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Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

Disclaimer
This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter
covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting,
or other professional service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent
professional person should be sought.
From the Declaration of Principles jointly adopted by the American Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers and Associations

Nothing contained in this publication shall constitute a standard, an endorsement, or a recommendation of the
American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute (EI) or American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA).
The Institute and AH&LA disclaim any liability with respect to the use of any information, procedure, or
product, or reliance thereon by any member of the hospitality industry.
2012
By The AMERICAN HOTEL & LODGING
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE
800 N. Magnolia Ave, Suite 300
Orlando, FL 32803
The American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute is a nonprofit
educational foundation.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by
any meanselectronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwisewithout prior permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America


3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 17 16 15 14 13
ISBN 978-0-86612-403-4 (Hardbound)
ISBN 978-0-86612-430-0 (Softbound)

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Front_year1.indd 2

Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

5/1/2013 10:35:42 AM

Acknowledgements
Subject Matter Experts
EI Educational Focus Group
Darron Kirkley
Hospitality and Tourism Management Teacher
North Central High School
Kershaw, SC
Douglas OFlaherty
Director of Operations
South Carolina Hospitality Association
Columbia, SC
Jillian Ely
Hospitality and Tourism Consultant
Little Rock, AR
Lisa Perras
Business and Hospitality Instructor
Mountain View Academy
White Mountains Regional High School
Whitefield, NH
Patricia LeCompte
Marketing/Hotel, Resort, & Tourism Management
Instructor
Monroe Career & Technical Institute
Bartonsville, PA

Technical Assistance
Courtyard by Marriott Orlando Downtown
Cheryl Seckman, General Manager
Jorge Vargas, Operations Manager
Janett Gonzlez, Housekeeping Supervisor
Carlos Lopez, Front Desk Representative
Courtney Cruz, Front Desk Representative
Debra Rangoo, Guestroom Attendant

Subject Matter Experts


Hospitality and Tourism Industry
Britt Mathwich, CHA
President
The Lodge Resort and Spa Cloudcroft, NM
Frankie F. Miller, Ph.D.
Hospitality, Culinary, Tourism Educational Consultant
Retired Dean, Culinary Institute of Charleston, SC
Isaac W. Lewis, CHA
General Manager
Comfort Suites
Jill A. Staples, MS
CHA, CHE, CHS,
President
North Star Hospitality, LLC
Jordan Langlois, CHA
Vice-President, Brand Management
Vantage Hospitality Group, Inc.
Marjorie OConnor
General Manager Certification,
Best Western International
General Manager
BEST WESTERN PLUS Chelmsford Inn
and
Massachusetts Dept of Education, Hospitality
Management (9-14) License
Hotel/Lodging Instructor
Greater Lowell Technical High School
Linda Korbel, CHA
Owner and Lead Designer/Facilitator
Korbel Consulting
Nick Trahair, CLM
General Manager
AmericInn Traverse City, MI

Maria Walker, Chef


Robert Spitler, Facilities Maintenance
Rocio Lopez, The Bistro
Rosemary Albert, The Bistro
Zenaida Panora, Public Space Cleaner

EI Technical Team

Dawn Nason, Writer


Kathleen McDermott, Editor
Liz Watkins, Graphic Design

Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

iii

Welcome to the NEW Hospitality and Tourism Management Program


Congratulations on taking the first step in building a career in the hospitality and tourism industry.
The U.S. lodging industry currently employs about 1.8 million people, while the American food service
industry has about 13 million people working in restaurants. These two segments of the hospitality and
tourism industry alone account for over 9 percent of the U.S. workforce. When you consider how vast
the industry is, the potential career choices are huge.
The Hospitality and Tourism Management Program has been designed to help you develop, and
practice performing, the knowledge, skills, and tasks required for success as an employee in the hospitality
and tourism industry. All you need to do is be willing to learn and put in the effort to achieve. If you
are ambitious and want to have a future in this dynamic industry, you have made the right choice to
seek career possibilities available to you in hospitality and tourism by enrolling in this exciting career
development course of study.

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Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

Pineapple Fun Fact:


Throughout this textbook, a Pineapple Fun Fact box will highlight a piece of hospitality and tourisms history
to help you learn the rich heritage of the industry in which you are considering building a career.

Pineapple Fun Fact


Why the Pineapple?
The pineapple originated in South America and was discovered by Columbus on his second
voyage to the new world. He called it a pia because it resembled a pinecone. In 17th century
America, sea captains would place a pineapple outside their front door as a symbol of a safe
return. In the 18th and 19th centuries, pineapples became popular as a symbol of welcome.
The image of the pineapple began being used to decorate furniture, table linens, and
silverware, all for the purpose of making guests feel welcome when stopping for the night at an
inn or hotel. Today the pineapple is the hospitality and tourism industrys universal symbol of
welcome to guests worldwide.

ADA Box
Throughout this textbook, an ADA box will highlight how federal requirements determine what the
hospitality and tourism industry must do to meet the needs of guests with disabilities.

ADA
What is the purpose of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)?
The ADA is a Federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against people with
disabilities in everyday activities. These requirements went into effect on January 26, 1992.
Businesses that serve the public must modify policies and practices that discriminate
against people with disabilities; comply with accessible design standards when constructing
or altering facilities; remove barriers in existing facilities where readily achievable; and
provide auxiliary aids and services when needed to ensure effective communication with
people who have hearing, vision, or speech impairments.

Green Practices Box


Throughout this textbook, a Green Practices box will highlight the benefits of running a sustainable green
hospitality and tourism business.

Green Practices
Why are green practices important?
Today, every organization should participate in environmentally friendly or green
practices to ensure that all processes, products, and workplace activities address current
environmental concerns. This is known as running a sustainable green business. The
hospitality and tourism industry was one of the first to recognize the value of sustainable
green practices for protecting the future of its guests, employees, planet, and profits.

Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

Table of Contents
Unit 1
Introduction to Hospitality and Tourism Program...................................................... 2
Chapter 1
Hospitality and Tourism.....................................................................................................................4
Section 1.1
Introduction..............................................................................................................................................................6
Section 1.2
History of Hospitality and Tourism..............................................................................................................................8
Section 1.3
Global View of Hospitality and Tourism.....................................................................................................................10
Section 1.4
Scope of the Industry..............................................................................................................................................11
Section 1.5
The R.A.V.E. Principle: Respect and Value Everyone................................................................................................12
Section 1.6
Guest Service on a Global Scale..............................................................................................................................13
Section 1.7
Types and Organization of Accommodations............................................................................................................16

Chapter 2
Careers in Hospitality.......................................................................................................................20
Section 2.1
Introduction............................................................................................................................................................22
Section 2.2
The People of Hospitality and Tourism.....................................................................................................................23
Section 2.3
Exploring Careers in Hospitality and Tourism............................................................................................................24
Section 2.4
Types of Hospitality and Tourism Careers.................................................................................................................25
Section 2.5
The Hospitality and Tourism Professional.................................................................................................................28
Section 2.6
You As a Guest Service Professional .......................................................................................................................29
Section 2.7
Career Goals: The Job Hunt, Rsum, and Portfolio ................................................................................................32
Section 2.8
The Interview Process.............................................................................................................................................36
Section 2.9
Ethics: Doing the Right Thing .................................................................................................................................38
Section 2.10
Self-Esteem: Respect and Value Yourself ................................................................................................................39

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Unit 2
Hospitality Soft Skills.......................................................................................... 42
Chapter 3
Guest Cycle....................................................................................................................................44
Section 3.1
Introduction............................................................................................................................................................46
Section 3.2
Stages of the Guest Cycle........................................................................................................................................47
Section 3.3
Guests: Who Are They?...........................................................................................................................................50
Section 3.4
Global Traveling Public............................................................................................................................................52

Chapter 4
Guest Experience Cycle ...................................................................................................................56
Section 4.1
Introduction............................................................................................................................................................58
Section 4.2
Follow the Experience: Stages of the Guest Experience............................................................................................59
Section 4.3
Operations and the Guest Experience......................................................................................................................60
Section 4.4
Guest Service GOLD...............................................................................................................................................................62
Section 4.5
Guest Recovery.......................................................................................................................................................64
Section 4.6
Guest Service Measurement (GSM) ........................................................................................................................67

Chapter 5
Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle...........................................................................................70
Section 5.1
Introduction............................................................................................................................................................72
Section 5.2
Follow the Dollar.....................................................................................................................................................73
Section 5.3
Protect the Money...................................................................................................................................................74
Section 5.4
Guest Service and the Bottom Line..........................................................................................................................76
Section 5.5
The Guest Cycle and Financial Opportunities...........................................................................................................78

Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

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Chapter 6
Communication ..............................................................................................................................82
Section 6.1
Introduction............................................................................................................................................................84
Section 6.2
Types of Communication.........................................................................................................................................86
Section 6.3
Communicating Effectively With Guests...................................................................................................................87
Section 6.4
Workplace Etiquette................................................................................................................................................89
Section 6.5
Written and Electronic Communication Skills...........................................................................................................91
Section 6.6
Barriers to Effective Communication........................................................................................................................92
Section 6.7
Interdepartmental Communication..........................................................................................................................94

Unit 3
Operational Areas............................................................................................... 98
Chapter 7
Front Office Operations..................................................................................................................100
Section 7.1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................102
Section 7.2
Rooms Division.....................................................................................................................................................104
Section 7.3
The Front Office Manager......................................................................................................................................106
Section 7.4
Front Office Positions............................................................................................................................................108
Section 7.5
The Front Desk Operation.....................................................................................................................................110
Section 7.6
Guests and the Front Desk ...................................................................................................................................113
Section 7.7
The Financial Reporting Cycle...............................................................................................................................114
Section 7.8
Performance Standards.........................................................................................................................................115
Section 7.9
Room Rate Systems..............................................................................................................................................117

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Chapter 8
Executive Housekeeping Operations................................................................................................120
Section 8.1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................122
Section 8.2
The Executive Housekeeper..................................................................................................................................124
Section 8.3
Guestroom Cleaning Basics...................................................................................................................................126
Section 8.4
Housekeeping Positions........................................................................................................................................130
Section 8.5
Inventory ..............................................................................................................................................................132
Section 8.6
Managing Inventories............................................................................................................................................135
Section 8.7
Linen Inventory.....................................................................................................................................................138
Section 8.8
Housekeeping Green Practices..............................................................................................................................140

Chapter 9
Facilities Management...................................................................................................................144
Section 9.1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................146
Section 9.2
Facilities Management and the Chief Engineer.......................................................................................................147
Section 9.3
Maintaining Property Appeal.................................................................................................................................150
Section 9.4
Preventive Maintenance........................................................................................................................................152
Section 9.5
Routine and Emergency Maintenance ..................................................................................................................156
Section 9.6
Emergency Preparedness Plan..............................................................................................................................157
Section 9.7
Facilities Green Practices......................................................................................................................................158

Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

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Chapter 10
Food and Beverage Services...........................................................................................................162
Section 10.1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................164
Section 10.2
Types of Food and Beverage Operations................................................................................................................165
Section 10.3
Food and Beverage Guest Cycle............................................................................................................................167
Section 10.4
Food and Beverage Financial Cycle.......................................................................................................................168
Section 10.5
Restaurants and the ADA......................................................................................................................................170
Section 10.6
Food Safety and Sanitation....................................................................................................................................172
Section 10.7
Restaurant Operations...........................................................................................................................................174
Section 10.8
Kitchen Operations................................................................................................................................................177
Section 10.9
Responsible Beverage Operations.........................................................................................................................178
Section 10.10
Banquets, Catering, and Event Planning................................................................................................................180
Section 10.11
Food and Beverage Green Practices......................................................................................................................183

Chapter 11
Resort Operations..........................................................................................................................186
Section 11.1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................188
Section 11.2
Resorts.................................................................................................................................................................189
Section 11.3
Cruise Lines..........................................................................................................................................................191
Section 11.4
Recreational Vehicles and Tent Camping...............................................................................................................194
Section 11.5
Off-Site Partners....................................................................................................................................................195

Chapter 12
Operational Finance......................................................................................................................200
Section 12.1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................202
Section 12.2
Revenue Centers vs. Cost Centers.........................................................................................................................203
Section 12.3
Introduction to Night Audit....................................................................................................................................204
Section 12.4
Night Audit Calculations........................................................................................................................................211
Section 12.5
Yield Statistic........................................................................................................................................................212
Section 12.6
Financial Impact of Green Practices......................................................................................................................213

Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

Unit 4
Sales and Marketing......................................................................................... 216
Chapter 13
Marketing.....................................................................................................................................218
Section 13.1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................220
Section 13.2
Operational Role of Marketing...............................................................................................................................222
Section 13.3
Basic Four Ps of Marketing...................................................................................................................................224
Section 13.4
Lodging Market Segmentation...............................................................................................................................226
Section 13.5
Tools of Marketing.................................................................................................................................................228
Section 13.6
Marketing Messages ............................................................................................................................................231
Section 13.7
Marketing Ethics: Honesty in Advertising...............................................................................................................232
Section 13.8
Green Practices....................................................................................................................................................233

Chapter 14
Sales...........................................................................................................................................236
Section 14.1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................238
Section 14.2
Role of the Sales Department ...............................................................................................................................239
Section 14.3
Structure of the Sales Department.........................................................................................................................240
Section 14.4
Prospecting...........................................................................................................................................................242
Section 14.5
Types of Sales ......................................................................................................................................................244

Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

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Unit 5
Safety and Security........................................................................................... 248
Chapter 15
Operational Safety.........................................................................................................................250
Section 15.1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................252
Section 15.2
Occupational Safety..............................................................................................................................................253
Section 15.3
Risk Management.................................................................................................................................................254
Section 15.4
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).........................................................................................257
Section 15.5
Operational Safety.................................................................................................................................................259

Chapter 16
Security.......................................................................................................................................266
Section 16.1
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................268
Section 16.2
Hotel Security.......................................................................................................................................................269
Section 16.3
In-House Security.................................................................................................................................................270
Section 16.4
Key Control...........................................................................................................................................................272
Section 16.5
Operational Emergencies.......................................................................................................................................273
Section 16.6
Emergency Preparedness......................................................................................................................................274

Glossary
Year 1..........................................................................................................................................280

Index
Year 1..........................................................................................................................................294

Photo Credits
Year 1..........................................................................................................................................298

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Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

Unit 1

Introduction to
Hospitality and
Tourism Program
XChapter
X
1

Hospitality and Tourism

XChapter
X
2

Careers in Hospitality

Unit Overview

ver the past 100 years, the hospitality and tourism


industry has experienced monumental changes due
to improvements in transportation, accommodations,
and new technologies. This has resulted in hospitality
and tourism becoming one of the largest industries on
the globe and impacting those changes was a shift in
the worlds population; the traveling publics desire to
explore new places and cultures, and changing global
business needs.
The Internet has had a major influence on travelers
by opening up the world of hospitality and tourism as
a global marketplace where someone can experience
new people, places, and things. Travelers can quickly
measure the cost of each travel choice against the value
that the item will deliver; giving technology the ability
to impact decisions about travel spending, length of
stay, and type of accommodation required.
The types of businesses making up the industry,
such as airlines, rental cars, hotels, restaurants, and
attractions, have created a vast network of companies
looking for talented people who wish to build a career
in hospitality and tourism.
The hospitality and tourism industry grew so
quickly in the early 20th century that it was necessary
for companies engaged in the same type of business to
find a way to connect with one another. This resulted
in the birth of professional organizations such as the
American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA)
and the National Restaurant Association (NRA). The
purpose of industry associations is to protect, educate,
and promote the needs of the people and businesses
belonging to the associations. Known as member
services, some examples of what associations provide
to members are communicating new business trends,
updating changes in laws and government requirements,
and lobbying on behalf of the membership in the halls
of Congress.

This unit will take a look at the history, size, and


elements that, over time, have fused together hospitality
and tourism into one industry. Also, this section will
explore the types of careers and the cycles involved for
those wishing to pursue a career in hospitality.

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XSection
X
1.1
Introduction

XSection
X
1.2

History of Hospitality and Tourism

XSection
X
1.3

Global View of Hospitality and Tourism

XSection
X
1.4
Scope of the Industry

XSection
X
1.5

The R.A.V.E. Principle: Respect and


Value Everyone

XSection
X
1.6

Guest Service on a Global Scale

XSection
X
1.7

Types and Organization of


Accommodations

Competencies
1. Describe the changes hospitality and tourism
have experienced in modern times.
2. Explain how hospitality and tourism depend on
one another for success.
3. Describe the social impact of global travel and
business on hospitality and tourism.
4. Describe the scope of industry services
available for todays traveler.
5. Explain the need for respect and value for all
guests by the hospitality and tourism industry.
6. Explain the purpose of quality guest service in
the hospitality and tourism industry.
7. Identify the types of hotels available to
hospitality and tourism guests.

Hospitality Profile

Joseph A. McInerney, CHA


President & CEO
American Hotel & Lodging
Association
Joseph A. McInerney, CHA, is president and chief executive
officer of American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA).
As the head executive of the largest trade association
representing the U.S. lodging industry, Mr. McInerney
implements and directs AH&LAs services as well as provides
leadership to association members. He also works directly
with the volunteer officers, board of directors, and partner
state associations in determining the direction of the industry.
Since his appointment, Mr. McInerney has reorganized the
association to streamline efficiency and strengthen its core
operations, including consolidating its two affiliates to form
the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Foundation. The
AHLEF is the only educational dollar-dispensing, not-forprofit premier organization for scholarships, professional
certification, instructional material, and funding for key
industry research. Additionally, Mr. McInerney spearheaded
the changing of the membership structure from a federation
to a dual-membership format, streamlined the board
of directors, and clarified the organizations mission.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks

profile about this industry professional to complete the


Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own about
the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

Section 1.1

Introduction
Terms you

should know
Hospitalitythe reception
and entertainment of guests,
visitors, or strangers at
resorts; membership clubs,
conventions, attractions,
special events; and other
services for travelers and
tourists.

he pace of change seemed to explode following 1945 and the end


of World War II, and the impact of those changes altered the face
of hospitality and tourism forever. No longer was travel reserved for
only the very wealthy. In the 1950s and 1960s, all forms of transportation
became more accessible and affordable. This resulted in business travel
becoming a common practice, and the birth of the family vacation.
In the following decades, more and more people began to travel, not
just to visit family and friends, but for the pure pleasure of seeing the
world. The result was tourism as we know it today. Hospitality and tourism
have grown into a large industry, so much so that many countries, such
as the United States, Japan, Great Britain, and China, consider it to be a
key business driver within their economies.

Tourismtourist travel and


the services connected with
it, regarded as an industry
combined with hospitality.

Pineapple Fun Fact


In 1907, E.M. Statler built the first modern
hotel, the Statler, in Buffalo, NY, with
private bathrooms and a radio in every room.
Eventually, his chain of hotels had 5,300
rooms that could accommodate 6,700
guests a day. He is considered the father
of the modern hotel.

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

The Traveling Public


The hospitality and tourism industry exists to
meet the needs of the traveling public. The reasons
for traveling are varied, with each person having
personal criteria for making any journey. However,
the reasons why most people travel can usually
be placed into one of five categories:

Business
a need to
conduct
business, attend
a conference,
convention, or
meeting.

Recreation
a wish for rest,
relaxation,
sports, and
entertainment.

Visits to family
and friends
a wish or need to
spend time with
loved ones.

Culture
a desire to learn
about different
places and things
of interest.

Health issues
a need for
diagnosis or
treatment from
a non-local
medical facility.

The Internet also has a huge impact on hospitality and tourism. Not just because it is easier to find
and book travel online, but because online information about the people, places, and things found around
the globe has created a greater interest in visiting those destinations.

