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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Types Of Corrosion

Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

I. Introduction to Corrosion
a) Definition a chemical or electrochemical attack on
metal that changes some of the metal into its salts.
Corrosion weakens primary structural members.
It must be replaced or reinforced to sustain flight
loads.
Corrosion attacks, cost the aviation industry billions
of dollars each year.
The advanced age of many airliners and military
aircraft has made corrosion detection and removal
one of the most important aspects of modern aircraft
maintenance.
Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

b) Types of Corrosion
There are 2 types of corrosion;
i. Chemical
Pure chemical corrosion result from direct
contact of caustic liquid or gas.
ii. Electrochemical
An electrolytic action which takes place
inside a metal or on its surface. The metal
reacts with electrolyte and part of metal
changed into salt.
Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

For a corrosion to form on or in a metal, 3


requirement must be met:

Issue No

1.

Electrical potential difference (voltage difference)


within metal.

2.

Conductive path between areas of potential


difference.

3.

Electrolyte or electrically conductive liquid or gas,


covering the areas of potential difference.

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Corrosion is a natural process that is almost


impossible to prevent, but it can be controlled in
any of three ways:
1. Minimize the electrical potential difference that
exists within the metal.
2. Eliminate the conductive path by placing an
insulating barrier between the areas of electrical
potential difference.
3. Cover the surface of metal with some form of oxide
or organic coating to keep the conductive
electrolyte from covering the areas in the metal that
have a difference in potential.
Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

II. Types Of Corrosion


As an A/P technician, you must be familiar with the
different types of corrosion as well as how to identify
them. Below are the types of corrosion:
1. Oxidation
2. Uniform Surface corrosion
3. Pitting corrosion
4. Galvanic corrosion
5. Concentration cell corrosion
6. Oxygen concentration cell corrosion
Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

7. Metal Ion Concentration Cell Corrosion


8. Active Passive Cell
9. Filiform Corrosion
10. Intergranular Corrosion
11. Exfoliation Corrosion
12. Stress Corrosion
13. Fretting Corrosion

Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

1.Oxidation
One of the simplest forms of corrosion is dry
corrosion or by its common name rust.
Chemical action in which a metallic element is united
with oxygen
Aluminum alloy may be protected from oxidation by
electrolytically or chemically forming a hard oxide film
on its surface. e.g. ALCLAD
This airtight film prevents any air or moisture
reaching the metal and oxide itself will not continue to
react with the oxygen in the air.
The best way to protect iron is by temporarily cover it
with oil or grease or permanently coat it with paint.
Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

2. Uniform Surface Corrosion


Occur on the surface of metal
Dull surface caused by contaminants in the air react
with the metal and change microscopic amounts of it
into corrosion salts.
These contaminants includes airborne chlorine or
sulphur compounds, exhaust gases, battery fumes
and moisture.
Surface corrosion can also leads to pitting corrosion if
it continue to spread and left untreated.

Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

3. Pitting Corrosion
Result of Uniform Surface Corrosion left
untreated.
a localized corrosion which starts at a surface
and progresses into metal.
Usually detected by the appearance of
clumps of white powder on the surface .

Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

4. Galvanic Corrosion
Occurs any time two dissimilar metals make electrical
contact in the present at an electrolyte.
It can take place where two dissimilar metal skins are
riveted together.
or where aluminum inspection plates are attached to
the structure with steel screws.
The further apart the groups (electrochemical series
for metal), the more active the corrosion
Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5. Concentration Cell Corrosion


A type of corrosion in which the electrode potential
difference is caused by a difference in ion
concentration of the electrolyte instead of a
difference in galvanic composition within the metal.
Three types of corrosion:
1. Oxygen Concentration Cell Corrosion
2. Metal Ion Concentration Cell Corrosion
3. Active Passive Cells

Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

6. Filiform Corrosion
Consists of threadlike filaments of corrosion that
form on the surface of metals coated with organic
substances such as paint films.
It occur when the wash primer used on a metal has
not been properly cured.
It shows itself as a puffiness under the paint film
and is first noticed around rivet heads and along the
lap joints of skins.
It can be prevented by storing aircraft in an
environment with relative humidity below 70%.
Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

7. Intergranular Corrosion
Attacks metal along the grain boundaries.
It occur when the metal is not properly heat treated.
Most types of corrosion on aluminum alloys are
intergranular.
Spot welds and seam welds can also leads to this
type of corrosion.
Hard to detect because it is inside the metal.
Ultrasonic and X-ray is needed for this corrosion.

Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

8. Exfoliation Corrosion
An extreme case of intergranular corrosion
in an extruded metal part such as channels
where the grain structure is laminar (layerlike).
The corrosion causes the metal to separate
in layers or delaminate.

Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

9. Stress Corrosion
Is a form of intergranular corrosion that forms in a
metal when it is subject to continuous tensile
stress.
Results from improper quenching after heat
treatment or from interference fit of a fasteners.
Common location are at stressed skin around
pressed and bushings and tapered pipe fittings.
NDT test such as dye penetrant, eddy current or
ultrasonic inspection is used to find the actual extent
of the damage.
Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

10. Fretting Corrosion


Corrosion that forms between two surfaces which fit
tightly together, but move slightly relative to one
another.
The wear breaks down the protective surface film
and allows corrosion to occur.
Occur around rivets in a skin indicated by dark
deposits streaming out behind the rivet heads (rivet
smoking).

Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

III. Corrosive Agents


Substance that are capable of causing a corrosive
reaction.
Most corrosive agents fall into one or two categories,
acid and alkalis.
Care must be taken not to ever look other less
obvious corrosive agents such as the atmosphere
which contain moisture, salts or corrosive industrial
agents.
The corrosive agents are a) Acid and Alkalis b)
Salts c) Mercury d) Water e) Air and f) Organic
Growth
Issue No

: ORIGINAL

Subject Code: GAV 1451