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# Physical Chemistry

Physical Chemistry
Reference Book:
Chemistry by Zumdahl / Zumdahl , eighth edition.

Chemical Foundations

Chemical Foundations
Physical Chemistry

Topics Covered
Units and measurements (SI units)
Uncertainty of measurements
Significant figures

## 1-Units and Measurement

Physical Chemistry

-

## from which all other quantities can be derived:

Quantity

Unit

Symbol

Length

Meter

Mass

Kilogram

kg

Time

Second

Temperature

Kelvin

Amount of substance

mole

mol

Electric current

ampere

Luminous intensity

candela

cd

## Units and Measurement

Physical Chemistry

## II- Derived SI units :Quantity

Symb. Expression

SI unit

Area

Length2

m2

Volume

Length3

m3

Density

Mass/volume

kg.m-3

Velocity

Distance / time

m.s-1

Acceleration

Velocity/ time

m.s-2

Force

Mass x
acceleration

kg.m.s-2(newton N)

pressure

Force/area

kg.m-1.s-2(pascal pa)

Energy

Force x
distance

kg.m2.s-2(joule J)

## Units and Measurement

Physical Chemistry

III- SI Prefixes
Multiple

Prefix

Symbol

106
103
102
101
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9

mega
kilo
hecto
deka
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano

m
k
h
da
d
c
m

## Units and Measurement

Physical Chemistry

## -Some common non SI units

1- Volume in litre (L)
1mL (cm3) = 10-6 m3
2- Temperature in centigrate (oC)
ToK = toC + 273
3- Pressure in atmosphere (atm)
1 atm = 101.325K.pascal
4- Energy in calories (cal)
1 cal = 4.148 J

## Units and Measurement

Physical Chemistry

Example 1:
A substance has a mass = 250 g and its volume = 1500
ml. Calculate the density in g/cm3 & SI units.
Soln
D=mass / volume = 250 g / 1500 ml = 0.166 g/ml =
0.166 g/cm3
-In SI units:
Mass :250 g = 250 x 10-3 = 0.25 kg
Volume 1500 cm3 = 1500 x 10-6 = 0.0015 m3
Therefore D = 0.25 / 0.0015 = 166.66 kg / m3

Physical Chemistry

Example :
Write the following without scientific notation
using the SI prefix:
a- 5.98 ps
a- 5.98 x 10-12 s
b-2.560 ng
b- 2.560 x 10-9 g
Using scientific notation, convert:
a-9.7 mg to g
a- 9.7 x 10-3 g
b-3.781 mm to m
b-3.781 x 10-6 m

Physical Chemistry

2-Uncertainty in Measurement

Person
1

20.1 5

20.14

20.16

20.17

20.16

Uncertain
digit

Certain
digits

Uncertainty in Measurement

Physical Chemistry

## To indicate the uncertainty in any measurement, you

should record the certain digits and the first uncertain
digit. These numbers are called the significant figures

of measurements
The uncertainty of measurement depends on the
precision and accuracy of the measuring device and
person using it.

Physical Chemistry

## Precision and accuracy

Precision a measure of how close a series of
measurements are to one another.
Example
Who is more precise when
measuring a book that has a
true length of 17.0cm?
17.0cm, 16.0cm, 18.0cm, 15.0cm
Mohamed:
15.5cm, 15.0cm, 15.2cm, 15.3cm

Physical Chemistry

## Precision and accuracy

Accuracy - a measure of how close a measurement
is to the true value of the quantity being measured.
Example
Who is more accurate when
measuring a book that has a
true length of 17.0cm?
17.0cm, 16.0cm, 18.0cm, 15.0cm
Mohamed:
15.5cm, 15.0cm, 15.2cm, 15.3cm

Physical Chemistry

## Precision and accuracy

Not Accurate

Not Accurate

Accurate

Not Precise

Precise

Precise

Physical Chemistry

## Precision and accuracy

Example: Evaluate whether the following are precise,
accurate or both.

Accurate

Not Accurate

Accurate

Not Precise

Precise

Precise

Physical Chemistry

## 3-Significant figures and Calculations

The number of significant figures in a result is
simply the number of figures that are known
with some degree of reliability.