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

Section 1.2

History of Hospitality and Tourism


Terms you

should know
Lodgingto temporarily have
a room in a hotel, motel, inn,
bed & breakfast, or hostel.

he modern history of hospitality and tourism really began in 1910


when 60 hotel operators formed the American Hotel Protective
Association. Today, this association operates as the American Hotel &
Lodging Association (AH&LA) which acts as a moving force in ensuring
that the hospitality and tourism industry continues to thrive and meet the
needs of its global audience.
Throughout history, travel has always contained the aspects of
exploration, discovery, and financial gain at its very core. It is no different
today; people want to visit places theyve never been to learn about the
heritage, culture, and natural wonders found at those locales. Business
travelers seek to buy and sell in a global economy while technology makes
even the most remote places more accessible to the traveling public.
Todays traveler wants to explore the Amazon rainforest, conduct business
in Dubai, walk the Great Wall of China, ride a gondola in Venice, watch
kangaroos in the Australian outback, gaze across the Grand Canyon, and
be amazed by the engineering of Stonehenge. Along with this desire is the
guests expectation that the hospitality and tourism industry be ready and
able to not only meet, but be capable of exceeding, his or her travel needs.

1910 The American Hotel


Protective Association is
founded in Chicago and today
is known as the American
Hotel & Lodging Association
(AH&LA).

1926
Route 66 is
completed,
linking Los
Angeles and
Chicago.

1943 Travel by train becomes


popular and hotels benefit from
the increased guest traffic.

1947 The
Roosevelt
Hotel is the
first to install
TVs in all
guestrooms.

1939 The first flight


is made by a jet
airplane opening up a
new option in travel.

1910 Grand Old Hotel

1910
8

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

1920

1930

1940

1950

1953 The American


Hotel Institute is
launched; today it
operates as the
American Hotel &
Lodging Educational
Institute (AHLEI).

2001
Following the
attacks of
9/11, hotels
implement
new antiterrorism and
security
measures.

1981 The boutique


hotel concept is born.
2007 Smartphones and
apps are embraced by the
hospitality industry, with both
guests and employees utilizing
the variety of services these
phones provide.

1957 Hilton Hotels


offer a direct-dial
telephone service in
guestrooms.

1969 Chain
hotels begin
offering
swimming pools
as a way to
increase profits.

1972 Hotels
begin accepting
credit cards
to guarantee
guestroom
reservations.

1960
1970
1980
Decade (10-year increments)

1990

2008 Flat-screen
TVs become the new
standard for guestrooms. The future of
innovation and
change will continue
to globally drive the
hospitality and
tourism industry.

1990 The
Americans with
Disabilities Act
(ADA) becomes law
and hotels begin
offering accessible
guestrooms and
amenities.

2000

2010

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

2020
9

Section

1.3

Global View of Hospitality and Tourism


Terms you

should know
Infrastructurethe basic,
underlying framework or
features of a system or
organization.

10

ospitality has to meet the needs of modern tourism by providing a


menu of travel choices for finding, reaching, and staying at any
destination. This means the travel-based industries must depend on one
another for success. For example, a business traveler has to make a sales
call in a major city. It will take an airline, car-rental company, hotel,
restaurants, and other local services to ensure that one person is able to
reach, sleep, eat, enjoy, and conduct business during their trip. If you
multiply that same total of travel needs by the number of people wishing
to travel to this one city for just one day, you begin to get the idea of how
large the hospitality and tourism industry in one major city might be. Now,
think about the number of people globally who choose to travel each day,
and the type of infrastructure the hospitality and tourism industry must
have in place, so the needs of such a diverse group of people can be met.

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

Scope of the Industry


T

Section
1.4

he scope of hospitality-related businesses required to meet the needs of a destinations guests will
typically fall into one of the following groups:

Transportation

Accommodations
Hotels

Airlines

Resorts

Cruise lines

Motels

Rail

Hostels

Car rentals

Vacation rentals

Tour/coach operators

Vacation ownership

Bus lines

Bed & Breakfast properties

Taxis

Recreational vehicles
and camping

Attractions

Food and Beverage


Restaurants

Theme parks

Full-service

Zoos

Fine dining

National, state, and local parks

Quick service

Natural wonders

Bars and lounges

Heritage sites

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

11

Section

1.5

The R.A.V.E. Principle: Respect and


Value Everyone
Terms you

should know
Diversitythe human quality
of being different or varied.

Inclusivenot excluding any


particular groups of people.

Diversity

iversity is a complex concept and can be very challenging to learn.


Typically, diversity requires hospitality and tourism employees to
be sensitive to differences such as race, gender, age, physical abilities,
religion, and sexual orientation, but it is really much more than just those
few items. Diversity really means each person you meet will be unique
and must be appreciated as a one-of-a-kind individual. This is not a tough
concept to understand but is a hard one to actually use at work each day.
To make it a little easier to understand, lets break diversity down
into a very basic idea. Diversity means learning to Respect and Value
Everyone (R.A.V.E) for where they come from, the personal beliefs and
life experiences they may have, and the expectations they will have, both
at home and when traveling.
For anyone working in hospitality and tourism, this means that an
inclusive environment must be in place to show both guests and coworkers that they are valued and respected simply for being themselves.
Anyone able to accept this simple rule of respecting and valuing everyone
(R.A.V.E.) can find success in the hospitality and tourism industry. How?
By knowing when to ask questions to find out what is needed in order
to deliver personalized services.

Every living creature


requires food, water,
shelter, and space to
survive. Those needs are
provided to the traveling
public by the hospitality
and tourism industry,
along with comfort, safety,
and understanding for
the diversity of a global
audience.

12

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

Section
1.6

Guest Service on a Global Scale


G

uests arrive at every destination with


a set of expectations and requirements
that need to be met by the people operating
that property, attraction, or restaurant. The
delivery of the services guests want and
need is known as guest service. This sounds
simple, but really, guest service is one of
the most difficult skills anyone working
in hospitality and tourism can master.
However, those who do master the skills
will find working with guests to be exciting
and rewarding.
So, if you had to define guest service, what might you say? A simple
definition would be that guest service is meeting the needs of guests the way
they want and expect them to be met. It is important to remember that guest
expectations are not limited to one culture or country, but are universal
and desired by every person who travels. Consequently, guest service is
considered to be a key component on which both hospitality and tourism
stand. This also means anyone working in the industry will be expected
to know, deliver, and meet guest expectations all day, every day, and to
the very best of his or her ability.

Terms you

should know
Tangible Services
services that provide for
guest expectations using
the physical assets of the
property.
Intangible Servicesitems
of value to guests such as
comfort, safety, and enjoyable
experiences that meet
their emotional needs and
expectations.

What are the basic skills of guest service? If you asked guests, they
would say guest service must always include:
1. SafetyMake me feel safe.
2. CourtesyTreat me as an individual by showing me I am valued
and respected.
3. ShowProvide me with the best guest experience your property
has to offer.
4. EfficiencyMeet my needs quickly and to the very best level you
and your property can provide.
These guest service skills can take the form of a tangible service such
as providing extra towels or pillows when requested, or intangible service
such as seeing to the safety, comfort, and enjoyment guests experience
during their stay.

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

13

Destination Marketing
Destination marketing organizations (DMOs) specialize
in attracting guests to a specific destination where hospitality
and tourism are big business. Locations such as Orlando,
Las Vegas, and New York City depend on the local DMO to
help market and bring in visitors. Based on location, many
destination marketing organizations may operate under a
different name such as:
In the United States
Convention & Visitors Bureau
Convention & Visitors Association
Internationally
Tourist Authority
National Tourist Office or Organization
Tourist Bureau
Tourism Commission
Regardless of the organizations name, the purpose is
basically the same for all. The key role of all DMOs is to develop
local economic growth, attract visitors and conventions
to the local area, and globally market the availability of
attractions, hotels, restaurants, and other services.
For guests, DMOs are an important resource for information
about where to stay, eat, and play while visiting that destination.
DMOs also serve as the official point of contact for convention
and meeting planners and tour operators, which are often
a major source of income for local businesses. They benefit
guests, meeting planners, and tour operators by:
Offering unbiased information about all types of services
and facilities available to guests
Providing one-stop information service about all local tourism sites and attractions
Assisting in the creation of marketing materials, also known as collateral materials, to help in the
sales of group tours, meetings, or conventions
Assisting with on-site logistic and registration services
Assisting in the coordination of local transportation, special tours, and special events
Most service are provided by DMOs at little to no cost, which is one of the greatest benefits offered
by a destination marketing organization.

14

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

Visitors Map of Paris

Your Key of Paris


Accommodations
Transportation
Food & Beverage
Shopping
Attractions

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

15

Section

1.7

Types and Organization of Accommodations


W

hen traveling, people will carefully decide what type of accommodations to book for their temporary
home away from home. Aided by the Internet, recommendations from family and friends, and
past experiences, guests will begin to narrow down the decision, using the process of elimination.
The first decision will be to choose the type of hotel that best suits the reason for travel. A person
traveling for business will have a very different set of needs than a family of four going on vacation.
Because of the vast assortment of reasons people travel, the hospitality and tourism industry has developed
a variety of hotel types to better meet guests travel needs. The types of hotels include:
Commercial HotelsLocated in downtown business districts, this type
of hotel caters to business travelers, tour groups, small conferences,
and the occasional tourist.
Airport HotelsAir travel created the need for hotels located inside
or near airports. Both business travelers and tourists benefit, not only
from the convenient location, but also from the services offered, such
as courtesy vans to and from the airport. Most offer meeting/conference
room space and banquet services as a convenience to groups wishing
to stay near an airport while conducting business.
All-Suite HotelsFeature suites containing living rooms, kitchenettes,
and bedrooms for guests with longer hotel stays or a wish for a more
homelike stay. Frequent business travelers, family vacation groups,
and those needing temporary living quarters all find this type of hotel
very appealing.
Extended-Stay HotelsThis type of hotel is similar to all-suite hotels
but usually offers full kitchens and guest laundromat. These amenities
appeal to travelers staying longer than five days and who prefer less
hotel- and more apartment-like services.
Residential HotelsResidential hotels offer permanent or very longterm occupancy to guests who prefer hotel living because of the amenities
such as daily housekeeping service, concierge, and uniformed services.
The guest accommodations can range from a typical guestroom to a suite
or condominium. This type of hotel is often known as a condo hotel.

16

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

Resort HotelsTypically resort hotels are found in destination locations


where vacationers and business groups can enjoy the propertys
recreation, sports, and spa facilities along with the local areas natural
wonders and entertainment venues.
Vacation Ownership PropertiesMany people prefer to vacation at
the same time and same place every year, and it was this preference
that led to the development of the vacation ownership property. A
guest will purchase a specific number of weeks or points that are then
applied to the type of accommodations the guest wishes to use. The
guest then owns that guest unit for the same time period every year
for however long the ownership is contracted to last.
Casino HotelsCasino hotels attract guests who enjoy gaming, live
entertainment, and other recreational activities such as golf, tennis,
or spa facilities. They used to appeal only to vacation and leisure
travelers, but today, convention and conference visitors account for a
large portion of casino hotel business.
Conference and Convention CentersThis type of hotel can be as small
or as large as the number of guest attendees the property wishes to
attract. Guests attending an event in this type of hotel will likely spend
the majority of their time at the property. Event organizers will expect
the property to provide one-stop planning for everything. Attendees
will expect the hotel to provide a range of items from guestrooms to
convention space, to breakout meeting rooms, to audiovisual equipment,
to meals and banquets, to live entertainment.
Bed and Breakfast HotelsBetter known as a B&B, this hotel is
usually a private home that has been converted into a hotel business
for overnight guests. The owner acts as the host or hostess and will
welcome each guest as a temporary member of the family. Breakfast
is always included in the room rate and guests expect the entire stay
to feel both warm and welcoming.
Other Travel AccommodationsHotels are not the only place travelers
can stay overnight. Many people choose to go camping or travel in a
recreation vehicle (RV), or stay in hostels, while others like to travel
by water in yachts and sailboats.
Cruise ShipsLarge, floating hotels that travel from destination to
destination. Todays ships provide the same type of accommodations,
recreation, live entertainment, and amenities as land-based hotels and
casinos. Cruises appeal to guests who prefer to unpack once, have their
meals provided, have a choice of recreational/entertainment options
and daily destinations to visit.

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

17

Apply Your Learning


Section 1.1

1. In what time period did travel become more affordable for the average person?
2. What did affordable travel give birth to?
3. What is E.M. Statler considered the father of?
4. What do people choose to do if they travel?

Section 1.2

1. How many years are in a decade?


2. What was the American Hotel & Lodging Associations original name in 1910?
3. What do guests expect from the hospitality and tourism industry when they travel?
4. What year was the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) passed into law?
5. What year was Chicago linked by road to Los Angeles and what was the name of the road linking
the two cities?

Section 1.3

A family from Lima, Ohio, plans to take a vacation to San Francisco, California. What types of
businesses need to form the infrastructure for the familys visit? List businesses they will use during
the trip.

Section 1.4

What hospitality-related industries are included under:


1. Accommodations What do all these businesses have in common?
2. Transportation What do all these businesses have in common?
3. Food and Beverage What do all these businesses have in common?
4. Attractions What do all these businesses have in common?

Section 1.5

1. What should an inclusive environment show guests and employees?


2. What four things does every living creature need to survive?
3. What does the term diversity mean?
4. Why is valuing people for their diverse background important?

18

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

Section 1.6

Guest Service
1. What is the definition of guest service?
2. What two things do all guests arrive at a destination with?
3. What are the four basic skills associated with guest service?
Destination Marketing
1. What does the acronym DMO stand for?
2. What is the purpose of a DMO?

Section 1.7

Match the guest to the type of accommodation best suited to their travel needs.
1. A guest needs to travel for business to Dallas, Texas. He will need to stay for at least six weeks to
complete the job he has been hired to do. He hates staying so long in a typical hotel. What type of
accommodations would be the best choices for his needs?
2. Two sisters are planning a trip together. They both want to visit a variety of different cities or countries
on the trip but hate the thought of having to pack and unpack at each destination. What type of
accommodations would be the best choice for the sisters needs?
3. A couple are planning their honeymoon trip. They would prefer a place that is quiet and romantic with
a lot of character. They also want it to be small, warm, and welcoming. What type of accommodations
would be the best choice for the honeymooners needs?
4. A family of four likes to take a vacation every year, during the same week of July. They always go
to the same place and wish they owned a home at that destination. What type of accommodations
would be the best choice for the familys needs?

Chapter 1 Hospitality and Tourism

19

2
r
e
t
p
a
Ch

y
t
i
l
a
t
i
p
s
o
H
n
i
s
r
e
e
Car
XSection
X
2.1
Introduction

XSection
X
2.2

The People of Hospitality and Tourism

XSection
X
2.3

Exploring Careers in Hospitality and Tourism

XSection
X
2.4

Types of Hospitality and Tourism Careers

XSection
X
2.5

The Hospitality and Tourism Professional

XSection
X
2.6

You As a Guest Service Professional

XSection
X
2.7

Career Goals: The Job Hunt, Rsum, and


Portfolio

XSection
X
2.8
The Interview Process

XSection
X
2.9

Ethics: Doing the Right Thing

XSection
X
2.10

Self-Esteem: Respect and Value Yourself

20

Competencies
1. Identify the type of person found working
in the hospitality and tourism industry.
2. Identify the importance of expertise
building through on-the-job experience.
3. Identify the type of potential careers
available in the hospitality and tourism
industry.
4. Explain the various career paths available
in the hospitality and tourism industry.
5. Explain the role of the hospitality
professional.
6. Explain the skills and responsibilities of a
guest service professional.
7. Identify the steps required during the job
hunt and interview process.

Hospitality Profile

(Richard) Cody Stevens, CRDS


Reservations Group Coordinator
Trump International Beach
Resort Miami
(Richard) Cody Stevens, CRDS, is a past graduate of the
Lodging Management Program. Due to his success with the
program, Mr. Stevens was accepted to Johnson & Wales
University to pursue his bachelors degree in Hotel & Lodging
Management, with concentrations in Resort & Cruise Line
Management. Graduating from Johnson & Wales is not his
last educational endeavor, however, since he is eagerly waiting
to begin his masters degree, and eventually his doctorate.
Since graduating from the Lodging Management Program,
opportunities have always been within reach for Mr. Stevens.
Beginning his career with the programs internship at Great
Wolf Lodge in the Pocono Mountains, PA, he found himself
with an opportunity to work full time at the resorts front desk.
After graduation and moving to Miami, FL, to attend school,
he accepted a position as a reservations agent at the Trump
International Beach Resort to further his work experience,
and, within months, received a promotion to be the resorts
Reservations Group Coordinator.
It has been four years since I graduated from the Lodging
Management Program. I am thankful for all of the opportunities
and experience this program provided me to develop an
exciting, and successful career. I look forward to the future and
know that there are no limitations to what I can accomplish.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks

profile about this industry professional to complete the


Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own about
the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

21

Section

2.1

Introduction
T

he hospitality and tourism industry offers a much wider choice of career options than most other
industries. No matter what a person wishes to do, chances are the job exists as a segment of the
industry. This means the work is varied with many creative opportunities in areas such as advertising,
sales promotions, and marketing. The hospitality and tourism industry is a people business where
the day is spent satisfying guests, working with motivated co-workers, and dealing with suppliers of
goods and outside services.
The industry does not have
jobs that offer a traditional nineto-five work schedule, but it does
offer positions with a wide range
of schedules that are flexible
and nontraditional. This has
the advantage of allowing time
for work, school, and play for
those who wish to work while
attending college. Today, many
industry leaders tell a common
story of getting an entry-level
job at a hotel, going to college
while working, and moving up
the career ladder as they gained
both knowledge and experience.

Pineapple Fun Fact


In 1849, Ben Holladay owned the Overland Mail and Express Company which transported people,
packages, and mail over a 3,000-mile area. The company had 110 coaches, 15,000 employees,
and received $365,000 a year from the U.S. Postal Service for providing mail service to towns
along its routes. He sold the company to Wells Fargo and invested his money in railroads. Trains
soon replaced stagecoaches as long-distance carriers but they remained a popular form of local
transportation. Stagecoaches were the bus service and taxi cabs of the time. It was the invention
of the automobile that finally brought an end to the stagecoach.

22

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

Section
2.2

The People of Hospitality and Tourism


T

hose who work in hospitality and tourism know that it takes a special
type of person to fill the vast array of jobs available in the industry.
They also know that a successful hospitality and tourism operation must
utilize both art and science. In what way does this happen? For art, it
is the employees ability to create a place where guests feel welcome,
safe, and comfortable, while science involves the employee being able to
consistently provide guest accommodations and services that will meet
or exceeds guests expectations. Hospitality and tourism careers can be
exciting, sometimes challenging, and occasionally glamorous.

Todays guests are global travelers from all walks of life, a variety
of culture and religions, and have very high guest service expectations.
Anyone considering a career in hospitality and tourism must be prepared
to work with a diverse guest audience and be willing to develop the
necessary job skills. The job skills required will be either hard skills such
as utilizing the various computer systems, or soft skills such as providing
a special guest experience that is interesting and enjoyable.
When exploring a potential career option, it is always a good idea
to learn as much as possible before making a final decision. Some of the
questions people thinking of a career in hospitality and tourism should
ask themselves:

Terms you

should know
Hard Skillsskills used to
follow established protocols,
operate equipment, maintain
facilities, and utilize
computer systems.

Soft Skillsdesirable
qualities for certain forms
of employment that do
not depend on acquired
knowledge. They include
common sense, the ability
to deal with people, and a
positive, flexible attitude.

What type of education do I need to get a job in hospitality and


tourism?
What types of careers are available to me in the hospitality and
tourism industry?
Do I have what it takes to work in hospitality and tourism?
What skills or abilities does a hospitality and tourism career
professional need in order to be successful?
Is there a career path I could follow?
What tools do I need to achieve my career goals?
If I applied for a job, what would I need to do during the interview
process?

