicates
inadequate lubrication. Rust is commonly indicated
by extremely dirty grease. This situation must be
corrected to optimize the performance of the new
bearing. Always check the purged bearing grease at
each inspection and turntable tilt measurement procedure even if there is no presence of roughness, noise
in the bearing, or significant change in the turntable tilt
measurement.
One or more of these evaluation criteria should detect the
need for rotation bearing replacement long before there is
any threat of failure. By maintaining proper rotation bearing
lubrication and avoiding overload conditions, the replacement rotation bearing should provide many years of
service.

Bearing Inspection and Turntable Tilt Measurement


1. Position the unit on a level surface where the booms
can be elevated and rotated. Apply the parking brake
and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic system
and properly set the outriggers.
2. Position the booms in a position of near maximum
side reach. Exact boom position is not critical. Slowly
rotate the turntable 360 degrees using the lower
controls while checking for roughness or noise in the
rotation bearing. Repeat using the upper controls
since roughness may be felt more accurately from the
platform. Note in the maintenance log whether unusual noise or roughness was encountered.
3. Rotate the turntable to the position to be used for the
turntable tilt measurement. If the aerial device is
normally operated within a particular zone of rotation,
the tilt should be measured with the turntable rotated
to this position. For consistent measurement, always
use the same rotational position with no load in the
platform each time the tilt measurement is done.
Record the rotational position in the maintenance log.
4. Position the boom as in Figure 7. For reference, this
position is called Position A.

Upper Boom Vertical

Lower Boom Horizontal

Figure 7 Position A
5. Attach the magnetic base of the dial indicator to the
pedestal, positioning the pointer at either the front or
rear of the turntable. The pointer of the dial indicator
should be positioned against the underside of the
turntable base plate, as close as possible to the
bearing gear cover. Figure 8 shows three possible
positions for the dial indicator pointer. Any one of
these positions may be used. It may be difficult to
position the dial indicator and pointer in some zones

Maintenance Manual 9

of rotation without interference with the turntable or


pedestal. In this case, position the dial indicator and
pointer to the area as close as possible to the
recommended position. Once a correct indicator pointer
position is chosen, it is very important that the same
pointer position is used for each subsequent tilt
measurement. Therefore, record the pointer position
in the maintenance or service log where the tilt
measurements are recorded. Some inspectors prefer
to permanently mark the location where the dial
indicator pointer contacts the bearing base plate to
ensure that subsequent measurements are made in
exactly the same spot.

Pinion Gear Cover

Rotation Bearing
Gear Cover

Notice
Metal particles may be in the grease. Use a putty knife
to collect and wipe the grease.
10. Stow the booms. Lubricate the bearing to purge some
grease for inspection. Wipe some of the purged
bearing grease, which should be visible around the
inside ring of the bearing, on a piece of clean white or
light-colored paper. Smear the grease on the paper
into a very thin layer using a straight edge such as a
putty knife. Using a bright light, look for metal particles
which are larger than normal specks of metal dust.
Normally, particles large enough to be concerned
about will be felt as a rough spot when smearing the
grease. The smaller, insignificant particles will not
normally be felt under the straight edge. Also, look for
signs of rust which would indicate poor lubrication.
Record information about the condition of the purged
grease in the maintenance log.
a. If there are metal particles found in the grease that
exceed 1/32, the bearing should be replaced at the
next maintenance interval.

Figure 8 Pointer Positions


6. Set the dial indicator at zero with the booms in Position
A (refer to Figure 7).
7. Position the booms to Position B as shown in Figure
9. Do not rotate the turntable. Record the indicator
reading.

b. If there are any signs of rust in the grease, lubricate


the bearing more frequently to purge the old grease
out.
11. Refer to Bearing Replacement Criteria to determine if
bearing replacement is required.

Rotation Gearbox Mounting Cap Screws

Special 5/8 cap screws are used to secure the rotation


gearbox to the turntable. The torque value for the cap
screws is 225 foot-pounds (305 Nm). The cap screws
require special inspection procedures.
Upper Boom Horizontal
Insufficient or uneven cap screw tightness can contribute
to reduced life of the gearbox.
Lower Boom Vertical

Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped between moving components. Keep hands clear.

Figure 9 Position B
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 two more times to obtain an
accurate reading.
9. Remove the dial indicator to prevent accidental damage.

10 Maintenance Manual

Use caution when access covers have been removed to


service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist
between moving parts. Replace the access covers immediately after servicing.

Notice
Only use Altec supplied cap screws and washers to
install the rotation gearbox.

Use an accurate 3/4 drive click-type manual torque


wrench for the inspection of these cap screws. Torque
the cap screws by a smooth pull on the torque wrench
without jerking. Do not overtighten the cap screws.
Visual Inspection Procedure
Perform this visual inspection procedure as recommended
by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
Visually inspect all rotation gearbox cap screws, looking
for any evidence that a cap screw is loose. Check for loose
washers under the heads of the cap screws by trying to
turn each washer by hand. If movement is indicated,
retorque all the cap screws.
Annual Torque Inspection Procedure
Check the cap screws to be sure they are torqued to 203
foot-pounds (284 Nm) or 90 percent of the normal installation torque of 225 foot-pounds (305 Nm). Use a regularly
calibrated, accurate torque wrench. If one or more of these
cap screws turns before the wrench clicks, retorque all the
cap screws to 225 foot-pounds (305 Nm). If the rotation
gearbox is replaced or removed, follow the same inspection intervals.

Lubrication
Proper lubrication on a regular basis will extend the life of
the equipment and help to avoid maintenance problems in
the future. The frequency of lubrication coincides with an
inspection interval. The PTO hours should be used or
estimated for the inspection and lubrication intervals. If a
unit is seldom used, monthly intervals should be followed.
Particular areas of inspection and lubrication points is
provided in the Lubrication Chart and Diagram. This
information should be recorded and kept up to date. Any
notes on repairs or dielectric testing should also be
recorded and filed.
Lubricate the unit as recommended by the Preventive
Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.

Components may be installed on your unit that require


additional lubrication. Refer to these component manuals
for more information.
As mentioned in the bearings section of this manual, the
self-lubricating and oil impregnated bronze bushings are
self-lubricating, and require no lubrication. The self lubricating bearings are used at both boom pivots, the large
leveling sheaves, the upper boom linkage pivots, and the
platform rotators. Oil impregnated bronze bushings are
used on the rest of the idler sheaves and the upper control
linkage.
There are bearings that require lubrication with a chassis
lubricant. The spherical bearings in the ends of the lower
boom cylinder require periodic lubrication. The rotation
gear has a fitting located on the front of the turntable.
Rotate the unit through two full revolutions while lubricating
the bearings. The top bearing on the rotation gearbox
requires periodic lubrication.
Lubricate the inner outrigger legs with a molygrease.
Excessive lubricant on or around the legs will attract dust
and form an abrasive substance.
The rotation gearbox requires SAE 140 Worm Gear Oil. It
should be checked and maintained at a level approximately half full.
The cables for the leveling system require lubrication with
a wire rope Lubricant. It is extremely important that the
leveling cables not be allowed to run dry. The upper
controls should be periodically lubricated with a light
Iubricant. The wire rope lubricant could be used as a
substitute for the upper controls linkage.
Apply an open face gear lubricant to the rotation gear and
pinion teeth. Remove the pinion cover from the turntable
and lubricate the rotation gear teeth.
Use a small amount of general purpose spray lubricant on
the single handle control linkage pivot points. Wipe off the
isolating links and any excess lubricant. Isolating links
must be clean and dry.

Maintenance Manual 11

Lubrication Chart and Diagram


Service items identified by the symbol(s) at the appropriate level.
85 hours/1 month

Letter

500 hours/6 months

1,000 hours/1 year

2,000 hours/2 year

Lubricant

If disassembled

Application Method

Anti-Seize Compound Extreme pressure lubricant that prevents seizure,


corrosion, rust, and galvanic pitting.

Chassis Grease Multipurpose lithium base grease with good water


resistance, rust inhibition, oxidation stability, and extreme pressure properties.

Open Face Gear Lubricant Spray lubricant that penetrates and adheres with
good water resistance, is unaffected by temperature extremes, and has extreme
pressure properties.

Moly Grease Multipurpose lithium base grease with good water resistance,
rust inhibition, oxidation stability and extreme pressure properties, with or
without molybdenum disulfide additive.

Brush/grease gun

Wire Rope Lubricant Penetrating, cleaning, nongumming protective spray;


must minimize friction and eliminate rust.

Spray

General Purpose Spray Lubricant

Spray

SAE 140 Worm Gear Oil AGMA Grade 7 compounded or 7EP, must be
noncorrosive to bronze.

Pour

Brush

Grease gun

Spray

Output Shaft
Upper Bearing
Drain Plug
on Bottom

W Oil Level

Input Shaft
Splines

W Change Oil

Change Oil W

Oil Level

Rotation Gearbox

12 Maintenance Manual

Drain Plug
Winch Gearbox

Hydraulic Pump

Inner Leg
Outer Surface

Valve Spools
Outrigger
Tool
Jib/winch
Platform rotate

Cylinder and
Shoe Pins

Control Handle Linkage


Single handle control
All control handle linkages at platform
Lower control valve
Outrigger control valve

A-Frame Outriggers

Leveling System

Rotation Bearing
Ball Race

C
A

Upper Boom Cylinder


Spherical Bearings
C

Lower Boom Cylinder


Spherical Bearings

Gearbox
Eccentric Ring

Rotation Pinion and


Bearing Gear Teeth

Maintenance Manual 13

Rotation Bearing Replacement


The rotation bearing provides for very low torque rotation.
The bearing should provide many years of service if
properly maintained.
A grease tube is connected to the inner race of the rotation
bearing and to a grease fitting on the front of the turntable.
Lubricate the bearing race, the gear teeth on the outer race,
and the rotation pinion as recommended by the Preventive
Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
Removal
Components may need to be removed to access the
rotation bearing cap screws.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake, and chock the wheels. Engage the PTO and
properly set the outriggers. Disengage the PTO and
turn off the engine.
2. Relieve the pressure in the system by moving all the
handles at the turntable controls in each direction
several times.

Installation
New rotation bearing kits shipped from Altec include cap
screws, hardened washers, anaerobic adhesive compound, cleaning solvent, and installation instructions.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from improper use
of solvents. Follow the manufacturers label for proper
use and disposal.
1. Clean the rotation bearing mounting surfaces on the
pedestal, turntable, and the bearing with a cloth and
solvent to remove any dirt or grease. Allow the
surfaces to completely dry.
2. Remove the grease tube from the old rotation bearing
and install it on the new bearing.
3. Shake the bottle of adhesive compound. Apply the
adhesive to the pedestal side of the bearing surface
according to the pattern shown in Figure 10. The
bearing must be completely installed within 30 minutes of applying the adhesive. Do not get adhesive in
the cap screw holes.

3. Remove the gearbox.


4. Remove the rotary joint and slip ring.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled
movement. Properly support the component before
loosening fasteners and removing hydraulic components.
5. Support the turntable and booms to prevent them from
coming off of the pedestal after the cap screws are
removed. More than one lifting device may be required
to adequately support the turntable and booms.

Outer Race

/16 to 1/4
Wide Bead
3

6. Disconnect the grease tube from the turntable.


7. Remove the inner race cap screws and washers. The
cap screws are accessible from the turntable side of
the rotation bearing.
8. Use a sling and hoist to lift the turntable and booms
from the rotation bearing.
9. Remove the cap screws and washers from the outer
race of the rotation bearing. These cap screws are
accessible from the pedestal side of the rotation
bearing.
10. Using a sling and hoist, lift the bearing off the pedestal.

14 Maintenance Manual

Inner Race
Figure 10
Anaerobic Adhesive Application Patterns

4. Position the new rotation bearing on the pedestal with


the high tooth, marked by yellow or blue paint, in the
proper position (refer to Figure 11). Align the mounting
holes with the cap screw holes in the bearing.

Notice

Use an accurate 3/4 drive click-type manual torque


wrench for the installation of the rotation bearing cap
screws. Torque the cap screws by a smooth pull on the
torque wrench without jerking. Do not overtighten the
cap screws.
Insufficient or uneven cap screw tightness can contribute
to reduced life of the rotation bearing.
6. Torque the cap screws in three phases.
a. Torque the cap screws to 165 foot-pounds using
the alternating star pattern shown in Figure 12.
b. Set the torque wrench to 325 foot-pounds. Follow
the same alternating star pattern.

High Tooth
Location

c. Keep the torque wrench set for 325 foot-pounds.


Torque each cap screw using a circular pattern
starting with cap screw number one.

Figure 11 Rotation Bearing High Tooth Location

Notice
Only use Altec supplied cap screws and washers to
install the rotation bearing.
5. Install the cap screws with washers in the outer race
of the bearing. Notice that the washer has a more
rounded edge on one side. Install the washer with the
rounded edge toward the cap screw head. Do not
torque the cap screws until all of them have been
installed on the outer race.

11

7. Shake the bottle of adhesive compound. Apply the


adhesive to the turntable side of the bearing surface
according to the pattern shown in Figure 10. The
bearing must be completely installed within 30 minutes of applying the adhesive. Do not get adhesive in
the cap screw holes.
8. Rotate the inner race to position the grease tube as it
was in the original bearing.
9. Use a sling and hoist to position the turntable on top
of the rotation bearing. Align the turntable mounting
holes with the mating cap screw holes in the bearing.

13
6

Loading
Plug

Grease
Fitting

6
14
Gearbox Location

10

12

4
7

12

11

2
5

8
* Unused Holes

10

X
Inner Race

Outer Race

Figure 12 Cap Screw Torque Patterns

Maintenance Manual 15

10. Install the cap screws and washers in the inner race
of the bearing in the same manner as the outer race
cap screws.

When rotation bearing cap screws or washers are removed, they must be replaced with new ones. Contact
your Altec representative for replacement fasteners.

11. Torque the cap screws in three phases with the same
procedure used on the outer race in step 6. Follow the
alternating star pattern shown in Figure 12.

1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking


brakes, and chock the wheels. Engage the PTO and
properly set the outriggers. Disengage the PTO and
turn off the engine.

12. Install the rotation gearbox. Apply thread locking


adhesive to the threads of the cap screws. Install the
four cap screws, and washers. Do not torque the cap
screws yet.
13. Adjust the backlash between the rotation pinion and
rotation bearing gear teeth.
14. Install the rotary joint and slip ring. Reconnect all
hydraulic lines and electrical wires. Connect the
grease tube to the turntable.
15. From the turntable controls, operate each function five
or six times to purge any air that may have entered the
system.
16. Lubricate the rotation bearing raceway and gear teeth.
17. Conduct a rotation system seating procedure. Position the booms and apply the appropriate test weight
for a level surface stability test. Provide a suitable
restraint, securely anchored to the ground, to prevent
overturning. Rotate the turntable through three complete revolutions to properly seat the bearing and
fasteners.
18. Torque the rotation bearing fasteners (both inner and
outer race) again to 100 percent of the normal installation torque, using a circular pattern. Torque the
rotation gearbox fasteners again to 100 percent of the
normal installation torque.
19. Inspect the rotation bearing cap screws as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Use the inspection procedures as
described under Rotation Bearing Cap Screw Inspection Procedure.

Rotation Bearing Cap Screws


Use this procedure when only the rotation bearing cap
screws are being replaced.

Notice
Only use Altec supplied cap screws and washers.

16 Maintenance Manual

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled
movement. Replace only one cap screw at a time.
2. Loosen and replace only one cap screw at a time.
3. Install the new cap screw and washer. Notice the
washer has a more rounded edge on one side. Install
the washer with the rounded edge toward the cap
screw head.
4. Torque the cap screw to 100 percent of the normal
installation torque value.
5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 for each cap screw in the
race, going around in a circular pattern.
6. Conduct a rotation system seating procedure. Position the booms and apply the appropriate test weight
for a level surface stability test. Provide a suitable
restraint, securely anchored to the ground, to prevent
overturning. Rotate the turntable through three complete revolutions to properly seat the bearing and
fasteners.
7. Torque the rotation bearing cap screws to 100 percent
of the normal installation torque value using a circular
pattern.
Resume regular inspection of the rotation bearing cap
screws as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance
and Inspection Checklist. Use the inspection procedures
as described under Rotation Bearing Cap Screw Inspection Procedure.

Adjustment of Rotation
Pinion to the Rotation Bearing
At the time of unit shipment, the mesh or backlash
between the rotation pinion and the rotation bearing gear
teeth was properly adjusted. However, after an extended
period of operation, or a gearbox change, readjustment
may be necessary. An eccentric adjusting ring provides 1/8" of adjustment. Use of the eccentric ring is
explained later in this section.

Excessive backlash in the gear set may appear as boom


movement. To visually inspect the gear set, remove the
pinion cover. With another person rocking the boom elbow
back and forth, observe the rotation pinion. If movement
between the pinion and the rotation gear teeth is noted, the
backlash is excessive. Be careful not to confuse backlash
in the gear set with slight lost motion within the gearbox.
If the pinion does not move in relationship to the rotation
bearing, but tries to rotate, the backlash probably cannot
be further reduced.
If adjustment is necessary to bring the pinion into closer
mesh with the rotation bearing, perform the following
procedure.

Caution
Eye protection must be worn at all times to prevent
particles of dirt or metal from entering the eyes.
Hands and fingers must be kept off the pinion and
rotation bearing gear teeth to avoid serious injury.
1. Lower the outriggers as for normal operation.
2. The gear lash must be set on the high tooth of the
rotation bearing. The high tooth is located over the
front side of the pedestal.
3. Remove the pinion cover and the lock bar. Loosen the
four cap screws which clamp the rotation gearbox in
place on the turntable socket head bolts plate.
4. Using a soft punch, preferably brass, and a hammer,
the eccentric ring can be rotated. This ring is located
on top of the turntable plate under the gearbox. Since
the eccentric ring can be rotated in either direction, it
must be determined that the pinion is being tightened.
Should the gear mesh become looser, the ring must be
turned in the opposite direction.

Eccentric
Ring

Drive Slots

Lock Bar

Figure 13 Eccentric Ring


8. Install the pinion cover and rotate the unit through at
least two rotations to determine that the backlash has
been properly adjusted. It should not bind or hesitate
in any position. If a new gearbox was installed or the
teeth on the rotation bearing are dry, apply an open
face gear lubricant.

Boom Alignment
The upper boom should be aligned over the boom rest
mounted to the lower boom.
Two eccentric bushings are used on the elbow pin to adjust
the alignment of the upper boom. As the eccentric bushings are rotated on the elbow pin, the alignment of the
upper boom over the lower boom changes. Upper boom
alignment has been factory adjusted and should not
normally require readjustment.
The elbow pin is illustrated in Figure 14. The rollpins hold
the eccentric bushings in position and to act as a visual
indicator of bushing movement. The cap screw is used to
hold the flange in position to prevent pin rotation.

5. The pinion will bottom out in the rotation bearing as the


eccentric ring is turned.
6. Install the lock bar. The bar can be installed two
different ways (refer to Figure 13). This gives twice as
many locking increments as there are holes. If the
Iocking bar does not line up with any holes, the
eccentric ring may have to be backed off slightly.

Lockwire
Rollpin

Weld
Flange

Elbow Pin

7. After installing the locking bar, torque the gearbox


mounting bolts to 225 foot-pounds.
Lug

Eccentric
Ring

Cap Screw

Figure 14 Elbow Pin Assembly

Maintenance Manual 17

Readjustment may be necessary if the upper boom has


been replaced. Center the upper boom over its rest by
rotating the eccentric bushings. After aligning the upper
boom, install the rollpins, cap screw and end plate.
Lockwire the end plate cap screws.

Hydraulic Plumbing,
Hoses, and Fittings
The unit is manufactured with hydraulic components,
hoses, lines, and fittings which meet ANSI requirements.
Certain hoses used on insulating units must be of the
nonconductive type. The hoses are used through the
insulating upper boom, the fiberglass insert in the lower
boom and generally on hydraulic tools which may be used
with the unit. Insulating hoses in the applications mentioned above, as well as in other possible applications, are
orange in color. The small lines which connect the platform
controls to the lower part of the unit are also nonconductive
lines. These lines are color coded for the convenience of
maintenance and repair.
The Parts Manual identifies nonconductive hoses. It also
identifies fittings and other plumbing hardware. It is extremely important that nonconductive hoses be replaced
only with hoses of the same type and size. Replacement
fittings, lines, tubes, etc. should be the same type and size
that were furnished with the unit. Never use wire braid
hoses or any hose that is not fully insulating in an
insulating location. If there is ever any doubt concerning
the proper hose to be used for replacement, contact an
Altec representative.

Caution
Never substitute a conductive type hose for any insulating or nonconductive hose. Death or serious injury
may result from the bridging of an insulating gap with
a conductive hose. Nonconductive hoses must be
non-pin perforated.

Fittings and Valve Cartridges


Most hydraulic ports and fittings are SAE straight thread
O-ring or 37 degree flared JIC straight thread. These types
of fittings provide a good seal and resist vibration.
Use the proper torque and tightening specifications when
installing a hydraulic fitting to reduce the likelihood of leaks
in the system. Use caps and plugs during the handling and
storage of hydraulic components to prevent damage to
sealing surfaces and fitting threads.
When installing a valve cartridge into a valve body,
properly torque the cartridge. Tightening the cartridge less
than the specified torque value may cause a leak.

18 Maintenance Manual

Overtorquing a cartridge can damage the valve, valve


body, or bind internal parts.

Torque and Tightening Procedures


Overtorquing a component can distort the part and cause
a leak. When a leaking fitting is found, check to see if it is
tight. If it is not tight, torque it to the proper value. Replace
the fitting if it will not stay tight.
If the fitting is tight, stop the unit, determine the cause of
the leak and take corrective action. When making a
connection that uses a swivel nut, use one wrench to hold
the hose, tube, or fitting and another wrench to turn the nut.
This is necessary to prevent damage to the sealing
surface of the JIC connections.
The following procedure describes proper torque and
tightening procedures for various types of hydraulic fittings. Refer to Torque Values in the Appendix for the
appropriate torque chart.

Warning
Solvents can be extremely hazardous. Follow the
manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.
Tapered Pipe Thread Fittings
1. Clean the male threads of the fitting with a cleaning
solvent.
2. Apply pipe sealant to the male threads of the fitting,
being careful not to get sealant on the first two male
threads. Apply enough sealant to form a ring of sealant
on the outside of the connection when the threads are
tightened into the mating body.
3. Screw the fitting into the mating part and finger tighten.
4. Turn the fitting with a wrench the appropriate turns
from finger tight (T.F.F.T.), taking the final position of
the tube end into consideration.
5. Follow the sealant manufacturers directions for cure
time. The ring of sealant described in step 2 will not
completely harden due to its exposure to air.
SAE O-Ring Fittings With Locknuts
1. Lubricate the O-ring and threads with hydraulic oil or
light grease, such as petroleum jelly.
2. Screw the fitting into the SAE straight thread boss
until the backup washer bottoms out on the boss face
with the O-ring squeezed into the boss cavity.
3. Unscrew the fitting (maximum of one full turn) to align
the fitting with the mating part.

4. Tighten the locknut with a wrench and torque to the


proper value for the size and material (stainless steel
or steel) so the backup washer contacts the boss face.
SAE O-Ring Fittings Without Locknuts
1. Lubricate the O-ring and threads with hydraulic oil or
light grease, such as petroleum jelly.
2. Turn the fitting in full length until finger tight.

Four-Bolt Split Flange Assembly


SAE Code 61 (3,000 psi)
1. Clean the sealing surface of any burrs, scratches, or
foreign particles.
2. Lubricate the O-ring with hydraulic oil.
3. Position the flange and clamp halves. Put the bolts
with the lock washers in place (refer to Figure 15) and
hand tighten the bolts.

3. Use a wrench to tighten the fitting to the proper value.


Flange

Clamping Bolt

Tube and JIC Fittings


1. Clean the male threads of the fitting with a cleaning
solvent.
Split
Clamp
Half

2. Tighten the nut until first wrench resistance [approximately 30 inch-pounds (3.4 Nm)].
3. Using a felt tip pen or marker, mark a line lengthwise
on the nut and extend it onto the adapter body (refer
to Torque Values in the Appendix).
4. Determine the proper number of hex flats the nut must
be turned with a wrench. Using a wrench to hold the
adapter body, rotate the nut with another wrench the
proper number of hex flats from wrench resistance
(F.F.W.R.).

Lock
Washer

O-Ring
Figure 15 Four-Bolt Flange Assembly
4. Follow the pattern in Figure 16 to torque the bolts in
place.

5. Use the marks to count the proper number of hex flats


to turn the nut. The marks also serve as a visual
indicator that the fitting has been properly tightened.
Compression Fittings
1. Cut the tubing to length, allowing for bend, equipment
movement, etc.
Figure 16 Four-Bolt Flange Torque Pattern
2. Fit the brass insert into the nylon pilot tubing with the
flanged end out. The insert should fit snug in the pilot
tubing. The color coded 5/16 outer diameter tubing
requires the use of an insert.
3. With the threaded end of the compression nut facing
the fitting body, slide the nut onto the nylon tubing,
followed by the compression sleeve.

Notice
To prevent damaging the nut and threads, do not
overtighten compression fittings.
4. Insert the tubing into the fitting body. Making sure the
tubing rests firmly on the shoulder of the fitting, hand
tighten the compression nut. Tighten the compression
nut the proper number of turns.

5. Use small increments to torque the bolts.


Valve Cartridges
1. Clean the male threads of the cartridge with a cleaning
solvent.
2. Lubricate the threads and O-ring with hydraulic oil.
3. Turn the cartridge in until it is finger tight.
4. Use a wrench to tighten the cartridge to the proper
value.

Single Handle Control


and Control Handle Covers
Inspect and perform a confirmation test of the single
handle control, if so equipped, as recommended by the
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
Maintenance Manual 19

Keep the green single handle control clean, dry, in good


condition, and periodically tested to maintain its limited
dielectric properties. Wipe any contaminants or moisture
from the surface of the control handle assembly and the
insulating linkages with a clean dry cloth. Isopropyl alcohol
may be used to clean these components. Replace any
damaged components with replacement parts from your
Altec representative and perform a confirmation test on
the control.
Inspect the rubber control valve handle covers as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
Checklist. Keep the rubber control valve handle covers in
place and in good condition. Replace damaged covers with
replacement parts from your Altec representative.

Atmospheric Vents
Atmospheric vents are located at the boom tip/platform
area. Inspect these vents as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. An atmospheric vent testing kit may be obtained from your local
Altec representative.

Oil Filtration
The unit is equipped with a complete filtration system.
Filtration starts when the oil reservoir is filled. The reservoir has a 30 mesh strainer basket to prevent large
particles from entering the reservoir during filling. The
reservoir breather cap has a 40 micron element to filter the
air which enters and leaves the reservoir as the oil level
changes.
Oil leaving the reservoir on its way to the pump passes
through a 150 micron strainer. The strainer prevents large
particles from getting into the pump. Oil returning to the
reservoir from all parts of the system passes through a 10
micron return line filter. The return line filter has the
replaceable, spin-on type cartridge. While the spin-on
replacement cartridge resembles an automotive filter, do
not use an automotive filter because of differences in the
bypass characteristics.
Frequency of servicing of filters will vary with the conditions under which the unit is being used. Shorter intervals
between filter servicing may be necessary in unusually
dirty or dusty conditions.
A new unit should have the return line filter cartridge
changed, and the 150 micron strainer cleaned after the first
15 to 25 hours of operation. During this initial run-in period,
the pump, motor, and cylinders may deposit wear particles
in the oil. Subsequent return line filter cartridge changes
should be as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.

