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1" ._

FATIMID

ARCIDTECTURE IN

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·Pref.~e .ch~:p1e:r One



II f. "'!!-!'! +.!o!!! +~ ~-r.1' ~'oP. II II-P. iII+.iii. 'II •• - •• 111 •• _1' ••••• 11 II •••• 11'.111 •• ,1; •• ;1;. ;!I-!!l '!_!!

:: The 'FatE-mld mligw\ls buUd[Dg,s ln Cairo

- The mosque ofal~Aihar , .. "." ~ .

- Th~ mo:~ue; of Al:-Haldmll . " _ .

~ The. mn~u~: and M~shhad of

A~-OUI;Yllshi " .... ""'.' ... n •••• _ •• , "'~_"'" ,.

~ ThE, ~~. OIf AI·~·Akm •.... "" ... ,' •. _. Tillie om&q~ 1il1~ MMbhMl of

-Sq-yida ·R'ulq.aya .. '"" ~ .

... The .mruilq.lle.of AJ-S:alih 'faLru :

~. The 'lFatilRid Mausoleum tmildID,gs :iill Caiiw

- Tl1e :n:la~nleums, of the Seven

,_ The. ma!llm]_~llm 100f Ltl. 'bf a , . .,,;, .... "

Th- - ',..-::. ~ 'd d "

.~ !;'l: :r~mJ -'. ome ~rlJ.

:Paps 1

'9

4;5 41

A~8tm.~J~y.al " ., .

= The .m_8!liIso-~mI1Ul: ,ofA]--Ga ~ fan

_d1 Sanida Auca ,._ •. _! ... ! •••• , eee. , ,.

• 'The miillilso'te\lRl. of All.,Gatfari .

- Th.e mHsol,eum of Sayyirla. Atica.

- The IDfli1!l$o1oo"m gf Sihayth

'¥lliIli1US ·'· 'oF " •. ,. "',, ••. " '''". 55

~ The m8!us6leum 'Dr I'tbWll"~

Sayy.idma 'Y'usuf .• , ••.••.. "" ••.•• ., •. " ....... ".

~ The IDalIlSdJeum uf Muham.mrul

A~-HB.5.8.w8iri .. "" ".! '; ..

49

5] .

51

61

12. 19

33 3'7

7

~ The mans oleum. ,p-f U rnrn

KII hhu m •. , •. , •• _ ,.., ,.,,, ..••• " .

- 111 _ mausoleum OiF Yahya.

AI~Sbabih ,.,.;._ .. ,. " " .. " .. " ~.

~ The meusoleum of Abu AI=Q.asill1l AJ.- 'fayyiib1 •• , •• " •••• " •••••• " •• ~ Th~ mQui!!oleum, of Abl!!l

A ~ G·'ii.~"I-- .. ,t- .

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:: ''I1h~ F,a:~mjd. :rr.i IltatY bui Idin~;s

- B,ab ,A]"·N.r!lJtT , ••• , _ •• , .•.. e " ••.•• , ••••

• , B,ab ~]·FJjJtu:h "." .. " .. " .......•..••.

~. Bah Zuwayll!ii ; h.m .• II. " ..

L:mi!il (]of .~~Ili.~,;n.tioo~ :. ",. ,." " " ~ , , a a ,., .. ;, ,

~ Biu(].·lto-graph:, ~ "." , •. "',,.

~ figli!JIies . ,,,' ..... "."" ..... _ ... " "+""'" r", ••. , •.• ,

8

16.9

91

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The purpose of dl] s book Is to give the reader a fairly comprehensive picture of Fatimid architecture ~:rn :E:gypt The Fa,~i:n~dsestab[j shed themselves as an, :i.ndepemden.t dynas:~y in :Egyp~!, feunding '[tie ci:~r of Cairo I(A~-'Q~~irah) in Ai B,. 31581 A., D. 969. Advanei []J,g to Egypt from North A:ftdcaJ!, they ~roO'IJr:gh't wi'tb them tjfue artistic tradition s which had :1100~;S all over the Islamic world, from Iraq, in the East ~,o Marr:akesh in the west, In Today's Cairo there are :many buildings which testify' to the 'vmi,ety and richness ,o,:f ~ha,t tradi tion' and this hook is designed to: gi\"t ,aJ chronological account of it. It deals in the three chapters w~~h religions mausoleums, and military buildings respectively, The ~Hrus'[ra'tions win het~ the reader ~o ,gr,asp the magnificence 'of this rich tradi tion,

.1, TF' 'M·· . A- Ld'- h

n.~ Vb _- '_ nua --JlJ .. : II) .

Qorli1l;;:j; ~Inns """110"",, :J.Jfl'_,

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,RE,LIGI1QUS ARCIDTECTURE

THE'" .'- -M'" ·O·· .. ·,S··Q .... ·UE

,,'._ ,- ~,', .... ',',., .... ', ._',"j.: .. r _',' _' " .. :

10F AL-.AZHAR

Thee Fad mids succeeded m"n ,A. H. 2961 .A. .0, 908 :i n. foundin g the Fatil:mid dyf:IJ~sltry. with the a:ssisranc€ of Abu-Abd A~ I,ah~ at Q.air[a wan m North Afrlca afterthe fall of the Agh iabi,ds.,

111i'! Fatimld Khalif Ubayd Allah Al-Mahdl, the first Khalif .in North. Africa, founded [lhe, city o:f Mahd~ya io A., 1..'F o:llO- 'l 'jl'li~'I'A' '0"1 [f!!; ~I" .n 'I [0:

n .. oJ . .:J-'] U.J ,'" ii, !ji';:" W ~_';}I . ,0"

Since the lnall[gll.rniti,on of JIbe Faumld rule at [Q.I~:r.aJwan in the time of Ubayd ,AJhih AJ,~Malhd~1 ,A", B,," 29[6/ A.. D. 908,·, till the ume of the 'F~timJd Khalif Al~Mu,'i2~

'L" '!n" iJl'1l'n Ii\. (A- b. T . M' 'I d .. I) A H" 3~O[1 A -0 I,~,n

, huU1I iIlua:Li '. ,:l!JiU- ,al'll'!m, ,~,' ,a a~ u··, '" ,. ,',;Jo.i .,.. '~;ioIu~"

The f'atwmlds . footed, fonvar-d Ito conquering 18,[!:ypt Ito found Fatimid dyna;s;ry imt Cairo ,aJ,gainst Abba!dd dynasty m Baghdad.

The KhaJ.if ,AJ-MI,tizz Li=Din lilah, succeeded in IconQuerh~g, Egypt 'On i,1~h S ha' ban 3581' 6th J u:ly 96,9. 'W itffil, the assi stance of ~is, Prime M,i:nis~elli' MD Commander-in-Chief Q,awffilat AI,~,Katwlb A[~S~,qUU. After the j,[l'Y',t\S:j!OI of :BID1,1 ,~f1d 'tbe Iall of AI, .. Fustat, 'Clawtl,u' founded H~e ci l'y t)f Cai ro ln A. H~ 3581 A.. D. 969. ~ He.

began b~i idin,g ;the MO'~q ue of Al,~Azhar on the 2,4dl of Gumada, I 3591 4th April 9?O.,H:e finished iJE on the '9dl oif Ramadan, ,36:1.., The :fi:rst Fr.ida:y p.:ra,y,e:r 'look place in it, OIl t'tJm, Ramadam 361121 June '912.,

ChronOllogj,cally Al~Azhar was the '"n,t mosqllle to be founded run Cairo.and the fourth mosque in lHIYPt.

There was in the mo ~qije a :Rufie lnscriptioa round, the dome whi,c~ is j n Mle first aisle, tUI the right of '~~e mfhrab and the minbae. This i nseripticn included 'the n ame of A~-"Mu "izz, the name of :11:1.s servant o aw:har' and the year 10'f. ,A~ H. 360. Khalff .At-.Az:iz made some :illlnov:ltio[lJ; ill the mosqne, and ]11 the yle~[' ,A,. II, 3781.A, D. 988-98'9 :the wazir Abu-Al-Farag Ya ~ qll1ib, Ilbm Killis di:SCIl8(OOcl, w,,~th K~aHf A.~~ Aziz (he provision of a regular Hving: :for certain jurists, The Khalif ordered :~O[' each of them a, sum ~uf:nc~ent, 'for hls needs, and be bought :for them a house next tu th~ mosque, The FridGY address was, held in this, mosque until, the mosqtl~ o:f Al-Hakim was built,

The F.wti mid Kha~if AI=H:aild:m, (A. It .386-4:1 :~,.1 A,. D" 996-101,0,,) restored its minaret, ,and, presented ~he mosque" with a carved wooden door of Turkish pine, da,wd, A, H, 4001' A, 'D'. 1010)" Now it is in the :Mlseum ,@f lslamie Art.

The Petimid Khl~if A~~M'U:sra'OsruF (A~ H. 427-4:87.J A.

D. l OJ,$~ ~,094) made some innovations ill. tbe mosque,

The Patimid Kfualif ,AI-,A.1:uir in A,. R .5l9l A. D" l125-1126. preseated tbe mosque with aweoden mihrab, which is now' j~l the Museum of' Islamic Art.

13;

Tih,e FaMm~d K1:wJlf A~-·Ha:hlz L[-Din lUaih (Am H" 52t..S44.1 A" D.. U t 30-1149.) i~s~anedl in the mesque ;3, small «maqsura» a~on;gside '~he we-s~, door in ,~'~e fro~~ of tile [iloSt~liIle ,run 'Ille sencruary, kJn,QI'!wU ,as«M~~um$l!lra!~ Fatimid", and 'he added ®J. (ffiOill.tl!;; on the op~:11 inner conrt, and an arcade rotUUid. I~il~ coun ('~~e Sahn), The original ftTIOSq, ue

.,

w:bruc:h was erec:~ed. in .A. H,. 36'~" Still includes ~fi open

mner court €!Jnd thr-ee ri w,aq,.s in tIThe s)outh=eas~em.! nrnlh-e;8;5l~m; and south-western si des, wi'[~out a riwaq ~n. the nO'f1[h=w~:,gtem. side, and wi l~O(![J.j~ ~. dome lOin 'the C01!lI'it IHl the i RlThovadons of :KhaJlf Al-Hafiz (Fffig:. :0. A.fieif' these innovations ~11;e. mosqne consisted of an (l',pell In ner eourt

. .iII 1:" d 'b dl d- --I .

anat oar nwaqs roen ._. '[Ii·e- IIDIDlMil!I' ana a - orne on 1: ns eonrt

(Fig, 2.)~

The mesque was rbulJt IQf' bricks, the m;amn. entrance ili~ the N orth-western side on the axis of the mihrab, and 'llheJ:le were tW'O entrances rn (be 'N@FlhFe,MU"e:m! and :SlOijd1.='west~m. sides .. This S"[,:i/~e of 'three axial entrances 1.S a Falimid ,3Jrehrru~ectuml feenne, (fwl~ 1 )1 e.

The Sahn; the opea :i.r:u~e[' court, consist'S lor a IDectalil;g],e meaJslIL~ri:mg ~Jb(]ill_]~ 4,8[u.ili:1 w~dI~hby :3S,! 5' m. in de:pR~ (fffig. I), 'l'lllliere are eleven arches, 01 the north-western and. ;~outb.=<e~fu!ern sides ,a:nd nine O(IDl the otliler.' two s;id~., 'T~e al'-c~~g. are all of tiJe Fatimid extreme PQ~~kd 'formed type(j .and rest on mDb'li~ cohnnns, There is. a g]ori,ol!Js d!ijm,e~ om sqijilljbtche~ irnmediaselyjn rf-on~ or l~e entranee I~O file ~;ns~~rpt «'P'~.alLe I »', Bebind this ~j[cade

round the sahn, oaall sides excpet ~be~ north-western side, ,are arcades O~ pius ,a.veta_gillg t ,60 x, ); 13 m, The, arches (If Ulese, arcades are al~ Fa;(inWid Ke]l~MC:hes.,

The sanctuary: m the orlglnal m0sque ad s sanctlllJuy ~OIiDlS~St:s of :five aisles, ru~ning parallel to the !qibla wall {plams, 2-3)f:oom, east to' 'west" ,and. ,c~m, through the eeater by a transept (Plate 4)1" The arcadesrested Ion [he marble columns taken from, earlier edl~ncel~ 00 ~hat the tr.,arnsept was flanked 'b,y :POJIDrS of columns, mAmli"lg 'from [l,oflnh to soo~b (Pl~ne ,4,)~ [fhe preSient dome and its, pendentives are obviously ,,)if mueb lerer date: thee)!' are probably the WUlt [~lf Su ltan Al~Gh!atiri, There were three domes ~n ~'be aisle In fr.ont Qf the m'~lhr.ab: one above (he mi~ab and, tWtO adler' domes, one of them, In the ri:gb1'~hand back corner and the other hll the left .. hand ibacl( corner, for 8ymD1etry~ exactly 3JS in 'the mosque off Al- Hatilim (f:ig,. I)" Whn,e the roof of dle: sanctuary is 've,r.y ~OW' only 6S~2 m, from the floor~ the I,QO,f of Ute transept is 8:,:69 m, :Iti~b,

The, 'InrtJh-'w~Ite:m, riwaq in. the mosqee, which was b.:ui]:~, by Khalil A~-H:aflz; consists {l,f onrny one aisle. :ru'lllnin,g parallel to the ,qi:bla wall from east to west

!T"'k - ..... tl.. - ~ '- in ",1.._ 1Il ..... ,...,.'L eastern and ;,'!'illni.J~, 1 ~Je v- l.I,er ,nwaqs, J1 , 1liI1C , ,uJ.l.u-ei.ai3 " ~, ~~ O1;IV!.IliJiJ

western side's 'were of 'three [ais~es before the innovations 'Of "e Khalil AI-'Hafiz" These ,als'~ets run, parallel to tbe ,q ihl!a wall, from least eo we.9!t. This: style was an- ~m]'.que architectural Ee:.ltu:re, in th~re1ig:ioli.Ws, buildings, This was a novel '~ea!mre; unknown in ::Egypt 'before the 'Fi3.dm:b:~,

. 15

period, or jn the mosqaes which ·were ·buUt inthe Fatimld period, I(.P[ah~. S}.

After the :i,f)fJJQvations of Khalif A]-Hafiz" these ri waqs became of fm.wlf." ,llsJ1es. 'T1Il~:s ·new a~s.le~ Ithe one that was added 11!IJflS, from north to south,

The :mmhrab: (Plate 6). .. Al-Azbaf' includes the e~diest mihr.al!J in the religious erchi tecture ill Egypt. The sultan 1,ag]n. restored 'the mlhrah of the mosqae of Ibn Tulun in the B,llJJhry· Mm.mluk period .. This uti hrab consists of a round niche covered a recessed semi-dome, set back w]thin .Q. round-arched frame resti ng om marble 00] umns,

The decorarion: The stucco surface decorerlon of the

• r

Al-Azhar mosque may divided into: tbe decoration of the

transept (sides end north-western end) (Plates 7~[8), rile deeoration of Ute nlihra'b (r~a'le 6), ItL panels, on. whia,t remains of til/e. origi n al q~bhru. W',all I' the deecration [of the nonh-eesiern wan of the sanctuary t and fragment Oil the opposite wal rut in the rO~flf;j bay from ~he q rubla ·w;~H; the decoration of the spandrels of the [run. three arches ,aJ~ each. end of the ar-cade next the sahn, and th[e decoration of that part o:f the same arcade which rests em piers"

We can see tJbe floral designs ~n d]e sides of the transept in the [sp. d.r-e] s :3Jndl ~n the north-western end, and Ku fie inscri.pUons, round the Facades of tbe; arches, (Plates 1~8) ..

The; deeorarlon of the m:ihf;ab: (Plate 6)1" 'The on,ginal

stucco dec __ t'm ··"f ~'h- r.", ... 1 . " Ai " ," .," ,,,;iii , I','

cJ '_~"~ 1 __ 'c'Ofa'!.J!!on 0, I !j, _e Myl :W1w, :senM. u.ome was

discovem:1: 'by ,MMlmud Pasha Ahmed. Jn ~,193J.m' when he removed, IllThe 'pa,irn,ed, wooden U:rnm1:g' 'w~:icb eoncealed "i:~ 'we see ~he, floral, ,geometrical des,l,gfllJS and Kuflc ,ru,llSlCrip:ticl!llS'.

'TI'JJ!! panels on du~ iqib[la 'I/.WaU:' ,(Pl,lte ,!}), The back willI was, :pi,erced witlb rOllnd. arched windows 'with their 'Sins. 3~,61m" above t~e flI0(!11[' placed on 'I!ie, UIJ(,is efeaeh arch of tfrue arcades, :Wlld,oo[Wee~ e8!ch wi ndow was around-arched pa'[!le~ of ornament cO'JUs,poIDThding' lex:acdy wUh, the windows illl size and ,s~aiPe,., Theyare !ink,ed,·toge;ll'h~r b,' a continuous band IQf iilSC["~~t~on which rnns up one skle of each w',ru~doW'af:ld daww the other, :[ums at right angles te [un along :horizontaUyfD[ 'm short distnnOO'ttllld thoo turns again to run WU[lJd. tile ,~net

Thefloral, geometrical de$ig;tls~. and :k1illlfi,(:: i~s,criptiomls in the masque before the ,i~n(_lvadflrI1hS of' Itllalif Al .. Il'auz; are simple, but these d.esign~~n the dOmie: whic:h 'Wleire added, ill, the time o:f ,AI- Haflz were very deve'l,oped (Plates lU·13)..

Notice': The original 'm,os:g~e 'tle:~(lr~ the i:n;nOl!llaJtions: ofK:ha~U:AJ·':"afizllad areades on IiIliee s.id~s of £I:te, sabin Ii 'This g~y'le was ,fBjll uni .. que 8Jre'hm:t:ec~[~ral feature, in, 11be religious buildings in 'Egypt:. Tbtri wasa ~ove~ fealtl,lJre;; ~rlknowlt in Egypt before the 'Fiad.nmdJd peri.iOdI~

11

Tile demes at the baek comers, at th,e, saIl'oro,uy 'w,ere a unique m:ch~~octurnl feature in the reHgj;()l~g fu~ndlllG;. This novel fea:tlliiir.rejj, unknown irolhe, woot, S.yd~, Iraq or Persia, was, lUTInbo,wn bl. :Egyp:[, before the ,PaJlimidl. period, This ,style wbi-em:. 'We see later i:n tbe 'mosq,ue olf A~'=Hl;aJkli"m, had its imrf.'luellce. em the :reU,giOius buildings in NorUl ,A[TI~a.