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

23

Section

2.3

Exploring Careers in Hospitality


and Tourism
Terms you

should know
Expertise Building
developing the knowledge
and skills required to perform
on the job at the highest
level.

24

hy are the questions listed in the previous section of this chapter


so important? Exploring career options is important because the
type of business people chooses for their first hospitality or tourism job
will have a strong influence on the career path they will take.
Why? Because those job skills that are first learned will make a
person feel comfortable in the job and at the same time provide a sense
of belonging in that sector of the industry. Typically, once a person feels
they belong somewhere doing something, they will naturally begin to
take ownership of job duties and responsibilities. Once this happens,
and without even thinking about it, a career has been born and a career
path chosen. Eventually, industry workers
come to realize that most hospitality and
tourism-related skills are interchangeable
within the industry. They see the time
invested in that industry segment as
expertise building that will allow
them to travel up the career ladder.
What does this mean for anyone
entering the workplace? It
means it is important early on
in the career process to take
a good look at the various
sectors of the hospitality
and tourism industry
to ensure the first job
will take them along
a career path that
is a right fit for
the next ten-plus
years.

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

Section
2.4

Types of Hospitality and Tourism Careers


I

t is estimated that more than 1.8 million people work in the U.S. lodging industry and an estimated
13 million work in the food service industry. These two simple facts make it very clear that the
opportunities for a long-term career in just those industries alone are very possible. Add to that the
millions of other jobs available in the other industries involved in hospitality and tourism and the
potential career options are nearly limitless.
This graphic shows some of the types of businesses found in the four main operational categories
of the hospitality and tourism industry. Just about any career you can think of will very probably be
available in one or more of the four categories.
Accommodations
All-suite hotels
Casino hotels
Conference centers
Full-service hotels
Limited-service hotels
Resorts
Retirement communities
Food Service
Commercial cafeterias
Education food service
Employee food service
Full-service restaurants
Health care
Lodging food service
Quick-service restaurants
Recreational food service
Social caterers
Transportation
Airlines
Bus lines
Car rental companies
Cruise ships
Tour/Coach operations
Attractions/Other
Campgrounds
Fitness centers
Country clubs
State and national parks
Tourist merchandise operations
Theme parks
Zoos

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

25

Terms you

should know
Entry-Levelfirst-level
employment in a hospitality
firm which usually requires
a HS or equivalent level of
education, training, and
experience qualifications.
It gives a recruit the benefit
of a gainful occupation,
opportunity to learn and gain
experience, and serves as a
stepping-stone for higherlevel jobs.

Skilled-Levelthe next step


in developing specific skills
and capabilities that can be
transferred from one position
to another.

Supervisorythe level
where experience, training,
and initiative are combined
to create the ability to lead
employees and satisfy guests.

Managementthe

Hospitality and Tourism Career Path


The starting point of any career path will depend on a persons
educational background. This will determine whether he or she has
the qualifications to bypass entry- or line-level positions. Educational
qualifications are closely linked to work experience in that segment of
the industry. However, most people entering the hospitality and tourism
industry will typically start as line-level employees and go up the career
ladder from that point. Personal progress will depend on the employee
developing and mastering the desired job positions required tasks,
knowledge, and skills.

A Typical Career Path


Entry-level and Skilled-level provide
services directly to guests:
Hourly position that requires no
experience except willingness to
develop.

Linelevel
Entry-level

SkilledSkilled-level
level

Hourly position requiring previous


experience and mastery of specific
job skills.
Oversees front line operation
Supervisory and Management levels are
responsible for departmental operations:

Supervisory

Management

Manages hourly and supervisory


level employees.
Responsible for administrative or
higher level of a company, business,
or hotel.

Executive

experience, education, and


skills combined to provide the
leadership to a department
or segment of a business
operation.

Executive positions provide:

Executivea leader given

How long it takes to achieve each step on career path will depend on your:

the responsibility to manage


the affairs of an organization
and the authority to make
decisions within specified
boundaries.

Financial, operational, and


leadership required for a business to
function efficiently, effectively, and
profitably.
Ability to set personal goals
Willingness to learn
Ability to build good habits
Work experience
Self-motivation
Self-discipline
Willingness to take risks

26

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

Elevator to Career Success


Executive

Certified Hotel Administrator (CHA)

Department Head
Certified
Certified
Certified
Certified
Certified

Rooms Division Executive (CRDE)


Food and Beverage Executive (CFBE)
Hospitality Housekeeping Executive (CHHE)
Engineering Operations Executive (CEOE)
Lodging Security Director (CLSD)

Managerial

Certified Hospitality Revenue Manager (CHRM)

Supervisor

Certified Hospitality Supervisor (CHS)

Entry-Level

Front Desk Representative


Restaurant Server
Guestroom Attendant
Maintenance Employee

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

27

Section

2.5

The Hospitality and Tourism Professional


W

hen should someone begin developing themselves into an industry professional? The answer is,
right now. Those who choose to develop the skills required by hospitality and tourism professionals
are setting themselves up, early on, for success.

You As a Hospitality and Tourism Professional


What, exactly, does a hospitality and tourism professional look like? Heres a list of behaviors and
practices that all hospitality and tourism professionals have in common:
Must be a people person with a pleasant personality
Willing to put in the effort/high energy
Willing to provide excellent service to guests
Have great communication skills (verbal and written)
Maintain a professional appearance (clean, neat, and tidy)
Creative problem solver/think on their feet
Willing to learn and develop new skills
The hospitality and tourism professional needs to be able to put all these behaviors and practices
to use but the challenge is how to accomplish this. Most companies and businesses have employee
job responsibilities and expectations that state how each task should be done and when it needs to be
completed. So how does a person complete required tasks while focusing on guest needs? This is possibly
the toughest part of guest service to master. One way to do it is to:
Think of a plan for how you could interact with guests while performing certain tasks. Then test
your plan on a friend to see how it would work with a guest.
Learn how to balance it all. For example, learn when employee responsibilities and company
expectations outweigh guest service expectations or when guest service is the most important task
to perform.
Know when to initiate customizing the service you provide to individual guestsfor example,
when you want a guest to feel special or important

28

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

Section
2.6

You As a Guest Service Professional


A

fter mastering the basic skills of the hospitality and tourism


professional, the next step is to develop the soft skills needed to
professionally deliver guest service. The best place to start is by learning
to use the basic standards for guest service.
There are four main components of any guest interaction and they
are the same no matter the persons personal background. This raises the
questions: what is the professional guest service performance standard?
What does it mean? How is it used by the hospitality and tourism industries?
The four main components of the guest service performance standard are
related to the R.A.V.E. model in chapter 1. Each one is simple and easy
to understand.
Make the guest feel special.
Treat the guest as an individual.

Terms you

should know
Performance Standards
a list used to provide the
employee with specific
performance expectations for
each major duty. They are
the observable behaviors and
actions that explain how the
job is to be done.

Treat the guest with respect.


Let every guest know he or she is a VIG (Very Important Guest).
After becoming comfortable with using the guest service performance
standard, the next step to becoming a guest service professional would
be to learn the basic soft skills everyone in hospitality and tourism must
master. No matter what industry or business a person may build a career
in, these simple soft skills should always be in use. The industry expects
a guest service professional to always:

Guest
Service
Gold

Make eye contact and smile.


Greet and welcome each and every guest.
Seek out guest contact.
Provide immediate guest service recovery (this will be discussed in
chapter 4).
Display appropriate body language at all times.
Protect the guest experience from negative influences.
Thank each and every guest.

A training program from


EI that teaches hospitality
and tourism professionals
how to engage and
connect with their guests
to deliver service that goes
above and beyond the call
of duty.

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

29

Here is how the guest service basics are applied to train new employees. Adopting these basic
approaches as other career skills are being learned will provide a strong foundation for anyone wishing
to work in hospitality or tourism.
To make it easy to remember, the performance basics have been put into phrases for use when
interacting with guests to make certain nothing is forgotten. The phrases to remember are:
I project a positive image and energy when I:
Smile
Look approachable
Look happy and interested
Keep conversations positive
I am courteous and respectful to all guests, including children, when I:
Make eye contact and smile
Engage in guest interaction
Treat guests as individuals
Greet and welcome each guest
Thank all guests and invite them back
I appear professional when I:
Provide excellent service and remember safety is important
Perform my role efficiently by reducing guest hassles and inconveniences
I go above and beyond when I:
Anticipate guest needs and offer assistance
Create surprises and delight my guests
Provide immediate service recovery and make it right for my guests

Your Responsibilities to Guests


Guest service professionals understand they have a responsibility to meet and exceed guests
expectations to ensure the quality of their stay is exceptional. They also understand the need to make
things right for guests by actively listening to guest requests, concerns, or complaints. Never allow a
guest to walk away feeling no one was listening to them. That is no way to treat a guest. The standard
phrase in hospitality and tourism is to always meet and exceed guest expectations, which starts by
learning the basic responsibilities and expectations every guest has for employees of the industry.

30

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

What are the basic responsibilities and expectations a hospitality and


tourism employee has for guests? The correct way to handle guests is to
provide:
A clean, safe place to stay, dine, and/or play
A place that is welcoming

Terms you

should know
Property Service
Standardsthe standards

A staff that is knowledgeable


Short wait times for services
A place and staff that can keep its guest service promises

Meeting Guest Expectations


+ Exceeding Guest Expectations

set to ensure consistent


quality guest service in areas
such as safety, cleanliness,
courtesy, and efficiency that
all employees are expected to
use.

Exceptional Guest Service


How is this done? By making a professional commitment to:
Learning and following your propertys service standards
Developing exceptional guest service skills
Delivering the type of service your guests expect

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

31

Section

2.7

Career Goals: The Job Hunt, Rsum,


and Portfolio
Terms you

should know
Rsuma brief written
account of personal,
educational, and professional
qualifications and experience,
for use by an applicant when
applying for a job.

Portfoliothe contents of
a case, such as a three-ring
binder, that demonstrate
recent work or school
experiences, specialized
training, skills, certifications,
and awards.

earching for a job takes a lot of patience and time. People who are
serious about getting a job, need to be dedicated, organized, and
always on the hunt for an available position. Scheduling time into each
day to search for job openings, submitting rsums, building a portfolio,
and completing applications is extremely important, especially for
students looking to launch their careers while still in school or following
graduation.
The job hunt begins with a person researching the various segments
of the industry to determine which are a right fit for his or her job skills,
training, education, and experience.

Job Hunt Sequence


1. Select a segment of the industry
Hotel
Restaurant
Attraction
Theme park
Zoo
National park
Museum
Airline
Cruise line
Support segments
Car rental agencies
Travel/event planners
2. Select a specific job position
3. Prepare a rsum
4. Begin filling out applications/sending in rsums
5. Prepare a portfolio to use during interviews
6. Prepare to be interviewed

32

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

National
Park

Travel/Event
Planners

Zoo

Theme
Park

Restaurant

Cruise
Line

Car Rental
Agencies

Hotel
Hotel
Hotel

Airline

Museum

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

33

Purpose of a Rsum
The most common tool used to find a job is the rsum. It should be a brief one- or two-page document
that summarizes all qualifications, work experience, education, and achievements. Think of a rsum as
an advertisement that is sent to companies trying to sell them on a persons qualifications and skills.

Sample Rsum: An Advertisement of Skills

Qualifications
List of skills and abilities that make a person qualified for the job
Excellent people and sales skills
Outstanding computer skills
Strong communication skills
Great writing skills
Work Experience
Hometown Inn
Front Desk Representative
Captain Anchors Seafood Grill
Server

2010present
20092010

Education
Learnersville Community College
Seeking an AA Degree in Hospitality Management
Morgantown Career and Technical Institute
Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

2010present
20082010

High School DiplomaJune 2010


Achievements
Winner of the 2010 National Hospitality and Tourism Management Competitionone of a
four-person team
Deans List for Academic Performance for past two semesters

34

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

Purpose of a Portfolio
Portfolios are meant to impress and persuade employers to hire the job applicant. A portfolio
should contain real examples of previous school and employment experiences that demonstrate the
qualifications listed on a rsum. The goal is to show a commitment to the job, profession, and industry
segment.

How Does a Portfolio Work?

The portfolio should contain visual examples of previous projects, tasks, training, and educational
experiences. It should be a living documentmeaning every time something new is achieved or
experienced, an example of that experience should be added to the portfolio. The materials can be
contained in a notebook with print copies of examples, or stored on electronic media such as a CD,
DVD, USB drive, or other common media storage tools.

Portfolio Ideas

Portfolios should contain items such as:


Letters of recommendation
Awards and honors
School transcripts
Diplomas or degrees
Licenses and certifications
Community service
Military records, awards, or medals
Reports
Brochures
Presentations
Publications
List of references (personal and professional)
Three to five people
Full name, address, phone, and e-mail
Will be asked about your strengths,
abilities, and experience

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

35

Section

2.8

The Interview Process


H

ow you look, act, dress, behave, and perform on the job is extremely important to anyone wishing
to build a career in the hospitality and tourism industry. This is true when looking for any type
of job and becomes even more important when applying for a position where guest service, the guest
experience, and guest expectations are key job responsibilities. Simply put, no one wants to hire a
dirty, rude person who thinks poorly of him- or herself, and isnt sure what is the right thing to do.
To prevent any or all of those things from affecting a persons career-building efforts, the hospitality
professional hopeful must learn:

Professional Grooming: Dress to Impress

The hospitality and tourism industry has high expectations for employee grooming
and appearance. These expectations are based on guest expectations and each companys
guidelines.
The basic grooming guidelines:
Be neat and clean (clothes and body)
Wear an assigned uniform correctly
Wear a nametag at all times
Maintain a professional appearance at all times
This is also important when applying for a job. It is important to arrive at an interview dressed
to impress. This shows potential employers that a responsible, professional person has applied for
the job.

36

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

Professional Behavior: Use Good Manners

The hospitality and tourism industry depends on its employees to use good manners in order to
provide a warm welcome to guests. Showing good manners during a job interview allows potential
employers to see professional behavior in action.
Professional behavior guidelines include:
Acting confident and self-assured
Making eye contact
Smiling and using positive body language
Having good posture
Being warm and welcoming
Addressing the person by name
Being fun and friendly
Being knowledgeable
Being willing to look for answers to guest questions
Being willing to provide great guest experiences
These are the types of things potential employers will be
looking for during an interview and are the behaviors you
need to display to show you are ready and prepared to fill
the position.

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

37

Section 2.9

Ethics: Doing the Right Thing


Terms you

should know
Ethicsthe rules or
standards governing the
conduct of a person or the
conduct of the members of a
profession.

Moralsgenerally accepted
customs of conduct and right
living by a society, or an
individuals lifetime-learned
personal practices of what is
right or wrong.

t is important to be honest on the job. Why? Because it is the right thing


to do. The way to decide what is right from wrong on the job involves
something known as ethics. Ethics are the set of rules used to determine
which actions are right and which are wrong. Behaving ethically is just
as important as using good manners, but the rules are not as easy to
learn and follow. Sometimes ethics means following the letter of the law
while at other times it means following your heart, which tells you it is
the right thing to do. This is often known as following your own morals.
During a job interview, it is important to answer all questions honestly,
especially when it come to job skills. Employers would rather teach an
honest person the skills they need to do the job than find out the person
they hired did not tell the truth about their abilities.

Using a Moral Compass

The person conducting the interview is looking for answers to questions


that show not only that the interviewee is capable of doing the job, but
also that they will act appropriately on the job. During an interview,
follow this compass:
Be honest and tell the truth
Show a willingness to learn new skills
Be consistent
Show the ability to treat everyone the same
Show an understanding of the importance of following all
company policies and guidelines

38

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

Section
2.10

Self-Esteem: Respect and Value Yourself


S

elf-esteem is important to anyone wishing to have a positive attitude


toward life and build a successful career. Why? Because it is important
to respect and value yourself and allows you to see what you are capable
of achieving. Most importantly, it prevents you from giving up. Those
who respect and value themselves will find making career decisions easier
to do. This is particularly important when hunting for a job. To land the
career-starting job will require a lot of self belief and direction during the
job hunt. When you believe in yourself and understand that your point of
view is valuable, you will be more likely to follow your convictions and
make good career choices.
No one is born with strong self-esteem; it is developed from the actions,
comments, and attitudes of the people surrounding a person as he or she
grows into an adult. However, this doesnt mean someone who thinks
they have low self-esteem is stuck that way for life. Instead, it means he
or she will need to learn what must be done to raise their self-esteem from
a low level to a high level using self-improvement tools and methods. It
will take time, but the success achieved always makes it well worth the
effort. In the hospitality and tourism industry, guests depend on employees
who have a lot of confidence about themselves, their actions, and their
job performance. Self-esteem is necessary for a person to be able to meet
this guest expectation.

Terms you

should know
Self-Esteema persons
overall evaluation of his or
her own self worth, which can
be either positive or negative.

Convictionsfixed or firm
personal or business beliefs
not easily changed without
good reasons provided by
other people or situations.

Map for Building Positive Self-Esteem


Always focus on the positive
Learn to feel good about yourself
Focus on what you like about
yourself

Learn

Achievement
Be
Prepared

Positive
Focus

Walk and talk with confidence


Always smile and stand up straight
Plan and prepare for all upcoming tasks

Smile

Confidence

Confidence

Focus on achieving new knowledge and


skills
Dont mistake confidence for being
competitive
Dont wait until the last minute to get tasks done
Never focus on the negative
Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

39

Apply Your Learning


Section 2.1

1. What must anyone planning a career in hospitality and tourism be prepared to do?
2. Why is gaining knowledge and experience important to someone building a career in hospitality and
tourism?
3. What non-traditional item does the hospitality and tourism industry offer its employees?

Section 2.2

1. What should an employee be able to consistently provide to guests?


2. What employee ability is an art form?
3. List two types of hard skills a hospitality and tourism employee must be able to do.
4. List two types of soft skills a hospitality and tourism employee must be able to do.

Section 2.3

1. Why will your first job in hospitality or tourism have such a strong influence on your future career
choices?
2. What is time working in hospitality or tourism seen as and why is it important?
3. Do the choices you make today affect what you will be doing in 10 years? Give two examples of why
you believe your answer to be correct.

Section 2.4

1. What three things does an executive have to be an expert at?


2. What does an entry-level position contribute to your career development?
3. What does a manager have to provide to his or her employees?
4. What is the starting point of any career path?
5. What are three things your career will depend on for success?

Section 2.5

1. Why is having a pleasant personality important to hospitality professionals?


2. What is required to maintain a professional appearance?
3. Scenario: A newly-hired employee is receiving on-the-job training but seems unwilling to talk to
guests, has shown up in the wrong shoes, and seems to avoid making eye contact with guests. He
has also been late getting to work every day and is grumpy to everyone for the first four hours of his
work shift.
What are your opinions about this person as a hospitality and tourism professional?
How could you act as a role model of what a hospitality and tourism professional should
look like, act with guests, and perform job duties?

40

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

Section 2.6

1. What are the four components used in the guest service performance standard?
2. What are two of the basic soft skills a guest service professional must master?
3. How can you project a positive image?
4. How do you show courtesy and respect to all guests?
5. What should you do to appear professional?
6. What can you do to go above and beyond with your guests?
7. What does the phrase meeting and exceeding guest expectations mean you should do?

Section 2.7

1. What are the first steps in the job hunt process?


2. Why is narrowing the job search down to a specific position important?
3. What four things should every rsum cover?
4. What is the purpose of a portfolio?
5. What can you use to hold or store your portfolio?

Section 2.8

1. What do guests and employers expect from hospitality and tourism employees?
2. What do you need to do to be dressed to impress during a job interview?
3. Why is how you behave during a job interview so important?
4. What is the number one thing a potential employer will be looking for from you during a job interview?