20 Maintenance Manual

Caution
After filter servicing, the shutoff valve in the suction
line must be fully open before starting the pump.
Failure to do so will result in serious damage to the
pump or other components.

Oil Selection
The hydraulic oil selected should contain rust and oxidation inhibitors, antifoam, and antiwear additives. Oils used
in insulating equipment must also pass ASTM D877-67,
the dielectric breakdown voltage of insulating liquids, at 35
KV or better, and possess high demulsibility.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result if the recommended
hydraulic oil is not used. Use of other fluids in the
hydraulic system can affect the insulating capability of
the unit.

Notice
Only use hydraulic oil as recommended. Other fluids
added to the hydraulic system can increase component wear and affect the lubricating characteristics of
the oil.
Using a hydraulic fluid outside the temperature range
it was prescribed for may cause system damage.
Only use oils meeting the viscosity rating for military
specification MIL-5606 in extremely cold climates.
These oils have fewer antiwear characteristics and are
not recommended for full time use.
Figure 17 shows hydraulic oil recommendations for different temperatures. The requirements are for mineral based
and biodegradable hydraulic fluids. Most companies can
supply equivalent oils. The oil selected for the hydraulic
system depends on the temperature during unit operation.
When refilling or changing hydraulic fluids it is recommended the replacement fluid meet oil cleanliness requirement 21/17/14 as specified by ISO 4406.

Changing the Oil


Check the oil level in the reservoir weekly. Booms must be
stored and outriggers retracted. In this condition, the oil
level should be within two inches of the top of the reservoir.
Overfilling or filling with the cylinders other than as
instructed may result in the reservoir overflowing.
It is extremely important that hydraulic oil be clean and free
of moisture. Moisture or impurities can reduce the insulat-

Specification
ISO grade
Ambient temperature range

All Weather Oil

Cold Weather Oil

Warm Weather Oil

22

15

32

-10 to 95 F (-23 to 35 C) -50 to 60 F (-46 to 16 C)

40 F (4 C) and above

Viscosity @ 104 F (40 C)

24 cSt

15 cSt

32 cSt

Viscosity @ 212 F (100 C)

4.6 cSt

4.4 cSt

6.0 cSt

Pour point, biodegradable

-31 F (-35 C)

-58 F (-50 C)

-31 F (-35 C)

Pour point, mineral based

-48 F (-55 C)

-76 F (-60 C)

-49 F (-45 C)

Flash point (min)

302 F (150 C)

302 F (150 C)

302 F (150 C)

35 kV

35 kV

35 kV

0.028 (0.70 mm)

0.028 (0.70 mm)

0.028 (0.70 mm)

Oxidation stability, TOST (min)

2,000 hours

2,000 hours

Oxidation stability, RPVOT (min)

250 minutes

177 minutes

250 minutes

63 ppm

38 ppm

63 ppm

Demulsibility, minutes to pass

15

10

15

Copper corrosion

1A

1A

1A

Rust test, pass/fail

Pass

Pass

Pass

Foam test, pass/fail

Pass

Pass

Pass

Dielectric strength (min)


Four- ball wear, scar (max)

Water content (max)

Figure 17 Hydraulic Oil Viscosity Recommendations


ing capability of the oil or shorten the life of the hydraulic
components.

Flushing the Hydraulic System

Visual Inspection of Hydraulic Oil

If there is ever any doubt about the insulating or lubricating


quality of the oil, it should be changed. If the oil is changed
for other than seasonal or routine maintenance, the system should be flushed using the following steps.

In addition to the regularly checking the quantity of


hydraulic oil, inspect samples of the oil at maintenance
intervals (refer to Figure 18). This can be done by draining
a quart of oil from the petcock at the drain pipe in the
reservoir. Use a glass container to permit visual examination of the oil. Water content in the oil may give a cloudy
appearance or it may separate from the oil. A rancid or
burned odor emanating from the oil may indicate the need
for change. If visible foreign particles are noted, change
the oil. If desirable, dielectrically test oil samples in an
ASTM test cup by a qualified test laboratory.

1. Drain the reservoir completely. This will leave approximately 1/3 of the system capacity in cylinders and
lines.
2. Using a short fill of five to six gallons of new oil, from
the lower controls operate the cylinders, rotation,
purge the control system, and operate the power tool
system through a few cycles.
3. Drain the reservoir again.

Condition

Possible Cause

Dark color

Oxidation; contamination

Cloudiness or milky appearance

Presence of water or wax

Rancid or burned odor

Oxidation

Increase in viscosity

Oxidation; addition of improper fluids; presence of water

Decrease in viscosity

Addition of improper fluids; additive deterioration

Separation of water or other fluids from the oil

Presence of water; addition of improper fluids

Foreign particles or other visible contamination

Contamination; emulsion of water with oil additives

Figure 18 Hydraulic Oil Conditions


Maintenance Manual 21

4. Clean the screens in the suction strainer. Replace the


cartridge in the return line.

Air entering the system due to low oil levels or leaks in the
suction line will cause the most problems and should be
corrected immediately.

5. Fill the reservoir.


6. Operate the unit as instructed above and recheck the
oil level in reservoir. Add oil if necessary.
7. After 20 to 30 hours of operating service, clean the
suction strainer and replace return filter cartridge
again.
If there is a major component failure, such as a pump,
cylinder, or motor, which has dumped contamination into
the system, thoroughly clean the hydraulic system. Change
the defective component and drain the oil. Remove the
cover to the reservoir and clean out completely. Clean the
suction strainer. Replace the return line filter and run a
short fill. The new return line filter should catch any
contaminants left in the cylinders or hoses. Drain the five
gallons of oil and replace with new oil. Replace the return
line filter again and a third time after 20 or 30 hours of
operation.

Air Bleeding
The presence of air in any hydraulic system will cause
abnormal operation, noises, and damage to the pump. The
presence of air in a hydraulic system can usually be traced
to one of the following.
1. If the oil level in the reservoir is allowed to get too low,
the pump suction can cause a vortex to form in the
reservoir which will allow air to be sucked into the
system along with the oil.
2. A leak in the plumbing between the reservoir and the
pump can suck air even though it will not leak out when
the system is shut down. These leaks may be found
by filling a pump type oil can with clean hydraulic oil
and squirting oil slowly at each connection in the
suction line with the pump operating at normal operating speed. A suction leak will suck the oil in. Be sure
to check the connection at the attachment to the
pump.
3. Loose connections in the pressure system normally
will leak externally during unit operation, but can suck
air into the system after the unit is shut down as the
oil tries to find its way to the low points of the system.
4. Hydraulic lines taken loose during maintenance operations will contain air until it is purged out. Some of
these lines will purge during normal use but others will
require specific bleeding operations.

22 Maintenance Manual

Warning
Serious pump damage and unit malfunctions are
likely to occur if conditions allowing air to enter the
suction side of the pump are present.

Troubleshooting Procedure
Establish a troubleshooting procedure to be followed any
time there is a malfunction. This procedure will provide a
starting point for determining the root cause of the malfunction and increase troubleshooting accuracy. Consider
using the following procedure.
1. Position the unit on a level surface. Apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Check the oil level in the
reservoir.
2. Engage the PTO, warm the hydraulic oil to operating
temperature, and properly set the outriggers.
3. Before testing each function through its full travel
capabilities, try small movements to be certain the
function is operating properly. Test each function for
full travel capabilities.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from falling from the
platform. All platform occupants must properly use an
appropriate OSHA approved personal fall protection
system.
4. Operate the unit from the lower controls and then the
upper controls to identify the malfunction.
5. Use the Hydraulic System Schematic in the Appendix
to determine the flow path required to operate the
failed function. Make a list of the components used to
operate the failed function. Cross off components
used to operate other functions that are operating
properly to minimize the number of items to check.
6. Check the easiest component first. Verify the proper
operation of each component remaining on the list
until the bad component is found.
7. Use accurate test equipment to verify flow, pressure,
voltage, and current.
Once the symptom has been positively identified, use the
Troubleshooting Chart in the Appendix for suggested
causes and corrective actions.

Engine Throttle Control


The oil pressure in the signal line to the pump actuates the
engine throttle cylinder. When the signal pressure exceeds 200 to 300 psi, the throttle cylinder begins to extend
until it reaches its full stroke at about 450 psi.
The piston rod actuates the throttle linkage which causes
the engine to accelerate to the adjusted rpm. The adjusted
rpm should provide a pump shaft speed of 1,800 rpm at
high pressure standby. The correct pump speed when
operating all boom functions simultaneously is 1,450 rpm.
The difference between the high pressure standby setting
of 1,800 rpm and the full load setting of 1,450 rpm allows
the engine to reach the top of its torque curve.
The mechanism of the engine throttle linkage is easy to
adjust and can be set to give the desired engine rpm to
match the desired pump rpm. A set screw on the end of the
throttle cylinder piston rod can be adjusted in or out and
locked into place with the jam nut on the screw.

Removing the Rotary Joint

5. Remove the rotary joint through the access cutaway


on the side of the turntable below the main control
valve.
Replace the rotary joint by reversing this sequence.
On units equipped with an air plunger type remote start/
stop system, an electric slip ring will be mounted on top of
the rotary joint. This must be removed before the rotary
joint can be removed from the turntable.

Leveling Cable Inspection,


Replacement, and Adjustment
The Ieveling system functions to maintain the floor of the
platform parallel to the turntable. This is a positive,
mechanical system operated through cables, insulating
rods, sheaves, etc. The two principle parts of the Ieveling
system are the Ieveling cables and Ieveling rods. Each of
the cables is anchored at the turntable and at the platform
sheave. Because of the geometric arrangement, movement of the booms results in platform movement.

The inner core of the rotary joint is bolted to the stationary


pedestal. The outer housing rotates with the turntable,
driven by a drive bar on the side of the housing. Hydraulic
fittings used in the rotary joint are the SAE straight thread
type. Pipe fittings will not fit these threads and should
never be used.

The Ieveling cables are an IWRC type cable 1/2 in size with
a minimum strength of 20,600 pounds when new. In the
insulating section of the upper and lower booms, the
Ieveling cable is connected to a fiberglass insulator rod
3
/4 in diameter to preserve the dielectric integrity of the
insulating components. Threaded end terminals on the
Ieveling cables are mechanically swaged onto the wire
rope. Turnbuckles are provided in the upper boom and in
the lower boom for proper adjustment for the entire Ieveling
system. Leveling cables and insulator rods are thoroughly
tested before they are installed in the unit.

Removal of the rotary joint should begin with the booms


stored and the hydraulic pump disengaged. As the hydraulic connections are removed, they should be capped to
prevent loss of oil or foreign material from entering the
rotary joint. The rotary joint can be removed by the
following method.

Movement of the booms and the resultant movement of


the Ieveling cable system is transmitted to the platform
through the keyed shaft at the elbow and through the keyed
platform shaft. Persons who perform inspections, make
adjustments, etc., should be familiar with the entire
leveling system before beginning disassembly.

The rotary joint permits continuous rotation of the turntable


without imposing torsional or twisting loads on the hydraulic hoses.

1. Disconnect all hydraulic fittings on the bottom of the


rotary joint in the pedestal.
2. Disconnect the hydraulic lines from the main control
valve to the lower boom cylinder and to the upper
boom cylinders. Move the lines to the rear of the
turntable out of the way of the rotary joint.
3. Disconnect all hydraulic connections to the rotary joint
inside the turntable.
4. Remove the four 3/8 x 3/4 bolts which fasten the rotary
joint mounting plate to the pedestal on the top of the
pedestal.

Inspection of Leveling Cables


A cable is a mechanism within itself, consisting of moving
parts which are called strands and wires. Cable wires
move in relationship to other wires under operating conditions. Two of the operating conditions with which the cable
inspector must be concerned are as follows.
The movement of wires against each other as the
cable is loaded and unloaded.
The flexibility and bending of the cable, strands, and
wires as the cable passes over.
Inspection is an important part of satisfactory cable life, as
well as the safety and reliability of the cable. Lubrication
Maintenance Manual 23

plays a very important part in extending cable life by


reducing internal wear as the wires move in relationship to
each other. While the platform Ieveling system is designed
with a safety factor several times greater than the rated
loads applied to the platform, periodic inspection and
lubrication must be performed.
Adjustment of the cables may be required after extended
periods of operation. This method of adjustment is explained in a later section. Specific inspection of Ieveling
cables must be performed as recommended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. This is the
same interval recommended for other inspections and
lubrication of the completed unit.
Cable wear will be greatest where the cables are contacting sheaves. To perform a thorough inspection, all covers
must be removed from the booms. It will also be necessary
to inspect the cables with the unit in three different
positions. During the inspection, it would be advisable to
also lubricate the cables.

Position 3
Place the lower boom horizontal and the upper boom
overcenter. Reach inside the upper boom and inspect as
in Position 2.
Note the general condition of the leveling system components including leveling rods, boom interiors, control lines,
hydraulic hoses, leakage monitor wires, etc. Check boom
interiors for hydraulic leaks and the accumulation of debris
or other foreign material, particularly units used in tree
trimming activity. Check cables for rust even if they are
galvanized. Tree sap, etc., may act as an acid which may
produce rust.

Caution
If the unit is washed with a high pressure washer or
chemical degreasers are used the leveling cables
must be lubricated within a 24 hour period or before
the unit is operated.

Replacement of Leveling Cables


Look for broken wires. Feeling by hand or by wiping with a
soft cloth will expose broken wires. If four or more broken
wires are found, replace that cable. If it is determined that
there are broken wires, but not enough to cause replacement, perform more frequent inspections. Any time there
is doubt in the mind of the inspector concerning the safety
of a cable, it should be changed.
While operating the unit, observe the sheaves for freedom
of movement. It is extremely important that all idler
sheaves turn as the cable moves. Evidence of a frozen or
slipping sheave would be a very shiny groove. As the cable
slips, it wipes the lubrication off.
Position 1
The booms stored. Inspect the cables at the turntable.
Also inspect the sheave grooves for evidence of scuffing.
Inspect the cables and sheaves at the elbow. The cables
or rods should not touch anything. Make sure the cable
keepers are in place. Reach inside the upper boom at the
platform through the side access holes at the boom tip.
Pay particular attention to the cable that comes off the top
of the 12 sheave. Reach into the boom past the idler
sheaves for inspection.
Position 2
Raise the lower boom vertical and the upper boom fully
down. This exposes a new length of cable. Inspect the
cables at the turntable and boom tip. With another aerial
platform, inspect the cables at the elbow. Have someone
raise the upper boom and make sure no cables are riding
on each other. If they do, they can be pried in place on the
cast sheaves with a screwdriver.

24 Maintenance Manual

One type of leveling cable must be replaced at least every


5 years or 5,000 hours, whichever comes first. The other,
newer type, of leveling cable must be replaced at least
every 8 years or 8,000 hours, whichever comes first. The
newer type is recognized by yellow paint on the end
coupling of the cable. This requirement is based on normal
use, proper care, regular inspection, and lubrication. If the
unit is operated under severe conditions, or not properly
serviced, replace cables, leveling rods, or sheaves more
frequently. This emphasizes the need to perform regular
inspections as instructed in this manual.
Before removing or replacing leveling cables or rods, study
Figure 19. It is very important that the correct procedures
be followed to assure proper routing of cables for the safety
of operation. Several inspections will be required during
the replacement of cables. Use only genuine Altec replacement parts. Substitution of inferior parts can lead to
dangerous conditions.

Procedure for Removing


Leveling Cables and Rods
1. Remove all access covers from the booms. This will
permit access to the leveling system which is mostly
housed within the booms.
2. Remove the platform(s) for access to the boom tip.
This can be done by detaching the fiberglass platform(s)
from the mounting shaft. If the platform can be
supported while it is removed, it may not be necessary
to remove the control head.
3. Disconnect the current leakage monitoring bonding
wires from the leveling rods inside the upper boom at
the elbow.

Idler Sheaves

Leveling Cable

Rod to Cable
Connection

Leveling Rod

Boom Tip

Sheave
Holdback Rod

Elbow End
Cable Guide

R. H.
Threads

Turntable

L. H.
Threads

Turnbuckle

Lug

Base End of Lower Boom

Figure 19 Leveling System Assembly


4. Remove the cable keepers (retainers) from all sheaves.
5. Release the lower boom Ieveling rods from the cables
by unscrewing the turnbuckles in the lower boom.
Push the lower boom Ieveling rods through the lower
boom to extend outside at the elbow.
6. Remove the idler sheave at the elbow end of the lower
boom.
7. Release the upper boom Ieveling rods from the cables
by unscrewing the turnbuckles at the lower end of the
upper boom.
8. Make note of the Ieveling rods to become familiar with
the right hand and left hand threads at the ends of the
rods.
9. Release the upper boom Ieveling rods from the elbow
cables by unscrewing the turnbuckles in the upper
boom.
10. Remove the platform mounting shaft from the upper
boom tip. Note the orientation of the 12 sheaves at
the tip and at the elbow.
11. Remove the pins from the 8 idler sheaves at the boom
tip and the lower 8 idler sheave at the elbow end of the
upper boom.
12. Slide the 8 idler sheaves at the boom tip, the 12
boom tip sheave, the boom tip cable, and the Ieveling
rods out of the boom tip.
13. Remove the cables at the boom tip from the Ieveling
rods.
14. By removing the anchor pin from the mounting bracket
inside the turntable, the lower end cables can be
removed.

Inspection
1. Thoroughly inspect all Ieveling rods to determine if
they are suitable for reuse. Check rods for severe
scratches, signs of rubbing, cleanliness, or any other
possible damage or wear. Inspect the terminals at the
ends of the rods for secure attachment and condition.
Replace the rods if there are any signs of cracks,
damage, or wear.
2. Inspect all idler sheaves. Sheaves must not be reused
if they show signs of scuffing on the surface which
contacts the cable. All sheaves must turn freely
without excessive looseness in the bearing.
3. Inspect the large sheaves at the elbow. If there are any
broken flanges or excessive wear, replace the sheave.
If excessive wear is noted in the shaft bearings, they
must be replaced.
4. New sheaves, bearings, and pins are furnished with
the cable kit. It is recommended that these parts be
replaced at cable replacement.
5. Inspect all cable keepers for wear, damage, or deformation. Never use a cable keeper which is not in good
condition.
6. If the Ieveling rods have been determined to be
reusable, clean the surface of the rods to avoid
degrading their dielectric strength.

Installation
Caution
Always wear the proper protective equipment for the
task being performed. For example, safety shoes, eye
and hearing protection, gloves, etc.
Use extreme caution when access covers have been
removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear

Maintenance Manual 25

points may exist between moving parts. Replace the


access covers immediately after servicing.

13. Reassemble the split sheave. Torque the 4 cap


screws to 50 foot-pounds and lockwire. Reinstall the
cable keepers.

1. Measure the length of thread inserted into the rods on


the old cables. Set the jam nuts accordingly.

Notice

2. Install the boom tip and the elbow cable on the upper
boom leveling rod while it is out of the boom. Tighten
the jam nuts and lockwire.

Wrenches must be used to support and position the


rod end and cable end while turning the turnbuckle.
These components can be damaged if a twisting force
is applied to them.

3. Tie the twine to the boom tip cable and pull it and the
upper boom leveling rod into position in the upper
boom. Pull the cable out of the boom tip to expose the
lug. Position the cable under the idler sheave and over
the platform shaft. Remove the twine.

14. Reassemble the turnbuckles to connect the base end


cable to the lower boom leveling rods and lockwire.
Refer to Figure 19 to make sure the proper cable to rod
connections are made. Replace the cable guide at the
idler sheaves at the base of the lower boom.

4. Install the cable keeper on the left (lower control valve)


side of the boom tip.

15. Reinstall the platform and torque the mounting bracket


cap screws to 55 foot-pounds.

5. Install the elbow cable on the holdback rod. Thread the


twine through the upper boom and tie it to the holdback
rod.

16. Reinstall the hydraulic tubes in their proper labeled


attachments. Connect all the hydraulic tubes at the
platform and the boom tip.

6. Pull the holdback rod into the upper boom. Lay the rod
on the left idler sheave and under the platform shaft.
Lay the holdback cable on the sheave at the elbow and
install the keeper.

17. Final adjustment of the cables will give the proper


cable tension and level the platform properly. Refer to
the information in this section on leveling system
adjustments.

7. Wrap the boom tip cable as shown in Figure 19 and


install the cable to the holdback rod. Tighten the jam
nut and lockwire.
8. Slide the holdback rod into the upper boom. Place the
cable on the idler sheave on the right, sliding the cable
under the keeper. Tighten the keeper.
9. Install the split sheave on the platform shaft. Install
the fasteners and lockwire.
10. Raise the platform and remove the blocks allowing the
platform to return to its normal position.
11. Slide the lower boom leveling rods partially into the
lower boom. Reconnect the lower boom leveling rod
ends to the elbow cables and lockwire. Slide the rods
into the lower boom while guiding the elbow cable into
position as illustrated in Figure 19. Replace the cable
keepers in the lower boom at the elbow.
12. Position the lower boom base end cable as illustrated
in Figure 19. Wrap the cable around the split sheave
so that when the sheave is reassembled, the lug will
be positioned as illustrated in Figure 19, to the inside
of the lower boom.

26 Maintenance Manual

Caution
Do not permit anyone to occupy the platform until the
operations have been tested. The unit must pass a
structural and a dielectric test after replacement of
critical components.
18. Inspect cables, rods, pins, etc. at the turntable, elbow
and boom tip to determine that there is no rubbing
between the moving parts. This inspection can be
made from another unit.
19. Replace the boom access covers, the boom tip cover
and the elbow cover.
20. Perform a structural test.
21. Perform a dielectric test any time work has been
performed which might affect the insulating properties
of the fiberglass.

Adjustment of Leveling Cable Tension


The adjustment of platform Ieveling cables is a simple,
very important operation. It is necessary to have the
proper tension in order that the platform will be carried in
a position parallel to the turntable so that unnecessary
platform movement will be eliminated. However, between

the adjustments on the Ieveling cable system in the upper


and lower booms, the system can be greatly overtensioned.
This serves no purpose but does shorten the life of cables,
sheaves, bearings, etc.
Cable adjustment will most likely not be required until after
extended periods of operation. Loose cables can be
readily noticed when the platforms are loaded. Without
proper tension, the platforms will lean away from the boom
and the operators will find it uncomfortable to perform work
from the platforms. In addition, loose cables will allow the
Ieveling rods, cables, and platforms to bounce while the
vehicle is being driven.
To properly tension the Ieveling cables, raise both booms
until they clear the boom rests. By removing the cover
plate from the side of the lower boom and upper boom, the
turn buckles will be visible through the access hole. The
back turnbuckle inside the lower boom at the access hole
adjusts the platform tilt while the front turnbuckle adjusts
the tension in the lower boom cables. As in any turnbuckle,
one thread is right hand pitch and one thread is left hand
pitch. In the lower boom, the left hand threads are on the
turntable cables. In the upper boom, the left hand threads
are on the upper boom Ieveling rods. Anytime the turnbuckle is being turned, the end of the Ieveling rods and the
end of the cable must be held with wrenches to avoid
twisting. To adjust the upper boom system, loosen the
turnbuckle and jam nuts on the bottom upper boom
Ieveling rods. Tighten the turnbuckle hand tight and then
an additional five turns using a wrench. This will provide a
proper tension in the upper boom Ieveling system. Tighten
the jam nuts on the turnbuckle and secure the turnbuckle
with lockwire as shown in Figure 20. Unfold the upper boom
overcenter until the other turnbuckle is accessible at the
upper boom elbow access hole. Tighten the jam nuts
securely and lockwire this turnbuckle also.

Rotating Platforms
With rotating type platforms, the platforms must be loaded
to rated capacity and swung to a position 45 degrees from
beside the boom position. The platforms may be loaded by
placing the load in the platforms, or by suspending the load
under the platform at the transverse center line. Care must
be used to avoid damaging the fiberglass. If the platforms
have liners, the suspended load should be 250 pounds to
each platform. Without platform liner, the load should be
300 pounds per platform. The boom or the vehicle should
not be moved while the load is suspended.
The upper boom should be positioned slightly out of the
upper boom rest and the lower boom should be positioned
slightly out of the lower boom rest.
Lubricate both the upper and lower turnbuckle at the lower
boom side access hole with a light lubricant. Loosen the
jam nuts on both turnbuckles, until the upper turnbuckle is
handtight. Level the platform with the turntable or vehicle
bed by tightening or loosening the lower turnbuckle.
Tighten the jam nuts on the Ieveling cable.
Tighten the upper cable turnbuckle hand tight or until the
slack is out. Continue to tighten three more full turns.
Tighten the jam nuts and lockwire both Ieveling cables as
in Figure 20.
Remove the test load from the platform. You will notice
that the platforms have tipped very slightly toward the
boom as the weight is removed. This is normal as the
platforms are loaded for use, they will return to the parallel
position.

Caution
Care must be taken not to overload the platforms and
Ieveling cables while applying test loads.

R.H. Thread

L.H. Thread
Turnbuckle

Section A-A

Section B-B
Figure 20 Adjusting Turnbuckles
Maintenance Manual 27

Non-Rotating Platforms
To adjust the Ieveling cable tension on non-rotating
platforms, loosen both lower boom Ieveling cable turnbuckles. Lubricate the threads of the cables and rods with
a light lubricant. When tightening the turnbuckles, tighten
the Ieveling and holdback turnbuckles alternately, keeping
the top of the platform parallel to the vehicle body. A slight
tilt so the bottom of the platform is away from the pedestal
will compensate for boom deflection when the booms are
loaded.
With the upper boom out of its rest, tighten the turnbuckles
until hand tight or until all the slack is out of the cables.
Continue to alternately tighten the two turnbuckles three
complete turns total. Do not tighten each turnbuckle three
turns, but three turns between the two turnbuckles. Lockwire the turnbuckles as in Figure 20.

Non-Overcenter Cam Valve


The unit is equipped with a hydraulic mechanism to
prevent the upper boom from articulating past an angle of
72 degrees with respect to the ground. Figure 21 shows the
cam assembly, the cam valve adjustment and the cam
orientation marks.
The cam operated manual valve (inside the elbow end of
the upper boom) is actuated when the upper boom angle
reaches 72 degrees. This valve pilots open two valves.
The first valve dumps the pilot line pressure in the lower
boom down and upper boom unfold control lines. The
second valve (at the rear of the turntable) blocks oil flow
from the lower control valve to the lower boom cylinder
retract port and the upper boom cylinder extend port.
The non-overcenter stop cam orientation must be adjusted
after leveling the platform since the cam is attached to the
leveling system.