'The traase.'j)it': T~ts ,~eatU:j)ej, unkllIDowIl in Egypt before the, .Fati,m,~d. :perilodl~ occUr's 'I n ~o f)_ly rnosq ll,es;, the great mosque at Damascus, A., :M.s.? =96.1 A .,D", 10,5'-15,. I' and the malSq~e of ~he Q\aim'W3J1J dated. A.. H: .. '221 ,I A. :0" 83!6"

There were two designs of the :HChe~ in themesque, one of them, is sim ilar to [JIlat of Amr:" and Ibn Tuhm mesques, I~:he other sreh of lhelFadimld ex,treme pown'l'e:d I?mm,ed t'yp.e:l,I: caJled Ithese arches ,«The Fatimid Arches», where its are an unique :arc~:itect'ILu",;d feature, unknown in :6gypt before lIh~, :Pmlti:mrud period, :~ater we 'find ~n. Al~,A~maf' ,m,o~que the cmear-e:st examp'lle of ~t:le use of these Fetlmid

'I,. 1I:.......eI. 1·,4 .:i, .. bled d ~I ~\""..411"' h

.arc[II,CS, WUrn.c,il ,W/eue;WthoiPi3.Ui, ~;Q u)OUW6~, ana 'YeCO[,ail!£iY, w~t -,

Ku:l1c' l[1J)scriipti:ons e:s:priciamy tho'st.; ,;ruro~llld nb,e saihn"

'1i'l\. '-I .e d' " 'i... • ..,..A.:, 'I a, f' . lne g Q:r:l.01l8 r ome 0'11 ,sql~,ilIrn[nc;! lies immenate y in , :m~t

of [he ,en'Ui1!lliCC to the b',a£ruseptj added Ib:y Kh,a'~lf Al -Hsflz is

- ,

The minaret of the ,Iilllosq~e;i wili:ii,chwas erected hm, the RaJUrmid period was de.str:oy~d, The: ~resern1t miaerets til the 1in000q~e were ierec,(,ed i,$1 the M'lnI luk and Ottoman perlods,

UJ,

TIRE MO'SQ-)UE,

L_· j

OF ,AL-:H.A.~

TOO Fatimld KhaH:f ,A~,~AZ"iz N:i:z31r~ son of ,Arn,=:M'l~j.z'Z '11 'Oi n llUaib :M:s.:' add, fou nded this nlosq,ne outside Bab .Al-:P'u.tuh g,r1Jte In A,., n. 380f-A., 0 99o."l' The 'fi:rsl Fr~day :fj:iifayerwa,s, perlot.it:J,ed there on 4 'ttl Ramadan .3:8 tim 4t:b Nov.., 99J~ his SO]1 Al-Hakim bi, smr Ulah,l' 'comi1;h~;t,:ed the b~,i[dil1,g' run 1\. H. 3'9,31 .1\" D., ~,Oij2-]. The, main ensrance and the tW'01 minarets bear Kru'flc '[filscripl"iIODS, dating in R;agft'b or thW8 year A .H, 393.t l\,., D., 1 nQ,3., He :ldded, '10, the mi narets «Arkan» I(co,mer' pieces) :UlQ CIJ bits, j ~ SafM' 4-0 U !ie~p~.,~ Oc:t,~,Ol G.!, wn ,A. H~ ,403./ A~ D. 1013.. the curtains, mauing, lamps, ehalns, armd, ,9J new' p'ldp,it w1em provided, and ~'oo' :firn)llPtajH:~r aft:e:.r ,~~ co~n"plenion W,U o,n :Prid:ay,~ 6 Ramsd '111 4ifi,'lI' '2',"1 "h M", '- c '11'~~!3, w~,-,c the "",.-. ~.' ~.]_n.,.'~ .. __ , __ ' __ tL ,!U,;,I'I. , ~,I ,,' Dr, 1'U1II .. ,. ,~weill, t e .emlr J:"\" 'l,;J.II1.yUi5i~~

BamM AI-Gmla11 enlarged Calml :in A~ It 48·$./ A" 01" I. 092~'1 and erected ilLs ,galltes wbere: tibey are now. Ti1.e, 'mosque, of ,AFHaJdm became jlns,ide:tbe city. Ai~rttg~ :it

used to be 'blOWIlI U the mosque of U:re Knu~ba. Today 'Wlt,WS, called ,[,h.e 'mosque 'of Al~Hakim 'MId also ,mosqitle

;Ii; '~i ,;\ ftu:p.\I']j'P' .fll~,fill_I,'nj~(..U .1

'The :~vlrosqiUe of A'i, .. ba1ki tiiJ eonsi srs of' a, great rectangle that 'meuurre:st20~ 1 B (s.oullh~asmern side) x .113 t Itlm,

(N'ort[l~eastem si,de) ,Wlltemwly ~ wi,~h two mi nsrets It its w,es~erm f1jJ[ljd, northern 'oomers. Ia the centre o:~ 'the north-western :facade is ,I 'monumentalli, gatr~w,~:y' aJbout 15'j.50m~ wide, w11.t:dl, 'projects !6, 16m., :fmm, tllle raeade~ and ]1 each 0:f 'tile ,cltJlrt~bt wdls 'between the ImO'mumentru gateway and the saiUents, ase two dJOOFW,flYB wi~ll re~t.gu],ar fr;ames" {fIg,; 3).

The S:nhn: 1~ consises of" ~a gream rectangle Ib3~ rueasures "j'8 ~OJm~ in width (~o:ud:H!:aS!re:m side) .d 151.,55:m, In depmh, (I]Ol1~]H:as~ern side), 'The arcades round 'the sari C 01113 'j st of eleven arcbes on Ilhlle south-eastern and nonh-western sides and nine arches on the nor[~~eW)'~,ern, aJi'id south-western is idles" (fig. 3)~

The :sancl:lti;~ary' [In Il~e ,SOl[ltH1~h~-ID".n, slde c,om~is~ .of 'five

''''IJIV'!'I!!I\",I';:.,r:!' '~'l'Inid- the '1!I1"""~'b western lI!'i,w-' aa nif" liI--o,j,,n' .:J1t''''';'.lIAo:.;:; the !Ir'l.J.lj,~-MU!"""ilI, ~~Jj._, !\i.~,~~ '~' £u.'. 1tJl-1,-", ._ !Wail' ..... 1=, ilj"w·· .~, u Ill, ~lUI m,rlii.!;!I,I.~iU~~:~1 J.IL~

ncnh .. eastern and fhe south-western riwaqs ,o:f' '~hrne arcades Th,is~~a[J is sj mUar ~O! tJ13;t ~.I'I, tllile mosque IDf :rnbll- TU[U.iIl.

The SlflICntlalJf ~S' 1 :20',18m, 'wide and 'flI;e'arly 3i2rtH, deep, n consists .0[' Bve aills.lf~s :aoou:t jm,. 'w',ide, ,ni.lJlJn~:Ilg parallel tc the Q,i,tJlu wall. I(Plate 16)., This S;l.y~e ~:s .sjmtfular ~o illla!u in ,the mosque of Al·,A.zha.t.. The Ge;n~ral areh nf the facade, UJW1Ji h ~lhe others, is of. Smiot;H!e" Fm·' the see 0 rrud. ti,Me in :Egypt. afl~.r A.1,-Azi1u' MAsque we find 0, nnssp.t, tl~~t 'leads di.reotilly '10 the miifur,ab (p]rnf.S '17 .. ~,~~O. 'No archecS cross ~iTh~s ~r:allse]Jt ,e~ce]J ~ one belcagi ng to Ulwit! row neat ~o

20

the qibla w:a11~ :V!hr ~~r,e iL'[ WU necessary 110 ,provide a sqrWlAre base for the dOmltC in 'foorl.'t ,of the :l\olihr.ab (p'lla~es, 19'-20)t. Tile domes at U1B back corners of tbe !!l3lmctU!ar.y' ,are on sqnniehes {pmale, 2 n., FOf' tlle seeend time in Egypt aftJf;:f' A~,~,AzluM" we 'find Il~es;e domes", 'bUll tlley'were demolished in Al~Azhar,~ Ill. ,A~,=Hatl,m m,osque tbe,y ;aJm s:UH. in good eonditicn, Tile piers are of bricks and, resemble t'tiO'~H~, employed in l:be mosque of Ibn-Tulen,

the north-westem ri w,aq, in ihe mosq Ute. consists of two aisles mEUm:i liI,g pam] lel to U'1jj~: qibla wall, as in flit'; aisles of (he :no,rth=wes;'t,em riwaq :i:mw ll"ie mosque of Ibn- Tulun ~ and as ~:Il .A ~-,Aih,ar mosque mer the i:nno,vatiotl in the time of KhaHf Al-Haf z, each of (he s;~uu:~uary iaruj, th,e; North,.·wes't,em riwaq has, :Si~venl~e::t1, arches,

The nortb~e~stem and, ~he oouth~western riwaqs, are (),( three aisles rull~ i~g from mlorlh to SlOO:tht not from, east to west ~s i~ ltile, sanc~u.y and at the nOrlrdhi .. westcm sj.{IDe (Prul't~; 2~2.). W,e 'fimrud, [the arcades iQf fbeIlicu~th~eastem, and

'fi,,",,'ii~1I.. ~Hi!i;,;:'iJjio~ ..... '-n-·r"n""\fii~1!> in .-.t,. ... , 'mo""'{'j~'~;I']j, of A-l A"- ''lI!,'-I'Ii,o:!Ii''i' runmne ,~v~'~_n= -IQ~'~'~!,~ ~ ",,'0 '~"11'" un.... '_,'. o.~'u""' u , , r, :-£, .~i[U! " , .1.1. J. , iIi,jio

~m~Ue~, [0 'lfile qibla 'waU. So ~b~:s style 1m ,AID",Hakim mosque, is slmilar to itha~ ill, the mosque of Ibn-Tulen,

Y·IL.';i!j;, "i1..,....~6i!> ',.... 1I:"';f!i, rlMAiZ'J;l'!Iil'IID 'lIJiI\V:!; Cd,'n'll'~l-,d:I;i" [1'1' ~:i~iI"IIe~ :i_'1i _' UJi:r ltD, ,",~,I~ ,~~,I, !LIlii<, II.J_I.'U'".:!1~,!I.!!!,", '~.!I,,",, !iZ!'U'"!!!JIi!;g, '_"'" IY!~Y\il!-_ ~_

,AJ-,Azl;'utf mosque before '[~e, inrwo,v;atiarns o:f Al-Haflz, and,

.are s1mwlar' 'to! thosie In the m0i8l~ue ~f ~bll- Tulua,

n~SI ,gIDorious, gareway is themaln ·el1Jtran.ce~ whrucb in the nO:lilh-'wcstem ~rude of Ute m:lOSCJiI~j, :1 S~SQ;llil. :m width. ProJecm, 6j.16.m,. It is p~eroed .~[}. the ,oenue by ,I ttunrn1elEv.al!W]~. ~IS:S'Q'el, 3j4im;o wide and S~SU :~ong., 'We :pass, thro~gb this galeway Lito the lrni1rer~Gr ,of' the m.osqlLle. ThIs :Bityle ls obviously a de~()prn:lent of the fit'st monumental Illil8QOO ell[mmcc: inIslam, t~,l~~ of the IfUJt mosque ~f Mahdia, l~e first capital of the fali:mrud5" The~auer' ·projects. 2,,98m. and. lS, :g~55m.run wid[h~ measurements 'wllwcih are a~moot !~lUlC.tl, do~b]oo in .A~~ Hakhn.,

-Y'h ,. d'- ('P'-I - 2-'6 2-' 8")'

- '_ -.~ : " I "'1 I', . - .. ' .. '''' I . I "':~ -,":_,' 'J;: I

__ C WUt, .BOWS", ," ,,:U:es. , _. ,,'

A!& in thell'lOS([IJ.e of ,Al .. A:zlllf, Ilhe wi:ndo'w:s 3fe: placed on the ax] S o.f' each arch, :tiD mlle m()sql~le, of Ibn- Tuhm the w:i:ndow~, were placedwithout .rderence to the arches

'Ih e ~IAm' Q I'ft '~ro', 1i!!I,Iit ;n'f" 'l'ii,.,~, 1k.iil'~'L:r:,",:t. ~'~' eo nverred [illlO an

~ ,_,_, _ IlJIiu . ~ lj,~, .L~ . I lIiJl!l1. 01, - ,t1_l~1j;,:,P .~~lll,lll.JjJ,L~U !ILIQi ~ .. ·:likll _ 'bi_. _ :.: ,_.."_. - ..

i)C~g,rm by 'ro~:r SqLil'iIld:!l.os. There j:s a. Willdbw' :iml the ·w;aJj]. rbetwe'OO eacb sq;u~nchll and the remaln c(f' ,8 g:eometr.icd, hiltic:rollnid. ltie bULI::.r 'ecl~e of eaeh, I~, i:s :SUr.I1'iUllf:1'~ed. by an OC}I]j,g'on:ai dm:m .. The dome oVelsaUs, the comers o:f tile. d.num.

'TIj;.-, ·M". ,,_ ,_ 4\ .. ", (~I ~}."" '"! nl_"! '''!I!, "d-II';j:,", 4-) ,Die ,-,ll!Illl[l'e,~~, "~"'"t3l~S ,iI:,,~ J,,J ,an. " .IL-"~,g. , •

'The UGrihg,mMlna;ret consists of a. 8q!iJam sb,a.fi; SllWrll'u~(lnILed 'by a, S(y~j ndrieal sJ~\orey ,Mi'J, the 'westsn minaret 'CO:(l:S~S:ls of a ;square ~,baft" ,srumfmo~:f:1!~_ed, by 311. eetagonsl !:aorey., These minarets. were re'b!Ji~~! esplci aliI,

~t:w :liigfIDer p~, ~;fte:r t!hegl'eal ,eartihqll;ate in A.. H. 102.l A., DI 1303, by the Bmir Baybars A~~Ga.~hanJd~', He rebuilt these :h[g~,~I' parts wn the two minarets w.i th brieks if.! A. H. 703l Ai' D" 1304,. The posi tion ef these minHet8~ which are placed so as lO form :sallie,I1lts I~ the two ends, of the facade. This st:yle is a ~nique, :a:rdlilecturaill, fea'lJuue" I po!int to !lha~ the mosque of Amlr ineluded foUrt' miJ:nloots, ~:n. its CQmer.81, however the, mosque of .Al~M_dlya .int1.'ue~ced_ ~his mO®qJUie, where the rwo salieats are pre$umab1y ~e lower pm of a pair of ~qiJaJr-e minarets, This. arralTh,geme;~t has never been. adopted, ~g.:Jjj1l. in Egypt

The principal decoraticn of the !3:31II1C[uazy is, ,3;, [beauti,[iJ,l band .of' decorated Knfie, wh~ciMl euas ,alon.g above '!he arcades and across the ead W~US immediately beneath the roof Si mi lar baifllJdg, decorate the, lmnsept. just below fie windows A band o:f iKru,d1ic. al so IiIJ:n:S round tbe s.umm1d~ of the square beneath the do line" i.mnledlate~.y below 'we:sqJulncbes ('~;:l!tle 34.).

The minarets of 'the Ilo.~que ,are decorated. 'whh, fIDOI,aill!! geomettic'a~. de~dg:ns~ Knflc lnscriptions, and scalloped arches,

23

~fOSQ,UE ,AN,D MASJIHAD

0- " At' ,-, G"U'J1''lS'''-U-I_ ~f_ .. .. , .. '. ·11. l), ' .. II.

the mosque SUllll1d:s on 'the edg'e of HIDe M~lqar~lam, to the: south-eastern of the citadel, Prince ,]3,nd.r.' ,AI-GamaU, '[he; 'commall,d~l!'l-hl,-c':h~ef of the :flti:mid KhlaUf Al-Mustanslr ,B:~nah.!, buU'[ tlus mosqg~, h'llJ ,M~hM,ram, 41S! Apr May

~'0"llHI!::

Jl,Uo.~~

There is a. ,KJufic: 'hl:M:dp1[iotll of five lines O[ru, a. ~d~b of ,Illarb'~~!, set in thewall fliboV'e Ute el1b';aIJ!C~., ~m the first :n~e-! it '~Or:il[aills! Qur5 an '~n:&criiJltio:n:s, wb ieh :meam lbat this, bu ildi fil,1 'was erected as a mosque, ,and. contai ~S' in '[he secondline ~he. word of AI: .. Mu(hbad,. This, m,eIWJlS that tile, callstro~t~o:n b~ iii. ,m..mq(le UtiIJt ~fid udes the Masb'had and :iJm the f:ifih. limle i~, contains a, daile\.

It consists olf ,3 R,Ci:.anlg~e of' 18 x 15m~t the: ellitra:wc.e is in the ,oelmIlfire of tJ:H~1l0rd:l.-eas;tem. :fac-ade~ 1l1is entrance leads into tile tu.;nWle~"Y,aulmd. vestjbu~~, Thlsv:l}stibule leads to a second -vhtdbule ~~~t is, CQ{\I!"{~red b:y ali'[~:le dome accommodated to the square whihol1]I~, peadeutives '011 the lef(, there is, ~, 8g~1I;re ,c.:r()ssF'V'au.~lt,ed. room, 'W,ltl] iI, 5,pll:y'ed w~:f.ldIOW llig,h up on '~Ile. north-eastern side" Q!i) U~e right another' S!~uane room, is occupied. by a s'wrcas€, of ,fi;}1UJ' f1:ig~ts, leading [0 the fI it '['0 of;. each fl:i~~ht rests 011 .3J.

spba,y-:f3JOe4 corbel and we emrtew,' the open inlier court (the

~ - ..

SaHl1) th:ro~gh, a pOlilrtOO, ,~h .3.,46,m,. ,hl,g~~ (Pig, .5), .

. ,

The sahn Is an lopen inn.er' coart :m~u rin,g 6 !,4:hn ,

'wide ,ood. ,:5'~60m. deep, Om, either 'Srnde of. dl€, saibJrl is a IJ1jm1!ne,~-'vaulted. ~OOU~j (Hia,g]tiaUy entered by:a PO~Dled,-;a:rdted,

,

epening '2];:50m. b~gh. rulll ~he, Ce_1li~ of ~he, fac.ade" the Oi~~er opeeings s~owe~ on the plan have been rO'u,gil~y made 10 give '~]ght ~Q me rooms, The, room, on tffiwe left ~a5 been reduced Iby a, :parrddo~ wan t;o Corm a pass:agle to the linle p~sg:age .. This. ~as\sage, leads to ,I room ~haut j s covered by ~

"l1 .... iTi;oI!ii On the flO .... 'I!., east iI!;_' side 'TI1't' c m ...... 'it'\li1IIu~ 'hall:" two

uv, .. ne ~I'~", (ill, •.. i._'.i,I,U,I,-~t;Il~,·~a,:Ill~' o.JJ.··~.1 .. ·:.,6 '~,~~,:.!W' ,,:~1IkJ .' -_'~~.i

prejeetions: one of abe, m:ntn,=;eastaem sidt.e· w'hicii oO'wltlins, a ~)qjuare room cQveredwi tfu, a shallow doom on fbtwr squinches .. iie other eXlendi,~g ,among ~fue, north-westera side. On tile. sonth-eastem side of ~~e st!h~ is, -the triple arched facade of tfu,e :S~[IlC~ll,Ulry, ,of1lsID'S~ing: af a wide poimted arch and ~WOi 'Very sfn.aU O:lU'!-Si" 1'~~ archesrest 011 I[WQ p,ain of oc.du,[W!Is. (.F.i!~ 5 and :P.la®e .35).,

The S8!11Clma]Jf consists af 'two ,awisl.eJS~ Ile :wrst~ aisle, w~~,oh ~j_,es :iiI :fOO[u ,of idle mih[.ab i~ dlv'~ded ifdo three llfll."Si The ('le~rtr€ 'bI31Y is covered 'wiJt11 J a dou!u~, iw :front of the mihrab, ~he 'b~.y tel the left. o:flbe dome, 300d, tile one to the :rigbt oif this domeare ,o:f mo cros~viall!lll'red exten sii;((ns" The bay 'to the :[,eft oo~tm,ns ~Il€i tomb ot" ,1iI.l :saint w'l:1om I:Jbe p~op~.e can :S,~di AID-Glyu~b.t the, dOmlUle rests 0]1, ,aJfJ octa;g;Oilla.1 dmm, wi th a wi "dow' in, eachface, except [hat

!":i,oO ~u

the so~'t~~!i!!sb=m is b]jjnd! the itmnsi.tiom :from tbe sqtmare, i:o ~he octagon i:s effectedby four sqlJ,i[J,c~f}s~ 'the dome is, bulh 'ofbrick.

The second aisle, 'Wlu.~cb W~ I~rnter through ~he '~ripme~,arched, facade Oil the open ,~mne,r. court, consists of three: bays" [!he centre ~\fl~' Is acress-vaulted vestibule, the ba,}, to the [e'ft and the one ~o 1[~1:e m-lgh't, of this vestibule ,~ ,or' cross-vaulted v~sMl:nd,e. 1l~~8aisle again ~I:lli_rou,~llil. three arches ~h.a~ ]ead il~o Ith,e domed sqUm"i~ in :ft,ofj~~ of Urue, mihrab,

It measures :] ;it ,5 m.~, amag;ruifict;tI~, specimen of S;h.1C'OO IO:tiflalmUi~; which b~ of great j M]Xin1anoe for ~t is the :firs~ example of stUCCOI ornament after thst o,'f:' ,A.~ .. Azhar, 1~ 'C,(),11S!is'(s, o,f a ~(Jii,if'lJt,ed,~,mrched1 semi-dome recess I' flanked by eolumns. 'The recess has, i, double border:" the hUller ennsists of a narrowband o:f. c'udous ornament, the IQ~~er,!, 'wh .. iicb is twice ·00 wide, is (ontlcd of a. sJl,l~ud.id 'band of deeoraied Kuflc Tlbe Gu'~,er IlectEu1lJg,~:I,u frame is co m,polSed, '0:[ '[he, same two bends,

The Im.l1Ware~ i:s a mn square ,shall w,t,d,lcb rises :in the eemre of 'the north .. western facade 100, a Id~h 'Of l4~,:8 m, A1 Itlhe 8:uWIln:rui'l o'f lttiis pm .isa co:mice: or two tiers of stalactites ilf' brick and stl]JCC01, set 'bac'k: a bJUl~ 70 em. a, . ~~tIll,e, brick Clg,OO~ with an arched openwng ill: each face, iOm

27

this, is set an octagonal SIDJie:.y also with an arched, openiDg in each face, above this .storey rests a liale brick dome,

'Ihe walls of this mosque up '00 the roof .. leNe.l are built of roughly shaped blocks of stone 'from 1.7 to .1 ,8, em, high

t,

and 25 to 30 em, 'long. The walls, have been :PaJoobed with bricks in places, esped,aHy at tlJe base of the nodhm western facade~ AU V3JJ.:d.tS; as well us the dome drum, and sqeinebes, are, o,f bdct, 3];50 aU, the part of the minsret which rise above the roof-level.