Section 2.9

1. What is the meaning of the term ethics?


2. What can help you know you are doing the right thing?
3. Why is being honest during a job interview so important?

Section 2.10

1. Why is it important to value and respect yourself?


2. List four self-esteem characteristics that help to map out your career.

Chapter 2 Careers in Hospitality

41

Unit 2

Hospitality
Soft Skills
XChapter
X
3
Guest Cycle

XChapter
X
4

Guest Experience Cycle

XChapter
X
5

Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle

XChapter
X
6
Communication

42

Unit Overview

his unit focuses on the types of soft skills


demonstrated during various levels of the
guest cycle and the types of activities that occur
during each stage of the cycle. Additionally, the
communication skills required for a successful
career in hospitality and tourism will be covered.
Every guest checking into a hotel, cruise ship,
or other type of overnight accommodations goes
through a sequence of four steps that make up a
process known as the guest cycle. Each step in the
cycle can be divided into levels that deal with:
1. Employee task responsibilities
2. Guest experience
3. Financial soft skills
4. Communication components
This unit breaks down each stage of the
guest cycle into individual chapters to show
how the processes, tasks, and transactions are
handled by employees to guarantee a seamless
guest experience.

43

3
r
e
t
p
a
Ch

e
l
c
y
C
t
Gues

XSection
X
3.1
Introduction

XSection
X
3.2

Stages of the Guest Cycle

XSection
X
3.3

Guests: Who Are They?

XSection
X
3.4

Global Traveling Public

Competencies
1. Identify the tasks performed during pre-arrival, arrival,
occupancy, and departure stages of the guest cycle.
2. Identify how a seamless guest experience is managed by
employees and the property.
3. Identify how the emotional engagement of guests is
influenced by each stage of the guest cycle.
4. Explain how to determine guests wants and needs in
order to meet and exceed expectations with the global
traveling public.
44

Hospitality Profile

Jerry South
Founder & CEO
Towne Park
Towne Park is a provider of hospitality staffing and
parking solutions for hotels, casinos, hospitals, and
other companies throughout the United States. Jerry
South, founder and CEO, believes in learning through
living. Hes a self-taught, savvy businessman and
entrepreneur. Every day I learn, Mr. South shared
in a recent industry article. Thats the beauty of
it. You must use each and every day as a lesson for
tomorrow because youll need it. It is this belief
that enabled him to gain the trust of over 400
businesses nationwide over the past twenty years.
Mr. South is passionate about providing opportunities
for people to do more than they ever thought was
possible. He believes talented people at all levels
within the organization are the foundation of Towne
Parks success and is strategically involved in
attracting and cultivating executive talent. I have
a lot of philosophies by which I live. One of them
is that you cant be afraid to hire people smarter
than you.
In addition to his duties as Towne Parks CEO, Jerry
South is also the chairman of Towne Holdings, Inc.s
Board of Directors. He also participates in Towne
Parks Communications Council and is a member
of Towne Parks Executive Committee and Strategic
Planning Group.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the


textbooks profile about this industry professional
to complete the Professional Profile Activity in
the student workbook. You may need to conduct
additional research of your own about the profile
topic covered in the workbook as well.

45

Section 3.1

Introduction
Terms you

should know
Guest Cyclethe step-bystep process the guest goes
through during a hotel stay.

Seamless Guest
Experiencethe smooth
flow of each guest activity
from one to another without
disruption, resulting in an
overall positive feeling of
satisfaction.

he flow of business can be divided into a four-stage guest cycle that


has been traditionally associated with the hotel industry. However,
in recent years other segments of the hospitality and tourism industry
have adopted the four stages of the guest cycle. The goal is a seamless
guest experience during the stages of pre-arrival, arrival, occupancy,
and departure. This enables employees to efficiently serve guests with
a clear understanding of the flow of a guests personal and business
needs during each stage of the guest cycle. It also guarantees all financial
transactions occur at the correct time and are processed accurately. This
chapters focus is on following the guest through the cycle and how each
stage influences guest thoughts and decisions.

Pre-Arrival
Hotel
Restaurant
Rental
Theme park

Arrival

Occupancy

Room Reservation

Check In

Hotel Stay

Check Out

Dining Reservation

Be Seated

Dining Experience

Pay Bill

Car Reservation

Pick Up

Use of Car

Return Car

Ticket Order

Enter Main Gate

Time in the Park

Leave the Park

Pineapple Fun Fact


The Willard InterContinental Washington Hotel was built in
1816 by Colonel John Tayloe, III, and is located within a
block of the White House. This historic property has played
host to many famous figures. It was the place where Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. finished writing his I have a Dream
Speech and where Julia Ward Howe wrote The Battle Hymn
of the Republic during her stay.

46

Departure

Chapter 3 Guest Cycle

Section
3.2

Stages of the Guest Cycle


Pre-Arrival
Pre-arrival includes all the things a guest does before leaving home.
It is the stage when the guest makes plans, reservations, and important
financial decisions. Typically, what the guest accomplishes during the
pre-arrival stage will include decisions such as:

Pre-Arrival

Destination
Departure date
Return date
Transportation
Length of stay
Activities
Budget
Price
Method of payment

where they plan to go


when they plan to leave
when they plan to return home
how they plan to travel there and back
how long they plan to stay
what they plan to do during the stay
how much they plan to spend
the cost for each item and if it fits in the budget
how they plan to pay for everything

Terms you

should know
Moments of Truthcritical
moments when guests
and staff interact, offering
opportunities for staff to
make a favorable impression,
correct mistakes, and win
repeat customers.

Pre-arrival is very important to the success of any business because this


is when advertising and marketing need to attract the guests attention
and influence the choices made at this time. Hotel companies recognized
this need and began using a variety of marketing and advertising tools
during this part of the guest cycle. The goal was to convert guest stay
inquiries into actual guestroom bookings. The function of these tools,
such as websites and brochures, is to help a guest get answers to questions
about the property. Then, using this information, the guest can to go from
undecided to confirming a reservation.

Arrival
Arrival, as the name implies, is the time when the guest arrives at a destination expecting to receive
the type of services requested or decided on during the pre-arrival stage of the cycle. For many businesses
it is a moment of truth because it is the time when the business must be capable of delivering what
was promised to guests through advertising, marketing, and direct contact efforts.
Now that the guest is on-site, making a lasting impression is critical. Why? Because this is when
the guest will make the crucial decision to like or dislike the employees, the services provided, and the
business as a whole. Likewise, it is the moment that establishes the overall feeling of how the guest
experience will be during the entire time they are staying at the hotel, dining at the restaurant, or visiting
the attraction. Often, it is during the arrival stage that a guest will decide if he or she will do repeat
business with the company or merely survive this single experience. The arrival stage depends heavily
on well-trained employees to provide guests with positive and problem-free experiences. Because guest

Chapter 3 Guest Cycle

47

decisions happen at the speed of light, the lack of appropriate response by employees can have significant
impact on the businesss ability to build a loyal following of guests. The loss of a single guests future
business can have a huge financial impact on the company. Again, you may ask why? Because guests
who are loyal also act as free marketing when they share their experiences with family and friends. This
is also true of occupancy, the next guest cycle stage to be discussed.

Speed of Guest Thoughts

Employee:
Personality, Efficiency, Attitude

PositiveGuest likes

Experience

NegativeGuest dislikes

Property:
Appearance, Staff Professionalism, Ambiance

PositiveGuest likes

NegativeGuest dislikes

Arrival

Occupancy
The stage of occupancy begins when the guest enters the guestroom, is seated in the restaurant
dining room, drives away in the car, or walks into the first guest area of the attraction. This is the time
when the guest expects to be immersed in the experience so they may see, do, eat, and explore. The most
important thought for all employees and the business is to deliver on the guest experience promises
made during the pre-arrival and arrival stages.
Exceptional guest service must be delivered to ensure the guests thoughts and decisions continue
to be positive and focused on how much they like everything. It only takes one dislike to cause the
guests thoughts to take a negative turn. Sadly, once a guest begins to focus on a negative experience
during the occupancy stage, and loses trust in the employees ability to meet his or her expectations,
it is almost impossible for employees and the business to recover the situation. What does this mean?
It means employees must be well trained, skilled at their jobs, and have a strong understanding of the
importance of providing exceptional guest service at all times. For the business, it means providing
the training, equipment, and managerial support to employees so they will be able to meet and exceed
guest expectations.

Occupancy: Lost Guest Loyalty

The flow of each step in the departure stage should combine business with the guests happy memories.
A guest should never think, feel, or say to themselves or others, things such as:

Occupancy:
The Dark Side

My server took way too long coming to take my order.


Why wasnt my room cleaned this morning? Its almost 4 p.m.
Why isnt there a wait time posted? Id like to know how long it will take to get on this ride.
I need help with my bags; wheres the valet?
Id like more coffee; am I invisible?
Quit talking to your buddy and help me. Im a paying guest.
This bathroom is dirty; for what it cost to come here, I expected it to be clean.
What do you mean you dont know? You work here. Youre supposed to know!

Lost guest loyalty equals lost business; it is the responsibility of every employee to send departing
guests away with only the very best experiences and stories to share with family and friends.
48

Chapter 3 Guest Cycle

Departure
The departure stage, again as the name implies, is when guests conclude their business or experience
followed by leaving that location. Curiously, this stage of the guest cycle is most likely to receive the
least amount of effort by a businesss employees. Most people make the mistake of seeing departure
strictly as the time to collect payment and send the guests on their way. However, this is not true. Settling
the guests bill is only the start of the departure stage of the guest cycle. There are still a number of
things that need to occur as part of this stage. Guests will also be looking for closure on the experience
itselfdocumentation showing bill settlement, a warm goodbye, and, in some situations, a follow-up
from the business to make sure the guest was satisfied with the services received. Departure has two
componentsone is getting the business of payment completed and the other is to emotionally engage
the guest about the memories they have of the experience.

Thanks for the Memories

The flow of each step in the departure stage should combine business with the guests happy memories.

Departure

Collect payment
Ask guest about experience
Settle bill
Ask guest to share a fond memory
Provide guest with bill documents
Give warm goodbye
Give guest a moment to shift into departure mode
Follow up with guest to ensure satisfaction
Look for marketing opportunity

Departure is the time when employees have a chance to form a strong bond between the guest and
the service received by encouraging the guest to focus on happy memories. It is also the time to influence
current guests into committing to come back some time in the future. This is done by encouraging guests
to share their experiences as the bill settlement process is being completed. Influencing guests into
becoming repeat customers is extremely important in the hospitality and tourism industry and essential
to the success of every business. Why? Because these businesses have learned that if they can bring just
a small percentage of their previous guests back again, it will significantly increase profits by reducing
the cost of advertising and marketing. How? By taking advantage of the word-of-mouth advertising
provided by former guests when sharing their thoughts and memories with family and friends.
Guest follow-up supports this idea by allowing guests to process the experience, come to a conclusion,
and become receptive to the idea of using the services of the hotel, restaurant, attraction, or transportation
provider again and again. An example of this is sending out an e-mail to every guest within 48 hours of
departure, thanking them for their business and asking for any feedback they might wish to share. The
e-mail acts not only as a thank you, but as a way to proactively discover guest concerns or issues that
occurred during arrival or occupancy but were never resolved to the guests satisfaction. The business
now has a second chance, through follow-up, to make it right and resolve the situation.

Chapter 3 Guest Cycle

49

Section 3.3

Guests: Who Are They?


Terms you

should know
Quality Guest Servicea
series of enhanced
experiences provided to
a guest by a hospitality
employee to raise the level of
the guests satisfaction.

Job Performance
Standardsa measurable set
of goals, objectives, and other
elements that can be applied
by an employer to determine
the level of performance
achieved by each employee.

very business needs clients and customers to buy its goods, products, or
services. But the terms client or customer have a very businesslike,
cold feeling about them that does not fit in well with the concept of guest
service. Consequently, the hospitality and tourism industry has chosen
to refer to those they provide goods, products, or services to as guests.

Guest Concept
What is the idea behind the guest concept? The idea is simple; the
business and its employees should act as caring hosts to each and
every guest. This will remove the cold, formal feeling from all business
interactions and raise them to a higher level known as quality guest
service, which should make the guest feel:
Welcome
Appreciated
Valued
Respected
Important
Quality guest service is
considered by hospitality and
tourism to be the entry-level
form of guest service. It sets a
baseline expectation for the types of guest
service soft skills needed by all employees
in the industry to meet the most basic
of job performance standards. Guest
service on the very highest level requires
employees to develop soft skills
that go above and beyond the
basic and deliver exceptional
service. The elements needed for
exceptional guest service will be
discussed in Chapter 4 of this
textbook.

50

Chapter 3 Guest Cycle

Hosting Guests
The concept of being a guest is a universal one, meaning that no matter where a person travels
globally, the basic skills of acting as a host by hospitality and tourism employees are the same. This has
been an important factor in the amazing growth of international travel over the past 50 years as well.
So how does the concept of hosting work? That depends on the category a business falls under:

Term

Description

Accommodations

where you will welcome guests into their home away from
home for the night.

Food and
Beverage

where you are inviting guests to dine at your place.

Transportation

where you are offering to make certain guests can get from one
place to another.

Attractions

where you are inviting guests to share and enjoy a days or


nights entertainment with you.

Chapter 3 Guest Cycle

51

Section

3.4

Global Traveling Public


I

nternational travel is one of the fastest-growing economic


sectors of the hospitality and tourism industry. Today, the
business volume of tourism equals or surpasses the export of
oil, food products, and automobiles in countries such as Japan,
China, and the United States. This means that job growth
worldwide is an estimated 5 percent per year and growing.
This is a good sign for anyone wishing to build a career in
hospitality and tourism. However, the economic strength of
global tourism depends heavily on the quality of the guest
service and guest experience received by the traveling
public. Todays traveling public is vastly different from
that of 50 years ago. Those working in hospitality and
tourism must have a strong understanding of the
diverse background and needs of guests.

52

Chapter 3 Guest Cycle

Guest Diversity
Respecting and valuing the diversity of todays traveling public can
be complicated. To make it easier to manage requires an understanding
of the country or region of the world the guest is arriving from and the
purpose of the visit. Using those two pieces of information allows the
person delivering services to guests the opportunity to balance the items
the guest is seeking with what is actually available.

Apples to Oranges Comparison

Guests have their own expectations based on a number of diverse


factors such as their:

Terms you

should know
Discretionary Incomethe
money left after necessities
such as food, housing, and
clothing have been paid for
that can be spent for luxury
items and vacations.

Personality
Life Experiences
Education
Discretionary Income
Employees assisting with decisions concerning types of accommodations,
dining experiences, transportation needs, and available attractions need
to listen carefully to what the guest expects. This will allow the employee
to get a better feel for who the guest is and his or her likes and dislikes
when traveling. Then, using the information gained from active listening,
the employee must attempt to match, as closely as possible, the guest
expectation to what is actually available at a specific destination.
For example, the guest expects to stay in a small, family-run bed
and breakfast but the destination is a safari park in Tanzania. The
accommodations available for this location will be either a rustic safari
lodge or savannah campsite. Does the guest expectation match what is
actually available? No, it isnt a perfect match. Because this is the case, it
is the responsibility of the employee involved to make the guest aware
of the choices available and help to select an option that will be suitable,
if not exactly what the guest expected. This way, on arrival the guest has
a realistic expectation of what will be waiting. Simply put, if the guest
expects an apple but only an orange is available, make sure he or she
knows what type of fruit is in the fruit bowl.

Chapter 3 Guest Cycle

53

Balancing the Familiar with Unfamiliar


The process involved in finding a balance between the familiar and the unfamiliar, so a guest has the
best possible experience, can be a challenge. However, the solution is very simple. First, guest service
professionals must be fully knowledgeable about all things available to guests at their location. Then
they should use probing questions to help discover what is familiar to the guest to establish a better
understanding of what the guest is used to experiencing and expects to experience during their visit.
Next, they should use descriptions of the unfamiliar with references to the familiar in order to bridge
the gap so the guest can begin to envision the guest experience at the destination.

For example: a guest wants to visit an exotic destination and stay in a five-star spa resort but no
five-star properties exist at that location. The guest service professional assisting the guest will need to
determine what that guest finds desirable about spa resorts. Using that information, the professional can
then attempt to match what the guest desires to what is available, describe the types of accommodations
available at the locale and answer the guests questions about the accommodations so he or she may
come to some type of decision. It is important during this conversation to focus on providing honest
descriptions of what is actually available so that the guest knows precisely what is being offered.
54

Chapter 3 Guest Cycle

Apply Your Learning


Section 3.1

1. What stage of the guest cycle deals with collecting payment for services received?
2. What occurs during the pre-arrival stage of the guest cycle?
3. How does occupancy differ between a hotel and a theme park?
4. Do food and beverage operations experience the arrival stage of the guest cycle? Explain your answer.

Section 3.2
1. How do the pre-arrival activities impact what the guest experiences during occupancy?
2. What can happen during arrival that can cause the entire guest experience to be a poor one?
3. During occupancy, why should employees make sure guests only have positive thoughts?
4. Is collecting payment the only important activity to happen during the departure stage? Explain
your answer.

Section 3.3

1. Why is the term guest used by the hospitality and tourism industry?
2. What do you think of when the term customer is used?
3. What is involved in hosting guests at a hotel, restaurant, or attraction?

Section 3.4

1. How does a guest service professional find out what type of services a guest is familiar with receiving?
2. What does a guest service professional need to know in order to match guest needs with actual
services available?
3. Is it possible to help set a guests expectation of services available and, if so, how is setting the
expectation accomplished?

Chapter 3 Guest Cycle

55

4
r
e
t
p
a
Ch

e
l
c
y
C
e
c
n
e
i
r
e
p
x
E
Guest
XSection
X
4.1
Introduction

XSection
X
4.2

Follow the Experience: Stages of the


Guest Experience

XSection
X
4.3

Operations and the Guest Experience

XSection
X
4.4
Guest Service GOLD

XSection
X
4.5
Guest Recovery

XSection
X
4.6

Guest Service Measurement (GSM)

Competencies
1. Identify the reason for encouraging repeat
guest business.
2. Identify the stages of the guest experience
cycle and the activities associated with each
stage.
3. Identify the purpose for providing seamless
guest experiences.
4. Identify the components used in above-andbeyond guest service.
5. Explain the role of guest recovery during
the handling of guest complaints, issues, or
problems.
6. Explain how and why guest satisfaction
measurements help a business to run
smoothly and profitably.

56

Hospitality Profile

David Kong
President & CEO
Best Western International
Growing up in Hong Kong, Mr. Kongs parents would take
him to hotels for dinner or brunch and it was from those
experiences that his interest in a career in hotels was born.
He started as a busboy and dishwasher and still feels a
special appreciation for people in those jobs. He has also
worked as a waiter, front desk representative, and PBX
operator (an older type of hotel switchboard phone system).
He credits his desire for knowledge, intellectual curiosity,
openness to embrace change, and his parents work ethic
as the reasons for his success.
Before Best Western, Mr. Kongs career includes managerial
experience with top hotel brands including Hyatt Hotels,
Omni International, Regent International, and Hilton
Hotels. He came to Best Western from KPMG Consultings
hospitality and real estate practice.
As a long-time active member of AH&LA, Mr. Kong
has played a vital role in the associations governance
restructuring task force which resulted in the restructuring
of the AH&LA bylaws, transitioning the association from
a federation to a dual-membership organization in 2005.
Today, Mr. Kong maintains his strong voice within AH&LA
through involvement on the CEO Council, and his position
as officer liaison to the Technology & E-Business Committee,
Risk Management Committee, and Small and/or Independent
Properties Advisory Council (SIPAC), among others.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks


profile about this industry professional to complete the
Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own about
the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

57

Section

4.1

Introduction
Terms you

should know
Branda particular product
or company associated with
a name, logo, or unique
characteristic that serves
to identify that particular
product or company.

or increased financial success, hospitality and tourism depend heavily


on guest loyalty as a source of repeat business. The challenge has
always been finding ways to develop the type of lasting relationship with
each guest that is necessary for that person to feel a sense of loyalty to a
company or brand. Depending on the business or industry, this is often
known as brand or guest loyalty. Today, the majority of businesses in
the hospitality and tourism industry have some type of loyalty program
that rewards guests when they do repeat business with that company or
brand. The rewards can range from free airline miles to free nights in a
hotel or exclusive dining offers. Regardless of the reward, the outcome
is the same, increased business and higher profits.
However, before guest loyalty can be built, the company or brand
must provide guests with something worth remembering. This something
is known as the guest experience. It is a fact that, no matter the reason
a person chooses to bring their business to a company or brand, one
expectation is always the same. Every person wants to have a positive
experience while staying with, dining at, traveling on, or being entertained
by that business. This knowledge gave birth to the concept of the guest
experience and the basic guidelines for what it takes to convert a guest
into a loyal repeat customer of the businesss services.