Adjustment
The leveling system must be properly adjusted before
adjusting the cam and cam valve. Stow the booms.
Remove the cover on the side of the upper boom lower end
weldment. The cam and cam valve will be readily visible.
The cam is secured to the leveling system by the drive lug
and two 3/8 cap screws, lock washers and nuts.
Loosen the drive lug attached to the side of the cam by
loosening the 3/8 cap screws. The drive lug is slotted to
allow fine adjustment of the cam. Rotate the cam so the
0> indicator on the cam is aligned with the centerline of the
cam valve roller. Retighten the drive lug fasteners. If there
is not enough slot adjustment on the drive lug there are
several holes in the cam to attach the drive lug at another
position with respect to the cam. To reorient the cam
remove the drive lug fasteners and reposition the cam so
the 0> indicator is near the cam valve roller. Replace the
fasteners and follow the fine adjustment described above.
Check the clearance of the cam roller on the cam. The
roller should clear the cam by 0.008 to 0.015, or about the
thickness of a business card. This clearance is adjusted
by loosening the 3/8 cap screws securing the cam valve
mounting bracket to the boom end weldment. After adjustment, retighten the cap screws to proper torque (31 footpounds).
Operate the unit to be sure the non-overcenter mechanism
is working properly. With the booms stowed, raise the
lower boom about six inches out of the boom rest and raise
the upper boom slowly until the cam valve is actuated. The
upper boom unfold function should stop completely. If the
mechanism fails to stop the upper boom after the cam
valve is fully actuated, troubleshoot the cause of the
malfunction. Recheck the cam orientation and clearance
before replacing the boom cover.

Main System Pressure/


Standby Pressure Adjustment
Adjusting
Cap Screws
Cam Valve

The axial piston pump controls both the main system


pressure and the pump standby pressure. These two
pressures are adjusted and controlled by two cartridges on
the pump housing (refer to Figure 22).
To check these pressures, install a 0 to 3,000 psi pressure
gauge into the test port located on the bottom of the
combination valve on the side of the turntable.

Orientation
Marks
Cam

Position the control selector in the Upper Controls position. Turn off upper and lower power tools if so equipped.

Standby Pressure
Figure 21 Cam Valve
28 Maintenance Manual

The pressure gauge should read 350 psi. If this pressure


is not correct, adjust the standby pressure.

Standby Pressure
Adjustment Knob

Main System Pressure


Adjustment Knob

Plug Lockwire

Compensator
Adjustment Plug
Standby Pressure
Adjustment
11

/16 Flats
Hex Jam Nut

/16 Flats
Hex Jam Nut

Parker PAVC38 Pump

Vickers PVE19 Pump


Figure 22 Pump Adjustments

Parker PAVC38 Pump


Loosen the lock nut on standby pressure cartridge using
an 11/16 open end wrench. Adjust the standby pressure by
screwing the adjustment knob in to increase pressure or
out to decrease pressure. Hold the adjustment knob from
turning while retightening the lock nut.
Vickers PVE 19 Pump
The standby pressure is adjusted by means of an Allen
screw and normally does not require adjustment if the
standby pressure is 350 psi +/-50 psi. Screw the Allen
wrench in to increase standby pressure and out to decrease pressure to the proper adjustment. On earlier
model pumps, the standby pressure is shim adjusted. The
shim kit is available if adjustment is required on this type
of pump. Increasing pressure requires the addition of
shims. Decreasing standby pressure requires removal of
shims from the standby pressure adjustment.

Main System Pressure


To check the main system pressure, place the control
selector valve in the Lower Controls position. The pump
will then be in the high pressure standby mode. Read the
pressure on the pressure gauge and return the control
selector valve to the Upper Control position. The maximum pressure is 2,500 psi.
Adjust the pressure setting as necessary by loosening the
9
/16 flats - hex jam nut and turning the adjustment knob in
to increase pressure or out to decrease pressure. After
adjustment is complete, retighten the jam nut.

Pilot Pressure
Reducing Valve

Tool System Pressure


Reducing Valve

Figure 23 Combination Valve


To check this pressure, install a 0 to 500 or 0 to 1,000 psi
pressure gauge into the UCD port located on the left front
face of the combination valve. With the unit engaged for
operation and the control selector valve in the Upper
Controls position, the gauge should read 350 psi. If it
varies from this reading, adjustment is necessary.
To adjust the pilot pressure, disengage the pump or shut
off the unit. With a 3/8 Allen wrench, remove the plug from
the end of the pressure reducing valve cartridge. Insert a
5
/16 Allen wrench into the pressure adjusting screw located
inside the end of the cartridge. Start the unit and adjust the
screw in to increase or out to decrease the pilot system
pressure as required. When the pressure has been set,
replace the plug on the end of the cartridge.

Pilot System Pressure Adjustment


The pilot system pressure is controlled by the pilot
pressure reducing valve cartridge located in the combination valve on the turntable (refer to Figure 23).

Tool System Pressure Adjustment


The tool system pressure is controlled by a tool pressure
reducing valve cartridge located on the upper right hand
corner of the combination valve on the turntable.

Maintenance Manual 29

To check the tool system pressure, install a 0-3,000 psi


pressure gauge in the TD port on the right hand side of the
combination valve.
Start the unit, place the control selector in Upper Controls
position, disconnect any power tool attachments, and turn
the tools valve to the On position. The pressure gauge
should read 2,000 psi. If the tool pressure is incorrect,
adjustment is necessary.
To adjust the tool system pressure, disengage the pump
or shut off the unit. With a 3/8 Allen wrench, remove the
plug from the end of the tool system pressure reducing
cartridge. Insert a 5/16 Allen wrench into the pressure
adjusting screw located inside the end of the cartridge.
Start the unit and check the tool system pressure as
described above. Adjust the screw clockwise to increase
pressure or counterclockwise to decrease pressure. When
the pressure is correctly adjusted, be sure to replace and
tighten the plug on the end of the cartridge.

2. It is extremely important not to turn the Fine Tune


metering adjusting screws when adjusting the spool
stops. To avoid turning the metering adjusting screws,
loosen jam nut B (refer to Figure 24) while holding the
metering screw stationary with an Allen wrench.
3. Loosen jam nut A.
4. While holding the metering screw as described in step
2, adjust the spool stop as required. Turning the spool
stop clockwise (into the end cap) will slow down the
function. Turning the spool stop counterclockwise will
speed up the function. Never adjust the spool stop
more than one turn at a time before rechecking
function speed.
5. When the adjustment is complete, retighten jam nuts
A and B but do not turn the spool stop or the metering
adjusting screw while tightening.

Notice
Setting Main Control Valve Flow
Controls/Boom Function Speed
If the main control valve is replaced or if boom function
speed is not correct, it may be necessary to check and
adjust the speed of the individual boom functions.
The main control valve is equipped with adjustable flow
controls to precisely and consistently control the speed of
each boom function. The adjusting stems are found on the
right hand side of the main control valve sections just to
the left of the handle boots.

Although the spool stops provide some leeway for


operator selection of boom speeds, the pump flow,
engine speed, and boom cylinders are matched to
provide the best operation at the speeds shown in
Figure 24.

Pump Flow
A slow down in unit movement may indicate a worn or
defective pump. If a worn or defective pump is suspected,
perform the following procedure to determine if full flow can
be generated.

The proper speed for each function is shown below


adjacent to the valve section which controls that function.
To Adjust the Speed of Specific Functions
1. The correct spool stop to adjust is on the same section
on the opposite end of the section from the direction
of handle travel.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil
being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the hy-

64 Seconds
34 Seconds
(from stowed to
190 degrees)
Jam Nut B
34 Seconds Up
28 Seconds Down

Flow Control
Adjustment
Jam Nut A
Function
Figure 24 Main Control Valve
30 Maintenance Manual

Speed

draulic pressure before loosening or disconnecting


hydraulic components.
Seek immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can
result if medical treatment is not given immediately.
Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and may
cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and
work areas clean.
Testing
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake, and chock the wheels.
2. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine.

than the hose used on the unit and long enough to


allow reading the flowmeter without possible contact
with the pump driveline.
5. If the pump is equipped with a compensator, connect
the pump sense line to the pump pressure line entering
the flowmeter (refer to variable displacement pump in
Figure 25).
6. Connect the outlet of the flowmeter to a reservoir
return line. Fully open any shutoff valves on the
flowmeter.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from pump or
hydraulic system failure. Do not perform this procedure without a pressure relief installed.

3. Disconnect the pump pressure line from the pump.

Danger
Death or serious injury will result from contact with
rotating components in the pump driveline. Keep
hands and clothing clear of the pump driveline.
4. Connect the inlet of the flowmeter (refer to Figure 25)
to the pump using a long section of hydraulic hose.
The hose diameter must be the same size or larger

Fixed Displacement Pump

7. Install a pressure relief to bypass the pump flow


around the flowmeter and shutoff valve. Refer to
Figure 25 for relief placement. The relief should be set
no more than 200 psi (13.8 bar) above the required unit
system pressure. System pressure is stamped on the
unit serial number placard. Cap and plug any open
connections.
8. Start the vehicle engine and engage the hydraulic
system.

Variable Displacement Pump

Figure 25 Pump Flow Test Connections


Maintenance Manual 31

Notice
If the pump is equipped with a compensator, test full
flow at 500 psi (34.5 bar) below the pressure listed in
the following step.

Counterbalance valves are factory set to relieve at 3,000


psi when no pilot pressure is applied. If a counterbalance
holding valve ceases to hold the load properly, it has most
likely become contaminated. In such case, remove the
cartridge and replace it with a new one.

9. The flowmeter will indicate the flow from the pump.


Increase the load on the pump by slowly closing the
load inducing shutoff valve. Do not exceed the unit
system pressure as indicated on the unit serial number placard. The flowmeter should indicate approximately 14 gpm at 2,500 psi. If the pump flow is less
than required for unit operation, the pump may be
defective or worn.

Do not adjust counterbalance valves in the field. The only


exception is adjusting the counterbalance valves for manually stowing as described in the Operators Manual. If the
setting on a counterbalance valve has been changed, the
cartridge must be removed and adjusted with a test block
or replaced.

10. If the pump flow is correct, disengage the hydraulic


system and turn off the engine.
11. Open the load inducing shutoff valve. Remove the
flowmeter, temporary lines, and fittings. Reconnect
the unit lines to their original positions.

Upper Boom Stow


The upper boom is gravity lowered into the boom rest, so
it requires no boom stow protection. To avoid damage to
the fiberglass boom, lower the boom gently into its rest. It
is very important to strap the upper boom in place while
transporting the unit.

Holding Valves
All cylinders on the unit, including the outrigger cylinders,
are equipped with load holding valves to ensure that the
cylinders will maintain their position in the event of a
hydraulic line failure.
The basic types of load holding valves are used.
Pilot operated check valves which provides a positive
lock against leakage until a positive pressure is
applied to the pilot by operation of a control valve.
Counterbalance holding valves which may be opened
by a positive pilot pressure from a control valve or may
be opened internally when the pressure it is holding
reaches a preset level.
Counterbalance valves are used in the lower boom and
upper boom cylinders. Pilot operated check valves are
used in the outrigger cylinders, rotation motor, and jib tilt
cylinder.

Notice
Pilot operated check valves are not adjustable and
must be replaced if defective.

32 Maintenance Manual

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from unexpected
movement. Counterbalance valves that have had the
relief setting changed must be replaced or reset to the
proper setting using an Altec test block before the unit
is operated.
Do not adjust a counterbalance valve without a test block. A
test block and pressure gauge is the only accurate way to
determine that the proper setting has been obtained.
A test block and instruction sheet for 11/8 and 7/8 hex
cartridges are available from your Altec representative
(refer to Service Tools and Supplies in the Appendix).
Removal
Before removing a counterbalance valve, the cylinder
must be unloaded. The following steps describe how to
remove a counterbalance valve.
1. Stow the unit.
2. Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.
3. Shift the lower control handle for the function until the
cylinder can be rocked by hand.
4. Locate the plugs in the extend and retract test ports at
the base end of the cylinder or counterbalance valve
block. Use an Allen wrench to slowly unscrew the test
plugs. If the cylinder is under pressure and the plugs
are unscrewed quickly, hydraulic oil may spray out of
the test ports. If the test ports are not available, slowly
screw the counterbalance valve cartridge from its
housing.
5. Carefully unscrew the cartridge from its housing to
allow the pressure to bleed off before the cartridge is
fully unscrewed from the cavity.
Testing
1. Lubricate the O-rings on the counterbalance valve
cartridge and install the cartridge in the test block.

2. Connect a hydraulic pressure source and an accurate


pressure gauge to port 1 (refer to Figure 26). The
pressure source and gauge must be adequate for a
pressure greater than the desired counterbalance
valve relief setting.
Jam Nut

Adjusting Screw

Counterbalance
Valve Cartridge

Port 2

Port 1

6. Disconnect the pressure source from port 1 and


remove the counterbalance valve cartridge.

Winch Brake
The winch is a worm gear driven by the hydraulic motor.
The winch valve directs hydraulic oil to the winch motor.
The winch motor powers the worm gear set. The worm gear
set drives an output shaft keyed to the winch drum.
The winch is equipped with a brake, located at the end of
the worm shaft opposite from the winch motor (refer to
Figure 27). The brake is an overrunning clutch that runs
freely in the winch Raise position, but applies continuous
braking action in the winch Lower position. The brake
assists the self-locking worm gear set in stopping a load
that is being lowered when the control handle is returned
to neutral.

Figure 26 Counterbalance Valve Test Block


Motor

Brake

3. Install a straight adapter in port 2 to aid in observing


the oil flow from this port during the procedure.
4. Gradually increase the pressure at port 1 with the
pressure source. The counterbalance valve relief
setting is the pressure at which a fine stream of oil
begins to flow from port 2. Note this pressure reading
and then remove the pressure from port 1.
5. If the relief setting is correct, relieve the pressure of
the pressure source by turning off the pressure source
and moving the control several times in both directions.
6. Disconnect the pressure source from port 1 and
remove the counterbalance valve cartridge.
7. If the relief setting is incorrect, adjust the relief setting
as described in the following procedure.
Adjustment
1. Loosen the jam nut and turn the adjusting screw
clockwise to decrease the setting or counterclockwise to increase the setting.
2. Hold the adjusting screw from turning and tighten the
jam nut.
3. Repeat the test procedure until the correct relief
setting is obtained.
4. Repeat the test procedure at least three more times to
confirm the correct setting.
5. Relieve the pressure of the pressure source by turning
off the pressure source and moving the control several
times in both directions.

Adjusting
Screw
Figure 27 Winch
Adjustment
If the winch brake is not holding or stopping the load
properly, adjust the brake using the following procedure.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake, and chock the wheels. Engage the PTO and
properly set the outriggers.
2. Position the booms to allow access to the winch.
Disengage the PTO and turn off the engine.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from hydraulic oil
being injected into the flesh when loosening or disconnecting hydraulic components. Remove the pressure before loosening or disconnecting hydraulic
components.
Seek medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic oil. Serious infection or reaction can result if
medical treatment is not given immediately.

Maintenance Manual 33

Spilled hydraulic oil creates slick surfaces and can


cause personnel to slip and/or fall. Keep the unit and
work areas clean.

15. Position the jib pointing down so that the load line is
hanging nearly straight off of the winch drum.
16. Attach a 2,000 pound load to the winch line.

3. Release any pressure in the hoses connected to the


winch motor by moving the winch control on the upper
controls to the Pay In and Pay Out positions several
times.
4. Remove the winch covers to allow access to the winch
and hydraulic winch motor.
5. Place a container under the hoses connected to the
winch to catch the hydraulic oil. Mark the hose
connections and disconnect the hoses from the winch
motor. Cap the ports in the motor and plug the hoses.
6. Remove the two cap screws that attach the hydraulic
motor to the winch gearbox. Remove the hydraulic
motor from the input of the winch.
7. If the shaft adapter remains on the winch input shaft,
remove the shaft adapter to expose the input shaft.
8. Place the brake torque adapter (refer to Service Tools
and Supplies in the Appendix) on the input shaft of the
winch gearbox, lining up the slot in the socket with the
key on the input shaft. Connect a torque wrench on the
adapter socket.
9. Loosen the jam nut on the brake adjusting screw.
10. Turn the torque wrench so that the drum turns in the
pay out direction one full turn before taking a torque
measurement. The torque should be in the 15 to 18
foot-pound range. If the torque is below 15 footpounds, turn the adjusting screw clockwise 1/4 turn and
check the torque again. Repeat until the torque is
within the specified range. If the torque is above 18
foot-pounds, turn the adjusting screw counterclockwise 1/4 turn and check the torque again. Repeat until
the torque is within the specified range.
11. Tighten the jam nut.
12. Install the hydraulic winch motor and shaft adapter on
the input shaft of the winch gearbox.

17. From the lower controls, lift the load three to four feet
off the ground with the winch.
18. Start lowering the load with the lower winch control
handle shifted fully to the winch pay out position. At
the same time, move the upper control/lower control
selector to the upper controls position. The load
should stop.
19. Repeat this test three times.
20. If the load stops every time, return the unit to service.
If the load does not stop, follow the steps below.
21. Remove the winch covers and hydraulic connections
to allow access to the winch brake.
22. Remove the brake cover and inspect for any worn or
damaged components.
23. If any broken or worn parts are found, replace with new
parts and reassemble. Test as previously described.
24. If the brake components are not damaged and do not
look worn, but will not hold the load in the test
described above, replace the gearbox.

Upper Controls Interlock Trigger


The single handle control uses an interlock linkage to
prevent unintentional boom movement resulting from
accidental contact with the control.
When the interlock trigger on the bottom of the control
handle is engaged, the single handle control can be
operated. Squeezing the trigger causes a linkage inside
the single handle control assembly to manually shift the
blocking section of the upper control valve. When the
blocking section is shifted, hydraulic oil flows to the boom
function spools of the upper control valve.
When the control is not operated, the blocking section of
the upper control valve is spring offset to the closed position.

13. Install the hydraulic connections and winch covers.


14. Start the vehicle engine, engage the PTO, and raise
the upper boom enough to clear any obstacles as the
lower boom is raised. Raise the lower boom to nearly
vertical. Position the upper boom with the platform just
past the tailshelf of the vehicle.

34 Maintenance Manual

The trigger on the single handle control should show


slightly when it is fully engaged into the handle. The trigger
should not bottom out or completely disappear into the
handle, rather the spool should bottom out, stopping
trigger movement.

Adjust the interlock connecting linkage to insure that the


interlock spool fully shifts when the trigger is actuated. If
the spool is not being fully shifted, adjust the interlock
linkage using the following procedure.
Adjustment
1. Locate the self-locking nut near the top of the interlock
cable (refer to Figure 28).

Adjustment

Caution
Injury can result from electric shock. Severe arcing
can occur even when working with low voltage vehicle
electrical systems. Use caution when working with
any electrical device.
Place the truck/machine switch in the Truck position. This
will remove the electrical current from the vehicle to the
unit while working on the electrical switch.

Self-Locking Nut
Interlock Trigger

A-Frame Outriggers
The interlock switches are not adjustable. The proximity
switches are equipped with two LED lights. The green light
indicates there is power to the switch and the yellow light
indicates the leg is extended. Depending upon the unit, the
lights may be visible through the hole in the cover or the
cover and switch may have to be removed to access the
lights. If the assembly is removed to access the lights, the
yellow light will be out. Move the assembly to within 0.75
inches of a flat metal object. If the yellow light comes on,
the switch is working properly.
Radial Outriggers
1. Loosen the switch fasteners.

Interlock Valve

2. Adjust the switch so it closes when the outrigger shoe


is within 10 to 14 inches from the ground.

Figure 28 Upper Control Assembly


2. Make the necessary adjustment.
a. Turn the nut clockwise to shorten the cable so the
spool will move to the fully open position before the
trigger disappears into the handle.
b. Turn the nut counterclockwise to lengthen the
cable so the spool will move to the fully closed
position when the trigger is released.
3. After the adjustment is made, move the single handle
control without engaging the interlock trigger to check
that movement does not open the interlock valve.
Readjust if necessary.

Outrigger Interlock Switches


The outrigger interlock electrical switches are connected
to the outrigger interlock control module. If one switch is
defective or out of alignment, the outrigger interlock will not
operate.

3. Lock the switch in place by properly tightening the


fasteners. If adjustment does not correct the problem,
replace the switch.

Testing
This unit has been factory tested and, at the time of
delivery, all applicable ANSI requirements were met or
exceeded. Any time an alteration is made that may affect
the units stability or dielectric insulation, testing must be
performed to confirm that the unit operates safely and in
compliance with all governing organizations.

Dielectric
ANSI requires that manufacturers conduct AC dielectric
qualification tests on each device before it is sold to a
customer. Once the unit is in the hands of the owner, ANSI
permits the use of less stringent periodic dielectric tests.
This test is to be done at least annually, but typically in 1
to 12 month intervals. Since the AC periodic test as
defined by ANSI uses the very same procedure but with
less voltage, Altec suggests using the qualification test to
avoid confusion. However, some owners prefer to use DC
to do periodic dielectric testing.

Maintenance Manual 35

This unit is tested to a rating listed on the serial number


placard at the time of delivery. The platform liner, if
furnished, will carry the certification test of the liner
manufacturer.

Danger
Death or serious injury will result from contact with or
proximity to an energized conductor. Maintain the
dielectric characteristics of the fiberglass boom(s).
Surface irregularities such as scratched, cracked, or
chipped gelcoat can trap dirt and contaminants, which
over time may reduce the dielectric properties of the
fiberglass. Of particular concern are irregularities running
lengthwise on the boom. Trapped contaminants, such as
dust particles and water, can cause tracking, providing a
path to ground. Surface flashover occurs when a substance causes an arcing of electricity between two points
on the boom. If this occurs, the dielectric integrity of the
boom may be permanently damaged.
Dielectric tests that can be performed only after installation are the responsibility of the installer, whether the
installer is a dealer, owner, or user. After the completed
unit is in the possession of the owner or user, subsequent
testing becomes the responsibility of the owner or user.

Single Handle Control


This unit may be equipped with a single handle control(s).
This control, which is green in color, may offer limited
secondary dielectric protection. To maintain this limited
secondary protection it must be kept clean, dry, and in
good condition with periodic tests of its dielectric properties. Never rely on the insulating feature of the single
handle control as a substitute for your primary protection
from electrical contact.
In addition to regular tests, conduct a test any time any
component which is part of the controls insulation has
been replaced. A confirmation test form can be found in
the Appendix. Complete the test, document the results,
and maintain the test in a permanent file.

Structural
After replacing any major component, perform a 1.5 to 1
structural test to verify structural soundness before putting the unit back into service.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result if the unit becomes
unstable. Maintain stability of the unit while performing a structural test by following proper procedures.
Use the following procedure to perform a structural test.

The importance of dielectric testing cannot be overemphasized. Understand the dielectric test procedures in ANSI
publications. Provide for periodic inspection and dielectric
testing of insulating components at intervals of 1 to 12
months. This recommendation is not intended to alter
more frequent inspection or testing of other components
as defined in ANSI publications.
In addition to regular tests, conduct tests any time the
dielectric strength of the insulating components is in
doubt.
If it is necessary to change or replace any component
which is part of the units insulation, including booms, tool
lines, control lines, etc., a dielectric test must be performed. If there is any doubt about the dielectric strength
of the hydraulic oil, perform a dielectric test.
The leakage monitor system is a tool used to measure the
leakage of electrical current through the components it is
attached to and for dielectric tests of all voltages. This
system consists of wires connected to components internal to the upper boom and to a test electrode that extends
through the bottom of the fiberglass upper boom. A test
electrode may also be located on the turntable.
Dielectric test forms can be found in the Appendix. Choose
the appropriate form, thoroughly document all tests, and
maintain records in a permanent file.
36 Maintenance Manual

1. The area where the test is performed should be level


and free from any overhead obstructions. Position the
unit in the test area so the platform may be accessed
by a forklift (or other lifting device) to place the test
weight.
2. Apply the parking brake and chock the wheels. Engage the PTO and properly set the outriggers.
3. The position of the booms for the test is somewhat
dependent upon the component(s) which has been
replaced. If a component of the leveling system has
been replaced, the booms can be raised approximately one foot out of each rest. Replacement of other
components requires the test be performed with the
lower boom fully raised and the upper boom horizontal.
4. Position the platform(s) in the end-mounted position.
Allow enough space to permit jib/winch operation.
5. Calculate the test weight for the platform by multiplying 1.5 times the platform capacity shown on the serial
number placard.
If the unit is equipped with a platform liner, deduct the
weight of the liner from the test weight figure.

Notice
Carefully load the test weight to prevent damage to the
platform or liner.
6. Place a sling around the platform to suspend the
weight directly under its centerline. Use a forklift (or
other lifting device) to slowly apply the weight. If the
test is being performed with the lower boom below
horizontal, the test weight can be placed in the
platform without the use of a lifting device.
7. Pay out the winch line so a weight of 1.5 times the
rated load may be applied to the winch line at less than
2 feet from the ground.
8. Apply the test weight for five minutes. During that
time, do not operate any function of the unit. This is a
static test only.

Test Forms
Stability test forms are provided in the Appendix. The
forms designate the proper boom and jib positions and the
proper test loads to be used. They show the unit loading
configuration(s) that would most likely cause overturning.
Completed forms should be dated and signed by the test
technician after conducting the stability tests and should
be retained as part of the original unit documentation.
Additional test forms may be needed to show appropriate
stability tests for units equipped with special lifting features, such as a lower boom lifting eye or a gin pole socket.
If Altec Engineering determines that these special lifting
features will always produce less tendency toward overturning than would normal platform and jib stability test
loads, stability tests using these special lifting features
are not required.

9. Remove the weight from the platform and the winch


line. Inspect the unit for structural soundness if any
cracking or popping was heard during the test.

General Test Conditions


Remove all tools and material including removable
boom supports, extra platforms (not attached to the
unit), and all removable cargo.

10. Operate the unit through its full range of movement


before returning it to service.

Restrict the amount of total fuel in all tanks to 20


gallons (75 l) or less.

Stability

Inflate tires to tire manufacturers recommended pressure settings (unless customer specified).

Due to the possible affect on stability, this unit and/or


vehicle should never be altered or modified without the
specific written approval from Altec Industries, Inc. Component replacement with original equipment parts will not
affect the stability of this unit.
ANSI A92.2 requires a level surface test and a five degree
slope test when the unit mounting is complete on the
vehicle. These stability tests are not required to be
performed again unless significant changes are made in
the original vehicle and body mounting or the unit is
remounted on another vehicle.

Warning
Death or serious injury can result from uncontrolled
movement. Do not permit anyone to occupy the platform until the unit has passed applicable tests.
Death or serious injury can result if the mobile unit
becomes unstable. Provide a suitable restraint while
the stability tests are performed.

Notice
Carefully load the test weight to prevent damage to the
platform or liner.

Use wheel chocks during all testing.


Only the test technician can be on the unit during the
test.
Do not use outrigger pads unless a special case such
as customer request exists. In such cases, the test
technician must note on the test form that pads were
used, the reason pads were used, and the thickness
of the pads. When pads are used during the five
degree slope test, the test technician must prevent
the pads from sliding down the slope or the outrigger
shoe from sliding off the pad.
Perform the test only while operating from the lower
controls.
Provide a suitable restraint during all stability tests to
prevent the mobile unit from overturning in the event
a condition of instability is reached. A typical restraint
method is a loose loop of chain around each side of the
rear axle [allows the axle to raise off the test surface
at least 8 to 10 (20 to 25 cm) before tightening the
chain], near the wheel, which is securely anchored to
the ground. Increase the length of the chain to allow
further movement if there is any doubt about whether
the mobile unit has reached a condition of instability.