28

'T',BE M'IQS'QUE

0- F'~" A-' L' AKl\{" ._. ,' .. 'A" R'

I -: ,:~" ~ _:.~', I . ....• _'" .... ,

~ .. ,_ ~ _- .. .::_ ,:, - _: - .' "~ - .' - -.~ .. ~-- .:_

The :fati,m1id KhaIif A'1~An1 ilr' and t&e 'wa':zJr- Al-Ma'mun ,AI ~B\ai,~:~,jhl viho- directed ~he, WOift" t;u ilt this, mosque :in, A. H, ,:;5' l'9!.1 .A., DI".1. 125", it: was, finished d:urinlg the li fetime of '[he, Khali:f, Ilhis statement i:s: coufirmed 'b'y ~he two 11]1~cr:ipUO'ns wlh !:ch run :IC'fOSS I[he 'facade, O~le; at m~ sammi t of nhe: facade, ~be ol~l];er h ~~:f-w,~y up. This n;:uJ,Sq1ue ~:~ one of ~:he most m,agnUiCle[lt religious b~Udrun~s w!hic~ were erected in, 'the falhtJlid period., A:I,dlOu,g'hitwas constmeted as ,I, small mosque without mi~blt~ ~I~ 'was called A l-Akmar mosque, un'l:ilil~ A., ~l 799.1 A" D~ 13916,,~ vih en. the f:&inceyalbu!lul ,~~dl-S~'nmJ renewed :i.t~,auT:ld. added a ,mln~ar:i The first :Fddm:)! ~Iraye:r Itook p~aoe in i~ OJ] 4'Lh RamadanIn the same year~

Themesque includes the BHr'rniies~ stone facade '~II. the r.e~:~gl.otDJg architeeture ,~jn. :lEgypt, which is decorated with fl.oral,geomelric,aill design s, K~flic ~n~crijp~ioIn8 architraves (,stalactites,) and architectural forms, (P]~l~s 3i5~37)~ It is the earliest buHding i,nEg:ypt i [JJ 'wh ich HIDe ,phll ~s dominated by tihe, li:~e of 'Illile Sj~reet The 'f~~~de I,Wli~l~, 10( ~ein.g paral.~e'~ ['.0 rite uonh-western side ,0:£ die snh;rn~ forms an angle of 21° with it, leaving space for.' two rooms, and

2:9

,scai:ocas:e'" 01g. '1)i, ''ll];ef~c~de' Oi)IfIISi,stg, Q(f I, doo,n¥,a:y :£1 ank ed 00, either sidell, a niche {Plia~e ]:110" The ~,eJt, side 0:£' Ithe doorway' measures 6,:42.1'1, :. w],dir11, and is decollated with a s<!jrn,~le reeessed ~ooe'~ whicdl is ICmw,n~d, wiJiiJ a scalloped areh wwth ciflcu'l;ar de;s:igl ru:n ites eentre, 'OimJ effither. o:f the Iup,per' ,pB[1[. of.' this reeess ds ,~, paael placed '~oze:I1'g,~w18e'j ;tlImld O'v.~' ilt: is a eireular, On either side 0-( thIs eircle ,is i3j, 'mc'l_gubttt'; :fJ~mlel o,:f omamene, The

-"'~\'-"-I]' on~' '"i"," <»i"", ~'''' .... ;t:;,f.,c;, n ~ ""iJ,., nl:'i ~t'I'~:ll-';;Ii:r- c;'IA;t'I!; .... ,~ 'iil1;'i!i, ii"];1i'Ii,j""(!i i"!i ..... ;i!i; ~ 111' ,~,'~~lt.ilL ''It;l;lJIl~'~ ,~!L.t~_~~~JY !i'~, ll!l~~J~~ IVI;. ~"l ll: I~ I ~',Y.1Gi 'lJ!JI. l-::lLn~ ~I.~,~ 'iAlU~lIJU!u.l ~'.;I!

framed [bu' a 'r:il:ait.,'a..;~II'ii~ ~""!.'"";;, 's;I9:li!lIl"'IIt:;~'.,. .. r;,,~' '~;i"iiuor' tiers W,\~

_ _ _ _ _ ,J . J": Ul_ I!!I!~~ I~ I_l~~~ 1(;:]. iltJ...o ,1YI1W11lJI,;1~ ul IIU _ ~w iiJ~, . ~

~ave ;a[:rerl!dy observed 'If:irus; feature :afo ~:he sUmJuit of the square rs:h.rnrft o:fAJ-uu;:ru s~i'! 's;mJm1IMet in A~, .. Guyushi m'().'\lque., Above tfJj~ :~ITd';.lctlle lW~&hes ~te, llititle niches formed by ,{'jJ, :riibhed ,s[hel~!'i resti-Il,g Ion '~W() eng;21:ged columas, There ;~Jre three b:rurnds of :Ku:fic: ,i:nS!clri,ptio'lls, the first is, be:k~:w' Ib~ lintel, ~hB second above Ute limel, a old, 'the lfIird. ,I nne Ku:fic run~lc-d'pLionmflljs aeress iU~)~ summi~, of HJl1e 'wtlol!t fill:c~de. Tb~:s. ~;I:y~e of stDWilJS :f~cad~ has its intlnence on ithe,f;]cades or 'reUg,im.ms bu:ii~di.l]J,gs 'i[l the .Allbibyed and :M3JJm.1uk pe:rIDlod:s;. 'neif'~ is aJ. lln,lIQrne, Architectural '~eatUJie and decorative treatment 'for the beveled Wf.ilJU In the co!rn_,er of Iib,e, r1,o(rl.h-eaJ_S~if:rn, side, Which, we see laser i:n,A~~ Stleh 'T'mlae mOSlq[!;l:~, and b~arm,e p:op~1ar in 'dle mamluk 'p:eri.oo ..

The main: entranoe, ~f 'the, m,[)sqlle JS, m !~e ~onh-west'elil1 sidle. J't ls Se[ In a 'recess, :2~Mm. 'wldJe and 63 ,COli. dle:e~l~ c:~owniCdwi [hi a ,g~OfruO!l!S, ~c~1[oiPed f~ti:RI.i,d,

arch W.~lth, a beautiful circum~t design in its oentre., This des'igo eensists of four drdes., TIle :first and the tl1i:rrd {,;~r-c~es ttm"-e deeorated wi!th Kufie insc.ri.pda(Jlst 'vhe second w] til arabesque, and ~he, fourth with a band of floral (Plate, .39')~ The door itself is composed oif ,\fQU smirs~ The spandrels f.lf the arch of tile entrance n~c;he are decorated wlth, geometrical des~g ns of su:n-di.s'ts, When 'we ]),~S$, thrtilillgh the nl!~j];el~vnu~'~ed, entrance passag:e (Plate 40)~ we notice a Smlta.U rOOJU to the, ri,ght and a staircase to the left, and W~ find ourselves in dle, north-western riwaq, (Fig" ")",

The .i;msi~d\e of the masque measu res 31'x-2 '~. m. It ecnsists 0:[ aJr! open inner court 9!~"7x,,~, 0, l7m"l S!ll'fl'OU nded by four riwaqs, the, largest is. the sanctuary, Thls styl,e; '~s,

sh:nm ar to til..;}i 1· n the m cseu e - o f .t.... n.. TC-' ']- • . d'

'., , .. _ '.'._' ~., ,~!,~~, " kW :' :~,u ·s, ':: l1;.mr.:~ !ttuD. III Utn~ I!ili'l:,

Al=Hakim.

The sabrn ~s, square, and bounded 01 each s ide by a facade of ~bree arches that rested. on two columos in th e 'ce~l~r and rwn piers in the earners (P1,fl~e 4l:m ), The rectangular piers 1 'j:3S:x:~ ~35" the eolnmns ,31re surmounted by cerinthian cap~~alS;t the, arches are, th.e fad mrud peinted-arehed type" 'W'e find. in AI-Ak_mar mosque the clearest example O!f the ruse Olf' :~atj.mid arches which aee dou bled and decorated witilitl Kufic inscripUJons. ,esphdftUy those amend tbe 8al1r1. (Plate 42). The, spaadrels are decoraeed wi.tlil Boss and rim.whieh are each decorated wi ttl :sirnpille ana'be:sqIUle"

31

The walls of the wlhole interior, f!:xoept tbe qibla w,all!, iarebroten u,P in~D ,2 series of paf.lei'm~dllecf;:sses. They '1er.m:inat:e abeve in, :Fadmjd ,ar:c~es,. .At Ute sU,Runit of .ne;rurly every recess isa stucee I-nne ,(Platt!: 43)"

The; s:anctJIl.llmy c:o;mdsm ()if' three lJis].es~lhe Mjhr.abj:s aisle bats ;1, wood\e~ r-coE;, 'while the ,o~e:r aisles: have sElaUow domes Oin splJ]eri,c;llJl- Triangle 'peifidend'~'e5 ,(Pilla-re

441) and, tbe central 'rbay' of the second i;'u sle of the

- 'h- , II ~ . . . d Ii!.. ~Ir '~'. - Il., ~,' .. I .' ~,i..

:smmclUHl'ry, W" J'C~lrus, envere "r:/1 SltIo::-Yi1,gu:[. 1. ms sty 'e :11:5. ~,Ie

].. i' ~ 'f' ,r,:: .' ~'... '-I" '. 1!.:'1'~' '"

ear :~eSj~, exampie 0:" rom nUl Uill !LJ~,e ren gsous arcnneemrem

the :fi:wl:h:nid period, bu l: the ~ha]l(fw domes ,occur' in '[he F~ltim'i d, architecture :i n 'B alb Al~,Fu'~ull gate ,and Bab .l;wai ~a gate, The:se examp!es, are of' stuns, !iO I beMjev·e; 'Ul-at these snaU,ow demes llsmo~g: ~o the orjgi~~'I. 'buw:ldwIIg-.

In adld;li'boifi to the, shaHo,w' d.QIIU~~ and. the wood.en 'roofs 0'( the rooms, 'the, 'F,atlmid 3!f.chi:'l~c~u.ral used i~ this mosque ~hje tunnel-vaulted ln the entrance 'J.'-U s age, Th,ls style Is similar to that in Al-Hakim Mo.sque:" AI OmlyiIJs~~j mosque, to :~~e left !~If the hsck aisle of the; ,sru:JiCb,Iiar:jf is a 'w,rude, open ,aJr:o'~ lead~lIig iD.'t'Q a :tin1e shrine 'wll1ich 'fO\[,.s, a, salient ,OJ[ this co rne r .

In its preserafeem, tllile.mihra:b is evidenl~~y not the: original oneuevenheless Ithe F'&tirnniid, ontillh~~ ,of Us '~~m

TI~!~ Il!"i,t~·.g,r ,~w·~tI,l!' i"I-'[I ~:-I'rij."J; -N,:·'J-,iN~:-ll~.'Wj1!,['j'i:;e;,-, n(ij.rth~ e;'l~rem,'. and ,'~""', v.~~1!O,i1 1i1l. __ u"'J,1il' ". ill. i"'" ,,' UI,L, __ ~'U~c-.l!'!J,!, ""_" __ '_ !l';!o;;I __ , , .. f. '''''.'!ilI

'!"iII"-b·: "·,·'i', 'I '-"~'--'--,,_il ,'(f ~iL.'-'--"""'11 __ ', ""'i'if-,,',-'Itr, 'y"_'~""]b- "lIf..-

.II!, .•. e om,g~]1a, .l1ll'U.Il:arel!- 0., me, mosqill.We, W~d.Cw~ . ,a_ ngrl,.a

Al-Sallmi reaewed ml A.Ft '799./A,.D.l39fL had ruined,

32

TH-C ·E··~ M' o,i.IS~-Q'C ,U .. E~'

, .. . I, ,.'. < , .:. _:..c:'

& M·· c·A··· 'S,c-HR' . ··A·-' D .. ·· 0·' ····F·

, ,_1\ .' _._:~"" " ..... < _. _~_" :',C,"_ ... ' I '.':-: '. :-

The h1stOiri~1l .Al-,Maqrl:zi poi.r,:u~ed '~O the fort. th~~ there .AJ .. ·Maqli:d WB;!; a mosque caUed.l[]le mosque of Al-Andalus, A~a,m·~Aru-.Am.irta Tfue mother of Khalif A.I.~A mi r' s daJn~;h.te'r bul ~~ it :i 11 A," H, .5261 A. D. 1232. by the. S~atkffil, Abu,~ T~ rab,

There are two Kufic in &clI"iptlons in 'lh~ dome of I[his; mosque, one runs round. the lower 'n111 of the drum, and ends with the date: .A,. H~ 5271 A. D, ll 33., 'lb~Olher' .j nsc MiptIDon runs round the. siUmmit QIf' the :square' bleow the pendenti ves,

In this mosqee there is, a wcoden cefi!QlLaJP:h~ deco'[,ate(1 with K:u'ilc inseriptions, which h:M:JlJ;dJ~ the l'1riBtory of' .A .. If .. 533 i There .,as. allm~ wooden mj:brnb~ which Wmil; U3nlSfclHd to the M~;setI'm of Is:1 amic Aft inCaieo,

'Wie, can 83i.)! th;m'llJ.,gh lb~~e .K~.dic i l'I:$crip:tions 'that the Pfi~ces s .A~am. .A~:-.AJlnijrIDa lnaJi[t 'lhIS:I]~osq:UJe' j [bl the y,~ar' A,.H" 527,( A .. :0 I. :1.33. ~nd made ~t a Mas'll~ad~ and added to the M~sh~had ~'11 ,A~ :H . .:5131 .1\.. D. 1'~ .3'9., ,I mausoleum of SayywdSj, Ruqa.yal and a wooden rnibrab before the ye ar A. :H .. 555.1 A.,. Dr, 1.~'60. The A[abmolJlumcnl.~ conservation

33'

Icommiitte restored it, and reooWlls:tmc:ted its, pm-ere.iiiiit ennanee,

'Ihe :S3i1lC.tumry· 18 di.viid~d. into three bfl,y~ (Flg. 8)'1' 'The centre ba:, just ,D1i{,eF Sm. :ru:s co,'vered w.mitb a dome, ,arndJ. ths side bay:s with ,I. flat wood\e nm of, rliU;e s~d.e baysiM!f.l; Ukew:i se Just over .5 m, :il dept!1j but aR'[y :1~82" in widtlh~ The central bay' OPf>DS into dle' side b.ays, 'IBrot!.g,h mc(;'ftrn,~u.brr o~en i ~,gs~, 'the, '\V.a.1 ~ :beillU.,g ·ltlrolJ.:gbl. fo.rw-;a:OOi 'and SU'p'POJI~ed by a pair of OO~:DJmniS 'On each side,

,.

The Dome (P[aJ~~s 45-46)0" T.ltiis dOni!!. rests 00 an octagonal drum, each face of whlwcb is plerced by a pdr of windows, or e labortlJ~\t outline, each. :pur beill.g set in a 'I.ri'p'~y recessed frame, The drum rests 01. :rJ(~·Iilc1enU\'les ,s~m~]'ar '[0 ~jhose of ,Al-Ga,' fari, and. S~Y'yida, A.'ua M'a:s:b:had:S~i but ,u wmportmnt dW'rlere[l~ is ~o be seen in the treatment of" the sp,aee tJe~.ween th em II for the '~e:rfoi:~ window ~ '~il1lffic;h occupies ~h~s space.. Tbe dome has, tw'elllty-'four' ribs, and ,elme_man~1' It has mr~n~,-f'Ouf' flutes,

. 'the ,a:pe~ being crowned l1y' a 'boon:it f ~i;aj, of' ~bme baUs

d' .'. -'t,.,:: " - -'"_- d 1ir~..;I b - .a. -

uU1Thl,II:IIrn smng ,m S.l:zie 00 : . ~UITt[l(lJ:IIlf.hoo .,. ;1, nl[}g,.

'the M:illf,abs I(Plm:es 474'8):: The 'Dulin :lliIlbmb is one !o:[ the most :ml3Jgllliificell!t mULmbs af' stucco dee'OTIli,QI :i~ E;gypt~, :mettsur.:i.Il,:g :S~5lx'2;,9S uti It cO'!l~i.sts: o.f altdche 1. ~2Ctm..,widf~ and 1, 10m," dee:p eoveeed 'by a. rol1~'h.1 the sbt~n ribs of which rad;i:c~.t~ .from. circular des~gns as in ~be main. !~mm,iJ!lce of .Al~,Akma!l' m,Q!!lqru,e," ln the, centre of this eircalar desi,gm Is the name ;Oif ,«AJ:b), surrounded. by a

34

frame fanned by the name of Muhammad (pl~!,e, 48). The

""1.._, d . .;j "'-nl f' '~", '[ 'Ie, ad Ih f1 'd

:fi.!~ are necorarea Wrutil a row 0 ~]u_,e teaas, "_C_II!: ~Jj®e!:__

edge is of' nine parurs of flat IJruch,es~ which are themselves surrounded ~y rnwne :much IM,ge:r ones. The whole i~ framed by a" band of' ornament, Each spandrel ,ws, deCOffIJ[OO

: ""if' ,'-, :'1,. -: , ' ",' A,'-' _ . ,(: I'I~-. -. 'W'O' C I .nf ~lI\;e lifiec:t~i!JJ'Q1l1l'IOioF frame

W]U~ aQl!)esque;. ,aOiSt]; ~JII!e ~- p '>-.J'= _u__ ' ;&;::i,--.~~~'!'II'!I~--e

:runs a s,p,lera.d]d band of Kutlc iascription, ,A.bove it is another band decorated wi ttl a complicated geometrical design,

ie' ili", f 'Il.. "',"':",,.,,,!l,,, • '·~II d ,"i.,. , 'II

cimiCw:u ottne SWYi;: eays IS [pIrG!vtue-:, wiu ~ ,~ sma ,~, stueee

rni hrah consisting of ,~, n lche crowned with :80 flated head, TIle ribs of which radicate from a central eircu lar design, This Is set in a ]1'f)c'tang1ul,ar fr-ame formed by a Ku:fi.,c j nseriprlon, The spandrels are filled with arabesque

There are two stlJJCOQ< sni hrabs sw milar to the mibrabs ill the, S~,1],ctU.~,

The enerance of the sanetuary leads us to portico 12,~60m+ ~ong~, afTIld 2t,48ml. deep, On ,ei ther is ide Qif' tile

entra .... ..-.;;;. ,; c b .-:It.. ... Ii'iI, b 'V '0' 1,:1 eri ..... 'Ii 51'" srueeo mihrab 1"'~!ij!i·!1i'ji''''4' ~ I. ~ ~ I!~ ,~~ . ~ ~ ~~~w -"",J' ~ ,~iu, ,:~~ i:li 13." ,v~u W:~ol. lI,llJJ,,~J~ ~J.IU"PP.'Pt.· .. ~~~

with a conch, which, radi:i,c8Jles; from a we~ru reserved circular deslgmru", The flJnw~d~h of the opening is occupied by the three arches. This, ~o(Ftioo ~eads. to the open. irmer court serrounded ~.Y the walls :i[l, ~be North-western, N o:rth ,easttrn"alld south -westem sides, (filiate 49),

The reetan tJ ubII' doorvi/r,a'V, '~,4lm, w~d~

, • " • -, ~I ' •• 1 - - .. -4" ~ til - - ~ ~ - . - -

hi\gb. is, Sp~fllti,edJ 'by several pieces of wood.