Pineapple Fun Fact


The Stratosphere Casino, Hotel & Tower, at more than 1,100
feet, is the tallest freestanding observation tower west of the
Mississippi. The tower offers a 360-degree view of the Las
Vegas Valley and hosts the worlds highest thrill rides such as
the Big Shot which shoots riders 160 feet to the top of the
towers mast before dropping into a free-fall descent.

58

Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

Section
4.2

Follow the Experience: Stages of the


Guest Experience

he guest cycle discussed in Chapter 3 is used to explain and train hospitality and tourism employees
on what is involved in a guests visit from the business or operational perspective. To guests
themselves, the guest cycle means nothing. They see everything in the guest cycle as one seamless
experience. As guests process through the guest cycle, they are experiencing more than just the businessrelated activities of pre-arrival, arrival, occupancy, and departure. They are also involved in the guest
experience cycle at the same time. It is important to realize that attached to each stage of the guest cycle
is a piece of the guest experience cycle that must be integrated with the others in order to provide a
complete experience to the guest.

The Two Cycles Work Together

Employees have to be able to conduct the business of the guest cycle and, at the same time, provide
an exceptional guest experience. Employees need to be able to see the experience from two different
viewpoints and its the employees responsibility to realize these two perceptions are running parallel
to each other and try to make them match as much as possible. The two viewpoints are:
1. The employees perception of what is being provided
2. The guests perception of what is being received
The goal is for the guest cycle to be the same for all guests while the guest experience cycle will
vary by guest based on the personal choices made during his or her stay. Imagine the guest cycle and
the guest experience cycle are traveling down a parallel timeline with each item happening at the same
time but with a different experience being delivered to each guest. Why does each experience differ?
This will occur because of the difference in each persons personality, background, and interests. It will
also be due to the personal choices each guest will make during his or hers stay. Taking these individual
differences into account, employees must find ways to consistently perform their job tasks during each
stage of the guest cycle in order to meet and exceed each persons guest experience expectations.
During each stage of the two cycles, the guest will:
Guest
Experience
Cycle

Idea
Show interest

Decide
Commit to idea

Participate

Advocate

Be engaged

Form opinion
(yes/no) about loyalty

Guest Cycle

Pre-Arrival

Arrival

Occupancy

Departure

Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

59

Section 4.3

Operations and the Guest Experience


T

he phrase seamless guest experience is based on the simple idea of making certain that guests
cannot tell when they shift from one part of the cycle to the next. It should all flow from start to
finish as smoothly as possible. People who experience hiccups or glitches during their guest experience
are more likely to remember those incidents over the positive ones. One golden rule of guest service
often used by hospitality employees is to never forget it only takes one bad moment to spoil everything
for the guest. This means every seamless guest experience must be positive as well.

The Positive Experience


So, how does a guest service professional accomplish providing a seamless guest experience? The
process includes four steps:

Be outstanding
at your job.

Project a positive
image and energy.

Provide above-andbeyond service.

Show respect and


value for everyone.

These four simple steps will communicate to guests more than words and have a major impact on
their overall experience. It is important to keep in mind guests usually remember the last thing that
happens during their visit, so each guest experience must be a good one.

60

Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

The Right Thing

The hospitality and tourism industries were one of the first to embrace and provide for guests with
special needs to show they respect and value everyone (R.A.V.E.). Why? Because it is the right thing to
do. Additionally, in 1990 the Americans with Disabilities Act was signed into law. This law was created
to provide a clear and comprehensive national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against
individuals with disabilities. The hospitality and tourism industry responded to the ADA law by finding
new methods to provide guests with disabilities experiences designed to meet their special needs and
personal expectations.

ADA
By Law, the Americans with Disabilities
Act (ADA) requires all businesses to make
reasonable accommodation for customers with
special needs.

A Global View of the Guest Experience


Meeting the multi-faceted needs of a diverse guest audience has become an established goal in all
areas of the hospitality and tourism industry. Guest diversity can mean they are international travelers,
special needs guests, business travelers, vacationers, honeymooners, or infrequent travelers, just to
name a few. Ecotourism, archeological tours, and heritage travel have all become popular trends, as has
discovery travel with guests wishing to visit regions of the world that were previously inaccessible to
tourism and travel. Hotels and transportation providers saw the change in what guests were seeking and
began to create the infrastructure guests would need to travel according to their personal preferences.
This resulted in an explosion of international travel options, destinations, and guest services.
The travel options range from very luxurious to most basic, the destinations range from exotic to
nearby, and guest services can be had on any level a guest desires. It is up to the guest to decide what
options, destinations, and services he or she wishes to select during the pre-arrival stage of the guest
experience cycle. Once the guest has chosen, the hospitality provider has accepted responsibility for
providing those items promised to guests.

Making Guests Feel Comfortable


Guests arriving at any destination must be made to feel welcome, but they must also feel comfortable.
This is particularly important with a diverse guest audience. Items that typically make international,
special needs, or infrequent travelers feel uncomfortable are:
Language barriers, not speaking the locations language
Change in diet, lack of knowledge about local cuisine
Transportation concerns, making arrangements to visit the local area
Guest service professionals must be prepared to step in and provide guests with the knowledge,
expertise, and answers they will need in order to raise their comfort level. Once a guest realizes the
hospitality employee cares and wants to make their guest experience positive and seamless, they will
relax, enjoy, and remember the person who made them feel comfortable in their new surroundings.

Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

61

Section

4.4

Guest Service GOLD

uest service is a key element in both hospitality and tourism. It is considered an essential soft skill
to anyone wishing to have a long and successful career in either segment of the industry. It starts
by learning how to apply the guest service basics of:
Wear a smile and be polite
Make eye contact
Use the guests name
Wear your name tag at all times
Present a professional appearance
Treat guests as individuals
Make guests feel special
Meet and attempt to exceed guest expectations
Once the basics are mastered, the next step is developing the skills required to deliver above-andbeyond guest service. It was the need for hospitality professionals to have the tools and skills necessary
for exceeding guest expectations that led the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute (EI) to
develop the Guest Service GOLD training and certification program.
Guest Service GOLD focuses on seven key elements necessary for delivering the very highest levels
of guest service on an ongoing basis. The goal is to make providing above and beyond guest service a
routine part of the guest service professionals day. Why? Because it is a well-known fact that providing
the best guest service possible will have a positive impact on the company, the employees, and most
importantly, the guests.

62

Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

The seven elements of Guest Service GOLD are:

Authenticity: Keep It
Real

Intuition: Read the Need

Empathy: Use Your Heart

Delight: Provide a
Surprise

Delivery: Follow Through

Initiative: Make the


Effort

Champion: Be a Guest
Hero

Professional Certification
Part of career development in any industry is to seek a professional
certification designation from the appropriate certifying
organization. Why? Because a professional certification shows
that the recipient has completed the coursework and passed
a difficult exam that tests for the required knowledge, skills,
and expertise needed to receive the designation. In the case
of hospitality and tourism, the certifying organization is
the American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute (EI).
EI recommends that the one certification every
person in hospitality and tourism should hold is the
Certified Guest Service Professional (CGSP) designation.
Depending on the structure of the Hospitality and
Tourism Management program in this school, it may
be offered as part of the course work. If not, the
training is available by contacting the EI Professional
Certification department at www.ahlei.org.

Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

63

Section

4.5

Guest Recovery
Terms you

should know
Advocacythe action of
supporting a cause, situation,
or need based on the
facts and feelings of those
involved.

uest loyalty cannot be bought; it has to be earned by eliminating any


sources of dissatisfaction. This is particularly important during a guest
complaint situation. The source of the issue must be quickly identified,
investigated, and a solution suggested. This is known as providing guest
recovery following a negative situation and is a very important part of
guest advocacy.
There can be three types of outcomes during a guest recovery situation:

Compensationsomething
given or received as an
equivalent for loss of services
or guest inconvenience.

The goal is to create a win-win outcome for everyone. This means


finding the source of the issue, problem, or complaint so it can be removed,
then finding a workable solution everyone can agree on. Typically, the
solution is some type of apology or compensation depending on severity
of the issue.

64

Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

Make It Right
A common model used for achieving win-win outcomes to guest
complaints is the L.A.T.E. model. It is a four-step process for handling
any challenging situation, whether it is with a guest or a coworker. The
acronym stands for:

Terms you

should know
Liabilitythe fault imposed
against a business for
injuries that occurred on the
businesss property or as a
result of negligent activities
by employees.

Why Apologize? During the second step of the LATE model, it is


important to acknowledge the guests feelings and inconvenience through
the use of an apology. The apology should be limited to the employee
showing an understanding of the emotions the guest is feeling at that
moment and should demonstrate the employee is actively listening to the
guests concerns. However, the apology should never admit to any fault
on the part of the employee or business. Accepting fault for situations
such as guest accidents, thefts, or other negative incidents, can be seen
as the employee accepting liability for them and could lead to the guest
taking legal action against the employee and the business.

Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

65

Advocacy
Traditionally, the word advocacy means a person
has become the champion of something or someone,
such as personal beliefs. In hospitality and tourism,
advocacy stands for guests promoting the company or
brand to others. To those employed in the industry, it
represents the services they protect and safeguard
for guest enjoyment.
Advocacy has two components:
1. The advocacy of a loyal guest who brings in
repeat or new business.
2. The advocacy of the employee acting on behalf
of the guest and their employer.
The first type of advocacy occurs when the
guest experience is problem-free. The guest will
be quick to share the details of the exceptional guest
experience with family and friends. It is very likely the
guest will advocate visits by others, either when asked
for a personal recommendation or when sharing a positive
memory from the experience. This type of guest advocacy
is incredibly valuable to all hospitality and tourism industry
businesses.
The second type of advocacy happens when a negative
guest situation is corrected to everyones
satisfaction. Typically, negative guest situations will require an employee
to use the L.A.T.E. model to achieve a win-win guest recovery solution. In
this instance, the employee has the opportunity to convert the guest into a
loyal guest by handling the situation correctly and reaching a solution that
works for everyone involved. If the employee fails to achieve a win-win
solution, then chances are the guest will leave dissatisfied and never
become a loyal guest.
Lost guest loyalty is often referred to as a lost opportunity in hospitality
and tourism. Why? Because a dissatisfied guest has the ability to share
that lack of satisfaction with family and friends, which can result in lost
business to the company or brand. So, the opportunity was there to fix the
problem but it did not happen, hence the lost opportunity label. People who
learn this early on, and begin using the LATE model to achieve a positive
outcome during every guest recovery situation, will grow guest loyalty
alongside their career.

66

Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

Section
4.6

Guest Service Measurement (GSM)


H

ospitality and tourism businesses have long recognized the need to measure how successful they
are in meeting and exceeding guest expectations. The tool most commonly used to measure guest
satisfaction is the Guest Service Measurement (GSM). Regularly providing guests with the chance to
give feedback about their guest experience is the best method of determining success or the need for
change. This can be done using comments cards, sending a link to an online survey, making a followup phone call, or having a feedback section available on the website. Once the information is received,
the guest experience provider can do one of two things with the GSM; they can choose to:

Take action and make necessary changes in response to:


Negative guest feedback indicated by a low GSM score
Failure to make changes could result in:
Loss of business
Lower profit

Not take action and leave the experience as it is due to:


Positive guest feedback indicated by a high GSM score
A high score indicates:
Guests are very satisfied with the experience
No changes are currently needed
Guest Service Measurements (GSMs), when conducted regularly with guests, will provide the
information any business needs to make good decisions impacting the guest experience. Why? Because,
any negative impact on guests can also have a negative impact of revenue and profits. Consequently,
successful hospitality operations know that a happy guest is likely to visit often, spend more, and will
recommend others do the same. The GSM process tells guests the company or brand is listening and
cares about their opinions.
Another benefit of allowing guests to rate their experiences is the ability to determine the value guests
place on various services. This information about which services should be kept long term and which
ones should be discontinued due to lack of guest interest or satisfaction can help to make a company or
brand more profitable. Keeping guest experiences that are profitable can be very important when the
property is using outside vendors or suppliers to provide services such as guest transportation, tours of
local attractions, and on-site entertainment. Measuring guest satisfaction can ensure the guest experience
is memorable and cost effective for both the business and the guest.
Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

67

Apply Your Learning


Section 4.1

1. What does the term branding mean when used in the hospitality and tourism industry?
2. Why is building guest loyalty so important to businesses involved in the hospitality and tourism
industry?
3. Why is active listening an important career skill? Explain your answer.

Section 4.2

1. How can an employee use the two different viewpoints to ensure a positive guest experience?
2. Why is the guest experience cycle not the same for every guest?
3. Should the business of guest arrival be the only thing a hospitality employee should focus on?
Why?

Section 4.3

1. Why is providing a seamless guest experiences so important?


2. Why does one bad guest experience have a major impact on guests?
3. Why is making reasonable accommodation for special needs guests so important? Explain your
answer.

Section 4.4

1. List four of the guest service basics and explain why you believe each one should be an automatic
part of the guest experience.
2. Select one of the seven Guest Service GOLD elements and write a paragraph about why you
think it is an important part of excellent guest service.
3. Why is gaining professional certification an important part of career development? Explain your
answer.

68

Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

Section 4.5

1. Why is a win-win solution to guest issues important?


2. List two things you must do to show you are listening to guests?
3. What type of action should you take when solving a guest problem or complaint?
4. Write a phrase you could use to apologize for a guests inconvenience due to the electricity
being off for an hour?

Section 4.6

1. What is the purpose of asking guests for feedback about their guest experience?
2. Why is it important for all hospitality and tourism businesses to continuously monitor guest
satisfaction? Explain your answer.
3. What could happen if a company or brand fails to measure guest satisfaction?

Chapter 4 Guest Experience Cycle

69

5
r
e
t
p
a
Ch

s
e
s
s
e
c
o
r
P
l
a
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c
n
a
Fin
e
l
c
y
C
t
s
e
u
G
e
h
t
d
an
XSection
X
5.1
Introduction

XSection
X
5.2
Follow the Dollar

XSection
X
5.3
Protect the Money

XSection
X
5.4

Guest Service and the Bottom Line

XSection
X
5.5

The Guest Cycle and Financial


Opportunities

Competencies
1. Identify the need for protecting the guests
right to privacy.
2. Identify the need to protect guests against
identity theft and fraud.
3. Explain the financial transactions that
occur during the guest cycle.
4. Identify the financial processes used to
protect guest privacy.
5. Identify the type of sensitive guest
information at risk during a financial
transaction.
6. Explain the financial purpose of an
employee code of conduct.
7. Identify the financial opportunities for
employees to influence guest spending
during the guest cycle.

70

Hospitality Profile

Ashli Johnson
Hospitality Consultant

Born into a military family, Ashli Johnson has lived


internationally throughout her life and quickly learned
that the world would be her classroom. After completing a
Bachelors degree in Hospitality, Resort & Spa Management
at the University of West Florida, Ms. Johnson has been
privileged to work under the tutelage of industry leaders
at some of the countrys premier hotels, including the
Walt Disney World Resort, Loews Hotels, WaterColor
and WaterSound Resorts, Doubletree Hotels, The
Fontainebleau Miami Beach, and Hyatt Hotels & Resorts.
A sought after speaker, Ms. Johnson has been invited to
speak at various industry conferences and top hospitality
programs including Johnson & Wales University, Eastern
Carolina University, Temple University, the University of
Central Florida, and Bethune Cookman University. An
engaged, servant leader in the hospitality industry, Ms.
Johnson is proud to be involved in organizations such
as the National Society of Minorities in Hospitality,
ConNEXTions Worldwide, The National Association of
Black Hotel Owners, Operators & Developers and also
serves as Vice Chair of The American Hotel & Lodging
Associations Gateway Council.
Ms. Johnson holds a Masters degree in Hospitality and
Tourism Management from Florida International University
and is an independent hospitality consultant for Urbane
Hospitality Group.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks

profile about this industry professional to complete the


Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own
about the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

71

Section 5.1

Introduction
Terms you

should know
Payment Cardsgroup term
used for credit, debit, and
cash cards used for all types
of financial transactions.

Fraudrefers to all types


of crime in which someone
wrongfully obtains and uses
another persons personal
data in some way that
involves criminal activity
or deception, typically for
economic gain. Information
obtained is then used to
commit illegal purchases or
other financial transactions
without the consent of
the person to whom the
information legally belongs.
Identity Theftthe term
used for a crime in which an
imposter obtains key pieces
of personal information, such
as Social Security or drivers
license numbers, in order to
impersonate someone else.

72

ne of the most intricate tasks hospitality and tourism employees


have to do is communicate with guests about financial transactions.
This requires the use of a specific set of financial processes designed
to protect the guests right to privacy. Guests must feel their personal
financial information is safe and secure when having a financial transaction
discussion with an employee. Since financial transactions will occur during
every stage of the guest cycle, employees must learn the correct methods,
processes, and procedures required to protect everyone involved.
Protecting a guests personal and private information is a necessary and
sensitive part of anyones job in hospitality and tourism. Consequently,
learning how to responsibly complete job duties involving cash, credit
cards, or checks will require the employee to learn the specialized processes
and procedures used when completing a transaction. This is due to the
issue of guest privacy as well as the legal implications involved when
personal financial information is being discussed or processed. Both the
employee and the company he or she represents can be held liable if the
guests right to privacy is not protected. This is especially true with any
type of payment cards or other credit information. Also, to protect against
payment card fraud and identity theft, there are some specific rules about
how, what, and when payment card information can be discussed.
This chapter will discuss
the various financial processes
and procedures and how they
are used to protect guest
privacy, and protect against
theft and fraud. Guests should
feel the property is working
to protect their personal
information.

Chapter 5 Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle

Section
5.2

Follow the Dollar


A

large part of what occurs during the guest cycle has to do with money. It may involve the use of
a credit card to guarantee a reservation or book a plane ticket, or obtain cash to purchase tickets
to an attraction or pay for a meal. Consequently, every stage of the guest cycle will involve some sort
of financial transaction. Anyone wishing to build a career in hospitality and tourism will need to learn
the processes and procedures necessary to handle those transactions appropriately.
Lets follow the guest dollar and see where its spent during each stage of the guest cycle.
Some examples of financial transactions during each stage include:
Send a deposit or
guarantee hotel
room nights

Purchase
attraction
tickets

Pay for meals, local


transportation, or
purchase souvenirs

Settle bill for hotel room


nights or buy a plane
ticket home

Financial
Transaction

Guest Cycle
Pre-Arrival

Arrival

Occupancy

Departure

Pineapple Fun Fact


In 1942, during the height of World War II, the Atlantic Hotel
in Hamburg, Germany, had its own way of dealing with the
threat of daily bombardments. The hotels restaurant placed
the following request on the menu: The possibility of an air
raid compels us to ask our honoured guests for immediate
payment.