Maintenance Manual 37

Raising of outriggers or tires does not necessarily


indicate a condition of instability.
Choose Test A or Test B depending on the location of
the weight for the test. Test B can only be used if the
jib can structurally carry both the jib load and the
platform load.
The unit must pass the level surface test before
conducting the five degree slope test.
Level Surface Test
During the level surface test, the test technician must
determine which side of the vehicle, curb side or street
side, is the least stable. This information will be used in the
five degree slope test.
1. Position the unit on a level, hard surface, apply the
parking brake, and chock the wheels. Engage the
hydraulic system.
2. Properly set the outriggers (if equipped) as directed in
the Operators Manual under Properly Setting on a
Level Surface.
3. Move the booms and jib into a position to most likely
cause overturning (refer to the test form).
4. Apply a load at the center of the platform(s) equal to
1.5 times the rated platforms load. The load can be
applied either into the platform(s) or suspended by a
load line from the center of the platform(s). The
platform test load may be suspended on the jib line, in
addition to the jib test load, if the unit is equipped with
a material handling jib structurally capable of carrying
the added load.
5. Apply a load to the material handling jib, if equipped,
equal to 1.5 times its rated load.
6. Rotate the turntable in a full rotation cycle, watching
for any evidence of instability. Outriggers and tires
may lift off the surface during the test without indicating a condition of instability as long as the mobile unit
does not tend to overturn. For cable placers rated for
mobile use only, tires shall not lift off the surface
during the test.
7. For cable placer units equipped with a side load rating,
refer to the serial number placard to determine the side
load rating. Position the booms with test weights still
attached in what was observed to be the least stable
position in step 6. Apply the rated side load to the
pulling arms in a direction pulling toward the rear of the
vehicle. Watch for evidence of instability. During this
test, no tires shall lift off the ground.

38 Maintenance Manual

8. Add permanent counterweight if it is determined that


the mobile unit will not pass the test as originally built.
Use temporary counterweight to determine how much
permanent counterweight is needed and where the
counterweight should be added. Rotate the unit in a full
rotation cycle, watching for any evidence of instability
after adding the temporary counterweight. If the unit
passes the test with the temporary counterweight,
remove the temporary weight and add the permanent
counterweight. Perform the test again. The unit must
pass this test before moving on to the five degree
slope test.
Five Degree Slope Test
1. Position the unit on a constant five degree hard
surface with the centerline of the vehicle positioned
approximately perpendicular to the direction of the
slope. If the level surface test showed the mobile unit
has a greater tendency to overturn about one side than
another, position the least stable side on the low side
of the slope. Apply the parking brake and chock the
wheels. Engage the hydraulic system.
2. Properly set the outriggers (if equipped) as directed in
the Operators Manual under Properly Setting on a
Sloping Surface. If this is a recertification of the
stability test, with proper outrigger setup, the side-toside slope indicator should read the value stamped on
the slope indicator placard. If the reading cannot be
attained or if another customer-specified angle is
desired, contact Altec Engineering on how to proceed.
3. Move the booms and jib into a position to most likely
cause overturning (refer to the test form).
4. Apply a load at the center of the platform(s) equal to
1.33 times the rated platform load. The load can be
applied either into the platform(s) or suspended by a
load line from the center of the platform(s). The
platform test load may be suspended on the jib line, in
addition to the jib test load, if the unit is equipped with
a material handling jib structurally capable of carrying
the added load.
5. Apply a load to the material handling jib, if equipped,
equal to 1.33 times its rated load.
6. Rotate the turntable in a full rotation cycle, watching
for any evidence of instability. Outriggers and tires
may lift off the surface during the stability test without
indicating a condition of instability, as long as the
mobile unit does not tend to overturn. For cable
placers rated for mobile use only, tires shall not lift off
the surface during the test.

7. For cable placer units equipped with a side load rating,


refer to the serial number placard to determine the side
load rating. Position the booms with test weights still
attached in what was observed to be the least stable
position in step 6. Apply the rated side load to the
pulling arms in a direction pulling toward the rear of the
vehicle. Watch for evidence of instability. During this
test, no tires shall lift off the ground.
8. Add permanent counterweight if it is determined that
the mobile unit will not pass the test as originally built.
Use temporary counterweight to determine how much
permanent counterweight is needed and where the
counterweight should be added. Rotate the unit in a full
rotation cycle, watching for any evidence of instability
after adding the temporary counterweight. If the unit
passes the test with the temporary counterweight,
remove the temporary weight and add the permanent
counterweight. Perform the test again. The mobile unit
must pass this test.

9. After the test has been completed, stamp the side-toside slope indicator placard with the slope indicator
reading (only required following initial stability test at
the time of initial installation of unit on chassis). The
reading shall be taken while the outriggers are still set
from the five degree test with the loads removed and
the booms stowed into the travel position. The frontto-back slope indicator placard shall be stamped with
a 5 unless the unit has a requirement for a specific
angle, in which case the placard shall be stamped with
its appropriate angle.
10. After the test has been completed, torque all accessible rotation bearing cap screws to 100 percent of the
normal installation torque value using a circular pattern (only required following initial stability test at the
time of initial installation of unit on chassis).
11. After the test has been completed, torque the rotation
gearbox mounting cap screws to 100 percent of the
normal installation torque value (only required following initial stability test at the time of initial installation
of unit on chassis).

Maintenance Manual 39

40 Maintenance Manual

Appendix

Glossary
2nd stage boom see intermediate boom.
3rd stage boom see upper boom.
A-frame outrigger an extendible outrigger having two diagonal
members which are connected at the top and joined near the midsection
by a horizontal cross piece. Resembles a broad based A.
above rotation in reference to a position on or about a unit that is
vertically above the rotation bearing.
absolute a measure having as its zero point or base the complete
absence of the item being measured.
absolute pressure a pressure scale with the zero point at a perfect
vacuum.
access hood hinged part of the disc housing used to access the
cutter disc.
accumulator a container used to store fluid under pressure as
a source of hydraulic power or as a means of dampening pressure
surges.
actuator a device for converting hydraulic energy into mechanical
energy, such as a motor or cylinder.
adapter a device used to connect two parts of different type or
diameter.
adhesion promoter surface prepping solvent for UV coating.
adjusting stud a component of a cable drive system that is threaded
on both ends and has a hex adjusting flat in the center. It secures the
drive cable to the cylinder rod and can be used to adjust the tension
of the drive cable.
aeration the entrapment of air in hydraulic fluid. Excessive aeration
may cause the fluid to appear milky and components to operate erratically because of the compressibility of the air trapped in the fluid.
aerial control valve the control valve on the turntable of an elevator
unit which operates the movement functions of the aerial device.
aerial device a vehicle-mounted device with a boom assembly
which is extendible, articulating, or both, which is designed and used
to position personnel. The device may also be used to handle material,
if designed and equipped for that purpose.
Allen wrench a six-sided wrench that fits into the hex socket of a
cap screw or set screw.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) a self-governing
body of professionals whose primary objective is to prevent accidents
by establishing requirements for design, manufacture, maintenance,
performance, use and training for manufactured goods including aerial
devices and digger derricks.
anaerobic adhesive a bonding agent or adhesive that cures in
the absence of air.
analog signal an electrical signal that communicates information
by the continuous variation of voltage or current level within a defined
range, in proportion to an input parameter such as pressure or control
lever position.
annular area a ring shaped area. Usually refers to the piston area
minus the cross-sectional area of the rod of a hydraulic cylinder.
ANSI see American National Standards Institute.
anti-two-block (ATB) system the system that helps prevent damage to the winch line or boom by preventing a two-blocking condition
from occurring, by shutting off certain functions when the load hook,
overhaul ball, hook block, or other lifting component that is attached
to the winch line approaches near the boom tip.
antirotation fork a two-pronged retainer which is fastened to the
inside of the turntable and used to prevent movement of the rotary
joint outer housing.
antifoam additive an agent added to hydraulic fluid to inhibit air
bubbles from forming and collecting together on the surface of the
fluid.
antiwear additive an agent added to hydraulic fluid to improve
the ability of the fluid to prevent wear on internal moving parts in the
hydraulic system.
anvil The stationary blade on a chipper cutting mechanism.
arbor bar the shaft or spindle that is used to support a cable reel.
arbor bar collar a cylindrical device that is used to secure a cable
reel on an arbor bar.

arm 1: the primary load-carrying structure of an articulating arm. 2:


the primary load-carrying structure of a single elevator. 3: the articulating structure which supports the arbor bar for reel lifting.
arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the arm of a single
elevator up and down.
articulating arm a system located between the turntable and lower
boom of an aerial device which is used for lifting the boom assembly
to increase the platform working height. This system includes the arm,
link(s), riser and articulating arm cylinder.
articulating arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves an
articulating arm up and down.
articulating-boom aerial device an aerial device with two or more
boom sections that are connected at joint(s) which allow one boom to
pivot with respect to the adjacent boom.
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials.
atmosphere (one) a pressure measure equal to 14.7 psi.
atmospheric pressure pressure on all objects in the atmosphere
because of the weight of the surrounding air. At sea level, about 14.7
psi absolute.
atmospheric vents a vacuum prevention device designed to allow
air to enter a hydraulic line that has encountered an internal pressure
below that of the atmosphere (vacuum).
attention information that must be followed to reduce the likelihood
of property damage. Property damage could include structural damage
to the unit, component failure, or damage to nearby property.
auger the hole boring tool of the digger, consisting of a hollow tube
with hardened teeth attached at one end to dig into and break up soil
and/or rock as the auger is rotated. Several turns of flighting are welded
to the tube to carry the loose material away from the teeth.
auger extension shaft a shaft which fits into the auger tube to
connect the digger output shaft to the auger.
auger rotation hydraulic system the hydrostatic system on a pressure digger which operates the auger transmission gearbox.
auger stow bracket the bracket on a digger derrick lower boom
which stores the digger and auger assembly when it is not in use.
auger stow switch a limit switch which is actuated by the auger
to shut off digger operation in the stowing direction when the auger
reaches its fully stowed position in the auger stow bracket.
auger transmission gearbox the gearbox mounted on the mast
weldment of a pressure digger that is used to rotate the kelly bar.
auger tube the hollow tube at the centerline of an auger to which
the auger flighting is welded.
auger windup sling the cable or strap attached to the auger stow
bracket which is used to store the digger and auger.
auxiliary engine a separately mounted engine that is used to provide
power for the units hydraulic system.
auxiliary hydraulic system the secondary hydraulic system of a
pressure digger that operates all the hydraulic functions except auger
rotation.
AWS American Welding Society.
back pressure pressure existing in the discharge flow from an actuator or hydraulic system. It adds to the pressure required to operate
an actuator under a given load.
backlash the clearance at the tooth contact point between the
adjacent gear teeth of two or more meshing gears.
baffle a device, usually a plate, installed in a reservoir to separate
the return line inlet from the suction line outlet.
band of arrows decals used on extendible and articulating upper
booms to define the boom tip area and the insulating portions of the
upper boom and lower boom insert.
bare-hand work a technique of performing live line maintenance on
energized conductors and equipment whereby one or more authorized
persons work directly on an energized part after having been raised
and bonded to the energized conductors or equipment.
barrel the hollow body of a hydraulic cylinder into which the piston
and rod are assembled.
base boom see lower boom.
base end 1: the closed end of a hydraulic cylinder, opposite from the
end that the rod extends from. 2: the end of an extendible boom that is
1

Appendix Glossary

closest to the turntable. 3: the end of an articulating boom that remains


positioned closest to the turntable when the boom is fully unfolded.
basket see platform.
battery charger a device used to restore the electrical charge in
a battery.
bearing a machine part that is installed between two adjacent machine
parts to allow those parts to rotate or slide with respect to each other.
Commonly used to decrease friction or wear on components.
behind cab mount a pedestal mounting position located immediately
behind the vehicle cab on the longitudinal centerline of the chassis.
below rotation in reference to a position on or about a unit that is
vertically below the rotation bearing.
below rotation controls controls that are located on the chassis,
used for operating some or all of the functions of the unit.
bleed-off to reduce the trapped pressure in a hydraulic system,
line, or component, to a zero state by allowing fluid to escape under
controlled conditions through a valve or outlet.
blocking valve a two-position, two-way valve that blocks pump flow
to a hydraulic circuit or system when it is not actuated, and opens to
allow fluid when actuated.
body a structure containing compartments for storage of tools,
materials, and/or other payload which is installed on a vehicle frame
or subbase.
body belt a component in a personal fall protection system consisting
of a strap which is secured about the waist of a person, with a means
for attaching it to a lanyard. (As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body
belt for personal fall protection is prohibited by OSHA.)
body harness a component in a personal fall protection system
consisting of an assembly of straps which are secured about the waist,
chest, shoulders, and legs of a person, with a means for attaching the
assembly to a lanyard.
bolt a cylindrical fastener with external screw threads at one end
and a head configuration such hexagonal, square, or round at the other
end, which conforms to the dimensional and material specifications
published for bolts. (These specifications are different from those for
cap screws.)
boom a movable, mechanical structure that is used to support a
platform, material handling components and/or other attachments on
a unit.
boom angle indicator a device which indicates the angle between
the boom centerline and a horizontal plane.
boom flares steel structures mounted on the boom tip of a digger
derrick which are used to protect the boom tip from loads and support
poles carried on the winch line.
boom functions valve the control valve on a digger derrick that
directs hydraulic pressure and flow to the boom functions (boom, rotation, intermediate boom, upper boom) hydraulic circuits.
boom limiting system the system of hydraulic cylinders or a
combination of switches that prevent the platform from moving into a
non-working position.
boom pin the horizontal pin that connects the lower boom to the
turntable or riser.
boom rest the structural member attached to the chassis or body
to support the lower boom in the travel or rest position.
boom stow switch a limit switch which is actuated to shut off the
boom lower function when the boom reaches its stowed position in
the boom rest.
boom stow valve a mechanically actuated hydraulic valve that limits
the downward pressure of a boom as it is placed in its rest.
boom tip the area at the end of an extendible or articulating upper
boom that is farthest from the turntable when the boom assembly is
extended or unfolded. This area includes all components at the end
of the boom above the band of arrows.
boom tip idler sheave the upper sheave in a digger derrick upper
boom tip containing two sheaves, which carries the winch line as it
travels from the winch to the lower sheave (boom tip sheave).
boom tip pin a horizontal pin at the upper boom tip. Platform mounting
bracket(s) and material handling devices are fastened to this pin.
boom tip sheave 1: the sheave in a digger derrick upper boom tip
containing only one sheave, which carries the winch line as it travels

Appendix Glossary

from the winch to the load. 2: the lower sheave in a digger derrick upper boom tip containing two sheaves, which carries the winch line as it
travels from the upper sheave (boom tip idler sheave) to the load.
boom tip tools see upper tool circuit.
boom tip winch a winch located at the tip of a boom.
bore the inside diameter of a pipe, tube, cylinder barrel, or cylindrical
hole in any of various other components.
boss protruding material on a part which adds strength, facilitates
assembly, provides for fastenings, etc.
brake a device used to slow or stop the rotation or movement of a
component such as a rotation gearbox, winch, gravity leveled platform,
or arbor bar.
brake caliper mechanical assembly that houses the brake pads
and piston used to apply stopping force on the brake rotor.
brake controller interface between tow vehicle and electric trailer
brakes. Can be inertia activated or based on time delay from activation
of vehicle brakes. Typically in the tow vehicles driving compartment
with electrical line running to the trailer wiring connector. Most require
the user to adjust brake gain to compensate for varying trailer load.
Necessary for the use of electric trailer brakes.
brake rotor rotating disk attached to a shaft that transfers the force
from the brake caliper to the shaft.
break-away switch a device which automatically activates the
breaking system of a towed unit when unintentionally separated from
the towing vehicle.
breather a device that permits air to move in and out of a container
or component to maintain atmospheric pressure.
bridge mount a unit mounting configuration in which the turntable
is mounted on a pedestal structure which forms a bridge over the
cargo area.
broadband a high speed telecommunication system utilizing fiber
optic and/or coaxial cable.
bucket see platform.
buckeye see forged pin retainer.
bullwheel assembly an assembly of steel rollers used as a portion
of a cable stringing system.
burst pressure the minimum internal pressure that will cause a
hose, tube, cylinder, or other hydraulic or pneumatic component to
rupture or split open.
button head a type of cap screw with a rounded head containing a
socket into which a tool can be inserted to turn the cap screw.
bypass a secondary passage for fluid flow.
bypass valve a hydraulic valve that allows for an alternate passage for fluid flow.
cable 1: a wire or wire rope by which force is exerted to control or
operate a mechanism. 2: an assembly of two or more electrical conductors or optical fibers laid up together, usually by being twisted around a
central axis and/or by being enclosed within an outer covering.
cable chute a device used to guide cable into strand for lashing
the cable to the strand when placing cable. A trolley allows the device
to ride on the strand as cable is fed through the chute.
cable drive system an upper boom drive mechanism which utilizes
cables to produce upper boom movement.
cable guide a bracket which is mounted on a boom to guide the
winch line.
cable keeper 1: a mechanical device attached to a cable that is used
to maintain the position of the cable on a sheave. 2: a component used
to prevent a cable or winch line from coming off a sheave.
cable lasher a mechanical device which wraps lashing wire in a
spiral configuration around a length of suspension strand and adjacent
communication cable.
cable lug a mechanical device attached to a cable that is used to
maintain the position of the cable on a sheave.
cable placer a type of aerial device which contains a cable stringing system and associated components for use in erecting overhead
communication cable.
cable slug the steel end fitting at each end of the drive cable in an
upper boom drive system. One end is attached to the cylinder rod and
the other is secured in a pocket on the elbow sheave.
2

cable stringing system the group of steel rollers, bullwheel assemblies, strand sheave assemblies and fairlead which directs communication cable or suspension strand from the reel it is stored on to
the working position of the operator.
calibrate to check, adjust, or determine by measurement in comparison with a standard, the proper value of each scale reading or
setting on a meter or other device.
caliper a measuring instrument with two legs or jaws that can be
adjusted to determine the distance between two surfaces.
cam a rotating or sliding piece that imparts motion to a roller moving
against its edge or to a pin free to move in a groove on its face or that
receives motion from such a roller or pin.
candling a method of inspecting filament wound fiberglass booms
by slowly passing a light through the inside of the boom in a darkened
area. Cracks, crazing, and other damage show up as dark spots or
shadows.
cap a device located on the hand of a reel lifter that is used to
retain the arbor bar.
cap end see base end.
cap screw a cylindrical fastener with external screw threads at
one end and a head configuration such as hexagonal, hex socket, flat
countersunk, round, or slotted at the other end, which conforms to the
dimensional and material specifications published for cap screws.
capacitive coupling the transfer of electrical energy from one
circuit to another through a dielectric gap.
capacity chart a table or graph showing the load capacity, rated
capacity, or rated load capacity figures for a unit or accessory.
captive air system a closed circuit, low pressure pneumatic system
used to actuate a pressure switch by means of a manually operated
air plunger.
cartridge 1: the replaceable element of a fluid filter. 2: the replaceable pumping unit of a vane pump, composed of the rotor, ring, vanes
and side plates. 3: A removeable hydraulic valve that is screwed into
place in a cavity in a hydraulic manifold or cylinder.
catrac see hose carrier.
caution information that indicates a potentially hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. It may
also be used to alert against unsafe practices.
cavitation the formation of gaseous voids in hydraulic fluid caused
by a low pressure condition which typically occurs when inlet starvation
prevents the pump from filling completely with fluid. The characteristic
sound of cavitation is a high pitched scream.
center mount see behind cab mount.
center of gravity the point in a component or assembly around
which its weight is evenly balanced.
centerline of rotation the vertical axis about which the turntable
of a unit rotates.
centrifugal pump a pump in which motion and force are applied
to fluid by a rotating impeller within a housing.
chain a series of identical rigid segments connected to each other
at joints which allow each segment to pivot with respect to adjacent
segments, used to transmit mechanical force.
chain extension system a mechanical system consisting of a motor, gearbox, chains, and sprockets that is used to extend and retract
an extendible upper boom.
chain sling an inverted Y-shaped length of chain used for lifting a
strand reel with an aerial device and placing it in a strand carrier.
chamber a compartment within a hydraulic component that may
contain elements to aid in operation or control, such as a spring chamber or drain chamber.
channel a fluid passage that has a large length dimension compared
to the dimension of the cross-section.
charge to fill an accumulator with fluid under pressure.
charge pressure the pressure, above atmospheric pressure, at
which replenishing fluid is forced into the hydraulic system.
charge pump the hydrostatic hydraulic system pump that provides
fluid at low pressure to make up for internal leakage, provides cooling
fluid flow, and tilts the hydrostatic pump swash plate.
chassis a vehicle on which a unit is mounted, such as a truck,
trailer, or all-terrain vehicle.

check valve a valve that permits flow of fluid in one direction, but
not in the reverse direction.
chip curtain rubberized deflection curtain attached to the infeed
chute.
chip deflector directs chip discharge.
circuit the complete path of flow in a hydraulic or electrical system.
circuit breaker a form of electrical switch which opens (trips) to
interrupt a circuit when it senses excessive current flow that may be
caused by a short circuit, to protect wiring and components from damage.
Some types of circuit breakers reset automatically when the excessive
current discontinues and others must be reset manually.
clean out clean out area under the lower feed roll.
clevis a U-shaped fastening device secured by a pin or bolt through
holes in the ends of two arms.
closed center a directional valve design in which pump output is
blocked by the valve spool(s) when the valve spool(s) is in the center
or neutral operating condition.
clutch 1: the device on a reel lifter which allows the connection and
disconnection of the arbor bar and the driver. 2: controlled transfer of
rotational power from engine to output PTO shaft.
coaxial cable a type of shielded cable used for conducting telecommunication signals, in which the signal carrier is a single wire at
the core, surrounded by a layer of insulating material, which is in turn
surrounded by a metallic, conductive layer which serves as a shield,
with an overall outer layer of insulation.
combined digger derrick and platform use the stability criteria
for a digger derrick mobile unit which indicates that the load capacity
chart and stability requirements apply to the use of the derrick for lifting
of loads with the winch line at the upper boom tip or material handling
jib tip, with the platform occupied.
come-along a device for gripping and putting tension into a length
of cable, wire, rope, or chain by means of two jaws or attaching devices
which move closer together when the operator pulls on a lever.
communication cable a copper wire, coaxial, or fiber optic cable
used for conducting telecommunication signals.
compensating link a mechanical linkage that serves as a connector
between the turntable and the upper boom drive mechanism. As the
lower boom is raised or lowered, this linkage causes the upper boom
to maintain its relative angle in relationship to the ground.
compensator a valve spool that is used to maintain a constant
pressure drop regardless of supply or load pressure.
compensator control a control for a variable displacement pump
that alters displacement in response to pressure changes in the system
as related to its adjusted pressure setting.
component a single part or self-contained assembly.
compressibility the change in volume of a unit volume of a fluid
when it is subjected to a unit change in pressure.
conductive having the ability to act as a transmitter of electricity.
Electricity will flow through metal, therefore metal is conductive.
conductive shield a device used to shield the lower test electrode
system from capacitive coupling.
conductor a wire, cable, or other body or medium that is suitable
for carrying electric current.
constant resistivity monitor device used to continuously measure
the electrical resistance of the wash water in the tank of an insulator
washer.
contaminate to render unfit or to soil by introduction of foreign or
unwanted material.
continuous rotation a rotation system in which the turntable is
able to rotate an unlimited number of revolutions about the centerline
of rotation without restriction.
control a device, such as a lever or handle, which is actuated by
the operator to regulate the direction and speed of one or more functions of a unit.
control bar when manually activated, controls the movement of
feed roll(s) on a chipper.
control feed a wood chipper which controls the infeed rate to the
cutting mechanism.

Appendix Glossary

control station a position where controls for unit operation are


located. These positions may include the platform, upper boom tip,
turntable, pedestal or vehicle tailshelf.
control valve a directional valve controlled by an operator, used to
control the motion or function of an actuator or system.
cooler a heat exchanger used to remove heat from hydraulic fluid.
corner mount a pedestal mounting position located behind the
rear axle(s) with the centerline of rotation located to one side of the
chassis.
corona ring see gradient control device.
counterbalance valve a load holding valve that can be opened
to allow flow in the normally blocked direction by applying hydraulic
pressure to a pilot port, and which contains a relief capability to allow
flow from the blocked direction if the blocked pressure exceeds a
certain value.
courtesy cut partial cut through limbs so as to allow limbs to fold
towards tree trunks and allow ease of feeding chipper.
cracking pressure the pressure at which a pressure actuated valve,
such as a relief valve, begins to pass fluid.
crazing a network of fine cracks on or below the fiberglass surface.
Crazing often occurs when the fiberglass is struck with a blunt object,
sometimes causing deformation and breakdown of the fiberglass
resin.
crosstalk a form of interference in which one circuit or channel
receives some unintentional signal from another.
cross-ported a hydraulic path connected between the two opposite
flow paths of a hydraulic circuit that allows a route for flow between
the two paths in lieu of flow thru an actuator. To allow sensing of the
pressure in one path by a component installed in the other path.
cSt (centistoke) a metric unit of kinematic viscosity. In customary
use, equal to the kinematic viscosity of a fluid having dynamic viscosity
of one centipose and a density of one gram per cubic centimeter.
curb side the side of a vehicle which is opposite from oncoming
traffic when the vehicle is traveling forward in the normal direction in
a lane of traffic.
cushion a device built into a hydraulic cylinder that restricts the flow
of fluid at the outlet port to slow the motion of the rod as it reaches
the end of its stroke.
custom option an option which is not shown on a standard order
form and which requires additional engineering work to supply.
cylinder a device that converts fluid power into linear mechanical
force and motion. It usually consists of a moveable piston and rod, or
plunger, operating within a cylindrical bore.
danger information that indicates an imminently hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. This signal
word is to be used in the most extreme situations.
DC pump a pump which is powered by a direct current electric
motor.
dead band the area or range near the center rest position of a
hand control where the function does not respond to movement of
the lever or handle.
decal a thin sheet of flexible material which is attached to another
surface by adhesive, and is used to convey instructions, information
and warnings.
deenergize to remove electrical power from a device, as from the
coil of a solenoid valve.
delivery the volume of fluid discharged by a pump in a given time,
usually expressed in gallons per minute (gpm).
demulsibility the ability of a liquid to expel another type of liquid.
Commonly used to describe a fluids ability to cause water to separate
out rather than being held in suspension.
design voltage the maximum rated line voltage for which an aerial
device has been designed, and for which it can be qualified.
desolve surface prepping solvent for low voltage coating.
detent a device for positioning and holding one mechanical part in
relation to another so that the device can be released by force applied
to one of the parts.
diagnostic relating to the practice of investigation or analysis of the
cause or nature of a condition, situation, or problem.