T~e Mas:h bad wuburu [t ofbric'i(s"

, .;I' "'£3~" . lUlu. ";,,,u sm,

T'q"P- M··' ·O·~· ·,-S····.·· '.Q,"-UE---J

_ ,Rr.l _ .. :__: -, .

O'F ,A'L~SALm: T;ALAI

-

IOuilif' Al- Fa'iz ItI1 N asr n I~h built this mosque m the

months, of the yl~1iU1f ,A. I~t S:SSl J'~. :i 2th~D~a" ,30~b 1 HID'I' O[1J tbe north :riiilcad~ of I[be mosque, t~er-e Is a Kufic inscri ptlen 'yi~1],dl includes 'the name of the KhaUf and ~]is; wa,zi,[ who 'c2!!l led thesul tan Arn.'-SmH~, Ta1 Ii Al~,F:a:I'iz;i.

:!bll, AJbd Al-Zaltdr S!;l,),E,:: We ha:V'e related coaceming the :M:ms~lhnd of 'Hus-aYIil! tIDlm, T;a~;a i'-i_ Ibn Ruzzik suraamed A [~Sa[~h had Inrended 'to ruove the head from' Asqalan when ~be town was in danger of mnn, aJUac'k, by tbe Fr,irun~~$, He bui [~ b] s mosque G'u![s:idle B alb Zllwayb, ,g:llJ~,e, ,to bury it ~h,ere tlrnld gail] that :ho~otmm'~, '·but live peo\p'le of tme pa'~lace defeated him ~:Il 'lftu;s~ decloon~~lh;at it should, 1110-1 IDe buried anywhere wmltll them.

The mosque was bu llt ;IlS a smallmosqee without ,I, mblrbnr untill the time Oir the s'U:~UiJ]l .Al~,:M:u,'~izz .A.ybat AI .. ,TudicQillThall'll the first s!l.lI'ltan of Urue :E3,WlIi'Le marnluks~ where the first .Pr.i,day p,myer ~'ook p,laee :i"0! it.

Thhe mosque 'was; restored after the great earthquake A.. 'H'. 7021 A., D., ~,303, by the Prince Sayf Al-Di:n

B:al:timur, who .prese~~d the mo~qlle ,aJ ,g~,oriJou~t:lJitlbart~n .A. H., 699.~ .A; D., m.300~ TWie mesque was r-es~ored in ,A.,. H .. :S~I A. D. :~.440-t.~ and i'll. A . .H~ ,88.21 A". D'" :~'477-8., The whole mO$;que~ wiili:]j [IDle exoep;[!jon. of ,th~ SmlC~paary, :haJs, bee:n ~dtem. dorWil and rebuilt,

The :mosque res~~ ,on a lower storey oom~osed of ·(un.n~l-',"au.rnJtoo, cells ,o'p~1:l ~:ng, on ihe street, 13! series of StiOPiS, F~ :i.slttierefclfe Ul1e eartiestmosque of Wml.:a:t Is 'blown ,1'8 ~. «mu'allaga» :rtlQSqJ1N!e" because j,t[ has, a smre.y be~oiW it e. The mesque lo'r AI,;;;Atliillru" :resh~ on ,3. lower sJ[o:rey ln the ·No:rth.~aSI[,em s:idle~ lh!is :s[de was built .011 a series of :sbop~ .. Themaln :facade is ~n the N o rlh, .. western s]de" n was quire d]:ftererU 't'n~Hn. aU lie facades of ~;n~'h~ leclur,all bldldw~g}8 i:n .:e.gy'pl {P~:a:rue 50)~ mt WM found U);9t it termlnated a~ each end In. a room. W,e see I, ~~:iCJ.u.e ar,c'b~ teerueal 'feanalre and deco:r.,ati:v1e treetment for the b~~v,en~d walls Ia both the north .. eastern, and N'orlh .. western corners (Pialte 51 ),' The first example o.f 'lh[s, ~;,.,!item lind ul~~.tm.e]11 ~g in 'I ttl e mosque of A.W-Ak:rnar iJl, the ncnrtth·",eu'l:em corner .. The malo 'facade is dW'\lidled lnto seven arches, :fi \\I,e of theSie arches rest om four c(J~I~lm(l!S,,- dle I,W'O arches 0\11 eitIJe.r side of 'theseffi.ve arches 'wier:e decommed. 'with .scaUo:p~ fonas, bet ow' the t,w'O arches ~9 ~, w],I(llLo;w 1..45m,. w~de; ,ad 2~7,4rt1l,., high, ccvered by a hori!zonmJucih. w'i.tfu j:o.n~rovo~iUli:rs1 ,and a s;e.gmeTl~·ed :ooUev.i~g arc~. w i.th. joggled voussoi rs and .oor:aiIDed outer bcrder .. 'The spandre~s are decomt-ed 'with gteome'~:cDJ~. ci rcelar desigus, the. band of Qmament sarmunded these arches lild. runs oo,~d. 'the north- eastem,

and the south-western facades .. Thess arches lead us '110 tl.e othee racad)e~ w:hwc~h 'W~, di.'I,.4ded inro 'five archeswith sWlallow ,a nels, of which Iffile fimtj. next the left oomer 'ooomffiit resembledthat on. the ~QU~.-w~ster.n of tile comer mom, and wmtS, cressed b~l 1~~i1He, bands of hi scriptio,~'1 !Ih~ IO\n1,)" difference rbe~b:rug the absence of awind.Qw in ihe lower J'.3irt.

Tile mbn entrance Il'lleGJ!lli1lni~g 2,~:1 4x4! ~. Om.,~ Is 1m l!he No:rth~westem~~c~deT Above il is the ~odzQntd. joggled arch, The segmental t-eUevmg arch =ri!bov,eruJ has it raised border decorated with K Idle insc:ril·p1tiO:l1s,.

'~h~ style ,of the ;portioo in I[h~~i rnnosq U~" is; s:i.mJhllf' to 1[f:rufil!Jt bm m.e Bu F;at:~u,aJ nUlsque at S:tID8 3J.w:l:dchwrul, b:-uwU between A. H. 223 .. 2261 A,. ·D,. ,8.38-41,.

The norlh..;ellJj.s;[,~U e;ntr,mlce w'tlJ~ch ws, set run M. arched recess 42 em. deep, consists olf ;80. rectangular openiag IWU!Mmr.if~g: '2~ 19x.t1i~·22:m~~ :spilmDed. by ;m. hurlZlcmtal sreh, and

ffii"il,rJ'ti'·1 ;5~clI ~,~.;i·t~, 'l1li1 c.1-.· ... ,~,-I .... w'- ~.lI!:,;,:;;:.,r~Iif'I' f" ~i ....... 1b .,~'irFl!"\i!'iIii·~iiiii,·.l ... AI .~{\I! ldi .~'Y!e.~e'-}~-U' :~ til,lILI, i~1 .mJ~I'W i'kJ .... Il wtlillt~ '!II ,lI~jll~ I~;-~:I.~ ~:~,,~ UYIHIlU)t;-1!U1l W J: Y

KUlfi.c outer border, There is a. tlhird entrance in ~he SOl} It!.-·westem, facade, Thls Sf:y;~e of i~he three uiaiID. emrnmces is. swmHar to tila'[. in. ,aU the Fstimld mosques,

TiIi-'lIli, .;1""..,., ....... '.'0:11,1., lill,'Ir.' JJ:¥:UI!I.'C~" YI1~,

D'l1:nng' l~e .reOOIDWs;lril!lC!jO.rn~ iu was €o1ll'lld llha.~ a·~thoug~ the outer ba] f of 'the walls W,3JS, ,SlOlfte, the inner half was, of brick, the arcades, ~l!LCf)iPt for ~bJe columns sU,ppor.lim.g trulie:m. are e:nUreWy of brick.

The C r,esrting (Ftf~ '9): SOJl1e fragments of the. old c,res~mng: fou nd dun ng the 'WOf.kS~ are t:ep~ run the soerh comer room accordi n,g to Creswe U. It is clear that each unit was stepped and undercut, ~'t was decol.'"lted~ with the flOfaJi,. in the centre of eac~ was. a sU~ lOtScl:fll" wide,

The orig lnal door had been transferred to the Museum of Islamic an in Cairo between ] 887 ,arn,d 1899. The prese:[T][ door is ,8, modern bronze-plated door, made in [93·5 'i IlL j mi ration of tile ori gi nal door,

The open haler court (Tile Sahn): (Pig, 10) we pass through a tunnel-vaulted passage, 3,28.m. wide, -and 4.25. long, '~,O [he open inner court This s~yle of roofing these pas:sages i:s similar LO that: if! At- Hakim, Al-Guyushi and Al-Akmar mas,ques ..

The open inner ,CO~J,l1" at present ~g 23x43 deep. It is flan ked by ri waqs .or s i x arches, A hove the apex OF each is a rosene Wilh fou .. meen flutes, aad 'between thesn, exactly over the" columns aJie r.lkhe.~ ru the mihrab forms, (Plates 52-54).

I he sancm ary consi sts of three arcades of seven arche S, each running parralle ,! [0 'the qible 'wall. Th first two f:lJffis~e s so formed bei fig 3 A ] aad 1,54111., i 1.1 width against S!:40m. for ihe aisle next ~he Miilr(!J1D. The present ceiling is entirely modern. The arches restimg on marble columna with various types of capita], mostly cOl11lJhhm:~rn by i.m,pos t b locks formed of tfur,- e rnaYlers, of WOQd~ Ihe arcades are braced longi lud~ 11 ally by rl e- beams, (Plate. 55).

40

This ,sty'[e of the dJe .. m,e:WllS and «tabl~.J,as» js similar '[Q that :llJ the' mosq~e of A~- A'tmM,~ but here is tbe most beauti (11 ,and lbes~ preserved example, (P~a:te 5'6),

'Each ar:c~ Is dBC:QIn.l~ed whh ,3" band \If.' 'K~f1crun, ;S~lI!C-OO,.

Above me apex of eaeh arch is a, SUDaU sq,uare, opening, like a Willdtow, fined wi lib two S'iruJC'CO ,grlUes set flush 'w~~ll, the two faces, of the walt Tile finest 'parts of t~e de;Ci;)mt~t()i1il are in ~he sp:andre:l,s" (Pl3Jle 5~7).

'file [band of Kufie, which runs ir'Ou.lm d. the arches of the arcades, runs in a similar way round the arched. panels between, the pilasters of the nerth-eastem wa~] ~l and, a s,!n:ll1i:'13J]" ba;md, runs round each wi,[1dQW ~ (P~~te 5-8).

T- ~ b,' , -M' ·,·'IL - 'I~-'" ~

, ue, ,]nra u ~

The coeeave part 0;(' the m,ih:r:ab measures [~81,m. ill w.~(hh and 1 ,,31 em. ill depth, I~ has lost ,al] its deceration except :i~s ()cta,g,omlru :frnanldn"g eolumns and, the pai lilted wooden li.W1IJblg of i.®s semi-dome,

Beb ind t~e, place, where ~Ile: Imam, stands '[I] the pulpit, rug, a rectangul mur o,e~nwng 1t ern, w1dJniIJ,~ ;ll:DJd ~~, ,~:82m", high as I~he ma'llqa'f~ which is surrounded by a frame of s~~coo Oifi]1Jjam,er:JJ~ and closed by a In'{)inZle grilleand 'whic11 lopen,s in~lo a r-ecttllmThgular vertical s~art~ U[~ bOUOJD of

'~u[L,_', e- ; __ c ,1-'11, . ;,j!> ,PiII.'tii:!h ~'Uli "I'L. th j'!j; '-b .... t I nm ,fI;·..i'IIT.A ~i-..A' ell m; +lot 'W· ,. Ii,\. 'I' r;.~

on'lh"" ,l ~,i:I; ,U 1!JIi:i, 'Ii.¥. ~ I;lIIl ~ ,""", _'Ij,.!' -u, ~~ 'liiidL,b'!Gi,I<m"", il!.1 al ~~ '.' U, , .... ~;i

measures ,about half a metre square served. as a malqaf,

1rn1lJ I[he <J.i,b~a,waU are ,se,el arched windows~, the cemral ole aibo,ve th~ :Mihrt!J, bl decora'ted, w.Mh sn!lOCCiI omsment fOmliied. by :Kufi!C iIScri~ti()]l'8,! Itlle spamlldtels, 3;00: tl~ I·ed wiOl :at11ifuesql1e and the. ot!U~3:"8, :have KUBe bDme[,8 also,

(

C- H- ·A·········.Pi·:TE. ··:R·····' T' ··W··,·O.·.··

! .. ~ _ - • " _, . __ .• ___::_ • l _' •• -.:.:_

T--rBE F.-· AL .rnrm

: -~.~ - - "llV~

MAUS,OLEUMl

A- R···· C·······m1TI ·E~·!C·:·IT~· "U" ·RE.···.··: 1

....... : .. =--..:._1 .' - .. ,

THE M· . AU'S' O' "L'E'lIfiKS' '1

- ~ . ..::. ~ " ! . _-~:. - '. __c_. .' v lVI'·'

or THE'" IS' EV' EN'" 'D"O'ME' 'SI

_ l.f'· _ ~.'" ~~"', i .' ,1:' '1.] ~: _.~

These mausoleums are to the Sfluth. of tbe ruins o:r :FIJSitm!.~ (Plates .:5'9~6 I), They 'were: ori.,g.im:d.Jy seven domes, but omy four of them harve survvived (Figure 1.11 A,. D.) 'tl"Jhi.'ch have, Iost their domes. Their name :iden.'[ifjles, with (he seven domes The historian ,Alr.·Uaqri:z~ mentioned '~~aJt ltbey were, the mau soleum of seven Jlerson~ of ~he fa..mi1y of AJ=M~ghrib~ in .A. H. 400/1\.., :D .. ·wO'~o..

Tfue aF.chi tectural design of these mausoleums ·cons·is.ms of three s:tiorey;s~ it square.' ~()W;er.' storeyis 'bllUt o:f small MWI,liJ 1:y dressed 'blocks of .M'Il.qattmn i i mestonc, w~llh an ,open aJiClh tn the centre of each face .. n, '1;:5 3J pointed arch of voessoirs, a. rectaligular moulding runs round, ~o'si.dte. and Ollitsid\~ ,aho¥e these, .pointed arches. <rlat,es, 59~612)~

The ,sooond ,storiey=

A'b'o've dim:~ storey W~· flnd ,8 ZOtlC of' 'b'answti]on wbie'll is [,:_dilced inl~emaJn,Y '[0. ,an. octagon by four squ:i,Rcihcs, between ear.cffil. Qf' whwch is, a. poi,ukid.-atrehed wi~doW' O'f' the same ,s~ze and ·ouMi ne as the squiaehes. The. arehes lofboth squinches. and wlndows are. recessed ,and. rest ,on liIe rect:ul~gu~ar moulding, This second sID.my is ~u.ilt cf ·bri,cks. (Plates 163-(4)..

45

TI'lJ6 'OCUlJgOr:l~. drum above ~'Ile. second ;S~iJ:reJ :is. bul l~ of lu1,cks. It ·cansi·s,s 'of 3J. 'window mill. the (ie;ture .of each face" The arches o:f' the ·wilm.d()wl :atre Ic(:l>mposed G!f headers and. ,sr:re~chers\, w.~Lh a oO"~rln" :ri Il\g of bricks laid nal[, TIle zone of ~f.isili,oll s~ppor~s an. oClaJ:gomd drumwidl. a. r.ecm1ngu I,Mo' mOllld:hlg., (Phues «53-614)..

Tile dome ~h i,cl~ rests on. the, cctagcnal dmli:l1l bas ~mfmuJ:n;a:tely peri shed in every case, These maasoleurus retaln remains of a :stMOCO coal[~1IJg ,inte.'[naU.y~ but less e:xJerna[]y!, O~ all three storeys .. The two upper slJo:rl~ys;

~

above the lower sqllJ,lr-e stOf'ClY are each se~ 'bacll:. an the

ex:~ecilor:, (PWa:~e .59)..

It W~B, found ~hill!t these :maJiIllsol.~llmg stoodi t~ their funeral ~ll.do5lU'ie, sqUMe ~i te the, mausoleum, with an entrance in. thecenJl:re of th,e m;torth,-*estfi,m ,sjid~e.

I~ die sotnhern c,e;rud~ry a ~ltUe ItoO I(hie; east of Ikhwat S ~.yyjdfta, Y:WJsu:f mashhad are tber-enlW rJJS, of thi S, mosque, knownl ~:od.:a,Y' as mausoleam of Lu1L~~I,a, Bent Al~M'uq(uJq]S O~e ,chi ef (Y,f 'the cop~;s ),' The historian A~~:M3!q;fiz:i ,m,enticiOOO, 'thai~ 'il[ 'Was n'),M;'ilerly ;a, rui ned mosque ,and, was, :rerbiJiU il the tl]:me of the Fatimid Khei! if Al-,:Hrud:m '~ll,,~.A:mrr n:lah 'W110 caned: it Am~,:Lu'Lujl,~, in the )iCar Ai ,H. 4061 A,. :0". ~,O~,5m,1'6. A.'I:-U:aqrizrn adds UWI,t w~ 'is well built

'The: remains of ~hi~~ mosq ue consist !of til barrel vaulted hall 4,:82m, wide, 3 ~23 m, deep, and aJbolmt (l,m., hel,ght. [[IJ the seuth-eastern wail '~s a mi hrab without fr.ame, udj, ,::lJl,!8o:~,~~ely plain, '~he, rec~;s: is 90cmi 'wld~~ ?2c,m., d~p,and 3!,IQ'S,m,. h~i,ghl., These remains, Cj~lIlS~,S' of a trlp~e-arl'dleil, :fac,ade;!1 [he; ce:n:tr,a'~ arch bei[ljg much higlller tbam the side ene: (FIg,. 12) (.P,~~uJe 6\5).

~,[O: oI"Jlil;'U"f;"j:balii'" ~m~'-

lila UHIl,U.J. ~.[J.~~, ,~,'~. ~ , J

vaulted in ttIDe sarnne, w3IY Md. 'With a rect:al1_gtllar' window jJii the notth-western side, but tJhe wlho~,e 'front facade and, the ,roitilU Ce~ t .Abov:eLhi S rocm we see the remalns ,of a dlird, room, or two, rooms, the upper roomhas a p];awmI :!tIl hrab wl~h. m, recess eclget CHl ei,lth;u' side of the U:p,pM' ~lll,lilmb are

two 1~ule w:i(IDdows ~,lacedl, high up :1,0 tfue w;adl, (P~a~es 65',-(6),,,

The, :first ~to~y 'ws, bunt with ,[ou.gh~y dre-soodl blocks {):f' Mil qaUawru, Hmes~ol];e" A] I tJhe ,~ulhsl as wen as tbe walls above ~'he fir.st s!l,o:rey' are of bricb, the central areh and the side SJrChes are of bricks also, the arch of tfu,e, lower mihrab is I~f S~Oflil)~\.

IT'H' "E: 'F'A'" r "IMIDe, ,'" -C:,', 'n'" O,1t,;I'V

",-'~~~ ~~-' _! "I, ',',' " .ll'~

lI'1.r AL G' _.' A' 'M' 'At' - IY' - A'

1l,>1 ~ ;_~,'.,--_,--., ~ '--, _,: ,',

Th"I~, [[1:' ,"'I.I''''n;I, ... m~ .... ". "[I;' ;1)' the ~111i,:;, ... j;, "',if; ,,;!i']~'G"".'''':iifri,a.]'"1 \i''Qi

, , ,.Ill , lL-,uau J~[~ .. III.JI.J ~ Jj I t~ I{]f _~ ~~J!r!I!JI n '. ~,~.~ __ ~. lit ~

epposise the Kbonqa of B aybef;S, AJ,.,Oa.~h~lnkir behimrJ a carpenter' s sIlGP~' ils [p',art o,'f I~e dome and octagonal ,ZQ$'Ie of trMs1ri,o~ of a, little m;a,'!!],oo~e'Unllwhich PfOJec:ts '~nto lllile south comer, 'The sills of the windows of the zone of ilrnns i tion areshout ~ metre ~Jbove the floor of the shope, we enter it '[rom the shop ~hro~gh ,a, hole, Wbl(:h bas been '[0 rm e:d, by remnvi !J,g, the brick wo.rl\\:: for about a, me:ll'e below the ITILcu;lh~e~lstem window.