Chapter 5 Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle

73

Section

5.3

Protect the Money


Terms you

should know
Point of Sale (POS)the
device or location where a
sale or financial transaction
occurs.

Sensitive Informationa
persons information that is
confidential and not available
to the public, such as
Social Security Number,
a drivers license number
or state identification
card number, bank
account numbers,
or credit/debit card
numbers.

t has become necessary for those working in the hospitality and tourism
industry to recognize the need to protect the flow of cash, payment
card information, and guest privacy during the guest cycle. This protects
the company, employee, and the guest from theft and fraud. This is true
whether the transaction is in person and payment changes hands or when
technology is involved such as a payment made over the Internet.
Most financial transactions will take place in high-traffic, public areas
where cash registers known as Point of Sale (POS) systems are located.
It is also the most likely place for someone wishing to steal sensitive
information for criminal use to attempt illegal access. Since it is hard to
know who is watching and listening, employees must know the processes
and procedures to follow when handling a guest transaction. This includes
knowing:
What general information is safe to ask for verbally
What sensitive information is never to be asked
verbally
How to protect guest privacy
How to protect guest sensitive information against
criminal use
How to properly collect payment to protect his or her
company against fraud
This is a huge responsibility but one that can be easily
accomplished by:
Following company policy
Being in control of the financial transaction process
Moving guests to private, secure locations when
discussing sensitive information when necessary
Keeping cash and sensitive guest information safe and
secure

74

Chapter 5 Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle

As guests pay for services or purchase a variety of items, the employee involved is expected to
understand the sensitive nature of handling cash, processing credit or debit cards, managing sales
receipts, and other financial processes.
Most often, these interactions involve communicating with a guest in person, by phone, or e-mail.
But it is typically during an on-site transaction that financial processes and procedures are used. This is
when employees put everything they know to use by following the rules and acting responsibly when
conducting a financial transaction. Why? The guest expects guaranteed protection against identity theft
and payment card fraud from any place of business during a financial transaction. In order to prevent
having to deal with the negative impact on everyone involved when either identity theft or payment
card fraud has occurred, most businesses take protecting guests against both crimes very seriously.
Remember, the security of money in any form, paper or plastic, is a part of everyones job in hospitality
and tourism.
Some examples of financial transactions involving sensitive information are:
Accepting payment, deposit, or prepayment
Collecting overdue payments
Declining of a credit card
Some examples of sensitive guest information in need of protection are:
Guest name and other personal information
Credit and debit card account information
Bank account information
Guest hotel and guestroom number

Chapter 5 Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle

75

Section

5.4

Guest Service and the Bottom Line


Terms you

should know
Bottom Linethe last line
of a financial statement that
shows the net profit or loss of
a company or organization.

Emotional Engagementthe
emotional connection that an
employee feels for his or her
job, that causes him or her to
perform the job to the highest
standard.

Profit and Loss (P&L)


Reporta financial statement
that summarizes the
revenues, costs, and expenses
incurred by a business during
a specific period of time.

76

uests do business with companies capable of protecting sensitive


information during financial transactions. Having financial
procedures in place helps to build guest confidence in the employees
ability to protect private information. Any loss of confidence in this
area impacts the companys profits and bottom line. Guest confidence
is increased when employees directly involved in financial transactions
show they are well-trained and able to appropriately handle cash, credit/
debit cards, and checks.

Use of financial procedures =


Guest peace of mind + Leads to guest loyalty
Improved bottom line for company
A companys bottom line depends heavily on employee job performance.
Consequently, employees must have a sense of responsibility and a feeling
of belonging to the company. This is known as emotional engagement
on the job. But, how does an employee accomplish this?
Employees who become emotionally invested in their jobs and
company also have a stronger commitment to the guests they service.
Guests can spot invested, engaged, and committed employees. They begin
to build their loyalty to the company based on the employees ability to
safeguard sensitive information, willingness to protect guest privacy, and
commitment to their jobs. All these factors improve the quality of guest
service provided and make the company profitable. Those profits show
up on the bottom line of the profit and loss (P&L) report and lead to the
companys success. It does not take a lot of thought to realize that working
for a successful company is a good career choice. However, never forget
it is the employees who contribute a lot of effort toward that success.

Chapter 5 Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle

Chapter 5 Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle

77

Section

5.5

The Guest Cycle and Financial


Opportunities

he guest experience must be a memorable one if the property wants to be a popular destination
and financially successful as a company. Employees must always be looking for an opportunity to
increase profits by influencing guest spending through suggesting additional experiences for the guest
to enjoy. This is particularly important during the occupancy stage of the guest cycle when guests will
ask employees for ideas and opinions on places to visit, dine, or shop. How this will be accomplished
will depend on the type of hospitality or tourism business involved, for example, if the business is a:

Hotel

Employees can:
Encourage membership in guest loyalty programs
Encourage repeat guest stays
Encourage guests to spend their entire visit at the property (sleep,
dine, and use on-site recreation and amenities)
Encourage guests to send family and friends to stay at the property

Transportation

Employees can:
Encourage repeat use of services
Encourage recommending services to family, friends, and business
associates

Attraction

Employees can:
Encourage repeat visits
Encourage guests to promote the attraction to family and friends

Food and Beverage Facility


Employees can:

Encourage repeat dining experiences


Encourage guests to recommend dining experience to family, friends,
and business associates

78

Chapter 5 Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle

Protecting guest privacy, conducting financial transactions correctly, and increasing guest spending
depends heavily on each employee performing his or her job correctly. It also involves employees
knowing they are responsible for following all company financial processes and procedures. Employees
who combine the various concepts of this chapter during any financial guest interaction will be able
to build guest confidence leading to a profitable bottom line. This means employees using the correct
processes and procedures will:
Show guests they can:
Provide outstanding guest service
Protect guest privacy
Prevent identity theft and payment card fraud
Show the company they work for they can:
Be committed to both the guests and their job
Control the financial transaction
Protect guest privacy
Follow company policies
Represent the company culture correctly

Chapter 5 Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle

79

Apply Your Learning


Section 5.1

1. What is one of the most intricate tasks a hospitality employee might be asked to perform?
2. Why is identity theft a crime?
3. What type of cards are included in the term payment card?
4. Why do you think making a guest feel comfortable discussing financial information is important to
a business?
5. What does the term fraud mean?
6. Why is it important to prevent fraud from occurring?

Section 5.2

1. When in the guest cycle is a guest most likely to go shopping or make other purchases?
2. What kinds of financial transactions might occur during the arrival stage?
3. How might a guest spend money during the departure stage?

Section 5.3

1. What does the acronym POS stand for?


2. Is it acceptable for an employee to ask a guest to verbally share sensitive information such as a Social
Security Number? Explain your answer.
3. List three types of sensitive guest information employees must protect from theft or fraud.
4. For what illegal purpose could criminals use sensitive guest information?
5. Explain why you believe guests and companies consider the handling of money to be an important
employee job responsibility.

80

Chapter 5 Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle

Section 5.4

1. List two employee actions that build guest confidence in the employees ability to correctly handle a
financial transaction. Explain your answer.
2. What happens in level 5 of the employee engagement cycle?
3. What will guests do if they see an employee is invested, engaged, and committed to his or her job?
Explain your answer.

Section 5.5

1. Which stage in the guest cycle is a good time for employees to influence guests spending? Explain
your answer.
2. List three things an employee using approved processes and procedures will demonstrate to guests.
Explain why each is important.
3. List the five things an employee using the correct processes and procedures will demonstrate to his
or her company. Explain why each is important.

Chapter 5 Financial Processes and the Guest Cycle

81

6
r
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n
o
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t
a
c
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u
Comm

XSection
X
6.1
Introduction

XSection
X
6.2

Types of Communication

XSection
X
6.3

Communicating Effectively With Guests

XSection
X
6.4
Workplace Etiquette

XSection
X
6.5

Written and Electronic Communication


Skills

XSection
X
6.6

Barriers to Effective Communication

XSection
X
6.7

Interdepartmental Communication

Competencies
1. Identify the purpose of implementing effective
communication systems.
2. Explain the role of tact and diplomacy in effective
communication.
3. Identify the various forms of communication.
4. Explain the reasons for communicating clearly and
effectively with guests.
5. Explain the effect of verbal and nonverbal
communication on guests and co-workers.
6. Explain the importance of office etiquette to the
hospitality and tourism industry.
7. Identify the rules of written and electronic
communication skills.
8. Identify the seven barriers to effective
communication.
9. Identify the purpose of interdepartmental
communication methods.
10. Identify the purpose of a Comm Center in
hospitality and tourism operations.

82

Hospitality Profile

Nancy Johnson
Executive Vice President
& Chief Development
Officer Carlson Hotels
Nancy Johnson, executive vice president, development,
Carlson Hotelsthe Americas, has served as both vice
chair (2011) and chair (2012) of AH&LA.
As the executive vice president, Ms. Johnson is responsible
for all business development efforts for Carlson Hotels
select service hotel brands in the Americas including
Country Inns & Suites By Carlson and Park Inn. Ms.
Johnson also serves as brand leader for these same
Carlson brands of hotels in the Americas.
Additionally, Ms. Johnson is responsible for brand culture;
serving as the key contact for franchisee and partner
relationships; serving as the brand champion; leading
orientation, training and field service; and developing
brand systems, processes, and standards.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks

profile about this industry professional to complete the


Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own
about the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

83

Section

6.1

Introduction
C

ommunication is essential to the hospitality and tourism industry. In some ways, it is the element
on which most guest-related activities are dependent. Hospitality and tourism employees must be
excellent communicators. Because hospitality and tourism focus on the guest experience, the employee
communicating directly with guests must develop strong communication skills early in his or her
career. It is particularly important for employees to be prepared to answer the same or similar questions
repeated throughout each and every day. It is a natural part of the guest service process. Never forget,
what is your one-hundredth answer to the same inquiry is the first time for that guest. Develop the
ability to always project positive, professional body language that communicates your willingness to
provide exceptional guest service.
Another aspect of effective communication is to think carefully about feelings involved, both your
own and the other persons. Rushing in and saying the first thing that comes to mind or immediately
becoming defensive is not a good tactic in any situation. This is particularly important in the work
environment. Using appropriate communication methods with co-workers is just as important as it is
with guests. A successful career in hospitality and tourism depends on the use of effective and appropriate
communication methods in all situations involving guests and co-workers.
What does this mean? It means learning to be tactful with everyone and using diplomacy at all times.
A good rule to follow is to choose your words wisely and never speak without thinking first.

Read the Guest


Not all guests arrive at a destination with the same purpose in
mind. The range of reasons behind a guests hospitality and
tourism choices is wide and varied. Employees should learn
to read what a guest may be communicating, not just in words
but by their behavior as well. Reading the guest is one skill that
industry employees know helps determine what a guest wants
or needs through simple observation.

84

Chapter 6 Communication

Examples of Reading the Guest


Is the guest wearing a suit and seems to be in a hurry? Chances are this a business traveler
rushing to a meeting or appointment.
Is the guest dressed in dark colors and appears somber and quiet? This guest may be traveling to
attend a funeral.
Is the guest wearing bright, fun colors and seems to be very chatty and relaxed? This person is
most probably on vacation.
By reading the guest, employees are able to match the guests mood and situation during each interaction
and communicate more effectively.
Effective communication skills involve:

Formula for Reflection: Think Before You Speak

Chapter 6 Communication

85

Section

6.2

Types of Communication
Terms you

should know
Jargonthe vocabulary
peculiar to a particular
industry, profession, or work
group.

here are three methods of communication. They are written, verbal,


and nonverbal. Written communication can take a variety of forms
from a formal business letter to a brief e-mail. Verbal communication is
the use of words, phrases, and sentences during a spoken conversation.
Nonverbal communication involves things people say without words
such as body language.
Lets take a closer look at each form.

Written
communication:

Verbal
communication:

Nonverbal
communication:

Use correct grammar,


spelling, and
punctuation

Know your audience


(who are you speaking
with)

Speak without words

Be brief and to the


point

Listen first, speak


second

Write for easy reading

Ask questions for


clarification

Provide accurate
information and facts

Repeat the facts back


to the other person

Can change the


meaning of the words
spoken
Never invade a
persons personal
space
Use eye contact/
movements carefully
(could be seen as
disrespectful)

Use to keep a record of


what is said and done
Stay focused on the
topic being discussed
Send to those who need
Use touch carefully
to be involved
Be respectful and speak (could be seen as
in a professional tone of disrespectful)
voice
Use body language
Avoid slang or
that always shows
unfamiliar jargon
respect and value for
everyone

86

Chapter 6 Communication

Section
6.3

Communicating Effectively With Guests


G

uest communication involves providing a variety of information including giving directions,


answering questions, solving problems, and dealing with issues. Learning how to accomplish
each one is necessary to anyone wanting a successful career in hospitality and tourism. No matter the
position a person holds, effective communication skills are a must.
The two main styles of communication skills send a specific piece of information to others known
as a signal. This signal can have either a negative or positive effect on what you are attempting to
communicate. Consequently, it is important to remember that the signals you send should produce a
sense of trust and understanding and avoid causing a sense of distrust or confusion. The hospitality
and tourism industry depends on employees able to build a strong sense of trust and caring in guests
and co-workers through the strong use of the two communication styles.
Impact of Each Communication Style:
Verbal Communication = 38 percent of what others understand when
you communicate.
Verbal messageschoose your words wisely.
Active listeningtells others that you care about what
they have to say.
Nonverbal Communication = 62 percent of what others
understand when you communicate.
Body language (contributes 55 percent of what is
communicated nonverbally)
Vocal quality (contributes 7 percent of what is
communicated nonverbally)

Pineapple Fun Fact


In the 1950s, Booth One at Chicagos famous
Pump Room restaurant was the most coveted
seat by celebrities. This booth was unique
because it hosted a dedicated phone line at the
table which allowed diners to make overseas
calls while eating.

Chapter 6 Communication

87

Nonverbal Body Language and Vocal Quality

Nonverbal communication, or body language, is a vital form of communication. When someone


interacts with others, he or she will continuously send wordless signals. These are all known as nonverbal
signals and they typically include the gestures we make, the way we sit, how fast or how loud we talk,
how close we stand, and how much eye contact we make. Each one sends a strong message to guests
and co-workers. Often, the words being spoken get lost because the persons body language shows he
or she is not being sincere.
For example, an employee is saying welcome, were glad you are here to a guest but has a frown
on his or her face and is speaking in a harsh tone of voice. Will guests feel welcome or unwelcome in
this situation? Most would feel very unwelcome and have a bad first impression about the employee
and the business.
Verbal and nonverbal actions have to match and send the same message. By making sure both are
the same, hospitality and tourism employees can prevent misunderstandings, make certain guests
expectations are met, assist fellow co-workers correctly, and solve problems to everyones satisfaction.
Good use of nonverbal skills involves:
Body language
Control your facial expressions
Have a friendly, open body posture
Use friendly, open hand and arm movements
Never cross your arms
Vocal quality
Choose your vocal tone, pitch, and pacing carefully
Be friendly
Be calm
Be in control

88

Chapter 6 Communication

Workplace Etiquette

Section
6.4

earning and using the rules of good workplace etiquette is a must for anyone pursuing a career in
hospitality and tourism. Why? Because everyone you meet should be impressed with your level
of workplace professionalism and courtesy. Workplace etiquette is an important part of teamwork and
requires everyone to be committed to following the rules. Workplace etiquette covers a wide variety of
areas with each of equal importance to anyone wishing to be seen as a team player.
The rules of good workplace etiquette also help to build a professional image at work. The rules cover
a number of areas:

Chapter 6 Communication

89

90

Chapter 6 Communication

Section
6.5

Written and Electronic


Communication Skills

any businesses involved in the hospitality and tourism industry


have job tasks that require employees to communicate using written
and electronic methods. In some job positions, employees may be expected
to use written and electronic communication skills to complete tasks
such as: recording guest information, making reservations, answering
requests, taking care of special needs, and noting other important details.
Developing strong communication skills for use in written and electronic
letters, notes, messages, and reports is essential for someone building a
career in the industry.

Terms you

should know
Acronymsa word formed
from a sequence of initials
or groups of letters such as
R.A.V.E.

Here are some basic rules to follow when writing a document (hard
copy or electronic) and composing e-mails.
The basic rules are:
Written communication (hard copy or electronic)
Use Standard English
Follow standard rules of grammar and punctuation
Use complete sentences
Avoid jargon or slang
Define business related acronyms
Never use text speak such as PIF (paid in full) or HAND
(have a nice day)
Use easy to understand language
E-mail
Remember, this is a business (not personal) e-mail
Reply the same day as senders e-mail is received
Use proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation
Avoid text speak such as NRN (no reply necessary) or RRQ
(return receipt requested)
Never write in all UPPER CASE letters
Reply to only the people who need to hear from you
Use spell check
Never use e-mail for confidential information
Delete chain letters immediately
Chapter 6 Communication

91

Section 6.6

Barriers to Effective Communication


Terms you

should know
Employee Moralethe
overall outlook, attitude,
satisfaction, and confidence
that employees feel at work.

92

arriers to effective communication cause the smooth flow of information


passing from the sender to the receiver to be disrupted or stopped.
When one person fails to communicate effectively with another person
in a timely manner, the end result may be problematic. This is especially
true of workplace communication. However, the solution is simple. Learn
how to be an effective communicator both at work and at home. Why?
Because problems resulting for poor communication with guests and coworkers will have a negative impact on the guest experience, employee
morale, and the businesss profitability.

Chapter 6 Communication

The most common types of barriers are:


Physical barriersresult when competing noise, severe weather, or physical distance between
the sender and receiver stop or interfere with the flow of information.
For example: a hotel employee fails to get all the guests reservation information due to noise from
construction being done in the lobby area.
Language barriersoccur when the people involved in the communication process speak
different languages, removing everyones ability to understand each other.
For example: the guest only speaks Arabic and the employee only speaks English making it very difficult
for them to communicate with each other.
Cultural barriersresult when differences in cultural background cause the sender and receiver
to interpret the information differently.
For example: the employee greeting a guest from Africa makes eye contact with him. The guest immediately
looks away and the employee now thinks the guest is disinterested when, in fact, the guests culture
considers making eye contact with non-family members to be disrespectful.
Failure to listenoccurs when a person hearing spoken information uses poor listening skills
and fails to hear important details.
For example: the employee is busy reading information on the computer screen and fails to hear the guest
make a special request. This results in the guests request going unfulfilled.
Lack of informationoccurs when the information being communicated is not sufficient to be
clearly understood by those receiving it.
For example: the employee very rapidly gives a guest directions to a local attraction and exits before
confirming the guest understood the information, leaving the guest still unable to find the location.
Lack of necessary skillsoccurs when the receiver lacks the skill or knowledge about the topic
being communicated and is unable to perform a task.
For example: An experienced employee asks a new hire to perform a task and walks away to work on
something else. However, the new hire has not been trained on this particular task and has no idea how to
complete it. Rather than communicating the need to be trained, the new hire chooses to not perform the task.
Incomplete communicationoccurs when the receiver of information fails to return information,
or feedback, about the outcome of a task or situation back to the sender.
For example: a guest complains to a restaurant manager about a rude server, slow service, and cold food
before departing. The manager asks for the guests cell phone number and home address and promises to
address the problems. Yet, the guest never hears back from the manager.
Any one of these barriers can result in misunderstandings between guests and co-workers. To prevent
miscommunication issues with guests, employees need to recognize that a barrier is starting to interfere
with the flow of information and take action to prevent it.
Chapter 6 Communication

93

Section

6.7

Interdepartmental Communication
M

ost businesses involved in the hospitality and tourism industries have fairly complex structures.
Typically, each business is made up of several different departments which must interact with
each other during the course of daily business. This means that interdepartmental communication must
pass easily understood information between departments in a timely fashion. This is essential to the
smooth functioning of every hospitality and tourism-related business. Failure to communicate clearly
and quickly can seriously damage each departments ability to accomplish job tasks, provide exceptional
guest service, and be profitable. Often, this is the most common cause for a businesss lack of success
and healthy profits. All employees have to participate in the flow of information from one department
to another to ensure a smooth-running business operation and positive guest experience.
Some methods to ensure good interdepartmental communication include:
Developing steps for how information should flow between departments
Training the entire staff on the steps to keep information flowing
Regularly meeting and discussing changes to the steps that may be needed
For this to happen, every employee must take part and learn to be a strong team player and active
user of effective communication tools. This prevents confusion and chaos while creating trust and an
organized flow of information between each area.