Appendix Glossary

diagonal brace the structural member attached near the top of a


corner mount pedestal and extending downward and forward to a point
of attachment on the subbase or vehicle frame between the pedestal
and the vehicle cab.
dial indicator a meter or gauge with a calibrated circular face and
a spring-loaded plunger, used as a measuring device.
diegrinder a small, hand held, rotary grinding tool.
dielectric nonconductive to electrical current.
differential cylinder any cylinder that has two opposed piston
areas that are not equal.
digger the mechanism which drives the auger.
digger bail a tubular housing attached to the gearbox portion of a
digger, which surrounds the motor and provides an attachment point
to the digger link.
digger derrick a multipurpose, vehicle-mounted device with an
extendible boom which may accommodate components that dig
cylindrical holes, set utility poles, and position materials, apparatus,
and/or personnel.
digger derrick use the stability criteria for a digger derrick mobile
unit which indicates that the load capacity chart and stability requirements apply to the use of the derrick for lifting of loads with the winch
line at the upper boom tip or material handling jib tip, with the platform
stowed or removed, if so equipped.
digger hanger bracket the structural member on a digger derrick
which supports the digger link on the extendible boom.
digger latch mechanism a mechanism which secures the digger
to the lower boom when it is stowed and to the extendible boom when
it is unstowed.
digger link the structural member which attaches the digger to the
digger hanger bracket.
digger/winch valve the control valve on a digger derrick that
directs hydraulic pressure and flow to the digger and winch hydraulic
circuits.
digital signal an electrical signal that communicates information
by the use of two distinct levels of voltage or current, a high on level
and a low off level, which are sent in a series of pulses. The timing
of the pulses is used to indicate the level of an input parameter such
as control lever position, or information such as the address setting of
a radio control transmitter linking it to its receiver.
diode an electrical component that allows current flow in one direction but not in the reverse direction.
directional valve a valve that selectively directs or prevents fluid
flow through desired passages.
disc the rotating component, housing the knifes on a disc chipper.
disc chipper a wood chipper which utilizes a disc shaped, rotating
cutter mechanism.
disc housing weldment housing the cutting disc, comprising of the
base, stationary hood and access hood.
discharge chute directs chip discharge from the cutter mechanism
in the desired direction.
displacement the quantity of fluid that can pass through a pump,
motor or cylinder in a single revolution or stroke.
docking station a device used to mount a remote control transmitter on a platform.
dog clutch see drum clutch.
double-acting cylinder a cylinder in which fluid pressure can be
applied to either side of the piston to move the rod in either direction.
double elevator an elevator lift with two load carrying arms. The
double elevator system includes a lower pedestal, lower arm, lower arm
cylinder(s), riser, upper arm, upper arm cylinder(s), and upper pedestal,
plus parallel links in both the lower and upper sections.
double-pole, double-throw (DPDT) switch a six-terminal electrical
switch or relay that connects, at the same time, one pair of terminals
to either of two other pairs of terminals.
double-pole, single-throw (DPST) switch a four-terminal electrical
switch or relay that, at the same time, opens or closes two separate
circuits or both sides of the same circuit.
down load the downward force created when an external force is exerted on the boom, such as a winch pulling cable on a cable placer.
4

drain a passage or a line from a hydraulic component that returns


leakage fluid to the reservoir.
drift 1: a gradual, uncontrolled change from a set position of an
actuator or component. 2: a tool for ramming or driving something.
driver the gearbox and motor assembly on a reel lifter which is
connected to and disconnected from the arbor bar through the clutch
assembly.
drop pocket an open top tool storage area on the chassis of a
unit.
drum the rotating component, housing the knifes on a drum chipper.
drum chipper a wood chipper which utilizes a drum shaped, rotating cutter mechanism.
drum clutch a clutch consisting of two or more drive lugs that engage
similar driven lugs to transmit torque. Commonly used between the
gearbox and cable drum on front or bed mounted winches.
dump valve a normally open, two-position, two-way valve that sends
pump flow through a path going directly to the reservoir or bypassing
hydraulic circuit when it is not actuated, preventing operation of the
hydraulic system or circuit. When it is actuated, it closes off this path,
redirecting flow to the hydraulic system or circuit to allow operation.
dynamometer an instrument for measuring mechanical force or
power.
earth anchor see screw anchor.
eccentric ring a ring with the center hole located in a position off the
geometric center, commonly used to adjust the position of the rotation
pinion with respect to the rotation bearing gear teeth.
eccentric ring lock a device which engages a hole or notch in an
eccentric ring to prevent the ring from rotating.
efficiency the ratio of output to input. Volumetric efficiency of a pump
is the actual output in gpm divided by the theoretical or design output.
The overall efficiency of a hydraulic system is the output power divided
by the input power. Efficiency is usually expressed as a percent.
elbow the structure on an articulating-boom aerial device that connects the upper boom to the lower boom. The elbow allows the upper
boom to pivot relative to the lower boom.
elbow bearing the rotating member that allows the upper boom to
rotate around the end of the lower boom. Used on aerial devices with
the upper and lower booms mounted side by side.
elbow pin the horizontal pin that attaches the upper boom to the
lower boom on an articulating-boom aerial device. Used on aerial
devices with the upper boom mounted over the lower boom.
electrical harness an assembly of electrical wires that is used to
deliver electrical current between components.
electrocution receiving an electrical shock resulting in death.
electrohydraulic a combination of electric and hydraulic control
mechanisms in which an electrically controlled actuator is used to shift
the spool in a hydraulic control valve.
electrohydraulic control system a control system in which the
function control handles are connected to electric controls. The electric controls actuate electrohydraulic valves to operate the functions
of the unit.
electrohydraulic valve a directional valve that receives a variable or controlled electrical signal which is used to control or meter
hydraulic flow.
elevator lift a system located between the turntable and subbase
of an aerial device which is used for lifting the aerial device to increase
the platform working height. This system may be configured as a single
elevator or a double elevator.
elevator unit the overall device including the subbase, elevator lift
and the aerial device.
emergency operating DC pump see secondary stowage DC
pump.
emergency operating system see secondary stowage system.
end gland a hollow, cylindrical part that screws into or is retained
in the open end of a hydraulic cylinder barrel, through which the rod
protrudes.
end-mounted platform a platform which is attached to a mounting
bracket that extends beyond the boom tip, positioning the platform
(and platform rotation pivot, if so equipped) beyond the end of the
upper boom.

energize to send electrical power to a device, as to the coil of a


solenoid valve.
energized conductor an apparatus that is transmitting electric
current.
energy the ability or capacity to do work, measured in units of
work.
engine protection system a system which detects when the
auxiliary engine oil pressure or temperature is out of the proper range
and shuts the engine off.
extendible capable of linear movement of one or more portions of
an assembly to increase the overall length or reach of the assembly.
extendible-boom aerial device an aerial device with a telescopic
or extendible boom assembly.
extension cylinder a hydraulic cylinder which extends and retracts
an extendible boom(s).
fairlead the group of steel rollers at the platform of a cable placer which
guide the cable or suspension strand during the placing process.
fairlead receptor tube part of the pulling arms used to support
the fairlead.
fall protection system a system consisting of a body harness or
body belt, a decelerating lanyard, connectors, and an anchor point at
the boom tip, used to catch and hold a person who falls from a platform. (As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for personal fall
protection is prohibited by OSHA.)
fan part of the disc or drum chipper which propels chipped debris
and increases airflow into the discharge chute.
feed box assembly housing the feed roll(s).
feed roll a mechanical controlled roll or rollers used to control the
feed rate to the cutter mechanism.
feed table folding or fixed position guard which restricts operators
access to the cutter mechanism.
feedback (feedback signal) the return of part of an output signal to
the input for the purpose of modification and control of the output.
feeder tube a telescopic hydraulic tube assembly mounted on an
extendible boom which carries pump flow to a device mounted on the
extendible portion of the boom such as a digger or boom tip winch.
FeedSense Automatically maintains cutter mechanism speed.
fiber optic cable a type of cable used for conducting control or
telecommunication signals, in which the signal carrier(s) is one or more
optical fibers, enclosed within an outer covering.
fiber optic receiver an electronic module that collects fiber optic
signals and converts them into electrical signals.
fiber optic transmitter an electronic module that converts electrical signals into fiber optic signals and sends them through a fiber
optic cable.
fiber optics the use of transparent fibers of glass or plastic which
transmit light signals throughout the length of the fiber. Commonly used
to transmit signals from a remote control.
fiberglass glass in fibrous form added as a reinforcement to a plastic
for use in making various products.
filler breather cap the component on the top of a reservoir that
allows air to enter and exit the reservoir as the fluid level changes,
and which can be removed to access a fill hole when adding hydraulic
fluid to the reservoir.
filter a device through which fluid is passed to remove and retain
insoluble contaminants from a fluid.
filter cart a portable device which can be connected to a units
hydraulic system to filter water and/or other contaminants out of the
hydraulic system fluid.
filter cartridge a component containing filtration material which is
installed within a filter housing or attached to a filter receptacle for use,
and can be removed and replaced as a self-contained unit.
firm footing outrigger placement and extension in accordance with
the instructions in a units operators manual to ensure proper leveling
of the vehicle and adequate stability when operating the unit.
fixed displacement pump a pump in which displacement is constant, so that the output flow can be changed only by varying the
drive speed.

Appendix Glossary

flange on a flange and lug pin retaining system, an end plate that is
welded to one end of the pin. The purpose of the flange is to position
the pin in the connection.
flange and lug pin retaining system a connecting pin retention
system in which an end plate is welded to one end of the pin and a
retaining plate is attached with cap screws to the other end to hold
the pin in position.
flashover a disruptive electrical discharge at the surface of electrical
insulation or in the surrounding medium, which may or may not cause
permanent damage to the insulation.
flats from finger tight (F.F.F.T.) a method of counting the number
of wrench flats when tightening a hydraulic adapter to establish a
torque value.
flat-shoe outrigger an outrigger which has a shoe that is fixed in
a horizontal position.
flighting a curved plate or series of curved plates welded together,
spiraling along the axis of an auger tube or screw anchor rod.
flow the movement of fluid generated by pressure differences.
flow control valve a valve that regulates the rate of fluid flow.
flow rate the volume, mass or weight of a fluid passing through any
conductor per unit of time.
flow straightener a component part of a nozzle used to straighten
or remove any swirling motion of fluid going through the nozzle.
flowmeter an instrument used to measure the flow rate of fluid in
a hydraulic tube or hose.
fluid a liquid that is specially compounded for use as a power
transmitting medium in a hydraulic system.
fold to move a pivoting structure such an articulating upper boom
toward its stowed position.
fold-up shoe outrigger an outrigger which has a shoe that pivots
into a vertical position when the outrigger is fully retracted.
force any push or pull measured in units of weight.
forged pin retainer a pin retainer made from forged steel, consisting
of a slender, cylindrical body with a flattened, circular head at one end,
with a mounting hole through the head perpendicular to the body. The
body is inserted through a hole in the pin to be retained, and the head
is fastened to the adjacent structure with a cap screw.
four-way valve a valve having four ports for direction of fluid flow.
FPS Fluid Power Society.
frequency the number of times an action occurs in a unit of time.
gasket a packing made of a deformable material, usually in the
form of a sheet or ring, used to make a pressure tight fit between
stationary parts.
gate valve see shutoff valve.
gauge pressure a pressure scale that ignores atmospheric pressure by establishing atmospheric pressure as its zero point. Its zero
point is 14.7 psi absolute.
gauge snubber see snubber valve.
gearbox an assembly with internal speed changing gears; a transmission. Gearboxes are commonly used to transmit power from a hydraulic
motor to operate a function through an output shaft.
gelcoat a protective coating used on fiberglass components to
prevent the wicking of moisture into the fiberglass strands and to retard
the degrading effect of ultraviolet light on the fiberglass.
GFI ground fault interrupter.
gib assembly secures cutter knives in place on drum chippers.
gin pole a vertical phase-holding apparatus which is attached to a
platform or upper boom tip.
gpm gallons per minute.
gradient control device a device at the upper end of an insulating
boom that reduces electrical stress level(s) below that considered to
be disruptive.
gravity leveling system a system which uses the force of gravity
to keep the bottom of a platform parallel to level ground as the boom
is raised or lowered. One means of accomplishing this is by allowing
the platform to pivot freely about a horizontal shaft attached above the
platforms center of gravity.
grease fitting a small fitting that acts as the connection between a
grease gun and the component to be lubricated.

Appendix Glossary

gripper tool a component used for grasping an object or electrical


lines through the use of an articulated mechanism.
ground 1: a large conducting body with a potential of zero volts
used as a common current return for an electric circuit. 2: an object that
makes an electrical connection with a ground or with the earth.
ground fault interrupter (GFI) a fast acting form of circuit breaker
that opens to interrupt an electrical circuit if it senses a very small
current leakage to ground, to protect personnel against a potential
shock hazard from defective electrical tools or wiring. It does this by
monitoring for any difference in current flow between the hot and neutral wires in the circuit. An imbalance exceeding a very small preset
value indicates that current is finding an improper path to ground, and
causes the breaker to trip.
guard ring see conductive shield.
hand an extension of the reel lifter arm that allows for loading the
arbor bar.
hand control a hand operated control lever or handle located at a
control station used to regulate a function of a unit, where the speed of
the function is proportional to the distance the control is moved.
hand latch mechanical device used to retain the arbor bar in the
reel lifter or strand carrier hand.
heat the form of energy that has the capacity to create warmth or
to increase the temperature of a substance. Any energy that is wasted
or used to overcome friction is converted to heat. Heat is measured in
calories or British thermal units (Btu). One Btu is the amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree
Fahrenheit.
heat exchanger a device that transfers heat through a conducting
wall from one fluid to another or into the atmosphere.
hertz (Hz) a unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.
high tooth the individual tooth out of all the gear teeth on a rotation
bearing at which the minimum backlash occurs with the rotation pinion.
This is because of a slight difference between the actual and theoretical
tooth pitch lines due to manufacturing tolerances.
HLIW hot line insulator washer.
holding valve see load holding valve.
hood pin in conjunction with bolts, secures the two top halves of
the disc housing together.
HOP see hydraulic overload protection system.
horsepower (HP) the power required to lift 550 pounds one foot in
one second or 33,000 pounds 1 foot in one minute. One horsepower
is equal to 746 watts or to 42.4 British thermal units per minute.
hose carrier a flexible component which contains hydraulic, electrical, and/or air lines, usually mounted inside or along the side of an
extendible boom. As the boom is extended, the hose carrier unfolds in
a rolling motion to allow the lines to extend with the boom.
hose carrier tube a rigid, enclosed tube which contains hydraulic,
electrical, and/or air lines, and may contain components for upper
controls. It is usually attached to a hose carrier on the side of an
extendible boom.
hot line insulator washer (HLIW) a vehicle-mounted device which
is designed and used for cleaning pole and structure mounted transmission and distribution insulators.
HTMA Hydraulic Tool Manufacturers Association.
Huck bolt a bolt-like fastener that is placed in position and then
stretched while an end fitting is swaged on. Commonly used to attach
a pedestal, subbase, and/or outriggers to a vehicle frame.
hydrant a discharge pipe with a valve and spout at which water
may be drawn from a water main.
hydraulic control a control that is actuated by hydraulically induced
forces.
hydraulic leveling system an automatic hydraulic control system
which keeps the bottom of a platform parallel to or at a fixed angle to
the turntable base plate as the boom is raised or lowered. One means
of accomplishing this is by transferring hydraulic fluid between a master
cylinder actuated by movement of the lower boom and a slave cylinder
mounted between the platform and the upper boom.
hydraulic overload protection (HOP) system the system on a
digger derrick that shuts off certain functions to help prevent damage
to the digger derrick structure when an overload is applied to the boom
in the downward direction.
6

hydraulic schematic a drawing that uses common hydraulic symbols


to represent the hydraulic system of the unit.
hydraulic swivel a fluid conducting fitting having two joined parts
that are capable of pivoting freely about each other to accommodate
motion of an attached hydraulic line.
hydraulically extendible jib a jib boom that may be extended or
retracted by hydraulic power.
hydraulics an engineering science pertaining to liquid pressure
and flow.
hydrostatic hydraulic system any hydraulic drive in which a positive displacement pump and motor transfer rotary power by means of
fluid under pressure.
individual address setting the code that identifies a specific
transmitter as the one emitting the signal corresponding to a specific
receivers reception address.
infeed chute tapered weldment attached prior to the feed/cutter
mechanisms, assisting in the centering of the tree canopy.
in-line the installation of a component in series between two portions of a hydraulic line or electrical conductor so that flow in the line
or conductor toward the component passes through the component
and continues on in the line or conductor on the other side.
instability a condition of a mobile unit where the sum of the moments tending to overturn the mobile unit is equal to or exceeds the
sum of the moments tending to resist overturning.
insulating aerial device an aerial device with dielectric components
designed and tested to meet the specific electrical insulating rating
consistent with the manufacturers name plate.
insulating digger derrick a digger derrick designed for and manufactured with a fiberglass boom(s) for use around energized conductors
at a maximum of 46 kV phase to phase.
insulating liner see platform liner.
insulating portions those sections which are designed, maintained, and tested in accordance with the electrical requirements of
ANSI A92.2.
insulator a device that isolates the energized conductor of a power
line from the support structure.
intercom system a transmitter and receiver system that allows
two-way verbal communication between a platform operator and a
person at ground level.
interference any energy that inhibits the transmission or reception
of electrical or radio signals.
intermediate boom (INT BOOM) an extendible boom section
which is located between the upper boom and the lower boom in an
extendible boom assembly.
ISO International Standards Organization.
jam nut a nut that is screwed down firmly against another nut to
prevent loosening.
jaw clutch see drum clutch.
jib an auxiliary boom which attaches to the upper boom tip to extend
the reach of the boom.
JIC Joint Industry Conference.
joystick a two or three axis control lever which allows the operator
to simultaneously control multiple functions.
junction box an enclosed central connecting point for electrical
wiring.
kelly bar 1: for derricks see auger extension shaft. 2: the auger drive
shaft of a pressure digger which is extendible from the ram cylinder.
key a parallel-sided piece that fits into grooves in two adjacent parts
to prevent movement between the parts. Often used as the driving
member between a shaft and a sheave or winch drum.
keyway a groove that is cut in a shaft or bore for a key to fit into.
kilovolts (kV) a unit of potential difference equal to 1,000 volts.
knife the rotating blade on a chipper cutting mechanism.
knuckle see elbow.
L-bracket an L-shaped weldment that is used to connect a splicer
platform to the upper boom tip.
lanyard a component in a personal fall protection system consisting
of a flexible, nonmetallic strap or rope with a connector at each end

for connecting a body harness or body belt to a specified anchor point


provided at the boom tip, used to catch and decelerate a person in a
fall from the platform. (As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt
for personal fall protection is prohibited by OSHA.)
lashing wire a thin, solid wire which is wrapped in a helix configuration around a length of suspension strand and adjacent communication
cable so that the suspension strand carries the weight of the cable.
lay the length of wire rope in which one strand makes one complete
spiral around the rope.
layer all wraps of winch line on a winch drum which are on the same
level between drum flanges.
leakage monitor system a means by which current leakage is
measured through the insulating section(s) of a boom to confirm of
dielectric integrity.
leveling cable the wire rope portion of a mechanical leveling system
that passes over the sheaves.
leveling chain the chain portion of a mechanical leveling system
that passes over the sprockets.
leveling cylinder 1: a cylinder that is used in a master/slave arrangement in a hydraulic leveling system to hydraulically level the platform. 2:
the hydraulic cylinder that is used to tilt the pivot and mast weldments
of a pressure digger to either side of the vertical position.
leveling rod a slender, round, fiberglass rod used in a mechanical leveling system that passes through a units boom to connect the
leveling chains or cables at each end of the boom.
leveling system see platform leveling system.
leverage a gain in output force over input force; mechanical advantage or force multiplication.
lift cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the lower boom up
and down on a digger derrick or extendible-boom aerial device.
lifter cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the reel lifter
arms.
lifting eye a shackle or weldment used for attaching chain, cable,
rope, etc. to a boom for material handling.
light emitting diode (LED) a semiconductor diode that emits light
when subjected to an applied voltage. LEDs are used for electronic
display.
line a tube, pipe or hose used as a passageway to move hydraulic
fluid.
linear in a straight line.
linear actuator a device for converting hydraulic energy into linear
motion such as a cylinder or ram.
linear position transducer an extendible length measuring device
which produces a variable electrical signal that is proportional to the
length to which the device is extended.
liner see platform liner.
link the secondary load-carrying structure of an articulating arm.
load capacity (as defined by ANSI for digger derricks) the maximum
load, specified by the manufacturer, that can be lifted by the mobile unit
at regular intervals of load radius or boom angle, through the specified
ranges of boom elevation, extension and rotation, with options installed
and inclusive of stability requirements.
load holding valve a hydraulic valve which blocks fluid flow from
a hydraulic actuator, such as a cylinder or motor, to prevent motion
when the control valve is not being operated or in case of a hydraulic
line failure.
load radius the horizontal distance from the centerline of rotation
to the winch line load attachment point.
load sensing (see sense line) the signal when a function is operated
that tells the hydraulic pump to stroke up from a non-stroked (neutral)
position to supply oil to that function.
lock washer a solid or split washer that is placed underneath a nut
or cap screw to help prevent loosening by exerting pressure against
the fastener.
locknut see self-locking nut.
lockwire a wire that is installed to prevent loosening of fasteners
or components.
low voltage coating a sprayed on layer that provides low voltage
insulating properties.
7

Appendix Glossary

lower arm the primary load-carrying structure of a double elevator


which is located between the lower pedestal and the riser.
lower arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the lower arm
of a double elevator up and down.
lower boom (LWR BOOM) the boom section in a boom assembly
which is attached to the turntable or riser, and which supports the upper
boom or intermediate boom.
lower boom cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the lower
boom about its pivot point on an articulating-boom aerial device.
lower boom insulator the part of the lower boom made of high
dielectric strength material (usually fiberglass reinforced plastic or
equivalent) to interrupt the conductive path for electricity through the
lower boom.
lower boom winch a winch that is located on the lower boom.
lower control valve the hydraulic valve on the vehicle, turntable,
or pedestal of an aerial device used for operating some or all of the
functions of the aerial device.
lower controls the controls on the vehicle, turntable, or pedestal,
used for operating some or all of the functions of the unit.
lower pedestal the structure within an elevator lift that connects
the elevator lift to the subbase.
lower test electrode system a system on an insulating aerial
device utilizing conductive bands installed permanently on the inside
and outside surfaces of the insulating portion of the upper boom and
conductive connections to components inside that portion of the boom
such as leveling rods and hydraulic lines. All the bands and component
connections are connected to a common pickup point for use in measuring current leakage to confirm of dielectric integrity.
lower tool circuit a hydraulic tool circuit with quick disconnect
couplings located on the pedestal or on the vehicle.
lug a metal part which serves as a cap, handle, support, or fitting
connection.
lunette eye a round metal ring used in place of a ball coupler on a
trailer. It attaches to a pintle hook on the towing vehicle.
magnetic suction separator filter see magnetic suction strainer.
magnetic suction strainer a suction filter consisting of a strainer
which contains one or more magnets to trap ferrous metallic contaminants that are small enough to pass through the strainer.
mainframe see pedestal.
man-and-a-half platform an oversized one-man platform.
manifold a fluid conductor that provides multiple connection
ports.
manual lowering valve a manually operated hydraulic valve used
to lower the boom in the event of power failure.
manual override a means of manually actuating an automatically
or remotely controlled device.
manually extendible jib a jib that is capable of being extended and
retracted by human force.
mast the structure on a pressure digger which supports the auger
transmission gearbox, ram cylinder, kelly bar, and pole setter.
master control panel the primary derrick lower control panel which
contains the electrical connections between the derrick control system
and components such as the power module and the dump or blocking
valve. The master control panel is used in conjunction with a slave
panel to provide dual station lower controls.
master cylinder a cylinder in which motion of the piston under an
external force transfers hydraulic fluid to a slave cylinder to produce
corresponding motion.
material handling having the ability to use the boom or attachments
on the boom to lift and position materials.
material handling system the system on an aerial device that
consists of a jib and winch used to lift material to the upper boom tip.
mechanical leveling system a mechanical system which keeps
the bottom of a platform parallel to or at a fixed angle to the turntable
base plate as the boom is raised or lowered. One means of accomplishing this is by utilizing a parallelogram arrangement of leveling rods
attached to cables or chains operating around sheaves or sprockets
at boom pivot points.