## The number 13.2 is said to have 3 significant

figures. The number 13.20 is said to have 4
significant figures.

Significant figures
Physical Chemistry

## Rules for Determining Significant Digits

All non-zero digits are considered significant.
For example, 91 has two significant digits (9 and
1), while 123.45 has five significant digits (1, 2,
3, 4 and 5).

Physical Chemistry

Zeros

00.00300001000
zeros

Captive
zeros

Trailing
zeros

Significant figures
Physical Chemistry

Zeros.
Leading zeros are zeros that precede all the
nonzero digits. These do not count as significant
figures. In the number 0.0034, the three zeros
simply indicate the position of the decimal
point. This number has only two significant
figures.
0.000341 kg = 0.341 g = 341 mg

Significant figures
Physical Chemistry

Zeros (cont.)

## Captive zeros are zeros between nonzero digits.

These count as significant figures. 1.007 has 4
significant figures.
Trailing zeros are zeros at the right end of the
decimal point. They are significant only if the
number contains a decimal point. The number 100
has only one significant figure whereas the
number 1.00 has three significant figures. Also
100. has three significant figures.

Physical Chemistry

Significant figures
3- Some numbers are exact because they
are known with complete certainty.
1 meter = 100 cm
3 oranges

Significant figures
Physical Chemistry

EXAMPLES
453 kg

5057 L

# OF SIG. DIG.
3

COMMENT
All non-zero digits are

always significant.
Zeros between 2 sig.
dig. are significant.

5.00

## the right of decimal

and a sig. dig. are
significant.

0.007

## Placeholders are not

sig.

Significant figures
Physical Chemistry

## How many significant figures ?

0.0105
0.050600
8.019 X 10 -8
1200
19 X 10 3

Significant figures
Physical Chemistry

The result has the same number of decimal
places as the number in the operation with the
least decimal places.
Ex: 2.33 cm
+3.0 cm
5.33 corrected to

5.3 cm

Significant figures
Physical Chemistry

## Sig Figs in Multiplication/Division

The answer has the same sig figs as the factor
with the least sig figs.
Ex: 3.22 cm
x 2.0 cm
6.44
corrected to 6.4 cm2

Significant figures
Physical Chemistry

Rounding
(1) If the digit to be dropped is greater than 5,
the last retained digit is increased by one. For
12.6 is rounded to 13.

## (2) If the digit to be dropped is less than 5, the

last remaining digit is left as it is.
12.4 is rounded to 12.

Physical Chemistry

Significant figures
Rounding (cont.)
(3) If the digit to be dropped is 5, and if any digit
following it is not zero, the last remaining digit is
increased by one.
12.51 is rounded to 13.
(4) If the digit to be dropped is 5 and is followed
only by zeroes, the last remaining digit is
increased by one if it is odd, but left as it is if
even. For example,
11.5 is rounded to 12,
12.5 is rounded to 12.

Physical Chemistry

Questions
1-How many significant figures are there in each of
the following values:
a-3
a- 6.07 x 10-15
b-4
b- 0.003840
c-4
c- 17.00
d-1
d- 8 x 108
e-7
e- 463.8052
f-1
f- 300
g-3
g- 301
h-3
h- 300.

Physical Chemistry

Questions
2-Round off each of the following numbers:
a- 0.00034159 to three digits
A-0.000342
b-103.351 x 102 to four digits
b-103.4 x 102
c-17.9915
to five digits
c-17.992
d-3.365 x 105
to three digits
d-3.36 x 105
e- 4.3
e- 4.348
to two digits
3-Evaluate the following and write the answer to
the appropriate number of significant figures:
a- 212.2 + 26.7 + 402.09
a- 641.0
b- 0.14 x 6.022 x 1023
b-0.84 x 1023

Physical Chemistry

## Calculations with Chemical Formulas

and Equations
Topics Covered
Mole
Percentage composition of compounds

Physical Chemistry

1-Mole (mol)
It is a unit of measure established for use in counting
atoms
Definition:
It is the number of atoms equal to the number of
carbon atoms in exactly 12 g of pure 12 C
Techniques such as mass spectrometry ,which count
atoms, have been used to determine this number as
6.022 x 1023 . This number is called Avogadros
number.
ie One mole of something consists of 6.022 x 1023
units of that substance.