Sample of Interdepartmental Communication


Housekeeping notifies
Maintenance of
needed TV repair

Maintenance replaces
TV with working unit
and removes broken TV

94

Maintenance notifies
Front Desk and Housekeeping of action taken

Chapter 6 Communication

Front Desk receives


guest complaint, TV
not working

Housekeeping checks
TV and determines
it is broken

Front Desk notifies


Housekeeping to
check on TV

Purpose of a Comm Center


Some hospitality and tourism businesses, such as hotels and theme parks, use a communication
hub known as a Comm Center. The purpose of a Comm Center is to monitor, and pass along any
communication to ensure all messages and information reach the correct employee or department. It is
a great aid to interdepartmental communication since the Comm Center employee is monitoring and
noting what information is being sent and the names of the people involved. The employee can step in
to assist and make certain the tasks attached to any communication are completed in a timely manner.
This is particularly important when the tasks are part of a guests special or personal request.
In order for a Comm Center to function properly, everyone included in the centers network needs
to be using the same type of communication equipment such as smart phones, two-way radios, or
computerized information management systems. This allows everyone to easily communicate with the
Comm Center and one another.
Exceptional guest service depends on strong communication skills being in use, either through a
Comm Center or direct, personal employee communication. But Comm Centers are very useful in large
operations such as hotels, car rental companies, and attractions, where the size of the property often
makes it difficult for employees to speak face-to-face. A Comm Center also provides a seamless guest
experience by guaranteeing the smooth flow of information from one part of the operation to another.

Chapter 6 Communication

95

Apply Your Learning


Section 6.1

1. Why is it important to think before speaking with guests?


2. List ways to be tactful and explain why they are important when speaking with a guest.
3. How are good listening skills used when speaking with others?
4. Why is taking responsibility an important part of diplomacy?

Section 6.2

1. List the three types of communication.


2. List four things written communication should include.
3. List four things verbal communication should include and explain why you believe each to be
an important tool of communication.
4. List three ways nonverbal communication can occur and explain the negative impact it could
have when speaking with a guest.

Section 6.3

1. What type of information is communicated to guests?


2. Why is it important to communicate with guests as clearly as possible? Explain your answer.
3. List the three types of verbal communication styles used with guests and co-workers.
4. List three types of body language used during nonverbal communication.
5. Why is it important that the words spoken match the speakers body language?

Section 6.4

1. What does the use of workplace etiquette communicate to guests?


2. List three rules of workplace attire etiquette.
3. Should an employee call a guest by his or her first name?
4. What should you do before placing someone on hold?

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Chapter 6 Communications

Section 6.5

1. Why do hospitality and tourism employees need to have strong written and electronic communication
skills? Explain your answer.
2. Why is it important to write using complete sentences?
3. What will the reader think if he or she receives an e-mail written in all capital/upper-case letters?
4. Is it acceptable to use text speak when communicating with a guest or co-worker? Explain your
answer.
5. Why do you think a business wants all written communication to use proper spelling, grammar, and
punctuation?
6. What are written and electronic communication skills used for by hospitality and tourism employees?

Section 6.6

1. What kind of barrier occurs when the receiver lacks the skill or knowledge about the topic being
communicated and is unable to perform a task?
2. What could happen when important information isnt communicated to the person responsible for
doing the task? Explain your answer.
3. How could you prevent language from becoming a barrier to effective communication when helping
a businessman from Japan rent a car? Explain your answer.

Section 6.7

1. What do barriers to effective communication do to the smooth flow of information?


2. What can happen if information doesnt flow clearly and quickly from one department to another?
Explain your answer.
3. What three methods can leaders and employees use to ensure good interdepartmental communication?
Explain the purpose of each item.
4. What can happen if employees fail to be strong team players and active users of effective communication
tools? Explain your answer.
5. Explain what is the purpose of a Comm Center?
6. Where would a Comm Center be in use? List three places where one could be found.
7. What impact, if any, does a Comm Center have on guest service?

Chapter 6 Communication

97

Unit 3

Operational
Areas
XChapter
X
7

Front Office Operations

XChapter
X
8

Executive Housekeeping Operations

XChapter
X
9

Facilities Management

XChapter
X
10

Food and Beverage Services

XChapter
X
11
Resorts Operations

XChapter
X
12
Operational Finance

98

Unit Overview

he various segments of the hospitality and


tourism industry are interwoven like a giant
web. Each segment is dependent on the others with
business flowing from one to the other. For example,
hotels depend on airlines and car rental companies
to bring guests to a specific destination for a stay.
At the heart of any destination are hotels and
other accommodations. Restaurants then provide
the hotel guests with places to dine and attractions
give guests things to do. It is clear to see how
hotels tend to be at the center of this activity for
any destination and are a major player in the
hospitality and tourism industry.
A hotels organizational structure will depend
on its size and the types of guest service offered.
The number and type of departments operating
within the hotel will also be determined by size
and types of service. This unit will focus on the
key departmental operations found in most
hotels along with how each one contributes to
the guest experience and profitability.

99

7
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Fro
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XSection
X
7.1
Introduction

XSection
X
7.2
Rooms Division

XSection
X
7.3

The Front Office Manager

XSection
X
7.4
Front Office Positions

XSection
X
7.5

The Front Desk Operation

Competencies
1. Identify the responsibilities of the front office
and the front desk along with the role each
plays with guests.
2. Explain the structure of the rooms division and
the two departments assigned to the division.
3. Identify the categories under which the front
office managers responsibilities fall.
4. Identify the job positions that report through
the front office.

XSection
X
7.6

5. Identify the additional areas of responsibility


typically performed by the front desk or front
office employees.

XSection
X
7.7

6. Describe the key functions of the front desk


operation and the nine steps of the registration
cycle.

XSection
X
7.8

7. Identify the financial processes, and when


each should occur, during the financial
reporting cycle.

Guests and the Front Desk


The Financial Reporting Cycle
Performance Standards

XSection
X
7.9
Room Rate Systems

100

8. Explain the need for performance standards for


front desk and front office employees.
9. Identify the types of room rate systems used
by hotels.

Hospitality Profile

Hasmukh P. (H.P.) Rama


CHA
Hasmukh P. Rama obtained his MBA from Xavier
University and has been in the lodging industry for almost
three decades, beginning with a 40-room independent
property in Pomona, California. Mr. Rama founded
JHM Enterprises in 1973 and established Greenville,
South Carolina, as its home base. JHM Hotels owns and
operates 31 hotels with 4,700 rooms in seven states.
Several more are under development and scheduled to
open in the next year. JHM also owns and operates a
five-star hotel in Surat, India.
Mr. Rama is a Past Chairman of the American Hotel &
Lodging Association (AH&LA). Today, he concentrates on
strategic planning, finance and banking, and acquisitions
and sales. As part of the Rama family, he is dedicated to
achieving Siddhiperfection. Mr. Rama has served as
an advisor to a number of hospitality schools including
the board of advisors of Johnson & Wales University,
New York University, University of Houston, and the
California Polytechnic University. He also served on the
board of the Educational Institute and was chairman of
AH&LAs first Education Summit in 1999. Mr. Rama is
currently serving on the Experience Lodging Task Force
of the AH&LA, the AH&LAs Millennium Occupancy &
Revenue Effort Task Force, and Advisory Board for the
University of South Carolina Conference. Most recently,
he has served as executive professor in residence at
Cornell Hotel School, educating graduate students. He
now serves as an industry advisor for the University.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the


textbooks profile about this industry professional to
complete the Professional Profile Activity in the student
workbook. You may need to conduct additional research
of your own about the profile topic covered in the
workbook as well.

101

Section

7.1

Introduction
T

he front office operation encompasses all the areas, functions, and activities used to support guest
transactions and services. This includes the front desk, uniformed services, concierge/guest services,
transportation, cashiers, and night audit. In the case of small, economy properties, services such as
reservations and security may be part of the front office team as well. Leading the entire department is
the front office manager (FOM), who is responsible for staff hiring, training, scheduling, team building,
and establishing a strong interdepartmental communication system with other operational areas.
Relationship building is an essential tool in the hospitality
and tourism industry. Building relationships both within
and outside the hotel is another important part of the front
office employee job responsibility. Developing a network of
co-workers in others departments who can be called upon
to assist with guest needs and special requests is essential to
the front office operation. Additionally, relationship building
includes learning about the local community and businesses
to create a second network of dining options, attractions,
and transportation providers to recommend when guests
request help. This is a large part of the type of guest service
traditionally associated with the front office. The wants and
needs of guests will vary from person to person, so it is
important to have more than one option available. Having
a network of resources within the local community, along
with the skill of reading the guest, makes it possible to
offer options most likely to meet the guest expectation.

Green Practices
The front desk is the starting point for involving guests in
the various green programs in use by the hotel. Hotel green
practices include:
Reusing
Recycling
Reducing
Bath towels Office paper and
Using
Bed linens
shredded sensitive
paperless
documents
processes in
Aluminum and plastic
the front office
102

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

Front office staff interact with all other areas of the hotel such as:
Housekeepingto obtain room status updates, to communicate guest requests or needs, and
to report guestroom complaints needing correction.
Food and Beverageto make dining reservations, assist with special dietary needs requests,
and to obtain changes to available dining options.
Securityto communicate security concerns and to assist during all types of emergency
situations.
Engineeringto request guestroom repairs, report emergency repair situations, or assist
during severe weather, power failures, or other emergency situations.
Marketing and Salesfor updates on special promotions and offers being communicated to
or currently being booked by guests.

Guest Cycle and Front Office Functions


Reservations

Pre-Arrival

Uniformed
Service

Desk
Agents

Concierge

Arrival

Interdepartmental
Communication

Information

Occupancy

Uniformed
Service

Cashier

Departure

Pineapple Fun Fact


The Ritz Hotel in Paris, France, was the home
of famed designer, Coco Chanel, for over 30
years. Today, her suite has been restored in
honor of her style and elegance. The rate for
one nights stay in the Chanel Suite will cost
a guest more than $10,000 USD.

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

103

Section

7.2

Rooms Division
T

he rooms division consists of two departments, housekeeping and the front office, and is overseen by
a rooms division manager. This is usually limited to larger, full-service hotels and resort properties.
Leading the front desk is the front office manager while housekeeping is managed by the executive
housekeeper. Depending on the size of the hotel, both will report to either the rooms division manager or
director. Often, in large, full service resort hotels, the rooms division can be a big and complex operation
due to the number of guestrooms being cleaned, types of services and amenities offered, and the high
level of guest expectations. In smaller, economy hotels, the rooms division category may not exist at
all, resulting in the front office and housekeeping areas operating as separate departments with the two
management positions reporting to the general manager or property owner.

Front Office
Manager

Housekeeping
Executive

Sales and
Marketing
Director
Sales
Manager

Houseperson
Staff

Room
Supervisor

Laundry
Staff

Staff

IT
Manager

104

Reservationist

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

Front Desk
Agent

Uniformed
Service

Marketing
Manager

Comparison of Property Organization by Size


Limited Service
General Manager

Front Office

Housekeeping

Food &
Beverage

Building
Maintenance

Full-Service
General Manager

Revenue
Manager

Food &
Beverage
Director

Chief
Engineer

Staff

Bar
Manager

Executive
Chef

Security Director

Staff

Staff

Controller

Dinning
Room Manager

Bartenders

Chief Steward

Chef

Servers

Steward

Head Cook

Dishwasher

Cooks

Night
Auditors

Human
Resources
Director

Head
Cashier

Hosts

Buspersons

Food Servers

F&B
Controller

Purchasing
Manager

Manager of
Info Sys

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

105

Section

7.3

The Front Office Manager


Terms you

should know
Forecastingthe process
used to predict the sales
of guestrooms and the rate
that should be charged for a
specific time of year. It helps
front office managers to know
when to raise or lower room
rates to maximize sales.

Average Daily Rate (ADR)


an occupancy ratio derived by
dividing net rooms revenue by
the number of rooms sold.

Revenue Per Available


Room (RevPAR)a revenue

he front office manager is responsible for the smooth functioning


of the front desk, bell services, concierge, and other front office
operations. The four skills the front office manager must master are
planning, organizing, leading, and evaluating all front office operational
and financial areas. Each skill will make certain that every aspect of the
front office operation is thought of, planned for, and accomplished by the
manager. This will guarantee a seamless guest experience and a positive,
organized work environment for employees.
The front office managers responsibilities fall into several categories:
Guest serviceoversee the level of guest service to ensure
employees meet and exceed guests expectations and other
established service standards.
People managementhire, train, and supervise front office
employees to meet the propertys performance standards, policies,
and procedures.
Leadershipprovide day-to-day guidance, supervision, and
direction for all front office employees.

management statistic that


measures the revenuegenerating capability of a
hotel.

Revenue managementset financial goals through forecasting


occupancy, average daily rate (ADR), revenue per available room
(RevPAR), and other statistical formulas used to help keep the
front office operation profitable.

Green Practices

Green practicesuse environmentally friendly buildings,


equipment, processes, and techniques that help reduce energy
consumption, encourage recycling, reduce waste, save water,
and prevent pollution.

environmentally friendly
and ecologically responsible
decisions and processes that
guarantee natural resources
will continue to be readily
available in the future.

106

Disaster planning and managementwork with security,


department managers, and the general manager in the planning
and management of incidents such as power failures, severe
weather, floods, fires, and terrorism, to ensure guest safety and
property disaster preparedness.

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

Payment Card Industry (PCI) Compliance


A large portion of all guest financial transactions will be done using credit or debit cards. Consequently,
the front office manager must provide employes with required compliance training to protect sensitive
payment card information from being illegally obtained and used for criminal purposes. The payment
card industry can refuse to allow any business permission to accept credit or debit cards as a form of
guest payment for failing to be in compliance with the industrys required standards.

Green Practices
Shredding sensitive documents and
guest records before sending the
materials for recycling is a vital front
office task. It protects guests and
the property against the potential for
identity theft and fraud.

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

107

Section

7.4

Front Office Positions


T

he front office manager is responsible for hiring, training, and supervising a variety of entry-level
positions. Positions typically under the direction of the front office manager are the front desk
representatives, uniformed services, concierge, night auditor, reservationist, and cashier.
Here are some of the specific duties and tasks each position will be expected to perform.
Front desk representativeassists guests throughout all stages of the guest cycle and acts
as the main representative to guests for the property, maintains guest folios in the Property
Management System (PMS), performs bill settlement, and provides guest service.
Uniformed servicesassists guests with curbside baggage service, guest vehicle parking, and
guest transportation services. Includes positions such as bell attendant, door attendant, valet
parking attendant, and transportation attendant. In some hotels, depending on the size, the
concierge may also fall under this category.
Conciergeassists guests with arranging in-hotel activities and/or making reservations,
providing information, giving directions, and obtaining transportation for offsite attractions,
facilities, or services.
Night auditorchecks front office accounting records for accuracy and, on a daily
basis, summarizes and compiles reports about the various aspects of the hotels financial
performance.
Reservationistassists guests, travel agents, and third-party vendors with booking hotel
guestrooms. Creates and maintains reservation records and generates reservation numbers
through some type of central reservation office (CRO).
Cashierposts revenue center charges to guest accounts, balances guest accounts, and
performs a variety of banking services for guests; typically found only in large full-service
properties and resorts.

108

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

Because front office positions have the largest amount of direct guest contact, it is important the
positions be filled with individuals who have these five qualities:

Front office managers tend to look for, and hire, people with these five qualities. Why? Because
new employees must have these five qualities in order to learn tasks faster, become engaged
with guests easier, and blend with the front office team very quickly. Additionally, the level of
guest service will be improved by use of these five qualities and ultimately result in greater guest
satisfaction.

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

109

Section 7.5

The Front Desk Operation


T

he front desk acts as the heart of the hotel. It is the most frequently visited part of a hotel and is
typically the first and last place a guest sees during a stay. The front desk is often referred to as
a hotels command post because of the amount of business activities that happen in this department.
Why? Because, the front desk is where guests check in, check out, ask questions, seek help, and pass
continuously throughout a stay. Consequently, to guests, the front desk is the hotel and the area they
believe exists solely for the purpose of seeing to their needs. However, to those who work the front desk,
it has many other equally important purposes required for the smooth running of the property. This
makes it necessary for employees to use their training and organizational support in order to balance guest
expectations with front desk operational needs.
The front desk is responsible for:
Welcoming guests to the property

Guestroo

ms

Providing check-in services to guests


Registering guests and confirming
room rates
Establishing a method of payment for
the guestroom and bill settlement

housekee

Assigning guestrooms and issuing


key cards
Informing guests about their
room location and special
hotel facilities, and answering
questions about the property
and the surrounding
community

ping
foo
Beverdag&e

security

Fron
Desk t

Obtaining uniformed
services for guests

Engineerin

Acting as a cashier
Providing concierge
services
Maintaining guest folio information in the Property Management
System (PMS)
Providing guest assistance with special needs, valet/bell services, and other guest requests
Providing check-out services to guests
Accepting final bill settlement from guests
110

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

Traditionally, the front desk handles seven key functions. They are reservations, registration, room
and rate assignment, guest services, room status, record keeping in the Property Management System
(PMS), and bill settlement. However, the size and type of the hotel will determine exactly how front
desk duties are organized. Large properties will divide and assign tasks to specific job positions while
a small property will expect employees to be capable of performing all front desk tasks.
Two primary operational areas handled by the front desk are reservations and registration.

Reservations
Most reservations today occur online using the propertys own reservation system, the brand hotels
central reservation office (CRO), or a third-party site such as Expedia or Orbitz. Online reservations
manage the booking process for the majority of guests nowadays, but that heavy use of the Internet
doesnt mean that the front desk wont still be expected to handle a reservation. All front desk employees
must be prepared to handle guest reservations by phone, e-mail, or in person when a guest walks in the
door wishing to book a room for that night.
Front desk employees must be capable of handling:
Two types of reservations
Guaranteed reservations which require one of the following:
Prepayment
Credit/debit card on file
Advance deposit
Travel agent guarantee
Corporate guarantee
Voucher
Non-guaranteed reservations which occur when:
No form of prepayment, deposit, or voucher are received at time of booking
During the reservation process, front desk employees must also:
Determine guestroom availability, date of stay, and room rate
Create the reservation record/guest folio
Provide the guest with confirmation of reservation
Explain the propertys
cancellation policy
Provide updated
reservation reports to
management

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

111

The Registration Cycle


The registration cycle is made up of nine steps. The cycle starts before the guest arrives and ends once
the guest has departed the property. Each step builds on the previous one and should be accomplished
in the correct order. This will ensure the front desk representative completes every task correctly.
The nine steps are:
1. Preregistrationcollects guests personal data, creates guest folio, room rate, guaranteed
reservation deposit, and method of payment information.
2. Registration Recordcollects or confirms guests personal data such as name, address, phone
number, company name, and e-mail address.
3. Room and Rate Assignmentuses guest preference information along with current PMS data
about room status, room rate, room location, and reservation blocks.
4. Method of Paymentdetermines how the guest plans to pay at the end the stay.
5. Post Charges to Guest Foliooccurs for every night of the guests stay and when a purchase is
charged back to the guests room to be paid during bill settlement.
6. Verify Guests Identifyfollow property policy for requesting a guest present a government
authorized ID card that proves they are who they claim to be.
7. Issue Key Cardsissues key cards to guest for use during his or her stay.
8. Fulfill Special Requestsoccurs when guests have specific requests that the front desk must
attempt to satisfy.
9. Processing Additional Guest Charges/Fees (parking, Wi-Fi, resort fee, etc.)notifies guests of
additional costs that will be posted the guest folio to be paid during bill settlement.