Appendix Glossary

mercury switch a switch that is closed or opened when an internal globule of mercury moves to or away from the contacts when the
switch is tilted.
meter to regulate the amount of fluid flow.
meter-in to regulate the amount of fluid flow into an actuator or
system.
meter-out to regulate the flow of the discharge fluid from an actuator or system.
micron (micrometer) one-millionth of a meter or about 0.00004.
micron rating the minimum size of the particles that a filter is
designed to remove.
microswitch a small electrical device that is used to turn an electrical
current on or off, or to change the connections in a circuit.
minimum approach distance the three dimensional area surrounding a conductor into which a person may not enter nor bring any
conductive object unless they are: qualified electrical workers, wearing
insulating gloves (and sleeves when required), protected against contact
with any other objects at a different electrical potential.
mobile operation the use of the aerial device or digger derrick while
the mobile unit is traveling.
mobile unit the combination of a unit, its chassis and related permanently attached equipment.
modified A-frame outrigger an extendible outrigger that is configured like a large broad based A with an open top.
modulation ratio the on time vs. the off time of a pulse width
modulated digital signal. This ratio is determined by dividing the on
time during one cycle by the total cycle time.
moly see molybdenum disulfide.
molybdenum disulfide a black inorganic chemical that is used as
a dry lubricant and as an additive for grease and oils. Molybdenum
disulfide has a very high melting point and is insoluble in water.
molydisulfide see molybdenum disulfide.
moment a force multiplied by the perpendicular distance from the
line of action of the force to an axis or point. The force may be the
weight of an item, with the vertical line of action located at the items
center of gravity. Moment is measured in units of force times distance;
for example, pound-feet or foot-pounds.
monitor head remotely controlled articulated assembly with a nozzle,
mounted at the upper end of an HLIW.
motor a device that converts hydraulic or electrical energy into
continuous rotary motion and torque.
multiple-part line the arrangement of the winch line in which the
winch line is routed between the boom tip and the load two or more
times. A snatch block is used at the load and a snatch block or additional
boom tip sheave(s) is used on the boom to reverse the direction of
the winch line. The end of the winch line is connected to a stationary
attachment point on the boom or lower snatch block. A multiple-part
line is used to reduce the tension in the winch line to a value below
the winch line rated working load when a lifting load that exceeds the
winch line rated working load.
multiplexing a process by which signals from multiple inputs are
combined and transmitted simultaneously over a single channel.
multiviscosity the viscosity characteristic of a fluid which contains
additives that increase the viscosity index. The fluid does not become
as thin at high temperatures or as thick at low temperatures as a fluid
without these additives. This allows the fluid to be used over a wider
temperature range.
nonconductive the characteristic of a substance that allows it to
transmit electricity only in a very small degree when it is clean, dry and
properly maintained.
noncontinuous rotation a rotation system in which the turntable is
prevented from rotating more than approximately one revolution about
the centerline of rotation.
non-insulating aerial device or digger derrick an aerial device
or digger derrick which is not designed, manufactured, or tested to
meet any dielectric rating.
nonmetallic formed of materials which are not any type of metal.
non-overcenter aerial device a type of articulating-boom aerial
device on which the upper boom will not unfold from the stored position to beyond a vertical position regardless of the position of the
lower boom.
8

nontransferable boom flares boom flares that are permanently


attached to the boom tip of a digger derrick.
nontransferable upper controls an upper control panel on a digger
derrick that is permanently attached to the upper boom tip.
normally closed switch a switch which is closed to allow current
to flow through it when it is not actuated, and opens to interrupt current
flow when actuated.
normally closed valve a two-way valve which is closed to block
fluid from flowing through it when it is not actuated, and opens to allow
flow when actuated.
normally open switch a switch which is open to prevent current
from flowing through it when it is not actuated, and closes to allow
current flow when actuated.
normally open valve a two-way valve which is open to allow fluid
to flow through it when it is not actuated, and closes to block flow
when actuated.
nozzle a tube-like device for accelerating and directing the discharge
flow of fluid.
NPT National Pipe Thread.
NPTF National Pipe Thread Fluid, a pipe thread form which is
modified from the NPT form to improve the resistance to fluid leakage
through the threads in a connection.
O-ring a ring of material with a circular cross section that is used
as a gasket, usually made of synthetic rubber.
ohmmeter an instrument used to measure the resistance in ohms
between two points in an electrical component or circuit.
on/off circuit circuit that supplies constant electrical power to a
solenoid or other component when a relay or switch is closed and
removes the power when the relay or switch is opened.
one-man platform a platform designed to carry one person. It is
usually 24 wide x 30 wide or 24 wide x 24 wide.
open center a directional valve design in which pump output returns freely to the reservoir when the valve spool(s) is in the center
or neutral position.
open circuit an electric circuit that has infinitely high resistance,
resulting in no current flow. An open circuit may be caused by a loose
connection, broken wire, corrosion or poor contact where an electrical
component is grounded to the unit structure.
operational area the area surrounding a chipper effected by chip
discharge, noise, or any chipper operations.
operator a person trained, authorized and engaged in the operation of the unit.
optical fiber a thin strand of transparent glass or plastic used to
transmit signals using light throughout the length of the strand.
orifice a restriction in a hydraulic or pneumatic circuit, the length of
which is small in respect to its diameter.
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
out and down outrigger an outrigger that has independentlycontrolled horizontal and vertical extendible outrigger legs.
outboard bearing a bearing which supports the end of a gearbox
output shaft farthest from the gearbox.
output signal a radio wave intended to pass communication from
a source to a destination.
outrigger a structural member, which when properly extended or
deployed on firm ground or outrigger pads, assists in stabilizing the
mobile unit.
outrigger controls the controls for operating the outriggers.
outrigger cylinder the hydraulic cylinder which extends and retracts
or unfolds and folds an outrigger leg.
outrigger interlock system a system which requires all outriggers
to be extended to a specified position before other unit functions are
allowed to operate.
outrigger interlock valve a valve which prevents above rotation
sense line signals from reaching the pump until the outriggers have
been lowered.
outrigger leg 1: the moveable structural component of an outrigger
which extends or unfolds to position the outrigger shoe on the ground,
and which retracts or folds to return the outrigger shoe to the stored
position. 2: the stationary structural component of an extendible outrigger from which the moveable outrigger leg extends.

outrigger motion alarm an audible warning system to alert personnel that outriggers are being lowered or moved.
outrigger pad a portable piece of rigid material which is placed
under an outrigger shoe to increase the contact area with the ground
surface when the ground surface is not firm enough to support direct
contact from the outrigger shoe.
outrigger shoe the component of an outrigger that is attached to
the moveable leg and that contacts the ground or outrigger pad to
stabilize the mobile unit.
outrigger signal valve a valve used to provide a signal to the pump
when the outriggers are being operated and to allow a separate signal
system to control the aerial device operation.
outrigger spread the distance between the outer edges on fixed
shoes, or between pin centerlines on pivoting shoes, of opposite outriggers which have been extended or deployed to a given position.
over travel movement of a mechanism beyond its normal stopping point.
overcenter aerial device a type of articulating-boom aerial device
on which the upper boom can unfold from the stored position to beyond
a vertical position.
overframe an outrigger weldment mounting position located above
the vehicle chassis frame.
overload the condition existing when a load greater than the rated
capacity or design lead is applied to a unit or component.
override the takeover of boom movement control functions from
the platform controls by the activation of the lower control station
controls.
overtighten to torque a threaded fastener beyond the recommended
torque value.
oxidation the reaction of a substance with oxygen.
paddle part of the disc assembly which propels chipped debris into
the discharge chute.
panic bar a safety system which when manually activated stops
movement of the feed roll(s) on a chipper.
parallel link the secondary load-carrying structure of an elevator
lift.
particle count a visual count of the numbers of particulate contaminants in a quantity of a hydraulic fluid.
passage a machined or cored fluid conducting path that lies within
or passes through a component.
payload any tools, materials, fuel and occupants carried by the
mobile unit that are not permanently attached.
pedestal the stationary base of a unit that supports the turntable
and is attached to the subbase or vehicle frame.
pedestal mount a mounting configuration for an aerial device in
which the turntable is mounted on a pedestal consisting of a box-like
structure.
penetration the distance the vehicle frame is lifted after the outriggers contact the ground surface.
phase a conductive wire or cable used for transmitting high voltage
electrical current. The phrase phase to phase can be referenced as
any two conductors of a three-phase electrical power line system.
pilot operated condition in which a valve is actuated by hydraulic
fluid pressure.
pilot operated check valve a check valve that can be opened
to allow flow in the normally blocked direction by applying hydraulic
pressure to a pilot port.
pilot pressure auxiliary pressure used to actuate or control hydraulic
components.
pilot valve an auxiliary valve used to control the operation of
another valve.
pin a cylindrical structural device used to allow a pivoting joint or
to connect mating parts.
pin retainer a device which is used to hold a pin in place in an
assembly.
pinch point a particular location in which a human body or a part
of the body may become pinched or pinned between moving mechanical parts.

Appendix Glossary

pinion a gear with a small number of teeth that has been designed
to mesh with a larger gear.
pintle hitch a common heavy duty coupling type which utilizes a pintle
hook attached to a tow vehicle to pull a trailer having a lunette eye.
pintle hook the jaw portion of a pintle hitch which attaches to
the tow vehicle.
piston a cylindrically shaped part that fits within a cylinder or cylindrical bore and transmits or receives linear motion by means of a
connecting rod or other component.
piston pump a pump in which motion and force are applied to fluid
by a reciprocating piston(s) in cylindrical bore(s).
pivot weldment the structure located above the slide frame on a
pressure digger which supports the mast.
placard 1: a thin sheet of rigid material which is attached to another
surface by adhesive and/or mechanical fasteners, and is used to convey
instructions, information and warnings. 2: May also refer to a decal.
planetary gear set an assembly of meshed gears consisting of a
central gear (sun gear), a coaxial internal tooth ring gear and several
intermediate pinions (planet gears) supported on a revolving carrier.
planetary gearbox a gearbox containing one or more planetary
gear sets.
platform the personnel-carrying component of a unit, mounted at
the upper boom tip.
platform elevator a mechanism, at the boom tip, to which the platform is mounted, allowing vertical motion of the platform with respect
to the rest of the boom tip.
platform heater an electrically powered device mounted in a splicer
platform which is used to warm the occupant.
platform leveling system a system which keeps the bottom of a
platform parallel to or at a fixed angle to the base plate of the turntable,
or parallel to level ground, as the boom is raised or lowered. The system
may be mechanically, hydraulically, or gravity operated.
platform liner a component made of material having a high dielectric
strength which is designed to be inserted into a platform to cover the
walls and bottom of the platform.
platform pin the horizontal pin that is used to fasten a platform
mounting bracket to the upper boom tip. The mounting bracket pivots
about this pin for platform leveling or positioning.
platform rest the structural member attached to the chassis or body
to support and cushion the platform in the travel or rest position.
platform ring a metal band around the lip of a splicer platform
which supports and guides the platform as it is rotated about its vertical centerline.
platform rotation override system a system which allows the
zone of platform rotation to extend beyond a predetermined limit when
actuated by the operator.
platform rotator a system which allows the operator to rotate the
platform about a vertical axis. This permits the position of the platform
to be changed with respect to the boom tip.
platform tilt system a system which allows the operator to adjust
the orientation of the platform about a horizontal axis. Some systems
allow the operator to adjust the working position of the platform floor
and tilt the platform for cleaning. Other systems allow tilting of the
platform for cleaning but do not provide for operator adjustment of the
working position.
platform use the stability criteria for a digger derrick mobile unit
which indicates that the load capacity chart and stability requirements
apply to the use of the derrick with the platform occupied, with no lifting
of loads with the winch line.
plunger a cylindrically shaped part that is used to transmit thrust;
a ram.
pole a long cylindrical piece of material such as wood, metal, or
concrete which is installed in a vertical position for use as a support
structure for power and communication lines.
pole guide a mechanism at the tip of a boom used for guiding and
stabilizing a utility pole while using the winch line to raise or lower
the pole.
pole guide tilt cylinder the hydraulic cylinder which is used to tilt
(raise or lower) the pole guide.
pole guide tong cylinder the hydraulic cylinder which opens and
closes the pole guide tongs.

Appendix Glossary

pole guide tongs moveable arms on a pole guide used to stabilize


and guide a utility pole as it is being raised or lowered with the winch
line.
pole puller an apparatus consisting of a hydraulic cylinder, chain
and other components used to loosen a utility pole from the ground.
pole setter an assembly attached to the mast of a pressure digger
that is used to pick up, position, and set a pole.
polyethylene a moisture proof plastic.
poppet that part of certain valves that prevents flow when it closes
against a seat and allows flow when it moves away from the seat.
port an internal or external opening for intake or exhaust of fluid
in a component.
portable resistivity tester a device used for testing the electrical
resistance of water. Commonly used for testing the wash water for
insulator washers.
position a term which describes the number of possible positions
a valve spool or mechanism can be shifted to.
post mount a mounting configuration for an aerial device in which
the turntable is mounted on a pedestal which utilizes a round vertical
tube as its primary load-carrying structure.
potentiometer a variable resistor that is connected to act as an
electrical voltage divider.
pour point the lowest temperature at which a fluid will flow or pour
under specific conditions.
power work per unit of time, measured in horsepower (HP) or
watts.
power module the central connection point between the chassis and
unit electrical systems. This device is used to provide battery power to
the unit when the truck/machine selector is in the machine position.
power take-off (PTO) a supplementary mechanism enabling vehicle engine power to be used to operate non-automotive apparatus
such as a pump.
precharge pressure the pressure of compressed gas in an accumulator before any fluid is added.
pressure the force applied in a given area. It can be expressed in
pounds per square inch (psi).
pressure compensator a device on a variable displacement
pump that adjusts pump output flow to develop and maintain a preset
maximum pressure.
pressure differential the difference in pressure between two points
in a system or component.
pressure drop the reduction in pressure between two points in a
line or passage due to the energy required to maintain flow.
pressure gauge an instrument which displays the hydraulic or
pneumatic pressure sensed at a port on the device.
pressure line the line carrying fluid from a pump outlet to the pressurized port of a valve or actuator.
pressure override the difference between the cracking pressure of
a valve and the pressure reached when the valve is passing full flow.
pressure reducing valve a pressure control valve whose primary
function is to limit its outlet pressure.
pressure switch an electric switch which is actuated when the hydraulic or pneumatic pressure applied to a port on the switch reaches
a specified value.
pressure transducer a pressure measuring device which produces
a variable electrical signal that is proportional to the hydraulic pressure
applied to a port on the device.
proportional circuit a circuit that supplies a varying voltage to a
coil in a pilot valve as electrical current applied to the circuit is varied
by a hand control.
proximity alarm a system which measures the distance from a
detector to another object, and sounds an alarm when this distance
is less than a specified value. Commonly used to inform the operator
of an HLIW of the distance between the boom tip nozzle and a power
line insulator or support structure.
psi pounds per square inch.
PTO see power take-off.
pulling arms mechanical structure used to attach the platform to
the boom tip and supports the fairlead receptor tube.
10

pullout upper controls an upper control panel on a digger derrick


which is mounted on a housing that can be extended from inside an
outer housing when additional length is needed, such as to attach the
control panel to a personnel jib with the outer housing attached to the
upper boom tip, or to attach the upper control panel to the upper boom
tip with the outer housing attached to the transferable boom flares.
pulse width modulation (PWM) a means of transmitting a digital
signal in continuous cycles of pulses where the total length of time for
a cycle of one on pulse and the following off period is constant, and
the length of time (width) of the on pulse within each cycle is varied
(modulated) in proportion to the level of an input parameter such as
control lever position.
pump a device that converts mechanical force and motion into
hydraulic flow and pressure.
purge system a system of check valves that allows hydraulic
fluid flow in a reverse manner through the hydraulic system, usually
from the lower control valve to the upper controls. This actions frees
or purges the control system of any trapped air and restores a solid
column of fluid for precise control. The purge system may also be used
to warm up the control system in cold weather conditions if the fluid
in the reservoir is warm.
purge/upper/lower controls selector valve a valve which is used
to direct hydraulic fluid to the purge system, the upper control valve,
or the lower control valve.
PWM pulse width modulation.
quick disconnect couplings hydraulic fittings designed for fast
and easy attachment and separation.
radial ball bearing an antifriction bearing with rolling ball contact
in which the direction of action of the load transmitted is perpendicular
to the axial centerline of the bearing.
radial outrigger an outrigger in which the moveable outrigger leg
pivots in an arc around a pin connection between the leg and a supporting structure as the leg is lowered and raised.
radio communication communication by means of radio waves.
ram 1: a single-acting cylinder with a single diameter plunger rather
than a piston and rod. 2: the plunger in a ram-type cylinder.
ram cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that is used to retract and extend
the kelly bar on a pressure digger.
ramp an adjustable delay to govern the response of the hydraulic
valve when a unit is operated from the electronic controls.
range diagram a diagram which shows the load radius and sheave
height of a digger derrick at all the configurations of boom extension
and boom angle covered by the corresponding load capacity chart.
rated capacity (as defined by ANSI for digger derricks) the maximum
load, specified by the manufacturer, that can be lifted by the digger
derrick at regular intervals of load radius or boom angle, through the
specified ranges of boom elevation and extension, with specified options installed, and exclusive of stability requirements.
rated line voltage the nominal voltage, phase to phase, at which
electrical systems are rated.
rated load capacity (as defined by ANSI for aerial devices) the
maximum loads, specified by the manufacturer, which can be lifted
by the aerial device through the specified range of boom elevation
and extension with specified options installed and in consideration of
stability requirements.
reach diagram a drawing that shows the horizontal and vertical
limits of travel of the platform, upper boom tip, and/or jib tip throughout
all possible configurations of lower boom angle, boom extension, upper
boom angle, articulating arm travel, and/or elevator lift travel.
rear jack stand adjustable rear support used when the chipper is
in operation and not coupled to the tow vehicle.
rear mount a pedestal mounting position located over or near the
rear axle(s) on the longitudinal centerline of the chassis.
receiver a device that converts radio waves into electrical signals
for communication and/or control purposes.
reel brake a component of the reel driver which prevents the overrunning of cable reels carried by a strand carrier and reel lifter. The
brake is used to maintain tension in the cable or suspension strand
when used with the reel driver.
reel driver a component of a strand carrier and reel lifter used for
paying in or paying out cable or suspension strand.

reel lifter a device used to support and move cable reels from the
ground to the vehicle.
reel lifter arms the structure on a reel lifter used to lift and store
reels of cable or suspension strand on the chassis.
reengage to repeat the activation of a function after it has been
momentarily halted.
relay an automatic switch with contacts that can be closed or opened
by electrical current in a coil.
relief valve a pressure operated valve that bypasses pump delivery
to the reservoir to limit system pressure to a predetermined maximum
value.
remote arm a remotely operated jib used to handle equipment or
electrical lines.
remote assist a vehicle-mounted device with a boom assembly
which is extendible, articulating, or both, which is designed and used to
accommodate attachments for performing operations such as supporting
or cutting electrical conductors, lifting or holding objects, or cutting tree
branches. It is operated by remote control from the ground or from the
platform of an adjacent personnel lifting device. It may be mounted on
the vehicle by itself or in addition to a personnel lifting device.
remote control system a system used for operating some or all
of the functions of a unit from a portable control station. The control
station may be a transmitter which sends signals by radio waves to a
receiver on the unit, or a control module which sends signals through
a fiber optic or electrical cable to the unit.
remote operated auxiliary control system (ROACS) a radio
controlled system for starting and stopping certain functions of the
mobile unit.
remote start/stop system the components used to actuate a
function of the unit from a location other than for normal operation.
The most common functions controlled are engine start/stop and the
secondary stowage DC pump.
reservoir a container for storage of liquid in a fluid power system.
resistance the opposition to the flow of electricity or hydraulic
fluid.
restriction a reduced cross-sectional area in a line or passage that
produces a pressure drop.
retaining ring a hardened, washer-like ring that may be spread
apart or compressed and installed into a groove or recess to serve
as a retaining device.
return line a hydraulic line used to carry discharge flow from a
hydraulic system or actuator back to the reservoir at low pressure.
return line filter a filter located in a hydraulic system return line or
at the inlet of a hydraulic reservoir which cleans fluid flowing from the
hydraulic system to the reservoir.
reversing valve a four-way directional valve used to change the direction of movement of a double-acting cylinder or reversible motor.
ribbon hose a group of hoses that are attached side by side to
produce a flat bundle. Commonly used to carry hydraulic fluid, air and/
or electrical cable(s) to the boom tip or upper controls.
riding seat an operators control station attached to the side of the
turntable, with a seat on which the operator rides with the rotation of
the unit.
riser 1: the structure on a double elevator that connects the lower
elevator arm to the upper elevator arm. 2: the structure within an articulating arm to which the lower boom is connected.
ROACS see remote operated auxiliary control system.
rod the cylindrically shaped part of a cylinder which extends and
retracts from the barrel to actuate or move a component.
rod end the end of a cylinder that the extending component or
rod is on.
roller a cylindrical device which spins freely about a pin or shaft,
used to guide the motion of another component.
rollpin a pin that has been formed by rolling up a thin, flat strip of
metal to form a cylinder. Commonly used by being driven into a hole
to serve as a retaining device.
rope a stout, flexible cord, which consists of many strands of wire
or fibers that are twisted or braided together.
rotary actuator a device for converting hydraulic energy into rotary
motion and torque in which the rotary motion is restricted to within
certain angular limits.
11

Appendix Glossary

rotary joint a multiple port manifold that has a rotating portion and
a stationary portion, used to provide a continuous hydraulic connection
between rotating and stationary hydraulic lines. Commonly used at the
centerline of rotation of units equipped with continuous rotation.
rotate frame the structure located above the stationary frame on a
pressure digger that is used to support and rotate the slide frame.
rotating platform a platform which can be rotated about a vertical
axis to change its position in relationship to the boom tip.
rotation bearing the rotating member, usually a shear ball bearing, located between the pedestal and the turntable which allows the
turntable to rotate and which contains gear teeth that mesh with the
rotation pinion.
rotation chain a chain attached to the stationary frame of a pressure
digger that is used by the rotation gearbox to rotate the rotate frame.
rotation gearbox the gearbox which drives the rotational motion
of the turntable.
rotation pinion the gear on the output shaft of the rotation gearbox
which meshes with the rotation bearing gear teeth and drives the
turntable rotational motion.
rotation resistant wire rope wire rope which is constructed to resist
the tendency to untwist or rotate when carrying a suspended load. This
is accomplished by laying the outer strands in the opposite direction
to the lay of the inner strands or core.
rotation system the system which drives the rotation of the turntable
about the centerline of rotation. It typically consists of a rotation bearing,
rotation gearbox, hydraulic motor, and load holding valve.
rpm revolutions per minute.
running torque the torque produced by a rotating device such as
a motor or gearbox at a specified rotational speed.
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers.
safety belt see body belt.
safety chains the chains that are attached to the trailer tongue with
hooks on their free ends. These chains keep the trailer connected to
the tow vehicle should the coupler or hitch ball detach from the tow
vehicle. Safety chains must be secured every time you tow.
saybolt universal viscosity A measure of viscosity equal to the time
it takes in seconds for 60 milliliters of fluid to flow through a capillary
tube in a Saybolt universal viscosimeter at a given temperature.
scissor link the mechanical linkage on a reel lifter used to connect
the lifter cylinder to the arm.
screw anchor a rod with an eye on one end and auger flighting on
the opposite end. It is designed to screw into the ground and serve as
an anchor to hold an attached cable such as a guy wire.
seating in an initial microscopic surface deformation of components
that are clamped together with threaded fasteners. This causes a slight
reduction in the dimension of the components, reducing the clamping
force applied by the fasteners.
secondary stowage DC pump a low flow hydraulic pump driven by a
direct current electric motor. This pump is used to provide hydraulic flow
to stow the unit when the system for normal operation has failed.
secondary stowage system those components used to stow the
unit when the system for normal operation has failed.
selector switch a switch which is used to direct electrical current
to one of two or more electrical circuits.
selector valve a valve which is used to direct hydraulic fluid to one
of two or more hydraulic circuits.
self feed a wood-chipper with no control of the infeed rate to the
cutting mechanism.
self-locking nut a nut which contains a built-in device or shape to
increase thread friction so as to resist loosening due to vibration or
repeated loading.
self-lubricating bearing an antifriction bearing in which lubricating
material is incorporated in the bearing.
sense line a line that carries a hydraulic pressure signal from a
valve or actuator to the compensator control on a variable displacement pump.
sense selector valve a valve which prevents hydraulic fluid in
the sense line from reaching the pump until a certain function(s) is
operated.

Appendix Glossary

sequence 1: the order of a series of operations or movements. 2:


to divert flow to accomplish a subsequent operation or movement.
sequence valve a pressure operated valve that diverts flow to a
secondary actuator while holding pressure on the primary actuator at
a predetermined minimum value after the primary actuator completes
its travel.
sequential extension the operation by which one boom section
in an extendible boom assembly reaches full extension or retraction
before the next boom section begins movement.
set screw a short screw, typically with an Allen type head, that is
used as a clamp to bind parts together.
shackle see clevis.
shear an action or stress resulting from opposing applied forces that
attempt to separate a part into two pieces that would then slide along
each other in opposite directions along the plane of separation.
shear ball bearing an antifriction bearing with rolling ball contact
in which the direction of load transmitted through the balls is parallel
to the axial centerline of the bearing, producing shear loading on the
balls. The bearing can support axial, radial, and tilt loading. Commonly
used as a rotation bearing.
shear pin a replaceable pin which prevents motion between two
adjacent parts by the production of shear loading in the pin, and which
may be designed to fail under overload to protect other parts.
shear stability resistance of a hydraulic fluid viscosity index improver
additive to shearing.
shearing molecular damage or breakdown of the viscosity index
improver additive in hydraulic fluid. Shearing can occur when the fluid
flows through fine clearances at high velocity. Shearing can cause
permanent loss in fluid viscosity.
sheave a grooved wheel used to support and guide a winch line
or leveling cable at a point of change in the direction of motion of the
line or cable.
sheave height the vertical distance from ground level to the centerline
of the boom tip sheave in a digger derrick upper boom tip.
short circuit an inadvertent path of low resistance established
between two points of an electrical circuit. A short circuit will result in
excessive current flow.
shutoff valve a device which is used to stop hydraulic fluid flow.
shuttle valve a three-port valve that accepts hydraulic fluid pressure from two inlets and allows only the highest pressure fluid to pass
through it to a single outlet while keeping the inlet fluid pressure isolated
from one another.
side gun a hand held water nozzle and hose that can be used from
the ground for washing or fire fighting.
side load an external horizontal load placed on a boom from one
side.
side load protection system the system on a digger derrick that
helps prevent damage to the digger derrick structure when excessive
side loads are applied to the booms.
side-mounted platform a platform which is attached to a mounting bracket that extends from one side of the boom tip, positioning
the platform (and platform rotation pivot, if so equipped) beside the
boom tip.
sideslip sideways motion of a component caused by an externally
applied sideways force which overcomes resistive forces from hydraulics, friction, etc. Commonly used to describe rotation of a digger
derrick boom caused by side loading which exceeds the side load
protection setting.
signal a command or indication of a desired position, velocity, flow
or pressure.
signal line see sense line.
single-acting cylinder a cylinder in which fluid pressure can be applied to move the rod in only one direction. Return motion is produced
by an external force such as a spring or gravity.
single elevator an elevator lift with one load carrying arm. The
single elevator system includes a lower pedestal, arm, arm cylinder(s),
parallel links, and upper pedestal.
single handle control a control, with an interlock trigger incorporated in the handle, which allows the operator to simultaneously control
multiple functions of the booms and turntable from the platform.