'The 'moo solemn is built ef bricks. 'The ,or.]li,~aJl entrance, ,ill, metre wide~ was in [he centre of the, ]ii(nl:b,'-'w~sl[em, si de, This ,lliUlliiJ'so~eum eonsists O'f three

,w'ts~the ba.'ic a1pproxlmat,ely 1m" square ru~km~Uy" 'tile second. part of the ZlO[Jt QI[ Iriarns:itiofii '1 i~f9m"in big'll; to con 'Vert ~~e"Siq~are into ,3D OC tagon, and. tb~ dome jn the ~hird ,[JM:t.

The Wll~ of ,truI:si,tiol eonsl S~ of three ()f ate

de ,i • .,,[, j,/I,. ,"' "'1 Gafari , d S' id

peri ienibv'e-s are ~liIm~ M to ()Jj:!Jat :wn t\,c"'u'~Lan ml::Syy,_1

A;m-~'i~, ,'. a _,"" b iI!.,)...i... ,~'l."",: "t'\I"!I'U~~h' 'melllld n ti ve th .. ,~, of the

'u"",a .I],1iE1..:1uUitlU-ai~ L!II.l'!;r' ,1,"'-' _.lUI, , ,il-·-'-_'-- __ I_~ '. c,~, c, _,M,,_ _,~ .:'

:SOIl them comer' ~s. ill! s i IIp'~e squinch. TheY' oons·bJi't of tw,Q' tilers of I1rnches"

A beam about 1 Oem. ~Im]re :rus, buWlt :run 'me; s;umrl.1i~, of

["~.'_'.;::;;.'_'; sourh-eastem end north-w estern '.:m·.':II.·.ill-·.I-.~_· ·~_'·_m_·.-_·EID1_·· · ... _·L.:'··:·~ .. ,.~.:;.II.\J' ... "

l:lL!k.! ~1I;r.i!~_:_-_ ....:.: __ ~IIi~.!,,~hl ,~....t~. I, ,."UiIJ,lIIiW . "~' ~,:Jj,I, wa 3 LIj ~"'M~IlJ

bellow 'the wimu!iows, and pef:iiclierrrnves"

THE' 'M··': 'A'· U' 'is':>O'':' :"'I-L' E·e-UM· · ... ·IS-:I

_--.e:::I -.:.,I__.' ' I·, : 11. '

OF,I AL'~ , ' ~G< ,A' 'F, ARI'-,-

_ :__ ' •• :_ _:____:_ - •••.• ' 1 •

AND SA,YYID.A .. AT'lKA .

.

rlJ;,"",,~"r.~~ ... ~~~~~~~,~~ ... ~~~"io~

Thesetwo maasoleums ,Me a few yards of the mosque and lnnR-shhad. ofSayyida. Ruqayya!. They contain th~ tombs, of ,M'uham,mad~, ~Ile son of the Imam Oiil·i:fm-,-Al·Sadiq,.and Atika the au ilL of 'the Prophet, Tiley include I zone of t11l1n,SII[iO'R of developed squlnehs, the style. in these. maesoleums is the first :st3Jge; in the dev,do.p:melll~ from :the shupiie squhu:;h mD the stalactite pendentive, (Fig. l3).

This mausoleum is built ofbritksl! sJi\ghtly' over 3.,:80,m. S(IUM:e. Int£lmIruUy·,., and .3 ~06m., ill, hewg;hil: ~othe zone of tfMsition i The WBUS are "Oem. 'thick and ,support a zone of transition of octagonal bit:emaJly a,ad} steped e:demal~y.', with ·trill,abaw 'window i:o eaeh f;:JLOe., ThJs zone of linlnf8:ii1ion. ,is 1,,76m., hei.p~, and is, set back 31 em., These pendentives c~m.~s.t of' Umree niches: 5.~rmoi1!DlDI~:edby one, Th~y support the sidles of the C)Clagon .. On. this QC:tagon is a dome, the greater part of th~s: dome :is a recenstrueden, on.ti)' a. sn1ailll poR~on t1as ~en preserved all the nortll .. wesl;em side, Tb;js dome.. is wilbolllribs in~l1lmaUy or externaUy,. (p:~ates, 611-68),

.51

'.

1'1 d ' ,t~

- . ,_ I: ":.",. t-: .' I-'! . iii

, );f!:, eCDfr":a, il!ilL1S.

:N(lin~ orw:b~ orig;lnal dj~DoraMlJrn~ of the :imlterior :bas, been preserved, lexceiP~ rem,ains ~rf it deeOlf,altedl1l:fijc 'b:.'lnril, 'w:l:U!icb are _OIU.na, the s~m:mm~ of t~e wa1'hi, j ust below Itiie pendentives, Two. short l,e.111,gtb of (11115, i:n,8crri,ptiOI F:Ul'Ve

b Oa;n ereserved ,nn,'e ~1iFi< ",1,.", r'''''''',i':b- ,;:'>,""'~'I<;(.Ilr- 1!.'Ii""", nftr'i<>iIi" l;rn, ,..'t.n; .·U!w.:11I.I .~,~!Ia~~I, '¥~-~', VLU,.~, ~~~ UI!¥ ,~y;~~ _! '¥V!IL!Il,I~ 11 l~_IIi~· ~lr.l~"""1 I~~ Ul~

centre (]i:fifle noreh-eastern side"

The original entrance was w:1l. the; north-western wan oppesite the :mr~h:mb in the SO:U;C'l[l~easrem'WlI,U" This

.... ri 0"1 nal Q'II'1,Ii-"':','Il'1:il!P, m- -~Iil':>'!' have ~""'II'oIl?l' \,,<:1:1 ~I",-..:I I1n ''II~!~'I'1I,6 -'" j,:i...i!iI

11j...! _ JlCl ,!I!;I~ ~i~'~~ Q~~~~ : ~ !!i4Il!i1l"~ _ ~ V ~ U~·'!.r.IlIJ_tIJ ".~._."" .ID~ U;t..r. ~ "~, ~I"~~IJII '.!ILIi.~

rua~oo~e,ynTh of S.~yyida Ad ka was; built, The 'other e~trooce ,j S opened .linl the nenh-eastem side, d~oough whicb we en ter the ,11UUl!~O,~eum,

ThJs,m;tIJusC!ll,elun i~ lilt sec O:iii d 'E[lO:~ these mlulsQ,:leums;, It ~s' O!1l tile n(r!d1-westenru slde, e:xi;u:~ly a'UQ~n:j,n,g '00, the :mmsOmeUln1 m of A~.-Ga,~':fmj, wllf!"-e tire od:ghl;a~, entraecc of A~~Ga,'!:fari mauoo!e1ilm run the ~onb- western side h~5, ~e-en walled up widl the sor(li~'i~ .. eastern w,an :~m1 S'~'fyida, ALi ta, mausol'elWfnj, w:hl~,dh

:'1 i"i ;i'io~I~Ii..:l.t:ll,i!" ,tllk;i!i me ihrab '('1:;"]' fir 1113.-,), ,_ll}!I.iIluJU~,3 !\IILl~, . _ _1.!G!i" ''" ~ 1-:-".: '~~(I' .1-:".", ,!

TIl j s mausoleum is b1i:l:i It olf lbricks. W:e, 0Ft1ter :i£ ~hmu,g~, lbe emranee in the [I,atd~~easrem, s:ide.. II~ is s:i w:ilaI' in ,every 'way except ~lh,[Lltru'l is llO~' s!lJlch, a :regul8![ ~sqlJatre.!, The: sides va:ry from t43 to' 1~9o.m. run ~e":llgUl" The do:me

oomws~ueWTh~:ly is, oval, tlU'l. I~he pgltd,end ves ru-e: kl~lrticaJ,- as also are the opelin:g;s, tu~tweem'J them, b!J~ this, dome, IU)J111 io;t:em1dly and ~t~mal,IDy'", is dlifreref:lJ[, from 'tffile dome in .AI Om,' fari ,Mauso~eumj, w:hier-e it is decorated w.idru s,iXJ[,eem, ribs in 'wlOO interior ,.d ~t rus, :fillu.tecl in ~rn '~:lerior~ b!!lJIL ilie, dome of.' .AI mGm,'fm:i, is 'W~thO'ut rilil:s, :in.tem~.lL[y of externally, (P']rn![jeS 6'9.-1Q1)~

'This, sryle is [he 'I!: ,JJ:1['11jes 1 example in Cairo, F'o~ufiatelyil~ h~:s, retaind the :grolme'r' part of US SU10CO omement, the band ,of decor,8ted Knfle ,!,]'1JS!ed.pI~:io:~:l, nsns round at the summit of Ute w~~'1 Is just be'[.ow the pendenrives, '['l1e ornament which rOm1B the borders of the trilobate wi n,do,ws,. ~nd (he, beanriful mihrab {P~'!lLe.s £'n "{'Ii)',

U~'-,~U",.'1i

~rh!e ~nU~.r,a,b:~ 'l'ilills rnihreb run, '[h~ scnth-eastern w~1Jll~ beJiill!d], the no:n:h .. wesiem wiJJl O'f ,Al-,aa,~fiid mausoleum, measures 3,,.04m. in h~]ghl ;a;m;d, '~~76m,., :i:n w,rudth.!,[Js arch 1:~ framed by 3J, glorious Kufic hjH~Clrilptio:nwitb m bowdier of beads 'IDI:ti.ng :rulQifiI,g hs, euter ed~efj asin:rujlar border fr~uliO!es each ~PDJf1tdrelli j and, tfue celrnJllie of' eacb is OCC'U!I,pled by a

fluted i ... 0 .... ~,. !f'li!l~iiJfide,. d'- b--~ 'iii !i">~ "']-11& .£'i.'f- 'I,.; ",...,...Aip ,.,1:.;,.;, 'W. '.: 'l:o,~nl,;:>i; ] ......

iIi!!;~ IUh .... "'!Li!.g iil! .MI '!!.' __ '_ __ _' _ ',if I!L '"":~,,~"" ,,,", 'U, L! ,,",n'lJi.:l<~ IJJI"", ., UuW,,,", ,l.l!

crowned by a bor-]mnild border.

C:r,eswe~l beUv:e:slhllllJg~, i'[~ u:_n.usl~a1 [lelldiend:Yf:-s 'whh:~b d~M'ly ~bQ'w il~ to be laJ~e f:ati.mnid, and 'tbma to the exactrny ,1~t~dJ e'xan1!~,1 e o:f the 11.lU~r pf.'Iovtdoo, by the mashbad of S,lllyyida, RU!qtl,yy:a~ A. Hi' 527/.'A" D~n,2J" . Ahmed F~kry ,s~gges'ts ~e fi:F,St. q,lJM1er of ~h~ tweJfdll, cefll~ury.

THE, J.1A,USOLEUM

O· F- 'S""'HA' .. - 'Y··~vH· YON"" '. ·V·iS-·

. ,.' .',,~-I,A .... ,., .•.•.. '

(PIG. 14 '& PL,ATE '71)

"'""I "'.'.- mausoleum ~ . ·L.· if' 3'~ln·-- t .... ,!,'Ik",," Iii'i, ....... ,jh ""'n~D~'d'~' I:WruS n!~I!;I::;iiIlJ', ~u' " ];5 ,lliuiQUIL. s;» um~ ~v ~u:"",, W:i'l;,il!, I,! , 'LJ!!I.lII~~I,.· ,,,_:

!Ba:b, Al-Nasr gate, '\'-Ve reach l~jsm~ul,soleUlm ~bf(md]1 the road which runs from 13 eb-Al-Nasr gate, on t~e eastern side of ~bi s road, Hassan A~dA~- \V ~hhtIJb is, ton vj 1\'00.0. th~t i~, is :~hLe mausoleum of Badr A~~jG~unallii~ OlD. the strength of' a passage :i.m~ Maqei zi, Cres;w,eH says that :It is impossible to say thst aJl the mausoleums were constructed here between I:09t! and :~ 12:5. n:u~ onewhich has snrvi ved 1:!~ '[hIt of Badr,

This mausoleum is tiuUt of bdcb, covered wiih a coating oif 'pl~smeJ:., n consists of four :pa[lts~ ;~, rectangular ~ower' p~'I:'I, fII:1e;as!!lJlri:ng 4,4:14,A,8m., side, and 4("OlS.m. ~ldgh[j the W;3l]S of the lower paJlfi are about 1 ~,20m. ~hiC:~A·b@.v'e this mctal1.I,Ij'iu' ~o~et :pan;, is a zone of transiticn :~, ~61 m, herngh~ of 'IWle zoae of ttam18.ru~ruO:[t~ measured ~I:']jro!lgb tile W] ndow ~ IG8cnTh~ ,and, or the oCUlig(n~a.l drum, ,:5·6cm,. (Fig, 14).,

The:s~epend~f.ii!Li;v'es, consist of Ith~ee n~ches, s urmounted

'b.-_ 'V_ .... ' nll'lII;;;' T·--:I..f:;IIl'-e aee four 'W'.' l'Ir;~I''''''!r~U''''~ 'I" ..... ween iII:l\-""'~;;:iI'

IIJ.J UIIII/~!II' ,I!I}_~, _" ,~ "'i~~ "Llj!llUUnFl~ ~IIJn~ .... , I~J1WV~~

pendentives, 'tbey' SUD'p~r~ the s~cles of ~he l~tl.gQn~d dram ~;61 m" ~ei:gJht, The pendcntives ~'I1d windows are identical

with those IOf AI,.,Ga.t fan and. Sayyida .AIUta.. mausoleums, 'The. nctagonal drum i uchsdes an oval windlow ~in each face:.. The dome rests (WI] t~is oct~g,o~al dFu:m~ It adds 3,.56m. to the heiaht of tlliil.e edifice, tomm. 10J~,3.m .. (.PWaJ~e '72A)~ There are two novel feafures, the corners or the ~awlew' pert alie, bevelled of(., the comers ,of the zone ocr transltlon are: bevetffied off, a third :inf:lova!tiom Isthe oval window ill '[he. drum,

There is a si mple mihrab, ~~S only decraJ1lwon is. ~. K~,t1c inscripti.on in stucco, whl c~ frames the arch and cQ]:rI~nues, a. long :dgl1t. and left 1ilmi~n ~l reaches the ccrners of the room .. (P'l.~te 72 B .J ..

The most :surpr.l,s:i.ng feature of tllilis. mat!ts()le~m is. 'the treetment or' the three recesses wlJich occU!~.Y the centre o:f the other three sides, They are covered by poii.llted arches, at ·wi.fI1·d)ow ~13J& been cut ,at !he bact o:f' the south-western recess, and. a secondary door .i~ ~be. :nOirtJh~as,'~em. one, the ,ori..gi:na~. entrance ru~ the north-western recess has been ' .• - -..J ~ ·,[art .... 11

mlUi~ ~ __ .~.,

:Ex:temaU:y there is a :m odie en -bay CQiV~d. by ,11 tm:forul arch,

'The several noveldes, tlhe: bevelled-off eorners of 'I~e~ zone of' traJm1s1tio:n, Uke those of the :MaAlWs(illeum of :Mu'lruammad Al~H.asa.waU .A. D .. j.:~ 25-50 ..

56

IT~I - 'HE- - ': l.lI' ,j,,'U'S>O' 'ILVm- ~.",,-~.

" . ,1JJ£I. .".1.' "c ' .. ,n l, .

0" IKII\V' . 'AT

:, .' l····· ". _. _' .

" I. ~.~ __ -_, _ .', " ' i..

·S'·AY':;:YI·,:" D~':N'''' "A" 'YU"' .r ·'I'S·:I']I'V

_···:.. .... ')·1:·" ""_,""','I"" I, ·- . ....:..:_.u~

About ,~oooo,. ~o the, n.ow-drY, of the remains of Lu'Lu' a mosque in the southern CemfJIDe~ is a Cl1 rious complex of several periods" known as Gami lkhwat g,ayywcina Y:!l~1\!l f~ h$facade faces iJlle :scuJ'[I1=westem, s:1d:e" bnt ,jilt. does not stand 'free, £tJ[' there ~s, an enclosure on 'the norlh,~'w~gte:rl1 side with tnm'bs 0'" me late Turki $~ pe,tiod~, and the rernains of a half demolished ~Q1l1se.~ OJl, the north-eastern side, (Fi,g. tS)

'To, reach me maasoleum from the :i merior, we, eiJl~,er.' the building tflimu,gih a door 1m the soulh-western s~de (A)I to a roomwhich 'is covered. by ,I cros8u,varuidt, ID,ea;suring :3 !'74-x :3j:~ 2m., (B).. o.~ 'tffi1e right 'il a larger room, 'W hic'~,is coveted, 'tmough ;1 ercss-vaalt. ~:t includes I, n:uhrah j 111 the eentre of its :~o~~fr:he~!dfi:IlUJ side, the south-eestera side, 3.,91, Ilhe non:~,='westem slde 3 ,,19 :~" '~he :S(n:JJt~-'weste:m, ;sl.dJe. :3 !:2:9, and the north- eastern sIde" ,3 ~5g.m. I(el, ftJi:s part is b~:i:rn't of" bricks, we: enter from t'ffilc '[loom (-0) t"o a. very Irregular 'part of the Simlctl1r.e of w~icil. the 'hI',), s (p) ,mod ,(0)'1 ~'brou.,g'll1l an~ ,ue covered by sball(J.w' dOliines, om, ,s,dle:rical-t~ta.n,,~e [,elildienilives., We: reach tb(lolllgh these

~w:o; domes to (JJ) and (K), 'W,hruch sre ,cQ!ve,reid w:ith ~unlnye~=vaJUI]:I$!. we reseh from (0)1 W (8) w\hjch ,w:s covered with a cross-vauh, ad wef:l'ea,chfrom, (f) to (E)w:ldclb :is, eevered with a wooden roof. TIle waU.s ,of (nand (K) are 'built of 'blicks~ ns well as the pffiru- eM)" the ar:ches (A)~ (B)~ and i(C).; :and, the tunnel-vault, We tlnd I[[i:}at ~he, :si1:H.~naw domes i(F)!, (O)~, ~'heir :pelde;lti.v,e, ~11~ arches (D) Md (8)" the pier (1?-) ,mind I~he cross-vault 0:[ (H) are of,c~~ s~one',

We reach the mausoleum o,f ~'khl~Viit Y ]J:5~f th:roi!iJgh 3J, keel arched door Oil [(h~ ]'lO(I~t~-{l,aS~ern s]l([te !o[ 01!e shaUow doom, (0)" 11hJ.g :!:U1!a~~o~eunl 'COISJst~ of a 5qlWar.-e lower part of bm:,aicJ(s~ which the sides ave.m:g'ei S~ 1'3m,. in :i:~Qgth, tlu~: walls ,~i[ ,4",(j;4·m" fE,om, the grnand are set fo~anj about

"'T TI!.. r- '" ". bei ;Cit: , .. .:I . .iIi£Q! b

lc:m" ne zone or tran:sn~[ln :e1ng erteered ,aJt '1'jl ~ .. etween

eachpair ,of squinches Is a, K,ee~-,~rc:hfd W~:l'IDdIOW~ Ij64u:l. ne]g:h:l. and l ,~41·4~ll. wide, (Pbl'[e '3)..

'The octagonal drum!, which is, set 'back ,JOcm~ 'f~o:m '~he outer face .of the zone of lUmlsiti.on" is set baek 3tOcm. from dle, outer face ml the qtbbru, side, and 516cm~ Ion ~he nonh-easeern side, The lentta~ce is, ill the :SOll..Wd'ru-,w'eiS.te1f,tll s.ide~ ncrt 1Qp.1Po~ru~e tillle mihraib ~n the, ~.t](rt_h;~weSlt;m side,

includes Ulf.OO mjhrarog,~, dl,e ,ce;_ll~ral mihrab 1.8, ,~:ilirgFr rhaJll me o~her8., The thl"eel1mra.lbs [arm decom.red with gloriiOius floral, geometricam de:g;~iPIsij alld, beaiutl.Eu~ Kufic inscriptlons, all U~,ese decoratlons 0:[' dTIJe.; stucco, (P~aite 74)1,

, .