Physical Chemistry

E.g.

## A mole of O atoms contains 6.02 x 10 23 O atoms

1 mole of copper has 6.022 x 1023 atoms
1 mole of NH3 has 6.022 x 1023 molecules
1 mole of Na2CO3 = 6.022 x 10 23 Na2CO3 molecules
-N.B: For gaseous state only the mole
of any gas occupies a volume of
22.4 L at S.T.P
(standard temp. & pressure =
zero0C or 2730K & 1 atm)

Physical Chemistry

## A mole of O atoms contains

6.02 x 10 23 O atoms
A mole of O2 molecule contains

6.02 x 10 23 O2 molecules
i.e: 2 x 6.02 x 10 23 O atoms

Physical Chemistry

## 1 mole of HCl will contain 1 mole of hydrogen atoms (H)

and 1 mole of chlorine atoms (Cl)
1 mole of HCl contains 6.022 x 1023 hydrogen atoms and
6.022 x 1023 chlorine atoms
1 mole of ammonia molecules (NH3) will contain 1 mole of
nitrogen atoms (N) and 3 moles of hydrogen atoms (H)

## 1 mole of ammonia molecules contains 6.022 x 1023

nitrogen atoms and 3 x 6.022 x 1023 = 1.8066 x 1024
hydrogen atoms

Physical Chemistry

Molar Mass
The mass of one mole of a substance in grams
Molar mass = molecular weight in grams
NaOH has a molecular weight of 40 amu and
a molar mass of 40 g
Number of moles (n) :n = weight / mol. wt
Or n = N / NA
where N: no. of atoms, molecules or ions,

Physical Chemistry

Eg:
1 mole H2O = 6.023 x 1023 water molecules
Molar mass= (2 + 16) g
1 mole O2 = 6.023 x 1023 oxygen molecules
Molar mass= 32 g
1 mole NH3 = 6.023 x 1023 NH3 molecules
Molar mass= (14 + 3) g

Physical Chemistry

Problem 1
How many grams of Cu are there in 2.55 moles of Cu
(M.wt. = 63.5)
Ans:
Number of moles(n) = weight / mol. Wt
Weight = Number of moles(n) x mol. Wt
=2.55 x 63.5 = 161.93 gm

Physical Chemistry

Problem 2
How many moles of Al are present in 10 g Al
(M.wt. = 27)

## Ans: Number of moles(n) = weight / mol. Wt

= 10/27 = 0.370 mol Al atoms

Physical Chemistry

Problem 3
How many C atoms are there in 0.2 g pure C?
(M.wt.= 12.1)
Ans:
Number of moles (n) = weight / mol. Wt
= 0.2 / 12.1 = 0.0165 moles C
Number of moles (n) = no.of atoms / Avogadros no.
No of atoms = 0.0165 x 6.023 x 1023
= 99.55 x 1020

Physical Chemistry

## 2-Percentage Composition of Compounds

Example 1:
What is the percentage of Fe in Fe2O3?
atomic wt Fe = 55.8, O = 16
Ans
Mass of Fe2O3 = (2 x 55.8) + (3 x 16) = 159.6 g Fe2O3
Mass of Fe in the Fe2O3 = 2 x 55.8 = 111.6 g Fe
Therefore mass % of Fe = [111.6 / 159.6] x 100 % =
69.92 % Fe in Fe2O3

## Mass % A = mass of A in the compound X 100

mass of the whole compound

Physical Chemistry

Example 2:
What is the mass percent of C in ethanol C2H5OH
Atomic weight of C=12, H=1, O=16
Ans:
Mass of C2H5OH = (12x2) + (1x6) + (16x1)
= 24 + 6+ 16 = 46
Mass of C in C2H5OH = 12 x 2 = 24
mass % of C = (24 /46) x 100 = 52.17 % C in C2H5OH
N.B. If you add the % of all components it must
equal 100%