12

single-pole, double-throw (SPDT) switch a three-terminal electrical switch or relay that connects one terminal to either of two other
terminals.
single-pole, single-throw (SPST) switch a two-terminal electrical
switch or relay that opens or closes one circuit.
slave control panel a secondary derrick lower control panel that
is configured as a remote terminal of the master panel. The slave
panel is used in conjunction with a master panel to provide dual station lower controls.
slave cylinder a cylinder in which motion of the piston is produced
by the transfer of hydraulic fluid from a master cylinder, resulting in
corresponding motion.
slide frame the structure on a pressure digger used to support the
auxiliary engine, hydraulic reservoir, control station, and pivot weldment.
The slide frame can be extended horizontally from its stowed position
to adjust the distance of the kelly bar from the rotate frame.
slide pad a rectangular block used as a bearing between extendible boom or outrigger sections, usually composed of a non-metallic
material.
slip ring an assembly of one or more conductive, rotating rings and
stationary brushes used to provide a continuous electrical connection
between rotating and stationary conductors. Commonly used at the
centerline of rotation of units equipped with continuous rotation.
slug face the extreme end of the cable slug which is secured to the
cylinder rod or adjusting stud.
SMA connector metal connector used for connecting fiber optic
components.
snatch block a device which has a means of attachment to connect
it to a boom or load, and which can be opened to receive a winch line
around an internal sheave.
snubber valve a two-port valve with a manually adjustable orifice
that restricts the flow of fluid through the valve.
socket head a cylindrical cap screw head design containing a
hexagonal (six-sided) female socket into which an Allen wrench can
be inserted to turn the cap screw.
solenoid a coil of insulated wire that produces a magnetic field within
the coil when electrically energized. When attached to a hydraulic valve,
the magnetic field acts upon the valve to move internal valve parts.
solenoid valve a valve which is actuated by a solenoid to controlling
the flow of hydraulic fluid.
speed reducer see gearbox.
spherical bearing a bearing with a spherically shaped inner race
that is allowed to move freely inside a stationary outer race to accommodate misalignment.
splicer platform a fiberglass platform equipped with a door and
latch.
spline one of a number of equally spaced, load carrying teeth that
have been cut on the outside diameter of a shaft or inside diameter of
a bore, parallel to the shaft or bore centerline.
spool a moving, cylindrically shaped part of a hydraulic valve that
moves to direct flow through the valve.
spring lockouts a mechanical system which is engaged to keep
a vehicles suspension system from flexing during operation of the
unit.
sprocket a wheel with teeth along the circumference which are
shaped so as to engage with a chain, used to support and guide the
chain at a point of change in the direction of motion of the chain.
SSU (Saybolt Second Universal) the unit of measure for Saybolt
universal viscosity.
stability a condition of a mobile unit in which the sum of the moments which tend to overturn the mobile unit is less than the sum of
the moments tending to resist overturning; the mobile units ability to
resist tipping.
stabilize to provide adequate stability for a mobile unit to allow
operation of the vehicle-mounted device(s).
stabilizer a device used to assist in stabilizing a mobile unit, such
as an outrigger, torsion bar or spring lockout.
stake to slightly deform the threads of a fastener or material at the
joint between two components by placing the blade of punch or chisel
on the threads or joint and tapping on the handle with a hammer. The
deformed material serves to prevent loosening of the components.

stall torque the torque produced by a rotating device such as a


motor or gearbox at zero rotational speed.
standard option an option which can be ordered from a standard
order form and can be supplied without additional engineering work.
start/stop control module an electrical device that relays signals from the units remote start/stop system to the component(s) or
system(s) being controlled, such as the secondary stowage DC pump
and/or vehicle ignition system.
static mixer a tube with no moving parts used to combine two or
more fluids.
stationary frame the structure attached to the subbase of a pressure
digger that supports the outriggers and rotate frame.
stationary hood normally non-removable part of the disc housing
in which the discharge chute attaches.
stationary platform a platform which can not be rotated about a
vertical axis to change its position in relationship to the boom tip.
stow to place a component such as a boom or digger derrick auger
in its rest position.
strainer a coarse filter.
strainer basket a coarse, basket shaped filter which is mounted in
the fill hole of a reservoir and projects into the reservoir.
strand 1: one of the groups of individual fibers or wires within a
synthetic winch line or wire rope. 2: see suspension strand.
strand carrier a device used to support and transport strand reels
on a vehicle.
strand reel a reel or spool used for carrying suspension stand.
street side the side of a vehicle toward oncoming traffic when the
vehicle is traveling forward in the normal direction in a lane of traffic.
stroke 1: total linear movement in either direction of a piston or
plunger. 2: to change the displacement of a variable displacement
pump or motor.
subbase a structural mounting interface between the pedestal and
the vehicle frame. It provides torsional stiffness and strength in addition
to that which would be provided from the vehicle frame alone.
subweldment a smaller welded subassembly used within a more
complex welded structure.
suction filter a filter located in a hydraulic system suction line or at
the outlet of a hydraulic reservoir which cleans fluid flowing from the
reservoir to the pump inlet.
suction line the hydraulic line connecting the pump inlet port to
the reservoir outlet.
surge a momentary rise of pressure in a circuit.
surge brake system a surge brake system is entirely self-contained
on the trailer and is activated when the tow vehicle decelerates. The
momentum of the trailer pushes the surge brake housing forward. This
drives the push rod that is connected to the coupler into the master
cylinder. Brake fluid is then forced out of the master cylinder into the
wheel cylinders or pistons that apply the trailer brakes. The entire
activation process is completed in less than one second.
suspension strand a type of wire rope which is used to support
the weight of an attached communication cable suspended between
poles or other overhead support structures.
swage to taper or reduce the diameter of a rod, tube or fastener by
forging, squeezing or hammering.
synthetic winch line a winch line made from nonmetallic synthetic
fibers which are formed into strands that are then braided together to
make a complete rope.
T-stand a T shaped weldment for mounting lower controls to the
vehicle.
tachometer an instrument used for displaying the speed of rotation
of an engine output shaft.
tailshelf the rear portion of the mobile unit above and behind the
rear axle.
tailshelf tools see lower tool circuit.
tank the hydraulic reservoir.
telescopic having sections that slide within or over one another to
change overall length.
tension spring springs controlling downward force of the upper
feed roll.
13

Appendix Glossary

terminal block an insulating mounting used for making electrical


terminal connections.
test block a manifold with ports for connecting a hydraulic pressure
source, pressure gauge and a cartridge valve such as a counterbalance
valve or relief valve used for testing and adjusting the relief setting of
the valve.
thimble a metal ring around which a rope is passed and spliced to
make a loop or eye.
thread locking adhesive an anaerobic adhesive that is applied
to fastener threads to prevent loosening due to vibration or repeated
loading.
three-phase a system for transmitting high voltage, alternating current, electrical power along three separate conductors, with 120 degrees
between the voltage waveform cycles of any two conductors.
three-position valve a valve having three positions for direction
of fluid flow, such as neutral, flow in one direction, and flow in the opposite direction.
three-way valve a valve having three ports for direction of fluid
flow.
threshold the amount of signal (starting power) given to a control
valve when the control is just moved from neutral position.
throttle control a manual, hydraulic, or electrical device used to
regulate vehicle or auxiliary engine speed.
toggle switch an electrical switch operated by a short projecting
lever combined with a spring to quickly open or close a circuit when
the lever is pushed through a small arc.
tongue weight the downward weight applied by the towable equipment on the hitch ball. Generally tongue weight should not be more
than 10 percent of the gross trailer weight.
topping cylinder see lift cylinder.
torque 1: a rotational twisting force. 2: to preload a threaded fastener
by application of a rotational twisting force.
torque converter a rotary device for transmitting and amplifying
torque, especially by hydraulic means.
torsion bar a rod-like spring which is flexed by being twisted about
its axis, used to assist in stabilizing a mobile unit.
tow line winch a winch located on a cable placer which is used
for tensioning suspension strand or self-supporting cable or towing a
cable lasher.
tow vehicle (towing vehicle) the vehicle that pulls a trailer or
towed vehicle.
trace element analysis analysis of a small sample of hydraulic fluid
to determine contamination level and condition of additives.
tracking a current leakage path created across the surface of
insulating material when a high-voltage current forms a carbonized
path within a foreign material on the surface.
transducer a device that converts input energy of one form into
output energy of another, such as hydraulic pressure into an electrical signal.
transferable boom flares boom flares, on which a pole guide may
be mounted, that can be pinned to either the intermediate boom tip or
the upper boom tip of a digger derrick.
transferable upper controls an upper control panel on a digger
derrick that can be attached to either the upper boom tip or the transferable boom flares by the use of a detent pin.
transition the area between the feed box and the cutter mechanism.
transmitter a device used to generate and emit a radio frequency
carrier signal. The signal is sent to a receiver which translates the
signal into usable information.
trim pot a potentiometer which is used to make fine adjustments
in a circuit during manufacture or calibration, typically by turning a
slotted adjusting screw.
troubleshoot to locate and diagnose problems in a system or a
component.
trunnion a mounting device consisting of a pair of opposite, projecting
cylindrical pivots on which something can be rotated or tilted.
trunnion bearing a bearing that a trunnion pin pivots in.
trunnion pin a cylindrical pivot pin that is a part of a trunnion.

Appendix Glossary

turnbuckle a link with screw threads at both ends that is turned to


bring the ends closer together for tightening purposes.
turns from finger tight (T.F.F.T.) a method of counting the number
of turns of a hydraulic adapter to establish a torque value.
turntable the structure located above the rotation bearing which
supports the lower boom or articulating arm, and rotates about the
centerline of rotation.
turntable winch a winch located on the turntable.
turret see turntable.
two-blocking a condition in which the load hook, overhaul ball, hook
block, or other lifting component that is attached to the winch line comes
in contact with the boom tip during winch or boom operation.
two-man platform a platform designed to carry two people. It is
usually 24 wide x 48 wide.
two-part line a multiple-part line on a digger derrick in which the
winch line is routed from the boom tip sheave down to a snatch block
at the load and then back up to a stationary attachment point on the
boom.
two-position valve a valve having two positions for direction of
fluid flow, such as open and closed.
two-speed motor a motor which has two operating speed and torque
modes (a low-speed, high-torque mode, and a high-speed, low-torque
mode) that can be selected by the operator.
two-way valve a valve having two ports for direction of fluid flow,
with one internal flow path which can be open or blocked.
ultraviolet inhibitor coating a sprayed or brushed on layer that
provides ultraviolet light resistant properties.
UNC Unified National Coarse, a thread description.
underframe an outrigger weldment mounting position located
beneath the unit subbase or vehicle chassis frame.
undertighten to torque a threaded fastener below the recommended value.
UNF Unified National Fine, a thread description.
unfold to move a pivoting structure such as an articulating upper
boom away from its stowed position.
unit the Altec device(s), subbase, outriggers, body and associated
interface items mounted on a chassis, but not including the chassis
itself.
unload to release hydraulic flow, usually directly to the reservoir, to
prevent pressure buildup.
unloaded vehicle weight the total weight of the completed mobile
unit without payload.
unloading valve a valve that bypasses flow to the reservoir when
a set pressure is maintained on its pilot port.
upper arm the primary load-carrying structure of a double elevator
which is located between the riser and the upper pedestal.
upper arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the upper
arm of a double elevator up and down.
upper boom (UPR BOOM) the boom section in a boom assembly
which is farthest from the turntable when the boom assembly is fully
extended or unfolded, and which supports the boom tip sheave and/
or platform(s).
upper boom cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the upper
boom about its pivot point on an articulating-boom aerial device.
upper boom drive mechanism the components used to produce
upper boom movement on an articulating boom-aerial device, such as
linkage, cables, sheaves and/or gears.
upper boom rest the structural member that supports the upper
boom in the rest or travel position.
upper boom tip the boom tip of an upper boom.
upper control valve the hydraulic valve on or beside the platform
of an aerial device used for operating some or all of the functions of
the aerial device.
upper controls the controls located on or beside the platform used
for operating some or all of the functions of the unit.
upper controls primary battery the preferred source of power for
fiber optic upper controls.

14

upper controls secondary battery the backup power source for


fiber optic upper controls.
upper pedestal the structure within an elevator lift that connects
the elevator lift to the aerial device rotation bearing.
upper tool circuit a tool hydraulic circuit with quick disconnect
couplings located at the upper boom tip.
vacuum the absence of pressure. A perfect vacuum is the total
absence of pressure; a partial vacuum is some condition less than
atmospheric pressure. Vacuum is measured in inches of mercury
(in. Hg.).
valve a device that controls fluid flow direction, pressure or flow
rate.
vane pump a type of pump with a rotor and several sliding vanes in
an elliptical chamber. Hydraulic fluid enters the expanding area and is
forced out as the fluid is moved to the decreasing chamber area.
variable displacement pump a pump in which the size of the
pumping chamber(s) can be changed, so that the output flow can
be changed by moving the displacement control or varying the drive
speed or both.
vehicle a carrier for a unit.
velocity the speed of linear motion in a given direction.
velocity fuse a hydraulic valve that is used to stop fluid flow through
it when the flow rate reaches a predetermined cut-off value.
vent an air breathing device on a fluid reservoir or hydraulic line.
VI see viscosity index.
viscosity a measure of the internal friction or resistance to flow
of a fluid.
viscosity index (VI) a measure of the resistance to change in viscosity of a fluid with change in temperature. The higher the number,
the less the viscosity will change as the temperature changes.
voltmeter an instrument used to measure the potential difference
in volts between two points in an electrical circuit.
volume 1: the size of a space or chamber in cubic units. 2: loosely
applied to the output flow of a pump in gallons per minute (gpm).
vortex a whirlpool of liquid.
waist harness a belt device worn by the operator of a radio remote
control system to which the transmitter is attached.
walking beam outrigger an extendible outrigger which has a pivot
point at the top of the nonextending leg and a linkage attached to the
extending leg, so that the leg assembly rotates about the pivot point
to increase the outrigger spread as it is extended.
warning an instruction that indicates a potentially hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury.

water monitor an articulating mechanism that is used to direct the


flow of a high pressure water stream.
water removal filter cartridge a special filter cartridge designed
to absorb and remove water from hydraulic fluid. It is not intended
for use during normal operation, but is for use when water removal
is required.
way a term which describes how many ports are in a valve or valve
section.
weldment a structural unit formed by welding together an assembly
of pieces.
wheel chock a wedge or block placed on the ground in front of or
behind the wheel of a vehicle to block the movement of the wheel.
winch a mechanism consisting of a gearbox with a cylindrical rotating
drum on which to coil a line for load hoisting or line tensioning.
winch capacity the maximum load, specified by the manufacturer,
that can be pulled on the first layer of line on the winch drum at rated
system pressure.
winch line a load hoisting line consisting of a synthetic or wire
rope.
winch line rated working load the average breaking strength of
a winch line (as specified by the line manufacturer) divided by the appropriate design factor as specified by ANSI.
wire rope a rope made from steel wires which are formed into strands
that are then twisted about each other in a spiral configuration.
wood chipper reduces above ground tree materials to uniform
chips.
work the exertion of a force moving through a definite distance.
Work is measured in units of force multiplied by distance; for example,
pound-feet.
worm gearbox a gearbox that utilizes a gear which has a continuous
helix tooth or teeth similar to a large screw thread along shaft (worm),
that drives a gear which has teeth cut at an angle along a its outside
diameter (worm gear). The rotational axis of the worm is perpendicular
to the rotational axis of the worm gear.
wrap a single coil of winch line on a winch drum.
X-frame outrigger an extendible outrigger having two diagonal
members which are connected at the top in an overlapping manner.
Resembles a broad based X.
Y-cable an electrical cable assembly which contains three branches
joined at a common point, similar to a Y.
zerk see grease fitting.

15

Appendix Glossary

Appendix Glossary

16

Service Tools and Supplies


Most routine maintenance and service of the unit can be
performed with common hand tools and shop supplies
available from a tool supply company. Some special tools
and supplies are available from your Altec representative
that may be useful or required to perform certain maintenance procedures. These items are categorized with their
Product

corresponding Altec part number. The list contains items


for both aerial devices and derricks. An Accessory and
Replacement Parts Catalog is also available for ordering
other items that may not be shown in the Parts Manual.
This catalog can be obtained through your Altec representative.

Purpose/Use

Part Number

Lubrication
Gear Shield

Lubricate rotation gears and pinions.

099-00017

Chain and Cable Fluid

Lubricate cables such as wire rope winch line, auger windup


sling, and leveling cables or chains.

099-00018

Moly grease

Component lubrication.

099-00025

Anti-seize compound (16 oz can)

Component lubrication.

099-00033

Anti-seize compound (1/4 lb tube)

Component lubrication.

099-00050

Thread locking adhesive


(Purple 50 ml)

Low strength thread locking and sealing agent for small


diameter screws.

099-00019

Thread locking adhesive


(Blue 50 ml)

Medium strength thread locking and sealing agent for bolts


and nuts.

099-00020

Thread locking adhesive


(Red 50 ml)

High strength thread locking and sealing agent for large


diameter bolts and cap screws.

099-00037

Thread locking adhesive


(Red 50 ml)

Medium/high strength thread locking agent.

099-00069

Inspection lacquer, blue (1/2 oz)

Visual inspection stripe.

099-00123

Cleaner for inspection lacquer (1/2 oz)

Visual inspection stripe removal.

099-00124

Stainless steel safety wire


(5 lb roll)

Lockwiring fasteners.

099-00021

Cleaning solvent (12 oz)

Quick drying, nonflammable solvent used for cleaning parts


prior to bonding. Leaves no residue.

099-00039

Primer (Grade N 6 oz)

Anaerobic solvent reduces cure time on thread locking


adhesive.

099-00040

Primer (Grade T 6 oz)

Anaerobic solvent reduces cure time on thread locking


adhesive.

099-00041

Wire twisting pliers

Lockwiring fasteners.

099-60007

Fasteners

Appendix Service Tools and Supplies

Product

Purpose/Use

Part Number

Fiberglass Care
Gelcoat kit

Repair fiberglass platforms and booms.

041-90001

Formula Five Clean N Glaze

Cleaning and polishing fiberglass.

041-90002

Plastic Kleen #2 Polish

Nontoxic plastic cleaner.

099-00062

Bonding kit

Rebond fiberglass booms.

703-50039

White paint

Nonmetallic spray paint.

099-00008

Pipe sealant (50 ml)

General purpose pipe sealant for use on pipes to two inches.

099-00038

Flowmeter

Testing hydraulic system.

099-00034

Test block small bore (7/8 hex)

Testing counterbalance valve.

352-79006

Test block large bore (11/8)

Testing counterbalance valve.

352-79008

Return line filter cartridge

Filters hydraulic oil before it is returned to the reservoir.

353-30007

Water removal filter cartridge

Removes water from the hydraulic system.

353-30016

Diagnostic test kit

Testing hydraulic systems.

356-90002

Oil warming kit

Warm hydraulic oil to operating temperature in cold weather.

750-40039

Corrosion suppressant

Chrome cylinder rod protection.

099-00051

Conformal coating (14 oz)

Silicon based electrical component protection.

099-00042

FD Electrical Contact Cleaner

Clean and degrease electrical systems.

970176850

Brake torque adapter

Winch brake adjustment.

415-08042

Atmospheric vent valve tester

Test atmospheric vents for proper operation.

356-90042

Hydraulic System Care

Electrical System Care

Miscellaneous

Appendix Service Tools and Supplies

AN Series

Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist


Vehicle No. __________________________ Location ___________________________ Date ____________________
Service Request # _____________________ Model # _____________________ Serial # _______________________
Odometer _________________ Hours Meter _________________ Inspector __________________________________
Perform all inspections, adjustments, repairs, and lubrication according to Altec specifications in the Maintenance
Manual. Refer to any MABs, CSNs, or other applicable documents provided by Altec for servicing the unit.
If you are tracking PTO hours utilizing an approved method or device, follow the recommended hourly maintenance
intervals, or if you are performing maintenance based upon a calendar-based schedule, follow the recommended monthly
intervals. The required items apply to both interval-tracking systems.
Intervals
Prior to placing unit in service
1,000 PTO hours/1 year
Symbols
/O = Okay or completed
U = Unsafe to operate

85 PTO hours/1 month


2,000 PTO hours/2 years

C = Corrected by inspector
N/A = Not applicable

500 PTO hours/6 months


Required maintenance

R = Repair or replacement required

Prior to Placing Unit in Service


Perform the Daily Preoperational Inspection

Rotation Bearing
Turntable tilt measurement2: ___________

(refer to the Operators Manual)


Hydraulic Reservoir and System
Check oil and collect oil sample for analysis1

85 PTO Hours/1 Month


Perform the Daily Preoperational Inspection
(refer to the Operators Manual)

Fiberglass Boom(s)
Upper boom (condition, clean)

General Condition

Lower boom (condition, clean)

Clean debris from turntable, cylinders, boom tip


Hydraulic Reservoir

Lubrication
Rotation bearing ball race

Oil level

Lower boom lift cylinder pivot bearings

Hydraulic System

Upper boom lift cylinder pivot bearings

Pedestal (no leaks)

Rotation pinion and bearing gear teeth

Turntable (no leaks)

Outside surface of intermediate boom

Elbow (no leaks)

Outrigger inner leg outer surfaces

Boom tip (no leaks)

500 PTO Hours/6 Months


Perform the 85 hour/1 month inspection
PTO

Noise level
Operation, noise level, no leaks
Mounting cap screws secure

Supplemental Brake Lock


Operation (holding, no bleed-off)
Chassis Underside
Hoses (routing, condition)
Exhaust shields
Pump

No leaks
Unit Mounting
Subbase mounting (fasteners secure, welds intact,
no cracks)
Subbase structure (welds intact, no cracks)
Pedestal mounting (fasteners secure, welds intact,
no cracks)
Boom rest (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)

Mounting cap screws secure


4-bolt flange cap screws secure

oct 12

Drive line

Utility body mounting (cap screws secure, welds intact,


no cracks)

Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist

Boom pin and retainers secure

Hydraulic Reservoir
Mounting (cap screws secure, welds intact, no cracks)

Lift cylinder pivot pin and retainers secure

No leaks

Hoses and tubes (routing, condition)

Shutoff valves fully open

No leaks

Drain water from bottom

Placards (condition, readable)


Slip ring mounting cap screws secure

Filters
Change return line filter

Rotary joint drive bar pin secure

Change pilot line filter

Boom stow valve (operation, condition, no leaks)

Outriggers

Rotation Bearing and Gearbox

Mounting (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)

Gearbox mounting cap screw visual inspection

Machine/ground level functions selector valve

Motor mounting cap screws secure


Eccentric ring lock (in place, secure)

(operation, no leaks)
Interlock system operation

No leaks

Operation (holding without drift, no leaks)

Pinion gear teeth

Structures (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)

Rotation bearing gear teeth condition

Pins and retainers secure, retaining cap screws secure

Pinion to rotation bearing gear backlash

Motion alarm

Gearbox internal lost motion

Hoses and tubes (routing, condition)

Operation (smoothness, noise level)

Placards (condition, readable)

Rotation bearing cap screw visual inspection

Control valves (operation, leaks)

Rotation bearing inspection and measurement (after


0.050 increased wear from initial measurement)2

Lower Tools Circuit


Operation, no leaks

Lower Boom Cylinder

Hoses (routing, condition)

Pivot bearings secure within cylinder eyes

Quick disconnect couplers (condition, operation,

Pin retainers secure


Operation, no leaks

dust caps)

Holding valves (operation, no leaks)

Hydraulic System Pressure

Chromed rod condition

Pump compensator (_________psi)


Standby pressure (________psi)

Lower Boom

Tool system pressure (_______psi)

Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)

Pilot system (_______ psi)

Lift cylinder pivot pin and retainers secure


Fasteners secure

Lower Controls
Placards (condition, readable)

Boom stow switch operation

Engine start/stop switch (operation)

Boom angle indicators

Secondary stowage DC pump switch (operation)

Insulator fasteners secure

Lower/emergency stop/upper control (operation)

Insulator (condition, clean, undamaged)

Lower control valve (operation, no leaks)

Leveling rods/cables (date _________)


Jam nuts on leveling turnbuckles (in place, secure)

Pedestal
Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)

Remove any debris from inside lower boom

Hoses and tubes (routing, condition)

Lifting eye (welds, hardware)

No leaks

Upper Boom

Rotary joint mounting cap screws secure

Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)

Rotary joint drive bracket (condition, in place)

Fiberglass fasteners secure

Placards (condition, readable)

Fiberglass (condition, clean)

Turntable
Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)

Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist

Jam nuts on leveling turnbuckles (in place, secure)


Leveling rods/cables (date _________)

Hose assembly (no leaks, secure to tension rod)

Emergency stop operation

Non-overcenter cam and valve (operation, no leaks)

Mechanical linkage (operation, adjustment)

Tension rod (securely attached, tightened)

Rubber boot (condition, in place)

No leaks

Interlock linkage (condition, adjustment)

Covers in place

Blocking section of upper control valve (operation,

Upper boom restraint (condition, operation)

no leaks)

Upper boom stow pad (condition, in place)

No operation in upper controls Off position

Boom tip weldment (welds intact, no deformation

Engine start/stop control

or cracks)

Placards (condition, readable)

Boom tip fasteners secure

Tools at Platform

Remove any debris from inside upper boom

Quick disconnects (condition, operation, no leaks)

Upper Boom Cylinder

Quick disconnect dust caps (condition, in place)


Hoses (routing, condition, no leaks)

Cylinder attachment pins (condition, cap screws


secure and lockwired, retaining rings in place)

Material Handling Package

Pivot bearings secure within cylinder eyes

Fiberglass condition

Operation, no leaks

Bracket and mounting pins (condition)

Holding valves (operation, no leaks)

Sheave (condition, turns freely)

Chromed rod condition

Sheave pin and retainer secure

Elbow

Placards (condition, readable)


Jib operation (tilt and extension)

Upper boom drive mechanism (condition, cap


screws secure and lockwired, rollpin in place)
Cover (in place, condition)

Winch mounting (cap screws secure, welds intact,

Hoses (routing, condition, no leaks)

no deformation or cracks)

Leakage monitor system test receptacle (condition,


not corroded)
Platform

Jib cylinders (condition, no leaks, chromed rod)

Winch motor mounting cap screws


Winch brake operation
Gearbox outboard bearing secure

Mounting secure (bracket, pins and fasteners)

Winch rope (condition, anchor point secure)

Platform mounting bolts secure

Control valve (condition, operation, no leaks)

Storage lock detent pin operation

Winch cover (condition, in place)

Brake (adjustment, pad and rotor condition)

Hoses (routing, condition, no leaks)

Platform (condition, clean)

Winch line/hook (condition)

Platform angle (leveling system tension)

Platform Tilt System

Liner (condition, clean, fasteners secure)

Tilt valve (condition, no leaks)

Placards (condition, readable)

Operation

Hoses (routing, not pinched or pulled, no leaks)

Platform tilt cylinder (operation, fasteners secure,

Lanyard attachment secure


Covers in place

no leaks)
Lubrication

Platform Rotator

Leveling cables

Operation

Interlock linkage

Pivot pin or cap screw (looseness, nut secure)

Platform rotator pivot bearings

Rotary actuator (condition, no leaks)

Platform rotator rotate stop pin

Pivot bearings

Upper control mechanical linkage

Rotate stop pin (operation)

Winch gearbox outboard bearing

Upper Controls
Operation (metering, proper direction, no leaks)

Boom stow switch plunger


Boom angle indicator

Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist

Outrigger valve handle linkage

Top bearing on rotation bearing gearbox

Platform mounting pin and boss

Rotation gearbox oil level

Outrigger inner leg outer surface

Winch gearbox oil level

Required Maintenance (Regardless of Hours)


Atmospheric vents (visually inspect all, verify operation)

Annual Testing

Leveling Cables

Dielectric test unit

Replace leveling system cables3

Dielectric test platform liner(s)


Confirmation test of single handle control(s),
if so equipped

1,000 PTO Hours/1 Year


Collect oil sample for analysis1

Perform the 500 hour/6 month inspection


Hydraulic Reservoir and System

Lubrication

Clean suction filter

Pump input shaft splines

Change filler breather cap

Rotation Bearing and Rotation Gearbox

Clean or change filler hole strainer

Annual torque inspection

Reservoir cover gasket condition

2,000 PTO Hours/2 Years


Perform the 1,000 hour/1 year inspection

Lubrication

Hydraulic Reservoir and System

Change winch gearbox oil

Flush hydraulic system


Clean inside of reservoir

Change rotation gearbox oil


Rotation Bearing

Clean magnetic suction separator filter


Change hydraulic oil

Rotation bearing inspection and measurement (before


0.050 increased wear from initial measurement)2

Periodic laboratory analysis is the most accurate method of determining the condition of the hydraulic oil and when it should be changed.
If laboratory analysis is used, take baseline sample. Compare future lab tests on subsequent samples to the original to establish a trend.
2
Initially measure turntable tilt as a baseline. Check rotation bearing wear every 2 years until it measures 0.050 increased wear from initial
measurements. After reaching 0.050 increased wear, measure every 6 months. Refer to the Maintenance Manual for the proper procedure.
3
Refer to the Maintenance Manual for inspection and replacement criteria.

Comments _______________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________

Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist

Accessory Checklist
Vehicle No. __________________________ Location ___________________________ Date ____________________
Model Number ___________________ Serial Number ___________________ Inspector ________________________
Symbols
/O = Okay or completed
U = Unsafe to operate

C = Corrected by inspector
N/A = Not applicable

R = Repair or replacement required

1,000 PTO Hours or as Recommended by the Manufacturer


Unit Accessories

First aid kit

Platform liners

Flare kit/warning triangles (3)*

Platform covers

Grounding reel

Tool holders (mounting and condition)

Power cord reel

Scabbard (mounting and condition)

Hotstick tube or box

Spare augers

Ladder rack

Screw anchor wrench

Spare fuse pack*

Lifting slings and chains

Chassis Accessories

Hydraulic cooler (mounting, condition and fan operation)

Front winch (mounting and operation)

Hydraulic oil heater (operation and condition)

PTO and driveline

ROACS system (operation)

Bed winch

Radio controls

Capstan

Auxiliary power unit (mounting, pump to bellhousing

Collapsible reel

bolts, exhaust system, cooling system, fuel system)


Body Accessories

Secondary brake system


Pintle hitch (condition and mounting)

Body (structure, mounting)

Safety chain eyebolts

Outrigger pads and holders

Trailer plug

Pole rack mounting

Tow hooks

Access steps (condition and mounting)

Cab guard

Cargo area retention (mounting and condition)

Brake controller (mounting and operation)

Dump bed operation (dump hoist and body prop)

Back up alarm (mounting and operation)

Spotlights and work lights

Torsion bar

Beacons

Hydraulic Tools and Hoses

Wheel chocks and holders

Hose reel and hoses

Mud flaps

Pole puller, chain and base

Cones and holders

Impact

Inverters (operation and mounting)

Chain saw

Generators (operation and mounting)

Tamp

Platform rest (condition and mounting)

Quick disconnects

Fire extinguishers*
* DOT items

Appendix Accessory Checklist

Appendix Accessory Checklist

Torque Values
Fasteners
Bolt Size Thread Pitch

Grade 5 Hex
Head Cap Screw

Grade 8
Hex Head, Socket Head,
and 12 Point Cap Screw

Button Head Cap Screw


and Flat Head Socket Screw

/4 - 20

5 (7)

7 (10)

6 (8)

/16 - 18

10 (14)

15 (20)

13 (17)

/8 - 16

19 (25)

26 (35)

22 (30)

/16 - 14

30 (40)

42 (57)

36 (49)

/2 - 13

45 (61)

64 (87)

55 (74)

1
5

3
7

/16 - 12

65 (89)

92 (125)

79 (107)

/8 - 11

90 (122)

127 (172)

109 (148)

/4 - 10

160 (217)

226 (306)

193 (262)

/8 - 9

258 (349)

364 (493)

312 (422)

1 - 8

386 (524)

545 (739)

467 (633)

1
2
3
4

Values are foot-pounds (Nm).