The eeatral mihrah measures 4~03m .. .i.11IJ h~lgJn'i and 2! 1,j,m.

58

iu widtth and the ~ate;r,d. cnees 2,!:~l5x.l 'j.4.51D.. The sp;;umdrels are filled wltb t1.o.r,~t ~h~. wb.Olle Is crowned by an frieze wh.i:ciw. ICUIV'eS :fo~afld. v-e~sHgbtll]Y'i

Creswe]] believes '[hat the JJrob~b~e dJat~ of th[~s, mlarH~ru50leum .is the end of mhe:firs!~ quarter of ~he twe~:fllh. C~l1tur.:J.,

TIlE·" ' .... 'M··' 't\', , ·'U,I'S':- O'·L"·,E,TllI' .

. . I.. '. I' '. . . r ,. ·.'U~L'I.

O'F .. _,,~,I ___'_,~" ~AD

-AL-HASA.WATI

(mG1 )-1:\

r l_c!i'''~i

Th~.s mausoleum 15 about 60 y-aJids south-west ,o:f tll,e. mausoleum of Imam Al-S'lla.fl;:i~1 Its nonh-easrern, nerth-westem, sndsouth-e as~;e.;ID. sides stand free, trot a. WEJ]~. ~iJS been bui l!t against the south-western side, where 'i:t forms one end of t:he;co1:.1:rt:yud ef a. house (Fi:g. t 6)"

It ccnsists nf ;a cubical b ~C;i:i._ averasina 'l,~iI-m'"

- -- -' "V_ __ """I!.J!.U,~,,,..~ ,;g"!!r--~. ~ ...... 1.!.'Ii~ 'i!;:I . .;]~ .... , . ,.

i'~lte:rn:]UYi the, walls tlerung 65em., thick, a 1 Mge~cbed opening occupiesthe centre of each face, f!l:()ep t on ILh.e side of II~he mi hrab. The three arches, which are or. t IM~ (Olillif ceatred type~, measure ~!64~ 2~05:~ and .~ ~·70fll,. respectively ln !Span.

'The grolJr:ld. has risen oOI.s..iderab~Y·i' on ]Y' Ithe upper' part ,of d~e lower storey isvisi b~e; from Itile street" ~h:e lower !jt:o:n~y is ph~illJ:n. and u[Ebroken,

The zene 'of tnll.nslUo[i1 :abO've ibe cubical base i 5, set IlL ' .. ~~. 11',', ~". bout II '7' '0' ,".' ib..-', jl.'f and has ill keel Mob" ,,,. ... 1

l[:lIn.c.riLL 1.t~S aU'li..i!lU .~ j. '. m~ .1111 neJ .. g~,ll. m'L ~LS __ ...... ee :~' ._ ~

wi[JJdow' in. the centre o.f each face, ·na.~ted. on ehher side by a sl lghtl "i larger Keel-arched ~~me~ wi th. ~ shallow hoed,

61

"III"Ib.. A ,-' -- .1'". -, -, ~-" ·~1~. ',' .,I:!_, ;,), c '.,,'Il.,.,,-~ -,

.III, ne Il\IIom,e; rests on rour sqUW.!i.OJ],mli U]IG:CJi;IliY w.~ .. uOU~ II.

..Ql .... ·m-'

IWIIY'iI'i

The. ,mihmb of' this llLaU-~Q~eiilmb:lldllJdes ;3(flut~d, 'I." ., h 'I ,. lar da ~ ~'L f.'~ conen WJ'[; a I large cireu ar ~tugn. ~n uje ,cemtftel'- tr.I:l;,Cet; ot

bosses :in, t!be s,p.an;dlrcls~ and a band, of p~,ai~ed KULK: 0:0 a

c:I-., .. ~~I ..... -W J'>!lIi.'e~'tn T' [11;' ei...GfIj"Il..!l 'nliiii'!i'l'I dPiiiiil""'" tihe 'Iil'~d~~ "-1;,;r.; W' el ~

li:hIJ~v·.· '\.ri~,~l ~"-U[i "I ,IUlii~' Un.WJlU, _ ~~lhZ~il . ...:___..,~~~~n~.-~~ l! I ;-: ell! - ~ BIli '. ~ IlL.

There h= :oot an:~-! decoration i~ ihe Interior eixcep! the s:i.mpl,e bo,rders. G,f tbe., windows,

M- 'Ac' S··,:T~-U.',~I 10. ·'.IFI.

;_"~"=

-UMM-"--":-: .. -, 'K· .. ·U" L'THUMI- j' ...

,,I r ,~, .,'.' .. ' " I .. .:c:l...:

10 the south aif AbU!~M:aJn:s,u:r :~:sJma,:; il mau soleem pi" ,about a hnndred yards is a turningto ihe dJght called street ('lit" Sidl Shab:i,~~ On ihe (~otlli,h IS:I de, :ilurned:i,~tl;!r a.fi[;er turni Qg, !:nruDi~l:i is a llu~e m~ulSlo~e:u m, o:f mean and modern ia,ppemrr4nce wil~b m, ,flat roof supported by ['GUt columns. 'Tfd:srnau.so:llellm contmi ns a be~'[Jl]'ri.d mihrab 'O:f'iii'[!]CCD~i~ the :south .. eastern s:!ide, to. the same W,IU theee are two other plain I::ud,brabs;, elaced to Ule fj,~bt and :I:,e:fl of the; main

LI • ,~. _.

mihrab, (Fi,g. '~, 7)..

TIl~ odglrnil, remains f).,:r t~e mausoleum, M~ o:n.ly In Uu~ !ilo1!m~h,-easmm waU" with its, tlh.r-ee; milhmbs £fffig., 1'), C~wlee'i sug\g~;l:ed fie.conslmJtion :for the mJlusQ'leuult[ili the Fatlmid period, (f1jjg, 18)"

'fffim main :mHll1lrab in, t!1o cerJiib!e of 'the, ,sotwth-eastem 'WaH is one Oif (]be mosr :1llat1,It~fi!cel1.t ,S~UlCCO mwhmjb~ wtlj!c~, .

'~'""I!'>~ ereete 'de in I!,'''',~ ~J"'I,j;.~i'm~d- IrlP'II,,..i .,...;1. lJ,t, ,"n'Ac'ille~c of 'I'~,.ti, usua nl on "'ll;~ ~L ~ I. . 'l I.!JJ LI!;I"1 ,~J~_~,_ _~ _ ] r{~ ,1,lKjl!l ,[1, IJ.IU,~_.IJI!hlJilI:!i.~1 u·· Ir_Wl~>~ . _ !;)!~g~

hel~li\r~~ wlt:dcl1i obvwoudy was once fllianbd by a, pmr of small Cil;,WIUD1iS:, Ti ,rns ercwned Ituroru:gb ,a flurted s~u~u 'bod"

It is decorated with gllolfto'U s :(1(1]",31, geern -tJdcW d.eswps.!! ,aBet be.autif~l Kufie in~c.ription.s~ (Plhllte 15).,

Creswell believes that the ,probable dare of thi.s mUuab is A. 1Ft 5;:~ 61.A~ DI, 1122.

T'.. I MAUSOiLEUM

,OF Y,AHYA ,AL .. SHABIH (FlG. 1') (PLAT,E 7b)

Abou~ 2jlOmli bJ. the souttl, of 'the Immll AI-Shan OJ i maasoleum is a curious 'b'UUdl,n,~: whi:,c~ 'con si sts of ,9-

ded ;,~", ~d ,. 'b i14. . 'h

,SlqU!lIre :SU!W11UU]]lK" om, mree :Sl.es in ~~ te souta-eastem, Lue

north-eastem ~ and t~e scml~h .. wc;s:~,ern sides byafiL amb~latQJ~ll~ wltilil which :i (, om;nmlUJ~]caJles ~h:ro:u,gb a Keel-arcbed opening in, 'tile centre of leach side, t!he north easiern side opens brm an annexe, ~.he w.hG~I,'e,oo'm'plex meMILI[leS about 26!01", ,i [II wwdt~ Rd, 13m., ,in depJ~h~

The present entrance (A) is in 'the western OO('l,eJ" (fig;, 19) j' beh:~i1d, at shallow recess covered by a, ~'refoH ,arch", There is 8\ room {B] w,hicJh has 'been. added to Ute soulh~w~"t!u.n side, Close 11,0 ~It il!t (N) is the arwcientmi'hrab"

W,e, deseeed three stePJ; to' reach the e-nltraIDit:e~ as tb;e gw,ound. basrlsen and with. twomore steps, 'we eml®er the south-wesrers anlbu],~lO'ry. nil the :riig;ht js a door th:at~~ads into the room on 'the :Ie:f;[ is a. wide. Keel uchedl lopening that leads ,~n:to! the mausoleum, and im, front a ~~. arch oil)t~,ns b1tO the corner bay of'dle am'lnllatory,;

'Tbe dome~ ~:be morlfl,,'western side is divided "ilto three :K,en.~'HC11'~d. p3meb! of 'wibicb the central Oliil:e, iswid.et,

65

Ulan ~:hereSlI~~ t~e olther :s[des: have a w~de; Keel arched :p~'I'['e'l~ 22ctll, deep, ~!O the :riig:,hl and ~eft~ we obs:e-rve a. pla~n woodea :fliicze~ 31 em, tai'\oad~, with runs all ronm)il:t amlot~er ~~;ain and, sW:igtmtl.y III arrowe:r' w00deu :f.rie:ze crowns. the s~mmi.t o:f th~ four wmm:Ls;,.

~:mmoo~a.itely above it is die zone oftr31l.8idol (P~aJre 7'1)~ me9!8ur.i.ng .J..,,2J6m.. in height, the pe;n.d:erruU.ves aind. the windows, of ll:ruree lights between them, 'B:-lnema~Jy t hcwever, the 'l~e~tment of the zone or transition is stepped, '0':0 the zone of lran:s~tio[lj the dome 'willhoU'l a dmm e. (Plate 17) The s(]u~h ... eastern ambl],atory", whiruchi.s, in 'the :foo-Itt o,t 1he rnihrah is divided lrn1Jto five parts (FI,g. 19) .. The cennal part run :from~ of ihe main mihrab is covered Wilt. a dome

2· 4'0 '" d' . 1 n[ h Y- .,. 'I 'I' '~, "::m" m, 'Ullll,ei~er,~ ~'i.td a .~e:n:gt .. 0',.' senneeeuar IlJOlfl]le,~

vau~~~ng to r,iJ:~;ht and left, This dome .rese,mlJles the maim dome in. oUI~~:i ne~ 'bUl. i~ ws smooth ·w1thi.m arnd. W.iVti,Olllt. I~

."~ .... 1-,.' fL. ·~I·~r" ... AI

rests en sunuar pencennves, Wii:I}C~;u are ,.~~.wru~~ stepped

e;('llemaUy" bllt t~e, w.ilidows between ,~e fil.O~ druvid:ed Into Ilhree :lwg]JJls"

The~ MU[f,ab!i.: Thereare three mihl:\a],s~ one ill each ba,y of the SOu~l1J-~lern. runbu~a'~o:ry., TIlle, msin :mwbralb wn the; eeatre (Plate ",£I) measures 4;~:8Orx2, 15m .. , Mt lias no OUW,F rr.aim~ and (be r.m~s. whicllil radiate from a central cruf.~u]ar des;~gn~ are not deeorated, blllt me,oo ,He four eoncereric raw,s, Cif' 'HuJ~illlg: rouad the. edges, The iater,al mihrahs measure ] "O,9x.1 128:. They .have It~ conceutrie rows of na'ling;s. Th,ey are vel} mferlor to tllem~mlld back an O!UID~e:r

ITBJme, Their oUI'~'~:i.me forms a prnncnnced lGee].-arc~ ~ill::'e ~hat of tne main m,ihr,ab.

'1'1be outer sid!-t of' the !1oWt~eas:tJer:[I ,Mnbulato:ty is formed by all ;3Jr.cade of thwe Ked atlcl1es resU~g O~ two columns. 'TheY' ()lJeIJ 'imUtt a :rec'la!lllgtdM space, meas~ring, about 1 Ox1 ~3Qrm which is di vided intlo, three ;amih~;s.~ 'We enter its :tloor3 8:c~n., height ~bl~Q;ljJgb two steps, n is, covered by a flate wooden r(j:o:f:, wHb a wlndcatcher over tfue eemral part, (Fjg" ] 9).

Cresweel suggested reccnstrsction for themanseleum If.! the Fati mid period, (fig,. 20).,

Van Berehem has, suggested 't~le twelf:u[] oentury A, D" for the date of' 'this mausoleum, Its pendentives and ~~e, w~ndo'w:s of three 1ighl:s between them b~inlg identical witllil l~ose ofthe Mausoh3~"J:m of S~,yyidaJ, R uqayya A., B" S271A.. D. t 1:],3., (Plate 79),

Cresweel stlgges:ted the second quarter 'Of the tw,eUtll 'Celtli~U:ry'.

6,,",' . I

"r

T'> MADSOL,E,UM OF AB'U AL~Q,ASJM At-TAYl'l1

(P,LATE ,.' .' & FIG"I ,21)~

thlsmsuscleum is ,ll 'f.e.w:Y,Mdl'i of 'the mausol eum of Y:al~ya Al-ShrnJb1h., It Is, butlt of' bdck1~ measarlng 37x ltOcm, ~~pM~rlJdy made ~)f a, mixmre of m ud ~l~d sand, :1"1 'COli.S]Sl'S, iOf' a square dome, IltVGr:a,grung .3 ~'7] m., i side [_nl~mllall:y and ,I Bul,e over 5m, ~:xtema'I[y'" wi~h :[0 open m,Lt;ti in the centre of its aorth-westem and south -eastern sides" lWl the mlor[~-~;Ths:~erm,~ and, south-western sides lfie;re, are rec tamJjg,u.~ar recesses onJy, 25,cm, deep Dud a, :1 ittle orer ,3: metre wide, with :rn,u.gb wooden lintels,

Above this sq lUIJ'C is, Ilbe zone of uansltion, 'whtch

~ -

CO[b s~s~s of four Keel-arched squinches '[0 convert the

'. .' "'III"1i"," r ... '. '. 0, '1' 4!~ 'I',

square hun ;!U1, oct~80'mlIJ" ',W,llru:s zone 0': tral1SltIon ts ].,om .. .JIll

height, Among these ,S'quwndtes there are Keel-erehed panels J ml. (he, south-eastern, ll'orltJ .. eastern iln.d, south .. western sides, but in tile no,:rti1,'""wes,tem s,ide theareh, ~s open, ,fo:ooi:ll,g a 'W i Idow., Above thIs octagon 'we :fW:nd ,3J~ octm.gon,~l drum, 1 ~35'1iml.. ~n bejgh:r:! wbjilc:h is converted i nto a elrele 'by eighr ,embryo pendenrives, Its sides are pier-ced. by windows of ilhree Ug;hts.~, eaeh two v!em-,f marro,w Kee~=,arebed, epeni ngs :W"e surmoumed by ,~, c~i,re!dlu' one, (Pl~~:e SO).

69

Above l~js octagonal dru.m we 'find. ,~, clrcular drum J.~, ~.3, bTh heigJ~t with dgh~ round arched windows, The upper edge of this drum is dooorated. w~:th a.iband iO:f: mlS:kh~ . . ilujcrip[~oln.

Above this clreular drum rests ~be dome, A~[ ,above the zone (lif tfansitiulh the ,oct'a:!~};OfliJal drum, theeireulac d:ru:m and UU~ dome ,[lJre n,n! ielrl'iier ~bajn ~f:u:e fourteenth century,

(Flg.22).,

70

'T' U' 'E MA" "U' "S'O"':LvUM

,,' r~-.::.:"'_::_:,_,,~,,,_~·,:~, ,,~,_,,".,l',

OF ABU At, GU'A'DAN"" FA' R'"

:_- -.~ __ : ::,.1, ".:_"'~_'" .'_ · .. :.'.·"n~,'-": _',.I: .. .-:·, ..... - .. ~.:'.'-.':"I :'._'

(PLATES1)1

This mausoleum is in the street of sidi-Mu' az, We reach :it through the street of A[~Azbar:~, on our' d,gb~ when we p~.s'S. from the gSltt,e of' A!,-,~arq'iy,a, to the mashh ad, of Sayyidna al-Hu sayn,

This mausoleum was, bu ilt above the, mausoleam of Sidi~MijJ"az~ aecording ~o ,aJ Kufic irnlscripti,on., It was erected by the, Esnlr Abu Al .. Ghadanfar Asad AI~,:fa:iili A]=SarnJ~li :I,[J A., H. 5521 A.. D. 115;7.", in the dnH:~ of the Fatimid Khal if AI,-F:a:! iz, ~~ Is one; of ~h~ nest Iilla,gn~'fic:e~t Fat] mid. bu Hdi ngs wb~ch were erected, In the Fatlmid period, al tlllough rt is, a small building,

It C01DSISts of .s~:i,ghd~l oltdong .5 !,SO~,6m,. anddm, in ~elg~t. n is bui,~'t ,or bdcks, A beve this obleng 'W'ei :Iffi,nd the zone of 'tfms;itio~~ There is a window ,of three ~:ig~~s between ~he pendentive!!, of the short sldes, and ,8, window of si.x, Ughts on the ~o:llg sides, The stneeo ,griUes of six .. Iight windows :alJ:e :p~e:roed,wid-~ from four to Icighl nnes of N a.s:khi bl'SC[.iJl~wo:res~ ,coll:sisthiiJ,g of SJem®ellce'g; from the QIlJ.mm and the Hadilllh~ except one, which says, them the dome was: bu~ ~[ :i,~ t~e ]f,e.' .A. H; 816'9,. A(iCi):rd~ng to AbC!. a.i-RahwfIJ[Jj Fahmy, Ailld al-Rahman :F~bmi says, ill his

71

search thal[ W ~e~t~ Cres'~t?I~.ll' ~lIld Ahmed Pikry dec lded that date wrn lh numbers, ,A. H. ;8ei~ hUll the dl;hi~ date is A~ ,8, '869 .fn tih,e period oil lfIe Mi!1nril]~k Sultan Khush ""Kadaum.

Creswell believes tin'lt IDmJy ~he ,millue[ in dlb~ man oo]eunl be]nng,S to the Fa'~~nl~d period il A" :R" 552l A" D, • .! 151'. Abd=,I\,'[=,RalbllUmI, ,[f,mmllY believes 11l1M [be ,dMe A",

U o..:;:n 'I .Ib, ";j, ~ 'd" 114." d ~il n. bQ~!" meaas ~_l:~U !;!l;i~: '!dIiome ]3 restore in b:~~:S :_:a:~,e!1 ,[Ln.'i,JL

tb,e mausoleum be1ong~ '[0 'lbe end 'Of me Fatlmid period ill A. H~ 5,511 A., n ],1S1.

It Is bu~ I,t of bricks and !cons,i sts ,of a square !iiJafl measurmg a.bau'~ 2".50m" ,8. slde and 12j,7.fJ in beight~wbi'ch terminates ~E1 iEtDJJ OC'[a;~Ollla~ ~lat~onn, (PihlOO 82) iD'1l :CQlUf;"' OOam:s.A.bo~~ thls oct~gon~l ~la:trooo is Sie~ fin I()CW,g:Oin,rulJ S~Qfrey! :'lJJlj'm,. ~[ID dlameter aid ~2~i50m" ill. bei.g~! wUli. a, tall ,ope:ni'lmlg: In, the c.~~trn 10,[ each. Above this 100c~goru!1~,s~o:rey 'W\e flndan ee llll~ollJi3Jl dmm." gO em, in 'b,£;ight: wlU:J a. trefoi ~ openi fJJ,g: ia each side, A.bov,e it iillJ, ftu~ed dome 'of Keel-arched au.t~ine whIoh ,]S' Ibo:ruJ~ 1 ,~,:5()m~,. in h.e~:gtlt, The total .i:ts:i,gtiJt is abo~~t 17 iSGro"

The ,en~rilJ:~ce 'I s in the, south-wesrern side, and tie s(,ee.p,and larrow s~:Mrca&e mns round '[!!lie sldes of'tbe 'ttru[erior~ Therels a small windl.ow 'in (hie nerth-eastem ,and SOllJtll='wes~,ern sides~ The sq[uU!e sbdt is decorated ill1 ~he nenh .. easrem si,de, wilfu lJWO flu,LOO!, Kee~-are~ed panels IftX8CWlt'Bd i n ~J[UC.DO~ The flutes radiste from a :limoU Kee'~~',~rc'h.ed panel, (Plate 83).

72

C--H"- A····P·IT···E··'RI T1H"'RE'1 -'E"

.1 ..• ~, .. ,.:;, '. -l __ -\_.:..:_

T,RE F ATIMID'

MIL' "'··~I~·T: -A········ R' .... y ..... r

__ -_ _ _ ., I,. I .. , ,.

'T.HE W,ALLS

ANDI G:'-:' 'AIrEl' . ',,'S, :,'

': · .. ·-.1·',,·' I I : .. ',_

Gawhar ·~bu:nded. the walls of Cairn of bricks. The 01lJI ~rne or 'lhes~ walls: was I. :fa~rly regular :rectarru,g1e 'measurin,g about I, m Oo.au., frosn east to west and about

nll"'ij,(\o· 'llin .1C''''' ..... n;r; .i1i ....... i"'!I...... ~''''''" south 'T'b.~,~"" , •. ~"". P'l" in .... 1 uded ""'1 c·iIi.,jl

~ ~ ~v '~:~-!!'il ~ ~ '~i,1i ~:~ ,I~U,I, LI]; 'LV i!liv - ,1J.~1111i .L l~ 1~iJ!'!;o -ri" iIP.!IJ~J!~oil! ~J~~' uu ~.~ !bo\_,~~~~r~

,gij;res~ as fo'ilmows: in the InQ(rth ·w,a~:I •. (hllb A~~·FtJtluh. and. 'Dab Al-Nasr, run 'U:ae south wmH the double-arched Bab zu:w,a!y'~a!, In. the west wmU Bab AI.~FaJra,g and the Sa'ada, mn. the east 'WaH :8 ~Ib A].-,B"arqiya and 13 ab Al~Qmadn,

None .of' these gums ex i sts to-day; 'l~e,. were replaced by halter g,ates, when CaJ:i:ro, wa~ enlarged by Badr A.·~~lGann3H. .iml i~~e period oflhe raJdndd Kbalif A~=Mlstmnswr BI .. :nllah,. ·So.me of'lililese gale:s w,em replaced 'b~ S,a[ab Al-Din .ill the Ayyubid. period.

Three of tilese: giaJtes .ifepiae'enl~rntB SI[11 ~rn. ,exlsl~ and am 'W>fSU known" B ab .A ~ .. Nasr, 'W'as I[ite. flrst. of' these ,gru.\es,. 'It. was erected by Badr Al-Gemal i in the n.eW' walls In A. H. 4801 A. :0, 1081'. B,ab AI-FutUlf:aI!, the second g~m 'was erected j,rn] ~ s~i:WIe yeaill' s: H" ·4-g01 A" 'D'.. 1087., Bab Zu wayia. tille. th~rd .g,alte~ W,as ereesed W~ tlhe year A" H" 4851 A .D,. ] 092 ..

'J'5'

I .ll

They were rebu U:[ by ,Badr AJ-{jam~.il in lite f.'aJM:nWrl period, B,ab A~-'f!utU!1;1 .in tile O!!I!~ !of the :Iortlilem 'wan and Bab ~w,~y~:a rnn the, oelWe o:r the southern wan. 'w~re Ilhe greatest ,gwte:s: in ~lhe time ef Oa,wh,ar. These were [.\1110 main foads:: one 0(' them divided Cairo illJoo t.wo ~m1s from lfiIorth ~o :souUll~ and ~ij:[Ulected ~he hVO getes, The ether road d~iv:ided, ICm ro ~ [I~O Me. parts from east ro we.st This road Js to Ute. mort~ of the mosq ue of AI-A:zh!IkC. [t eonuected B'lilbm,A~-,B,arqiy.l, in the centre 0'[ the eastern wall and Bab-Sa'ada in 1 he ,ce]lml~, of the: western 'w~i~t (Fig, JL3)~

Badr AI-G~!m~d] :fiQiU nded 1iI,e; new W,3!~ I!s 0.:£ bricks and ~HO'nes:; a part of 'these w~al]:s was bU'i~'[ 'with ~dckB~ and .l;lle gl"ea:IDes,~ :part was, ~\Il'n[ with stones. We observe 'lfua~, tile remams ofthese fil,eW!.~ w,aUs are in the pan wffilkh connects Bab AI-N~sr and Bab al-Puruh in t~t nerthern waUt, and another part ls about I OOIm1. I~O the west o:f: :f!,oo,...A 1-1~\'ill:Ul.illh+ WI~ ,~~~O observe ,rnJ, !~Mge passage that runs on the surface of'

the ;:; .... cond ,ijol".ifTilrev ~n eoneec t these W'Ii NI'-l['! Q'I!1I;..;I t ;L'a, 1i"I''l,j'i]''O T··· L.. ..... !,I,!L !,'l!~,._ 'ilI~,'V __ J ~ .... '''''''''''~~!'!I',",. . U~"'" . __ .Q~, ili RlI~1U. jU,..,: 6'a~~,. "l,~

fl'" ~;Ii'\d· ,,,,,t.Fllijj"l'I;~ ~"" f!iii;"l' ,n!rw!'iffil ",,'L-vIH h"';1!1 ,,,,t''"'''reu LI,l :~_llllL_1 - I -.3!L,Ili.lIJ,!L;I,J' .I~ 'llIllrlll ur,_lIlw aA:J" w.illl.~{~ i2IllU I J'"

nadir' A.[~(filanThaU ereClt~d, I~~e, new I[h.roe ,gaj~esBnb At~ N'asr"1 B,lb A:~,~]~7u.ttdl 10 tl1e northern waU and Bab Zuw,ayl~ inltie 8:011them w~l,of steaes,

The h~~!mry or llhese three ,gates:: These ga~es w~re ~tlI!nthm rhe period ,or' the: Kh~Uf' A~~M~sm;il11is:ir. There wasa ·co~ll1iec~wO'n between the erection of these ga.'tes. and the political events of this period. The middle ,of ~he re~~n Off

tile F.a;~ilitDj;d K:haillif ,Al-~!Jstll_tlSir' B,i~·lnaJh (.Ai H:,. 421"481 A. D" .~ 035:" 1 (94)wa~ madood. wiJl~ ,~olllb1es, whic]] nearly

,·~··-ded.. . .. a ,C~"i".n~et.e IdJjsa.sJ~ef' andJ :mllii 'b·.e:lDi·l·.Iii'ii, ".-.-'"I'1Ii.. ~'L:-

ell_ _ _ lrl! -'"""~~'!r - - - --_ .. _ - - -- - - _. ---J . -!et ~~ WhJl!.l we

'~t~"'llean~ fin:an'Ciml o(leLrations of me W;a!~r A1= Y,~zuri A.. D.. 105"O-:ru ,05::8,. These treubles were foUow'oo, by a. :iow' N.i le, :fimline" and. them plague, The ef~orts, wl:dcil1. w~re about A .. D. :~05j. topurchsse two :mUHon bushels of grain from Co:miluliillllH neple 'wm~ not successful, and ·1 ;s,lJ<uggJe berweea :111:e Sudanese troopsatrd I[h~ '1'urks ~~dled with the triu m .. p:t:J o~ the Turks", .AfID~r this trnJl]mptJ ~ the Tu:d~s "became unmanagesble, and Iooted the 'pa~ace;~ drn'ai ned 'Ii;e' ~re~su.ry ~ and Lr,ealt~d the Khalif w:i;~b CCHl teno~,t Ac.oo~ding '[0 the h:iSlm~i;aJil Al-Maqriai, there 'Was, another '~OW' Nile in A a. ·D a. 1'065, anda f~1n~ne ensued aflU the low N ile, 'wh[cI~ lasted, untll .. A, •. D~ .~ (}71, reducing me wbo:le population to the greatest mimI)( .. In. A.D. 10"13, however, a good harvest pi!IJ~. an end to '[he famine, ,I~d, the Fathn~d }ChaJi:f" .AI-M·llstamdr· aE the same timesent ferBadr Al."Gam~di;11l. ,Amlenhm~ .Mam~.Wjkt who hmd. risen '[,0, hi,gh O'f:r~c:e ~n the Syrian. warm~, and. has s,u0ces:s11:ruUy ·''O'Ugbt. the I[udl:s ~:ntil be was 'lb;~ !most: famUII!J8 General In ,Sly.ria!. At that time he was the (hJ¥UllOt of' Akka, and 0:n1:y acceptooliJe :lFadm~d :Kham~'f AI~:Mu.s'tans:if!'s ,IPpea~ O~ oO(filid~~i:Qn tnalt he -was aJ:~owled. loo! brin,g tri s Syrian troops witb .himt He lenteJied. Cairo on Gumads '.~ wrn. the year 465J .J.~ feb e. 1:0173~ Hebecame WUlr.of' the :Fa,t~mid Khalif .Al-Mu8tus~r:,and 1.0 the year Ai. Hi 4801 A. .. D, ~!OS1 .. he decided (0 take., w~ IpG3 hw:m:.u~]f '1:0 rebuild lie wal.l.s,_d. tffiIDega]es of Cairo "Wb~clh 'were bu Ut in

11'

I[he time of' ~be F,'atimjd K..~aU:r AI-M:IJ.~'izz-'L,i-JDin-IUaJh, (Abu;-'Trun~m :M:m:1 add,) by l1ffis J..nimeMlwwst~r 3TI.d, commander-in-chief 'Q.awl!lar A~-K,adb .AJ .. Siqilli, and enlarged Cru_ro~, He ~unt th.e 1l!.~W' 'waUs, of' bricks an.d sl[ones~ and btl ilm fie new'games of S®OI11L,eg:.

'These g~JIDeS 'were ori,g~,laUy cl g'l~t ,~rI, ~fue dmie, of '13 aar' A:~=Oam,~~i, but. om]y thN~ of them. ha,ve survlved: Bah al-Nasr A., H. 4-8:OjA, D!, 'UJ:8:1~ 'B,2b .Al~F!UllUlIJ ,A. H~ -480',1 ,A" D. 1081'" and l!he: B~b Zuwayla A. M', 4851 A,,, ,DI. 10'92.,

78

the enclosure <Q:f the :Pati:mwd Camire; by .B,adr' A]'-Gmm.8J]·i,~ U eensists of two great square towers, 11~:nldn,2 a. glorious arc bed ga:[eway 'w,tdch is set back Lk54:m..(liom their fr'Ow:lJt face. :rllt wli:io~e .g~'[\eway measures 24ft22~rn;, In width I 2i[)~47'1I1. in depth, a:nd, 20~89m ... in he~i.g·bt The squire ,gate,w.ay (,ower&. are brullt in tbree storey,s, the 1[,\'1.10 '1:0 we r of them are sol id, 'It!!e ~o,we[' silorey ls ,til) Im, In heiglb:t, It consists of sb::u~ie;.Il. courses of fi ne m asonry, a series of columns let into the wall as a band between the ru.b~le cere ~d. 'the enter faces of dressed stone, 'Illilie second storey mcludes ill Knfic :i'[[scrl~,t[on carved on the Inner face of me west tower, A [\ema:rtahIJe cloooral:h:m appear,s imJ the form of three shields on the 'front IOf each roiwer~ a~d

""',n~ iIf'O'n-- ~'''''''';h' ,,,,,,Ii' j.:b..<o;;. ;['j l"d!Q;j['O l'!j,ioli;Vt- '[-,iIb.,~ 'O!ii,por;~"IW~\IJI'!IlI,' T' - ... .;;:>, .... '!li a,;e.it>'"

U'llhl'!r." u., 1 ¥~~. vI ~I_~ ~l_ Uf~a! :J..~,~A.t. Il~_~ RL'IW{I,I UJ ijl " IlIl}II!..i' U ~~I~

:ha:vi'c ,a, eeatralboss, surreunded 'by Knobs ,aIt-ang,ed, :in. a_ ~i[cliJlleI1'O'Urncl, :ilt~ At the .swmmi~. of th~:s Sioorey' Oil tbe :fmnit and inner faoos, there is ;a. glo:r.i:onsKIImfi.c. dati Wil: bilscnptiOI1.; A. bove this Kwflc: iillsai,ption, It~er-ois, a curious CO'I1lI:Loe wb_k;'h is decofiav~d 'wi~h a b~flid of shnpLe o:rnaUlemlt., "C mwrd s:ro!['ey Is ·1,!6S.m. iII h~igh~ and ,oonsi s'~sol' e'gti~een. courses,

Tlie I~lteway: 'The gaoor-way is se~ backaboue 4,54lm. between the tW10 rower,s, lit is serroundedwlth a, decerative rec;tlmJg~e frame, 'The ,greaJt ,o~~er ,~ch off a ~tilted, semleirele rests 03 ,3, bold m,Ouldirum1Ug. The ,aocb~s: decorated witffil achevron, and the shield ~s, decorated with ,I ,geometrical motive, The ,[(ulle d ~tlng ~ nserlptien ,3J~d the eomiee ,all. 'the !;llllnrrut of the second s:oorey of the towers :ND across, jmmediaJte:]y aJbove ~11J~, recta.ngu]ar frame of the gm~at arch, Above ~his, ru:s & flat reHe'V~ng: areh of V0:U ssclrs, Above this a.g:affill j 5: the parapet of three courses pierced by .€:live arrow-ali ts and ca{p:poo !by I b6ve~~ied coping: :~us:h. whit the facade.

Creswell ,says:: ari.gruruaUy tlhere was only one course above ~be :l1a:~, :reli,evi:llg: arch, horlzon~~, :.d:u.lv'e and below and on ~'t rested :fl ve crelTIteUaJtlon~!, Ole change was doubtless made in 1 ,800~'t ,

Th· l j' iii,. 1... ,-,·,"~:hW .. - ~:"',~ ,-, =~:,-'t S1';;'itted

. ega; :eW,iW" set: IOIe"';' w~,~_ wn 'I,u~ ,grea, ~!I.!!! '

remJ~dKTIIM' arch, It is llro;per 4;",.1'!6m. j;1 widdt and 16~4',lm, in: heig~n, It is sPIBJ~I,ed 'by a horimntitl aroh of :i1fte.en joggled vou:g,sorur;~L Albove dMS is the first ]'\eJ]i!evin\g arch, horiz(j:nc~d o( seventeen youS'filoiu,. Above ~.t is a second r.e;~]evll~,g ,iRd'DJ i(),' le:~eve:n VOlI!Jss~Wrg!., Above '~~ I tympanum is, d~'OOd by a pll~el ~h~'ti~clud~es, a, fi~e K~fic

~II1I'CI~;;.i'II!'Ii"·lO~ '1i'iI, nf' ~!It.]\\I!I;ii!i; ~]"nii:!l;", 'n ii!iI,]·,iNl[lIl~ "ir ~i:!' eanel ~"" !'IlI, 1ir'ilJljn"..,I1 I ..... f ,1~~>lI!"'~,J:I!F'L, ',.I~ 'v, I!i!llL """" ~ _"_ . !i;;'3" Il' ..... ,!I.,IW 1~I.W~03; r!a ~" 1.0 ,Ill, 1lJI1lII1~1JI!, u

Kufh: wnscdption carved, i(lin the upper re~ie'Ving Hrch,.

A~·'·'·'- ~!"","!" , 1-'· "1, p;Ii··c - I -:; .(- ·1fi'C ~~ '~1'm wide, ,:HiJlillid

• !l!Jove mIg lP_e, ,~S iii! VellL!l,C~,~ opem~_g, J~ = . .' . ._ . _.'

3Sc:m", dee~',. w~~ch ,NflIIS, Up' andcomes out .JIUSt 'oo:h~~d, th!e

:par.~et. The remaining part .ms. dl vided j nto five l~peWllm~, by 'fo~r' [.r·rul!~v.el.g~~, •.

Immedi ately ~elruif;ut. the i.~l~e is a rectangle bay 2,!9t4~,

. -

long and 5,!OJ.m. ·w.ilde, covered bY' a p.laim semielrculer turunel .. vault, r mmediately behind. this rectangle ~a.J is another rect;~U!l,g'~e bay 1 O~,'11'111, long ,SIJr.d 8, 11m.. widle~ covered wit]} (It glorious cross-vach. To the ri~ht and left. below the ''Y''~JlJI t is. .~ tall narrow rectangu lar m:i che witha senri-dnmed head, wh]ch rests Gin two small spherical trlan .. gile:s decorated Wi.i~h a. conch shel L

]3·ehind. the eastern tnwer i 8 a massive o:blo:ng: tower, h contains a final spiral staircase ] ,65IU .. wide, perhaps the fi I],es~ ever ~!!l] !.~t for' ,3] mi ~Jmilly :PIU rpose leading to 'lha,

. .

plrufomrl overthe vaulted road way, The original e~il~ro.noe

10 the staircase is iDl the south side of thw$. tower, but I~ has been w~tedl up, now we reach Mlis stai rcase by :II. door 'O[!J! the western side of the, vauhed passage ·w.O!:y.j arrived Oil the platform, which is ~ 3~54m. above the sill, Lfhe main features of' thl,s. level are the upper Uwhds ('If ~1'iJ!~ :gateway [owen 1.j6.5·m., WWlJ height :llve openings run the fleer between (hem" '~O\mman(!],lin,g the outer face of l~e gate, fadng!. a parapet, and a grealt S:I'O!l1e' f,ll mJtform by the 'lop o:f ·~he. VElJu.lted bay ,and. '~lJe massive s.ides wU~rncJlJ efford aJ:nj~m~llt to ito Creswe] i 8ay.s,~ the ~ultm1Pe't '\'!ihic~ ]~, IPruerte~d w~th five ~ITO'W slits is ~illit ofilighu!!)~'j 'for the iU!J;J8b",~.u:i'OliiJJ iFil ~he description del' IEJpt shorws that there were o.rlgln.aUy five crenellations here, These were r;em.ovecill, ·as well :118. th e course below them ..

I

.