Values apply for both lubed and not lubed applications with any style nut or threaded hole.
Values apply for torque applied to either the head of the bolt or the nut.
This chart only applies for general application fasteners where a specific torque is not defined. Refer to the fastener section for special applications
where the torque is specifically defined.

Pipe Thread T.F.F.T.


Fitting Size

T.F.F.T.

/8

Fitting Size
/4

2 to 2 /2

/16

/8

2 to 2 /2

/4

1 /8

2 to 2 /2

/16

2 to 2 /2

/8

1 /2

1 /2 to 2

/2

2 to 2 /2

/8

Valve Cartridges (Standard SAE Cavity)


T.F.F.T.

Wrench Size

Fitting Size

Torque ft-lbs (Nm)

/8

-8

20 (27)

-10

25 (34)

1 /8

-10

25 (34)

1 /4

-12

35 (48)

1 /2

-16

50 (68)

-20

65 (88)

1 /2 to 2
1 /2 to 2
1 /2 to 2
1 /2 to 2
1 /2 to 2
1 /2 to 2

1
1

2 to 2 /2

Compression Fittings
Tube Size
1

/8 thru /4
1

/16

5
3

/8 thru 1

Split Flanges
/8-16

250 to 350 (28 to 40)

/8-16

325 to 425 (37 to 48)

/16-14

425 to 550 (48 to 62)

/2-13

550 to 700 (62 to 79)

/2-13

650 to 800 (73 to 90)

2 thru 4

1 /4

/4

1 /4

6 thru 16

1 /4

1 /2

2 /4

Torque ft-lbs (Nm)

/8

30 to 35 (41 to 47)

1 /8

45 to 50 (61 to 68)

1 /4

150 to 160 (203 to 217)

Torque in-lbs (Nm)

Wrench Size
1

Thread

T.F.F.T.

SUN Counterbalance Valves


7

Flange Size

Fitting Size

Appendix Torque Values

SAE O-Ring Fittings


Fitting Size

Torque With Self-Locking Nuts


in-lbs (Nm)

Torque Without Self-Locking Nuts


in-lbs (Nm)

-2

60 to 70 (7 to 8)

85 to 95 (10 to 11)

-3

120 to 140 (14 to 16)

160 to 180 (18 to 20)

-4

180 to 200 (20 to 23)

205 to 235 (23 to 27)

-5

245 to 275 (28 to 31)

245 to 275 (28 to 31)

-6

300 to 340 (34 to 38)

300 to 340 (34 to 38)

-8

545 to 595 (62 to 67)

545 to 595 (62 to 67)

-10

690 to 750 (78 to 85)

1,010 to 1,110 (114 to 125)

-12

910 to 1,010 (103 to 114)

1,250 to 1,350 (141 to 153)

-14

1,675 to 1,825 (189 to 206)

1,675 to 1,825 (189 to 206)

-16

1,845 to 1,995 (208 to 225)

1,895 to 1,945 (214 to 220)

-20

2,550 to 2,850 (288 to 322)

2,550 to 2,850 (288 to 322)

-24

2,850 to 3,150 (322 to 356)

2,850 to 3,150 (322 to 356)

-32

3,700 to 4,100 (418 to 463)

3,700 to 4,100 (418 to 463)

Upper values are for stainless steel.

Tube and JIC Fittings

Misalignment of
marks show how much
nut was tightened

Size

Thread Size

Tube Connection
F.F.W.R.

Swivel Nut or Hose


Connection F.F.W.R.

-4

/16-20

-5

/2-20

-6

/16-18

1 /2

11/4

-8

/4-16

11/2

-10

1-16

1 /2

-12

1 /4

-16
-20
-24
-32

Appendix Torque Values

1 /16-12
1 /16-12
1 /8-12
1 /8-12
2 /2-12

Basic JIC Symbols


Lines

Methods of Operation

Line, pressure or tank

Spring

Line, sense (for control)

Manual

Component enclosure

Manual, rotary

Flow, direction of

Hydraulic

Push button

Pneumatic

Lines crossing

or

Push/pull lever

Lines joining

Pedal or treadle

Line with fixed restriction

Mechanical

Flow control adjustable, non-compensated

Detent

Flow control adjustable


(temperature and pressure compensated)

Pressure compensated

Station, testing, measurement,


power take-off or plugged port

Solenoid, single winding

Servo motor

Pilot pressure

Remote supply
Internal supply

Appendix Basic JIC Symbols

Valves

Cylinders

Check

Double-acting

Counterbalance

Single-acting, internal spring

On - off (manual shut-off)

Single-acting, external spring

Pressure relief

Fluid Storage
Reservoir

Pressure reducing
Line, to reservoir

Pressurized
Above fluid level
Below fluid level
)

Two-position, two connection

Vented

Vented manifold
Two-position, three connection

Two-position, four connection

Motors
Hydraulic oscillator

Three-position, four connection

Two-position, in transition
Valves capable of infinite
positioning (horizontal bars
indicate infinite positioning ability)
Shuttle valve

Fixed displacement
Hydraulic motor

Variable displacement
Bidirectional

Pumps
Hydraulic pump

Fixed displacement
Variable displacement

Typical closed center spool

Typical open center spool

Logic element, poppet type

Appendix Basic JIC Symbols

Miscellaneous
Internal combustion engine

Variable component
(run arrow through symbol at 45 degrees)

Accumulator, spring loaded

Pressure compensated units


(arrow parallel to short side of symbol)

Accumulator, gas charged

Weighted

Direction of shaft rotation


(assume arrow on near side of shaft)

Filter, strainer

Flowmeter

Filter with adjustable bypass

Pressure switch

Heater

Pressure gauge

Cooler

Pressure sensor

Temperature controller

Temperature gauge

Temperature cause or effect

Quick disconnect

Appendix Basic JIC Symbols

Appendix Basic JIC Symbols

Hydraulic System Schematics

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

358-00041B
AN

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics

Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom

Possible Cause

Test Procedure/Corrective Action

Pump is noisy.

The reservoir oil level is too low.

Fill the reservoir to the proper level.

Restriction in pump suction line.

Fully open the suction line shutoff valve.


Check for kinked or plugged suction hose. Remove restriction.
Make sure suction hose is 11/4 minimum.

Air entering suction line.

Fill the reservoir to the proper level.


Tighten loose hydraulic fittings.

PTO/pump connection misaligned. Correct misalignment.


Cavitation.

Remove restriction or replace line.


Use hydraulic oil of proper viscosity.
Reduce pump speed.

Excessive heat
buildup (180+).

The reservoir oil level is too low.

Fill the reservoir to the proper level.

The engine speed is set too high.

Adjust the throttle cylinder.

Excessive internal system leakage.

Check the outrigger power beyond plug seals for leaks.


Make sure the relief valve settings are properly set.
Check the boom tip tool valve for leakage. Replace if necessary.

Boom functions
operate slowly.

Power tools improperly sized for


gpm flow of tool circuit.

Change power tools or adjust the tool flow control.

Lower control valve spools do not


fully shift.

Lubricate or replace as necessary.


Adjust the pilot pressure to 350 psi.
Adjust the forced opening on the upper control valve to the proper
value.
Make sure the lower control valve handles are not hitting the
turntable cover, hoses, etc.

One boom function


operates slowly.

Engine rpm is set too low or the


throttle does not increase engine
speed.

Adjust the engine rpm.

Improperly adjusted lower control


valve spool stop(s).

Properly adjust the valve spool stops.

Low pump flow.

Check the pump with a flowmeter. Replace if defective.

Low pump standby pressure.

Adjust the standby pressure to 350 psi.

Restriction in the pressure line.

The restricted area will be warmer to the touch than the rest of the
system. Remove the restriction.

Blocking valve is not fully open.

Test by connecting a flowmeter at valve input and back to reservoir.


Replace the blocking valve if necessary.

Purge check not seating.

Operate the lower control handle to verify that function operates


properly from that control.
Clean or replace the check valve.

Appendix Troubleshooting Chart

Symptom

Possible Cause

Test Procedure/Corrective Action

Tools, jib, winch


operate slowly or
will not work under
load.

Tool signal not working.

Replace the tool signal pressure reducing valve.

Tool pressure is set too low.

Adjust the tool pressure reducing valve.

Power tools improperly sized


for gpm flow of tool circuit.

Change power tools or adjust the tool flow control.

Engine throttle does not work.

Adjust or replace the engine throttle control.

Pump pressure
oscillates during
operation.

Pump standby pressure is


too low.

Adjust to 350 psi.

The engine and


pump remain
loaded all the time.

Tool valve is on.

Turn the lower or upper tool circuit valve off.

Tool blocking valve is defective.

Replace the tool blocking valve cartridge.

The pump signal is not bleeding


off.

Open the signal drain line needle valve (in turntable or pedestal).
Readjust 11/2 turns open.

The control selector valve is in


the Lower Controls position.

Place the control in the Upper Controls position.

The control selector valve is


not fully shifted.

Check the operation of the upper/lower control selector valve.


Replace if defective.

Air in the hydraulic line.

Purge all air out of the lines.

Low or no pilot pressure.

Test and/or adjust standby pressure to 350 psi.

No functions from
the upper controls.

Test and/or adjust pilot pressure to 350 psi.

Only the outriggers


and power tools
operate.

Improper upper control interlock


valve cable adjustment.

Adjust the cable.

Blocking valve of the upper


control valve is not fully shifted.

Check the operation of the blocking section of the upper control


valve. If defective, replace the spool for the blocking section.

Outriggers are not properly set.

Properly set the outriggers. All interlock switches must be activated


for unit functions to operate.

Improper pilot pressure.

Test and/or adjust the pilot pressure to 350 psi.

Low system pressure.

Test and/or adjust the system pressure to 3,000 psi.

Malfunctioning lower control


blocking valve.

Clean or replace the blocking valve.

No signal at the lower control


valve.

Check the relief valve in the lower control housing.


Replace if necessary.
Check the blocking valve in the inlet manifold housing.
Replace if necessary.
Check the pilot pressure reducing valve at the test port
quick disconnect. Replace the valve if necessary.

No signal to the pump control


manifold.

The seals may be leaking in the rotary joint if the signal is reaching
the rotary joint but not the pump control manifold.
Check for blocked, plugged, or cut hydraulic lines. If necessary,
repair or replace.

Appendix Troubleshooting Chart

Symptom

Possible Cause

Test Procedure/Corrective Action

All functions
operate except
power tools.

Tools are turned off.

Turn the lower or upper tool circuit valve on.

The upper control interlock is


engaged.

Release the interlock trigger on the single handle control.

The blocking valve is shifting


off or malfunctioning.

Remove and cap the pilot port line of the tool control valve to
determine if the blocking valve is malfunctioning.

The tool system is receiving an


external signal.

Remove and cap TP port line of the tool control valve to determine
if the system is receiving an external signal.

The pump is not receiving a


signal from the tool control valve.

Check for pressure at the signal port of the tool control valve.

All functions
operate except
outriggers.

Sticky outrigger valve spools.

Lubricate or replace as necessary.

Blocked or plugged hydraulic line.

Remove the restriction or replace the line.

The outrigger leg


does not hold
under load.

Pilot operated check valve


contamination.

Clean the valve in solvent and blow it dry with compressed air.

Pilot operated check valve


malfunction.

Replace the valve.

Internal cylinder leakage.

Replace the seals in the cylinder.

Counterbalance valve
contamination.

Replace the counterbalance valve.

Counterbalance valve
malfunction out of adjustment.

Remove the valve and adjust using a test block.

The lower boom


cylinder does not
hold under load.

Replace the counterbalance valve.

Nothing operates.

Internal cylinder leakage.

Replace the seals in the cylinder.

PTO is not engaged.

Check the PTO. If it is not engaged, properly engage it.

Hydraulic oil is not reaching the


pump.

Open the shutoff valve in the suction line.


Fill the reservoir to the proper level.
Check for a blocked, plugged, or cut suction line. If necessary, repair
or replace.

Improperly plumbed pump.

Check the Hydraulic Schematic. The signal port is port B, the drain
port is A. Check pump installation for proper shaft alignment. Side
loads on the pump drive shaft will cause complete loss of pressure.

No system pressure.

If there is no pressure at the system pressure test port on the tool


control valve, check for loss of prime to pump. May be caused by a
leak in the pump suction line. Repair if necessary.

Pump is not operating properly.

Connect a flowmeter to the pump and check flow.


Disassemble the pump compensator housing at the back of the
pump and check for excessive friction on the compensator spool or
contamination. Pump malfunction is usually caused by improper
installation, contamination, or lack of oil in the pump.
If the pump generates pressure when the signal line is connected
to the pump, the pump is not the problem.
Rebuild or replace the pump.

Severe hydraulic
leak.

Hose, tube, fitting, seal failure, etc.

Replace the defective component.

Appendix Troubleshooting Chart

Appendix Troubleshooting Chart

Dielectric Test Form


Category B 46 kV and Below
Upper Boom Test
Lower Boom Test

Bonding
Jumper
Test Band

Bonding
Jumper

High Voltage
Test Leads
Control Leads

Polyethylene Pad

Ground/Return
Leads

Controls

Position A

High Voltage
Transformer

Ground
Position B

Procedure
1. Read and understand the dielectric test information in the Maintenance Manual and ANSI requirements.
2. Insulate the vehicle from ground by placing polyethylene pads beneath each tire and outrigger leg.
3. The preferred test is with the unit in Position A. Position B may be used for an inside facility with limited test
space. When using Position B place the bottom of the platform 15 feet from the ground. Electrical connections
are the same for both positions.
4. Electrically bond all metal at the boom tip to ensure all possible current paths are considered. Include all
conductive brackets, air plunger switches, hydraulic valves, controls, cylinders, jib brackets, etc.
5. Attach the ground, test leads, and bonding jumpers for the upper boom test as shown.
6. Do not use cancel (null) circuit if the tester is so equipped.
7. Gradually increase the voltage to 27 kV. Hold at 27 kV (60 hertz) for 1 minute continuously. If flashover occurs
or the leakage rate exceeds 27 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage reading.
8. Gradually increase the voltage to 54 kV. Record leakage when 54 kV (60 hertz) is reached. If flashover occurs
or the leakage rate exceeds 54 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage reading.
9. Hold the voltage at 54 kV (60 hertz) for 1 minute continuously. If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds
54 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage reading.
10. Gradually increase the voltage to 80 kV. Hold at 80 kV (60 hertz) for 2 seconds. If flashover occurs or the
leakage rate exceeds 80 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage reading.
11. Remove the ground and test leads from the upper boom. Attach the test leads for the lower boom test as
shown.
12. Gradually increase the voltage to 50 kV. Hold at 50 kV (60 hertz) for 3 minutes continuously. If flashover occurs
or the leakage rate exceeds 3,000 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage reading.
General Information
Model number _________________________________

Serial number ____________________________________

Test device number _____________________________

Test position _____________________________________

Upper Boom Test


Leakage reading (microamp) at: 27 kV ________ 54 kV ________ 54 kV after 1 minute ________ 80 kV ________
Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

Lower Boom Test


Leakage reading (microamp) _______________________
Conclusion
Pass ______ Fail (reason) _________________________________________________________________________
Comments _______________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________

Signature of technician ________________________________________ Date of test ________________________

Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

DC Periodic Dielectric Test For All


Category A, B, and C Insulating Articulating Aerials
(For DC Test Device With Output Current Metering Only)
Upper Boom Test
Lower Boom Test

2 Ft
Minimum

High Voltage
Test Leads

2 Ft
Minimum

Ground
Post

Control Box

Drawing not intended to represent a specific model


Discharge Stick
Procedure
1. Read and understand the dielectric test information in the Maintenance Manual, ANSI requirements, and the manual
for the test device being used.
2. This procedure is for a DC test device with output current metering only. Do not use this procedure when using a
DC test device that measures the return current instead of the output current. If equipped with a selector switch, set
the switch to Ground Return.
3. The test area should be dry and appropriately roped off to prevent bystanders from entering the test area.
4. Ground chassis, test device or control box, and discharge stick as shown.
5. No isolation pads are required under the vehicle tires or outriggers.
6. Set up booms to maintain at least two feet of clearance between conductive components as shown.
7. Electrically bond all metal at the boom tip to ensure all possible current paths are considered. Include all conductive
brackets, air plunger switches, hydraulic valves, controls, cylinders, jib brackets, etc.
8. Attach the high voltage test lead and bonding jumpers as shown for the upper and lower boom test.
9. It is not necessary to use the meter receptacle on the upper boom of Category A and B machines for the upper boom
test. However, whether the meter receptacle is used or not, all internal connections to this receptacle must be
checked to verify that all current paths through the boom are properly connected to ensure proper function.
10. Voltage and maximum allowable leakage for the upper boom test are as follows.
a. Category C 46 kV and below 56 microamps at 56 kV after 3 minutes
b. Category A/B 46 kV and below 28 microamps at 56 kV after 3 minutes
c. Category A/B 69 kV 42 microamps at 84 kV after 3 minutes
d. Category A/B 138 kV 84 microamps at 168 kV after 3 minutes
11. Voltage and maximum allowable leakage for the lower boom test is 100 microamps at 50 kV.
12. To test the upper boom, gradually increase the voltage to the proper level. Hold for 3 minutes. If flashover occurs
or the leakage rate exceeds the maximum value, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage reading.
13. To test the lower boom, it may be helpful, though not required, to move the boom to a more vertical position to help
keep the high voltage lead from contacting the ground or other conductive components. Gradually increase the
voltage to 50 kV. Hold for 3 minutes. If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds 100 microamps, the unit has
failed the test. Record leakage reading.

Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

General Information
Model number _________________________________

Serial number ____________________________________

Test device number ____________________________

Category/voltage rating _____________________________

Conclusion
Upper boom leakage reading (microamp) ____________ Lower boom leakage reading (microamp) ______________
Pass _____ Fail (reason) __________________________________________________________________________
Comments _______________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________

Signature of technician ________________________________________ Date of test ________________________

Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

Confirmation Test of Upper Control


Components With High Electrical Resistance
(Qualification and Periodic)
High Voltage Lead
Test

8 (2.44 m)
PVC or Hot Stick

Maximum
Microamp
Voltage Leakage

Qualification 40 kV AC

400

Periodic

40 kV AC

400

Periodic

56 kV DC

56

Tester

970160542

Control Lead
Ground/Return Lead
(Must be Shielded for AC)
The purpose of this test is to verify the high electrical resistance components in the single handle control. In some cases
the high voltage test lead may short circuit to other nearby conductive components. First, verify that provided covers
in the control area are intact. Then, insulating material, such as a piece of insulating blanket or liner, may also be placed
under and to the sides of the spring which wraps the high voltage test connections, as needed during the test, to prevent
this from happening. For AC testing it is recommended that the high voltage test lead be elevated on an 8 (2.44 m) PVC
pole or hot stick to reduce the capacitive leakage that is unrelated to the focus of the test. Also for AC tests, use only
a shielded return lead to further reduce capacitive leakage.
Procedure
1. Read and understand the dielectric test information in the Maintenance Manual and ANSI requirements.
2. Insulate the vehicle from ground by placing polyethylene pads beneath each tire and outrigger leg.
3. Upper control components must be clean and dry (including inside/outside of bellows) prior to testing. Use
isopropyl alcohol to clean.
4. Wrap a 0.375 to 1.000 diameter spring around the control handle as shown. Conductive aluminum foil may be
used in lieu of a spring. Keep the tail of the spring away from conductive components.
5. Attach the high voltage lead (insulated from ground) to the spring on the control handle as shown.
6. Attach the ground/return lead to the control base or platform mounting bracket. This lead must contact a bare
metal surface. (The bellows must be in place for this test.)
7. It is not necessary to raise or extend the upper boom. The platform may be tested near the tailshelf for easier
access.
8. Do not use cancel (null) circuit if the tester is so equipped.
9. To test the control, gradually increase the voltage (refer to the chart). Hold at the appropriate voltage for three
minutes continuously. If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds the appropriate microamps from the
chart, the control has failed the test. Record leakage reading.
General Information
Test type

Qualification _________ Periodic _________

Model number _________________________________

Test conducted

AC _________ DC _________

Serial number ____________________________________

Test device number _______________________________________________________________________________


Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

Conclusion
Curb side control leakage reading (microamp) ________ Street side control leakage reading (microamp) ________
Pass ______ Fail (reason) _________________________________________________________________________
Comments _______________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________

Signature of technician ________________________________________ Date of test ________________________

Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

Periodic Dielectric Test Form for Platform Liners


Either method may be used.
Wet Method Setup
6 (15.24 cm) Maximum

High Voltage Lead

1. Connect a ground lead to the steel tank.


2. Immerse the liner in the tank and fill with conductive fluid until
the level around both the inner and outer surfaces of the liner
is within 6 (15.24 cm) of the top of the liner.

Liner
Conductive
Fluid

3. Suspend the high voltage lead in the fluid within the liner.

Tank

Ground

Dry Method Setup


1. Refer to TRS-0001 to apply conductive foil to the liner and
conduct the test.

High Voltage Lead

6 (15.24 cm) Maximum

Liner

2. Connect a ground to the outer conductive foil.


Conductive
Foil

3. Connect the high voltage lead to the inner conductive foil.


Ground

Testing (Wet or Dry)

1. Apply the test voltage to the conductive fluid or foil. Voltage may be either 35 kV (60 hertz) for 1 minute or 100
kV DC for 3 minutes.
2. If flashover occurs, or the liner wall punctures, the liner has failed the test.
3. Turn off the test voltage (be sure the voltage meter indicates zero voltage). Remove the high voltage lead.
Remove the liner from the tank or remove the foil covering.
4. The test for more than one liner may be recorded on the same form providing the same setup is used to
eliminate external variables.
Conclusion
Unit Serial No.

Liner Part No.

Liner Serial No. Pass (Initials)

Fail (Reason)

_____________ _____________

_____________

___________

_____________________________________

_____________ _____________

_____________

___________

_____________________________________

_____________ _____________

_____________

___________

_____________________________________

_____________ _____________

_____________

___________

_____________________________________

_____________ _____________

_____________

___________

_____________________________________

_____________ _____________

_____________

___________

_____________________________________

Wet/dry ___________ Test voltage __________ Test device number ______________________________________


Comments _______________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________

Signature of technician ________________________________________ Date of test ________________________


Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

Appendix Dielectric Test Forms

ANSI Stability Test Form (With Jib)

Procedure
1. Perform the stability test on a level surface and on a five degree slope in accordance with applicable ANSI
requirements.
2. Fill out all information on this form as a record of a completed stability test.
3. Position the lower boom as shown in the figure and place the upper boom horizontal.
4. Position the jib so the distance (D) from the center of the load line to the center of the jib pivot equals four feet.
5. If the unit is equipped with platform rotators, the platforms must be rotated to the position furthest from the
centerline of rotation.
6. Load the jib and the platform using a test weight of 1.5 times rated load for the Level Surface Stability Test and
1.33 times rated load for the Five Degree Slope Stability Test.
7. Subtract the weight of liners, tools, etc., from the test weight.
8. After the test has been completed, torque all accessible rotation bearing cap screws to 325 foot-pounds using a
circular pattern (only required following initial stability test at the time of initial installation of unit on chassis).
9. After the test has been completed, torque the rotation gearbox mounting cap screws to 225 foot-pounds (only
required following initial stability test at the time of initial installation of unit on chassis).
General Information
Model number ___________________________ Serial number ___________________________________________
Platform type ____________________________ Platform capacity (lbs) ____________________________________
Counterweight added to unit (lbs) _____________________________________________________________________
Location of counterweight relative to rear axle __________________________________________________________
Level Surface Test
Platform test weight (lbs) __________________ Jib test weight (lbs) _______________________________________
Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) _____________________________________________________________

Appendix Stability Test Forms

Five Degree Slope Test


Platform test weight (lbs) ___________________ Jib test weight (lbs) ______________________________________
Side of vehicle on low side of slope __________ Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) ___________________
Allowable slope indicator limits: Front-to-back _______________________ Side-to-side _______________________
Conclusion
Rotation bearing cap screws torqued ____________ Rotation gearbox mounting cap screws torqued ____________
Pass ______ Fail (reason) _________________________________________________________________________
Comments _______________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________

Signature of technician ________________________________________ Date of test ________________________

Appendix Stability Test Forms

Stability Test Form (Without Jib)

Platform
Test
Weight

Procedure
1. Perform the stability test on a level surface and on a five degree slope in accordance with applicable ANSI
requirements.
2. Fill out all information on this form as a record of a completed stability test.
3. Position the lower boom as shown in the figure and place the upper boom horizontal.
4. If the unit is equipped with platform rotators, the platforms must be rotated to the position furthest from the
centerline of rotation.
5. Load the platform using a test weight of 1.5 times rated load for the Level Surface Stability Test and 1.33 times
rated load for the Five Degree Slope Stability Test. Subtract the weight of liners, tools, etc., from the test
weight.
6. After the test has been completed, torque all accessible rotation bearing cap screws to 325 foot-pounds using a
circular pattern (only required following initial stability test at the time of initial installation of unit on chassis).
7. After the test has been completed, torque the rotation gearbox mounting cap screws to 225 foot-pounds (only
required following initial stability test at the time of initial installation of unit on chassis).
General Information
Model number ___________________________ Serial number ___________________________________________
Platform type ___________________________

Platform capacity (lbs) ____________________________________

Counterweight added to unit (lbs) ____________________________________________________________________


Location of counterweight relative to rear axle __________________________________________________________
Level Surface Test
Test weight (lbs) _________________________ Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) ____________________

Appendix Stability Test Forms

Five Degree Slope Test


Test weight (lbs) __________________________ Side of vehicle on low side of slope ________________________
Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) ____________________
Allowable slope indicator limits: Front-to-back _______________________ Side-to-side _______________________
Conclusion
Rotation bearing cap screws torqued ____________ Rotation gearbox mounting cap screws torqued ____________
Pass ______ Fail (reason) _________________________________________________________________________
Comments _______________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________

Signature of technician ________________________________________ Date of test ________________________

Appendix Stability Test Forms