"B- AD' · A" "L' 'mTTrJrnf

" !: .. -.!-.~ _ ;", ,,- •• ; I .-iiiF1lJ ~ un]

_ G -

.';, !,'. "":, ._. '., .... I er . .-' '-- ':

(Ft . ~. ,25 AND PLATE SCi)

T!1:.,e "!.w • .;!'·hnl- Ii=> 1'II~;::Ii >;i·I:'U I''''~' 2" 0. £m' j: ii'ii '~'i/' .;o~~,'L., J"j; ,.;:: 2-' 2c - "-

_. ~L:.I!·'!.-!'. y ii~J",,~ _ ' ... -;,ij;';'~-(JJ, .• ,~:U1oTWUILU,1 4-.;J.j::__'_-HL :1111

d!e;ptlt~ and 22~33 in he;i,g,ht from the origin a] ground ~e¥e[ to, the ItJ')P of the ere neller lens, This .~a1e eensi ~'ts of two areal towers, These lttwers ar-e oblong wiUl, rounded fro nt s and are net di v.id~{i ex 1!6rtHi.I ~y into storeys, They are 1~58m,. wide, 'nb,e :~tru:~ght sides project 7,,5lm,;, 'from 'the face (if lbe wall, The max.inn.um p'ro~e<c:t]om measured '[(I the e~gt.:: o:f [he founded front! wni;ciri is formed. by a segmental of a ci rcle (Jl11l,y~ instead of boi'~1 .semidn:;u lar in pi ~;~~ms '9!.26m,. dow~ to rlle of.ig.inal grmrnd-level, If was found tha.t '~3C-h lower rests on a :[\eC'~:aI]E ular pli [1,rll about 70em,. heigiht! su rmounted by (11 .. mmdd:i.n.g whjt~ adds. 34c'm"1' The :s:pace between r!:he rounded. fll'Ql)ts, and ~he CC:nlM'S of the ~ :p]'j mdhs is, COV1~ by' glaeJ~ of ,douJb1e .sruope, a :ww of stone 'cillrcles ~b!Ju:l O.,OO~ tA5m. a:p~ ftUl~:f.I,g' oollld the COi!;M~r at the sa.m~ ;~eve] '0'1'1 bothrr-c·~~~ and sides, ·W·~· &00 Ith,e;er:IJds of ~e ·c'O·1 urnns, let i~ as :9. 'b()Wld betwe~~ the rubble CQiJ'i'e· ~l11d dile .fa(;ilfig., Each block oj! stQ[!,~, thro~,ghr-ou~ lids, 1:t3.9, .a sUgb~ :beVi~W of' l em,

The lower part of erIlC~ tJQ,wer is decorated with three' gJo!riou s arched panel s, one on each side ~rn1d1 one in f~01rlt

The '~o,wer m:;m of this recess, 'rus, ,I lied by' ,31, bev~Uoo course, The 'W!p:per ,11M, of eacih Ilower ls pe:rfm::~ly piml throlJDglb. three :mo:w,·,s~:it'S:j' each, set :in, a ,s~~nOoW recess w~'lll ;1, sem~circUl]ar ar:checl head. Tile, w!ho]le Is ,stJIrl'ound_ed by a ]at'!e' reclml\lU'~M' 'mo~~ded frame. 'The shies, next '[0 '~e :f];a!~ew3J:' have two rectan:g}i.fta!r o[:lelli:n~s! 1,'94:d),10Iu'. cut flush wruit'h 'tliae 'r.mcilJ;'e~ 'bu~, surrounded b,' moulded frames sl milar ~ those just meneloned, These frames Me s.'UlffOu:nded, o~, three sides by I ,co(nlinuous band of cmament,

Thie ~:;dew,a:y::.' n is a gteat sp[a,)"fd, serni.dr-cu]ar ,set back 7~;70:m.., 'between, 'Iti~ lowef.'s~a, rectangular le:lltic wad::, o:f s:1 ~Ibt]y ,{HSIOF[ed Silluams, each fiUed with a, s'hm~:~e bmilt c;rwsply carved mOltiif siIlln flowers, and s,evera'lm:u.1t!fs :f.br example, hex.a.grru:nlll~ stars circles, and ,g)frul~es deeerates :U]}e: s~!layed :part. 'TI1.,e whole being, set in ,I, 'sim,p~e border CQ,:n:s[s[]n,g of II. c~rcles.f!id,1 lozenge ;al'lemm,e!J!'. Se;[ 'back, ]. ,,4,g.,m. 'Wlt~, in this semicircel ar arch is the ,g3!t~way IJ.mpet ,4"i:8S:m. ~tiwi.dtb. and '6A9m. in height, .s~t1Jl~ed b"y a

bonzolltal M"tih is fanned. of twe!:"e glodoU's yOU ssoirs, AIlQ,ve ltri:s is another hod,zom~al RrC'1J of eleven yousso(iu~, 'The sp(ace between the curve O'lIfhis m;;c~ and th-e, hon2Joraital to:P !l}:[I~e arch 'b<e~ow ~~: a:pen a-t 'the: baJc:k set ifti the two ~p'per ICOl:IDr~g .of the three i Above the ,sp~ayed arch :i!fe six brack~-ItSl" above these b[ilcte~s~ ,omd, flush w.~M'ID the!i r :frGn t edge; '~s, a shal mow ,arch of itW-elltY'"ole, Y(1)lsso:i:rs,

,

Above thls :iMl th~ parapet are flve OjFn~~gswitJh. arcut.ed ~'i !ltd,s" 'The cOill'iJti rtiIUOU~ band of O([llm1leIC w'hi,c!h tuns

'r()l1nd the towe:rs passes across dieparrapet, wnlimediately above, ~is rr.ame~, w']:d:c~ is sUghdy' recessed, Abeve this cooti~uo:!!ls bald of omamen t is a" eomice, The summit ,ot th~s wan and t'lla,t of the two t~O'wers~ 'W,~]dl, ue)JU the sam,e '~!'!Vlld" Js eorwned 'by a serles of ereaellations wi,fJh se;miclrculM ~OP8i'

[mmedi,a,~,e],:y behi nd th is arched ga.rew'a;y '~s a, great :rec'tan,gi,e bay 2j%m r. long' 6~08nl~ wide, covered w~ttI,l. a tunnel- vselt, slighrly . sti lted semieircl e in sectioa, Immediately bebi nd [tillS rectm],gl:e ffiJ~yj is an/ather b~:y '7.,.si'm,. i:n dial1l]et,eli,! covered ttllliollgh a dome. :I[ rests OWl the sptwri'cal trl oflgle: pelldeudves. This bay :1 n BaJD ,A~=:Nasr is covered 'W~Ul a glorious cross-vaal t, TOI 'the :Ii.,g'ht and left, ,rus a recess :2~ 7-4;m" deep oQve:red,by a

three sided cv. ault A:·'~' ~ill!",,,,, ·1'1"1 [I'I'PfI" j<i'IIi1i,~1 A4!' Ill"l"'" nla,Cl,r;o::J, fi' .... -wav Is ''Ii _l.Ill._ 11iP!~~·~Il· ~. ' '. QI _ ~~, ,", ~ UJ,~~ , 11111I11~J!' ~1l~1JJL u~, . J~ r~~·i:i::I3iLal'6',!I#- " J", i3. U.

on~;~lt arc~ of twen ,[V":!I1:ev ""I". vO_I"'!l1'!I!'n:; r-;c _ l· iiJ.."" ii;I!;""j''''Ii I'1i ",,;i;!, '~~:Cljl ~]-'[. r

,~ _ _ _ _ ~ _ _ _ _ _ . "" __ -,J ..-t - - '" ~ - I!.!!,""V~ I!;l!~ ,WI!!;,; .... \1; lid. ;n.Mj""o,;. '!' i.\IiY , _~

'~i'i!..a, 'l' !<:I'U 11,!,i' ""F: 'I-'h- 1:>, great >im!I ... .n. "'it>£i - - Ii'IF~ th - . -" • j, - -. -L,. - n] - - , - -, ~W,I~l'u. ,ll,;,!; 'u,. G _ I,Liiilu' 11,~"""_lo,.'!i"":S~ ~!!!wl.!l. ~ __ ,e ,eXh, ilTCt,ljiI at, s.prJ.~g

from, ,n, glerlous bold m!ou1d~ng:~h, which is 'OO']) tinuous a]on,g the rear face of the ,gamt.:;way and ends about 2Ocm" rouf;I;dl the east :fla~ki.lnd. 60 em, rOll nd the' west. At. Ute summit of th.e, rear face ~8 ,another glodous mou~dj:ng carried right round the flanks.,

W,e reach tlurQugb the :rampan 'w;alk :ilil front of tile east emU~:am:e to tile, ,gr-eal pi,a;tf'Oml 'above, f:l,~ domed [pass:age-w,~.y,. The platform, which measures 21~ 78 m, in widltlb by 12,;23. in depth is bounded on ~OO' :noM side :b:y the, rare face of tbe !!l!pper :pruri:, of the ,ga~e,way" w1:dch

pre 0011 ts, a facade ef dme bays, ,Each bay is pierced by a, ~Jl~a~ arch~ The oellltr,aJl ard~ differs from tile othas hli lJila!t. its twen,![y-tbr.!eevo~:ssoi I'Sj II!OI lite righl[ ,and lei is merely the (n.l'l(:r face of: I, S:haUow vault, wh~ch. (u'1oVides ,I .s~elt:er for men operati n,g from, the :fj ve openings :t~ the pampet wmd,clJ conulIJliIl'Elids ~h,e outer face o~f' tile gate, ,At the same time.ft acts, as, ,~ bridge between the tops of lffiletowers.,

The origi nal crenel b~tions are 's~.i U preserved on m:he; Q uter sjdes of' the towers andconnecting bridge, except at the two outer eerners and front of each 'tower where they have bee n replaced by 'C3JDll1JOfllJ embrasures.

T I-'r; ,i=" :S;I~}iF" 0fill' the first lICI!:a~~' Z-:':H~U'JIV']!:II which \v!li'~ liiior-J:i<ifi'~I;"" ed ~i'- IIII~JW V~ llliliPi ,~,,~~~, ~._11JJi ul·'t'tIr;_~,J f.l: '!Ii'" .1Ilill~_1 __ '~lJI 1ir.,~,~~I~ .'

by Gawhar near UJe m!o~q ue of'Sam Ibn N utI! according eo the historian ,A~ M2Lf\l d d and the 'Ids.'lod~f] A~=oQ.·, .... ··· al'~,asbafldi,

~~l ~.

who ~~,W i ts fragmens, consisted of h¥OI ,1l1j'~e,ways side by side, OI1;e, of them rlilforigh wbi,iCh the raH,mid, ,K]UIUf A:I,~Mu;"in f'n,lel'edi Caut:r.{)~ whence the name 0'[ B.ab ,AI-Ql~us was gi,ve.n to ir, It was p.ref-e'fred by dle :p;ulbUc:~ they e:~,teredm[ljd left by i t, whi le [he other ,~~nle was not used, lit W:IlcS ,i! oomlmOI s;ayrurng, til at wbo-ever ,~9;s:~ed, through the ether gate neversucceeded in :any affair, This gate has d.is~IP\peared wlthou t leaving ,~n!y trace

B ab Zllfwa1~,a took its I~me,froim at Herb er tribe who ()ocupi,e:d. aseburb 'i;)f MaJhdiy:a~ TIlls, tribe bad provid~ ;I, loomlllti:m,ge:nt to G9Jwh!l_lr~ s ,army 3:nd en th~ ][crnu:ldado.ll of the ci~y bad 'been a~,kliUterffi, a ,q,~m,1~;[' l':IJealf 'l11i,$ ,gt~le .. ,

The; whole s'ln_llCturem~aSUlre-,s :1S,11m. in 'width, 23 ~3 15m., from back I~O 'ffo(l;t! and 2.o~, 1 Om, [[1 heightj, :f.r-om, iLhe ~resent [~oodJ. ~e'vle} 1[0 the ®op C'r the erenellstiens, or 23, 'i'Om", from Uhe J01rig~[i,a~, ii'oa,dl~le"V~t

It consists of ,E!!! ,gre~u, Mlc'h~d ,gareway~, 4'lI84:m_. 'wwde d!e;fJern:iJded 'by two ob k.mJI [,our!d,"'(~!fon~ed towers, III 13,C~d

.61

9~, ill. 1m .. apart, Tbe towers have rounded :ffOW1,ts~ fonn.ed of ill seg:ment of a Icire]e.. Ofti~.y. CreS:W'em was ,fLn:dous to .km:lw if this Ja'~e :r,3S[S om .ooctinglJ~ar pli,~~hs with fine nloluld~ng as, ·liI!'!; d''''B 11l .. 't@nf'B:o·jiL A··.·1 lII'·u·-t~~'h .A.et;f>iP'· 1~1>t;g; ;Ci;'V;I"'> !!:il va' It;; ntii· 'in

,Idll:t ~1:1.~ briC'.LW_G· ul, .,iBl!1l - . IIJ~'~;~ '. Y :~I a..llil!.l~~ LII~ ~~Q.'.~", ~O'llll _~.J,

Fe'f1ruaJ:Y '1.938 :in ~le wes t side of the west tower, he. said '!fiat the round fiiro:n'l of tile tower rested OLl a, mCltan~tJjJla[' p~i,[ljth !Df ~W() courses, w'll~d~1 was 'pe~()ootly 'pi ain 'W lthout !!lUThy' mouldi ng, and l~ WH.S, found '[hall the old, street Leve~ 'VII,as 3,96m.. below '[he first course visible a hove, the pavement, The true height ·of the gtru.t:e'Way 'W~S, therefore 2),,~7'Om, 'Tile o,u'~,e[' flanks o:f' these towers are concealed, 01'11 the Wle.!i~ by the mesque of' ,AI· MIIl.i' :a"ad~ on the east by ,~, rO'W' of houses facades The irl!l;er :f]an'kY~ 'of 'the towers are dec~g'ted witb '[ W'Q, !i]mH3tm' shallow arched panels, one within the (}ther~, Wil~ ]'11, them ls i, much smaner pan"e~ e - i"I; m t'!!,r;.ii"~.lII Rr,o:j, neinted ,u R""!.... serin iDlil1,O' on either side from bU, _I. ~.Uili~U u~. lli rUJlI!J ~l!!-r.:' - ~~ ~~ILII' 'lt~~ ~1~LlC'--_-G! ~~ ~ ~ __ _ _ _ ~'t! _ _ ~. ~'~_

,I se.mwc;i,rcru.llar areh, Tile upper arch COmlS ists -01: [[Imne VOLIJS~O:l,rs" the side ones of :!1tve. The l!IDP,e.r arch has a ,sad],o\poo edge, w hereas the side nne: has not, In the panel immedia!lfirny below the a:pex of lillis, tmdl is a, S~]lend]d elreular design, Its basis is an e'j:ght",po:~~u'ed, irit,elrl:aced :s:t~lr wwd~ a. s~n=:flow~r 111 the centre. In the u:pperpa£t of each rower~. aoove. 'llle gr~:rut arc:1]~d. pane], ~s: a .FOCI!aIl,gli~ar window o'pe:ned from what WfIlS once the rower chamber, It . . is, '(.l-O''\!''i::lCOO roy a flat joggled arch, Tllile, cr-ell1!e'nati'ons~ wMcb m[l round. both towers and ;3!CroISS, ~be sumsnlt of the ga,'ID€Way" have semielrcular 'tops and l.oo'k much new,ew than the rest of Lfuell'l1:Mon,ry,

The curved froll1li of. each tower i s enclosed 'lrtl :a. curious Illomi)y'[ded rectangnlae 'fuame~ 'W hieh lOOS:1E on a. ~air of corbels. There ,iilre '~h_ree arrow-slits .i IiIJ the upper p.t of the curved 'front o,:F: each lh}w,e!['"

'The ,gartewa.y se~ hack rbe!lween t:h,e ~'OWe[if 'wll'dch are '9.J.7m. apart ~ is the massive ,sUghtly [Doi.~llt~d arch, IJts upper pan ls divided into five sepm!].te o_pe~l~Il.,gs HU~Qugllil m~H~~w've. cross-walls, set back l ,25m.,., '\\-f:i th i.11 this arched fCl'IJme;t is the gateway ntself,,4·,;S,4rn, .. wIde; coveredby f!lJTI arch of fifteen ·VOiU.~SQr!.i!'~'i W e pass under tile gaJlteway and observe a ~d eee of rurmel-vauhl !'].,g 3'1 1 Om. long, 'Whk~~ ls j'i!:!:8,l enough for each h~Jf of the gate to :~o~d back into it, then. a SJ.pIeruUd.I.)!' built dome of welleut S~OJM::· voussoi rs, 1'~.5.S::nn~ []1 ,eU arneter resti ng em sphed,cal tri ~rrgrue penden ti ves ID'f the - S~UTI,e eurvatu re ,[1S. th e dome, The p3S!itm;ge ... w,~y ends ] nagreat sernici reular arch, 7 ~5;8.:f11. 1111 span, It consists (jf l~wei:~i.y~'seve;ll. voussol [8 ..

On U'UJe east side u nder the dome ~s a [leCUlill.gLdar 'OOC\E';ss. 4- .. 6.:2m. 'wi;de and 2.j50m .. deep, a f::i'1l'e bold :mQuld:i.~g rues along each s~de or the :p:'MHllrug,6~W.IY" foUo:w~ ng tbe sides of the recess and ,cOIlllIL~m!li,ng: a],ong' 'the rare :fa~)e of 'tlllie. ga,te,way, This, mouldlwng, runs ~dong ,O~ ,I. level 'with Ilhe top at the sq~Ui~:n.ches •.

The Jd:a,tfornril. e..xt:e:n.ds r.i.gbt IlIi.C ross behind the upper rear face of 'bot~ ~o:wers" This .pllt~o':rm opens: ,aU sldes except tile south, :i s there :fl~.nk-ed by three a;rches~ The two

·89

eurer I~.ve, access to Ithe Ic.~atnbew;_ rn~ we upper dur.ds; o.f the t()wenl;~, and the ,c~m~.rnl Olf[~· to Ithe 'v',au]lOO Ioggiao ver tfue gateway ... A.bO'vle tile two chambers and vaulted ~.oggia is I second pbll~orm, ,c:rowtled, 'whb crelleUati;o\Uu" ..

90

B-- ,-IBI~···LIIO· ·I,G,·R:AP······ ····H- v

,_ ,I 1,.1 _, "", "., I '. ,'. I I.

li ~ Creswel 1 (I{, A,." C~):, The:l\4:~l_sU.Il1, Arcllru:wlr~cture 'Of Egy!pt.~, m"kllsbkLs and Pathnids, Oxford, :[952.

2,. Devonshire CR, L.)! :L 'EgypteM·Ii.II"dm~n;je tI~.I~s :Fomda't,t:Ill'rs' d:e ~es:mUn]'I]J:tlileD~s,! Paris, .[962.

3. Fago ,(V.): L,"Ar~,e A:lF.aba, N'eUa ,s'~ria, 'EUl Egj,Uo, Roma, ] 909'.

4" Pi kry (A~);, '[be Mosques ,of 'Ca.i~':(J! a:nd. .i,ts .lua.cl,raS'as, (The Fati mid period)! J)~H~ A]=M~'a1F[f~ ,A., :H. 13,8,SI' A. D'. tsss.

S. F],'U I1f ,(S,.): Di,e O'1!llQlnenite der ,Diltim~Ulul, ,Atl~ar·"'IVI:(i\Sl,cbee" Heidelb erg I :~,'9 W, 2.

16. I autecoeur (L.,) e.t W'i~t (0-.),: Les; mosg.ue~es du C~:ife~ :t Paris, l'~3,2.

1. Heag (J', '0',):: 'W'fl~,erD Islalllde A:rc~t:d.tiectun.

London,

,8. A].- M~j(~r.i,zi.: ,AJ~Kldtl'llj' 'V 0']., '2.

9' :Man:als {(; .)~ Les 'mo1(lue:!',es; ,d,g C::dre" d ~,gp~

1i.1:I1. U~re r~c~fit., Revue Art "ca i nth

to:met,XXrv~ 19'33,.

911

ID 0, Mas]QW (8,.,:, Lei): Mo:sq,1U e'es des flu, ,et: de N,ord Chi, :Mfrll:3fO; Paris,

~,lli~ :Mj.r~e{)[1 (0.): Manuel, d'),An, ~JIIlI;shunaD~ Paris, 1.921.

12., Pauty (E,): 'L"evo'!uUDD m'U (UsJ10S~UreD, (1') dans, les ,M'mlq:u,e"es a portiqu~ Bulletin dr~ EtudesiJr:ien:tame~'j' :i nstlmt ff.~n"eajg de dam ;m:l" tom e 'if I 1- iIfri(~'2=-'

I!.i!!Q I ;!Ii!Oj)~ ~,vn .'.Il 'i ' :,!ji,.,

: Di:sposii:ti'f de' plaf(}ud 'Fa:thuUe~ B uUedn de ~ 'iDlSI~~~!lt fr~n,c(!Jilis le Caire, to me ,XV!

]- '9 'l'i"iI 'il n'li 3

I ".'·,J'l~:WJ,~.}f~ . 'i,.

1:3. Rice (,n. T,,),:' Is:b~uni,c Art. London.

Saladin. (1-1'.),:' M;aIiUlleI, d ',an Musluman, r Alicb~Ii:«bu!e~, Parls, 1907,

:~ 4,. S~af ~ (F,,):: Til e Mas!b&ad AI-G1:iI.yusb~ Af'\ch;;;u!io~og,tcalj 'nores ,lId stud_wes in h:h~mic lui[ :~mdl, architeeture i.IHo<[1,0'DlI' of :l]11oifesso.r K .. ,A. C. Cr.esvleU,! tbe Ameriean, 1965.,

15., Ven Berehem (U.,):: Ilne :1ill(ljS\q,ue~'s, de temll~ des Fati:olWt'e:S aw Cfdr:e" Notice SIIl['Ie. Gam, el Oayllshi

~ ~" '\\1 ie[ 1(113',): TlIDe .Mosq;~:es ,~f Cain,.,!llranslated fi'[om Frn'endl by J Q!h~. S. ~Hardmatl:j Lwl'i:r,i!.ifte Hadhetm ru 'fl16.

_ _ _ _ _ _ __ ~, ~;iI'!J).

92

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