1
2
9
Preregistration

Processing
Additional Guest
Charges/Fees

Fulfill
Special
Requests

8
7

Issue Key
Cards

112

Registration
Record

3
4

Room and
Rate
Assignment

Guest Registration
Cycle

Method of
Payment

6 5

Verify
Guests
Identify

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

Post
Charges to
Guest Folio

Section
7.6

Guests and the Front Desk


N

ever forget that to guests all hallways lead to the front desk, and it will be the first place they turn
to for assistance. Why? Because it the most visible location at any hotel property and the one place
guests pass repeatedly throughout a stay. This means that a lot of additional duties will often fall to
the front desk employees to handle. Those extra duties will depend on the size and type of hotel but
typically will include:
Providing Guest Comment Cardsprovides a way for a guest to express his or her opinion
(positive or negative) about the property, employees, and guest service during a stay. Front
office managers should read and send every card to the department head or general manager
for processing.
Maintaining the Reader Boardinforms guests (especially those using meeting or convention
space) what, where, and when things are happening at the property that day.
Accommodating Special Needs Requestsaccepts and processes special needs requests to the
appropriate department for fulfilling.
Providing Guest Recoveryhandles guest complaints by finding ways to recover the negative
guest situation. The goal is to convert the guests dissatisfaction into satisfaction with the situation.

ADA
The Americans with Disabilities
Act (ADA) requires properties to
make reasonable accommodation
for guests with special needs.

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

113

Section 7.7

The Financial Reporting Cycle


D

uring the guest cycle, a number of financial processes occur that are a primary responsibility of
the front desk representatives and manager. It is crucial that each financial process happens at
a precise time when it will maximize sales and keep the property profitable. If a front desk employee
and manager fail to complete any one of the financial processes on time, it can have a major effect on
the bottom line.

Financial Reporting Cycle

Pre-Arrival

Arrival

(Reservations)

(Registration)

Assign room rate


Establish guest folio
Accept room guarantee/
deposit

114

Secure guests form of


payment

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

Occupancy

Departure
(Check-Out and Settlement)

Confirm guests financial


transactions, such as:
Room rate
Other charges
Guest credit limit
Conduct night audit
Post room and tax rate for
all occupied guestrooms
in Property Management
System (PMS)
Verify non-room charges
have been posted
Monitor guest account
balances
Post adjustments or
allowances to guest folios
Balance front desks cash
bank
Close current days sales
Prepare for posting of next
days transactions
Complete front office
accounting functions, such
as:
Collect and post all
payments received to guest
folios
Update guest billing in
PMS

Settle guests bill


Post final or late
charges
Process guests
payment
Post final payment
to PMS
Provide guest with
receipt of final bill

Performance Standards

Section
7.8

he secret to an efficient operation is the use of performance standards. Performance standards


clearly state what job skill and tasks an employee must know, define how each skill or task is to
be performed, and provide a consistent method of measuring how well employees perform each one.

Performance standards must be:


Specificapplied to a specific task and the methods, tools, or processes for completing it correctly
Observableobserved by a manager while the employee performs the task
Meaningfulrequired as part of the employees job performance standard
Measurableassessed for level of successful completion by the employee
Performance standards should be applied when assessing an employees ability to:

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

115

Annual Performance Review


Most companies have some type of annual evaluation process that requires the use of a simple to
use tool for observing an employee while working. Typically, this tool is a checklist that allows the
manager to score the employees level of performance and is used during the month leading up to the
yearly anniversary of the employees hiring date. The score is based on how well the employee meets,
exceeds, or fails to meet a tasks performance standard. This annual review is also a good way to identify
if an employee needs additional training to help improve his or her job performance to the standard
expected by the property.

Sample Task Checklist


1
Exceeds
Expectation
Property Knowledge
Guestroom Types
Occupancy Terms
Room Status Terms
Reservation Types
On-the-Job
Use of Property Management
System (PMS)
Clearly Communicates
Prepares for Check-Ins
Check-In
Guest Keys
Processes Room Change (PMS)
Uses Cash Bank
Settles Guest Accounts (PMS)
Processes Guest Check-Out (PMS)
Guest Service
Explains Guestroom Features
Explains Property Facilities
Assists with Dining/Activity
Reservations

116

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

2
Meets
Expectation

3
Fails to Meet
Expectation

4
Did Not
Observe

Room Rate Systems


H

Section
7.9

ow the decision is made on the type of room rate system to be adopted by a hotel depends on
many variables:

Who are the guests we are trying to attract to this property?


What will the guest be willing to pay?
What costs would the guest want to see bundled together into one price?
Will this type of room rate system be profitable?

Based on the answers to these and many other questions, the hotel will typically select one of the
following room rate system options:
American Plan (AP)cost of guestroom includes three meals per day.
Modified American Plan (MAP)cost of guestroom includes two meals per day.
European Plan (EP)cost of guestroom and meals are separate charges each day.
All-Inclusive Resortcost of guestroom includes all meals, beverages, and activities during stay.

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

117

Apply Your Learning


Section 7.1

1. Why is relationship building an essential part of the front office employees job? Explain your answer.
2. Why should front office employees work to build a network of contacts with local businesses? Explain
your answer.
3. List one of the areas the front office must interact with and give an example of the type information
being shared between the two departments.
4. In what step of the guest cycle would a guest most likely use concierge services?
5. During which step would uniformed services be the most involved with guests?

Section 7.2

1. Who does the front office manager report to at a large, full-service resort property?
2. Why would the front office manager report to the general manager at a small, rooms-only hotel?
Explain your answer.
3. Why do you think the housekeeping and front office areas are both assigned to the rooms division?
Explain what you think they have in common and why they need to work closely with one another.

Section 7.3

1. Explain why forecasting is an important part of the front office managers job duties.
2. List the four skills every front office manager must use. Explain why each one is important.
3. List the six categories under which a front office managers responsibilities fall.
4. What is measured by RevPAR and why do you think it is important for a hotel to know this information?
Explain your answer.
5. Why do you think the front office manager needs to participate in emergency planning? Explain your
answer.

Section 7.4

1. List the six job positions that report to the front office manager and briefly describe the job responsibilities
of each position.
2. List the five qualities front office employees need to have.
3. Why do front office managers prefer to hire people with the five qualities you just listed?
4. What is a front office manager responsible for doing with entry-level employees?
5. Is the level of guest service improved when front office employees use good listening and communication
skills? Explain your answer.

118

Chapter 7 Front Office/Desk Operations

Section 7.5

1. Why is the front desk considered the heart of the hotel?


2. How do guests perceive the role of the front desk?
3. List five front desk employee responsibilities.
4. List the seven key functions handled by the front desk.
5. Explain what the acronym PMS stands for and what a front desk employee will use the PMS to
accomplish.
6. List the nine steps in the reservation cycle and discuss the purpose of each.
7. Can the steps of the reservation cycle be switched around? Explain why you believe that to be true.

Section 7.6

1. What is the goal of providing guest recovery?


2. What is the purpose of a reader board and how do you believe it could improve guest service?
3. If a guest is really happy about their stay, should the front desk ask him or her to fill out a guest
comment card? Why do you believe this?
4. What does the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) require hotels to provide to guests? Explain
why you believe it is important for front desk employees to know.

Section 7.7

1. If a front office employee failed to assign a room rate while taking a guest reservation, what could
happen during the departure stage of the financial reporting cycle? Explain your answer.
2. What important financial information must be obtained during the arrival stage of the cycle and why
is it necessary to have? Explain your answer.
3. What is the purpose of a night audit and during what stage of the cycle should it occur? Explain your
answer.
4. Discuss the four parts of the guest bill settlement process during the departure stage of the cycle.
Explain why you believe each one is a necessary part of the process.

Section 7.8

1. What is the purpose of having performance standards?


2. List the four things each performance standard must have.
3. List the five employee abilities the performance standards are used to measure.
4. What method do front office managers use to determine if an employee is meeting the jobs performance
standard?
5. Discuss the purpose of an annual performance review and explain why using a task checklist is a
useful tool for rating employees.

Section 7.9

1. Explain the American Plan of room rates system and what a guest can expect from this type of room
rate system.
2. What is included in the European Plan? Explain why guests would be attracted to this type of room
rate system.
3. Why would a teacher planning the senior trip for a group of high school students prefer to book an
all-inclusive plan? Explain your answer.
4. What does the acronym MAP stand for and what is included in a MAP room rate system?

Chapter 7 Front Office Operations

119

8
r
e
t
p
a
Ch

g
n
i
p
e
e
k
e
s
u
o
H
e
Executiv
s
n
o
i
t
a
r
Ope
XSection
X
8.1
Introduction

XSection
X
8.2

The Executive Housekeeper

XSection
X
8.3

Competencies

XSection
X
8.4

1. Identify the functions and responsibilities of


the executive housekeeper along with how to
apply productivity and performance standards to
housekeeping positions.

XSection
X
8.5

2. Identify the correct process for guestroom


cleaning, room inspections, and reporting of
maintenance issues.

Guestroom Cleaning Basics


Housekeeping Positions
Inventory

XSection
X
8.6
Managing Inventories

XSection
X
8.7
Linen Inventory

XSection
X
8.8

Housekeeping Green Practices

3. Identify job positions reporting to the executive


housekeeper.
4. Describe how to calculate, track, order, and
issue recycled and non-recyclable inventory
items to maintain par numbers.
5. Identify the formulas used to manage
housekeeping inventories and the purpose of
each.
6. Identify par levels and the role of the laundry
cycle in storing, issuing, and tracking for the
linen inventory.
7. Identify common green practices used by the
housekeeping department.

120

Hospitality Profile

Mit Shah
Senior Managing
Principal and CEO
Noble Investment Group
At the age of ten, Mit Shah was introduced to the hotel
business when his father bought his first motel. Mr. Shah
spent his youth doing odd jobs around that motel and the
two additional hotels his father had acquired plus the
various apartment complexes he had invested in.
Today, Mr. Shah is the CEO of Atlanta-based Noble
Investment Group, which he founded in 1993 as an
organizational platform for making additional investments
in the lodging and hospitality real estate sector. Under his
direction, Noble Management Group currently manages
more than 10,000 hotel and resort guestrooms throughout
the United States, many of which are affiliated with
Marriott, Hyatt, Starwood, Hilton, and InterContinental
Hotels Group.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks


profile about this industry professional to complete the
Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own
about the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

121

Section 8.1

Introduction
Terms you

should know
Amenitiesservices or items
offered to guests or placed in
guestrooms for convenience
and comfort at no extra cost
such as soap, shampoo, and
stationery.

122

hen a guest arrives at a hotel, he or she wants to be greeted by a


clean, comfortable, and safe place to stay. The majority of these
requirements are under the control of the executive housekeeper and the
housekeeping staff. Each task performed by the executive housekeeping
team is critical to the smooth daily operation of the property.
Typically, the housekeeping department has the largest number of
employees and is the most costly to operate. This is due to housekeepings
responsibility for keeping public spaces, front of house areas, meeting
rooms, banquet rooms, and back of house areas clean, fresh, and attractive.
This means guestroom attendants and public space cleaners require the
use of a variety of equipment and supplies for cleaning. Room attendants
are also expected to provide guestrooms with clean linens, bath towels,
and amenities, all of which are consumable goods that need replacing
on a regular basis.

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

Pineapple Fun Fact


Hotel towels are the most commonly
stolen item. It is believed that one in
five people have taken a towel from a
guestroom. The AH&LA estimates the
hotel industry experiences a loss of
more than $100 million USD per year.

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

123

Section 8.2

The Executive Housekeeper


Terms you

should know
Assetshotel equipment,
machinery, or computer
systems that are considered
both valuable and necessary
for the smooth operation of
the property.

he executive housekeeper is responsible for the efficient operation of


the housekeeping department by properly using available resources
that include staff, money, time, work methods, materials, energy, and
equipment.

At larger, full-service hotels, the executive housekeeper will have a


staff of supervisors who directly oversee the guestroom attendants and
other line positions during daily operations. This will allow the executive
housekeeper to focus on the departments overall performance. However,
at small rooms-only properties, the executive housekeeper will be the
only supervisor/manager in the department.
Other areas of responsibility for the executive housekeeper are:
Budget writingdeveloping a yearly operational budget.
Coordinatingoverseeing all housekeeping activities,
schedules, and work assignments.
Staffinginterviewing, selecting, hiring, training, and
scheduling employees.
Directingfocusing employee activity on departmental goals by
supervising, motivating, training, and disciplining staff.
Controllingdeveloping and implementing processes and
procedures that protect hotel assets such as keys, linens, equipment,
machines, and cleaning supplies from damage or theft.
Evaluatingmeasuring how well planned goals, employee
performance, departmental productivity, and financial goals are
achieved.

124

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

Housekeeping Performance and Productivity Standards


The executive housekeeper is responsible for establishing housekeeping standards in two areas:
performance and productivity. But what is the difference between the two standards? Simply put,
performance has to do with how well work is accomplished and productivity with the amount of time
it takes to complete tasks.
The productivity standard is particularly important for housekeeping employees to be capable of
achieving. Why? Because housekeeping staff must complete guestroom cleaning between the time
departing guests leave and when arriving guests check in. It is important to remember that guests are
promised check in and out times when making a reservation which requires delivering on that promise.
Consequently, housekeeping employees have to work as efficiently and effectively as possible.

Housekeeping Standards
Performance
Clean assigned areas to meet property
standards.
Carry out all cleaning tasks consistent
with property standards.
Use correct cleaning products,
equipment, and methods when cleaning.
Productivity
Carry out all cleaning tasks within
assigned time limits.
Follow cleaning schedule to ensure
cleaning occurs at assigned date or time.
Follow departmental best practices
guidelines.

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

125

Section

8.3

Guestroom Cleaning Basics


T

he guestroom is the main product a hotel


property sells. Guests expect to be assigned
a clean and comfortable guestroom, making
the condition of the guestroom a critical part
of exceptional guest service. Guestrooms
must meet the guest expectation of staying in
a clean, safe, and pleasant hotel property. The
responsibility for meeting this expectation falls
to the housekeeping department.
To maintain guestrooms to meet a specific
standard of cleanliness, comfort, safety, and
appearance, guestroom attendants must
follow a series of detailed procedures for room
cleaning. Most housekeeping departments
use a systematic approach to cleaning that
will guarantee all guestrooms meet the
propertys cleaning and guest service standards.

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Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

Guestroom Cleaning Sequence


There is value and logic behind how cleaning activities are organized. Following a planned routine
will save time and ensure a correctly cleaned room. The best way to explain the following cleaning tasks
is from the perspective of the room attendant.
The sequence of guestroom cleaning occurs in three steps:
Step 1Prepare to Clean
Load housekeeping cart with:
Cleaning supplies
Linens
Towels
Cleaning equipment
Room amenities
Step 2Clean Guestroom
Knock, identify self as housekeeping, and enter guestroom.
Turn on lights, open drapes, reset thermostat, and check TV.
Strip and remake bed.
Clean furniture, surfaces, and fixtures.
Dust, vacuum, and empty trash.
Clean bathroom.
Restock amenities.
Step 3Check Guestroom Condition
Recheck room for items/area not cleaned.
Check for and report any maintenance issues.
Report cleaned room status to manager.
Exit guestroom and secure locked door.

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127

Room Inspection
Room inspections are a critical part of the overall process of guestroom cleaning. Room inspections
are meant to catch any problems that may have been overlooked during cleaning. Exceptional guest
services dictate that guests should never have to complain about being given a dirty guestroom. Room
inspections make certain that all guestrooms are consistently cleaned the same way since every guest
deserves to stay a properly cleaned and stocked guestroom. Remember, no one, including you, wants
to stay in a dirty hotel room.
Depending on the size of the hotel, inspections are typically conducted by a housekeeping manager.
Using a checklist, the manager will inspect rooms based on the propertys inspection schedule to
determine if the room has been cleaned and prepared to receive guests to the hotels standards. When
complete, the room inspection checklist will serve as an inspection report containing notes about the:
Quality of guestroom cleaning
Condition of furniture, fixtures, and equipment
Appearance of the ceiling and walls
Condition of the carpet and other floor coverings
Cleanliness of window interiors and exteriors
Preparedness of guestroom for guest check-in
The last actions in the room inspection process are to:
Report room status to front desk: occupied, vacant, or out-of-service.
Release vacant, clean guestrooms back into the propertys inventory.

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Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

Reporting Guestroom Maintenance Issues


Housekeeping employees are expected to look for and report damaged or broken guestrooms items.
This can range from a TV that wont turn on to leaking bathroom pipes to scratched furniture. Once
again, the goal is to make certain guests check in to a room where everything is in good repair. This is
another major source of guest dissatisfaction at hotel properties.

Working Together: Housekeeping and Facilities Maintenance Departments

The housekeeping and maintenance departments must work together to make certain guestrooms
are properly maintained. This is accomplished by setting up an effective communication system between
the two departments so each knows what the other needs. What are those needs? Maintenance needs to
know what to repair and housekeeping needs to know when the work is complete. The front desk often
needs to be included in this communication loop as well since they are responsible for room assignments.

Interdepartmental Communication of Guestroom Repairs


Step 1Guestroom attendants act as the problem spotters and report any items in a room needing
attention from facilities maintenance engineers.
Step 2Facilities maintenance engineers check regularly for housekeeping reports requiring their
attention.
Step 3Facilities maintenance engineers schedule routine preventive maintenance inspections of
guestrooms and public spaces to look for repairs requiring a room or area to be taken temporarily
out-of-service, and notifies front desk and housekeeping when repair is scheduled to occur.

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

129

Section

8.4

Housekeeping Positions
T

he types of housekeeping positions found at each hotel will depend on the size of the hotel, the
types of services offered, and the type of guest experience being promoted. Based on these key
characteristics, the executive housekeeper could be responsible for managing the following positions:
Housekeeping ManagerSupervises, trains, and inspects the job performance of assigned
employees to ensure that all procedures are completed to the hotels standards. Assists where
necessary to ensure optimum service to guests.
Floor SupervisorSupervises, trains, and inspects the performance of assigned room attendants,
turndown attendants, and floor attendants, ensuring that all procedures are completed to the
hotels standards.
Guestroom AttendantCleans guestrooms to the hotels established standards of cleanliness.
Expected to report any maintenance issues and handle guest special requests or complaints.
Must ensure the confidentiality and security of all guestrooms.
Turndown AttendantProvides evening turndown service of the guests bedding in preparation
for a nights sleep while completing any additional cleaning of guestrooms, if needed, ensuring
the hotels established standards of cleanliness. Expected to report any maintenance issues and
handle guest special requests or complaints. Must preserve the confidentiality and security of
all guestrooms.
Floor AttendantProvides linen supplies for room
attendants and stocks guestroom floor closets. Delivers
and retrieves items requested by guests and the floor
supervisor.
Laundry ManagerSupervises, trains, and inspects the
performance of assigned laundry attendants ensuring
that all procedures are completed to the hotels standards.
Laundry AttendantProcesses all soiled hotel bed linens,
terry, and food and beverage table linens by operating
all laundry/dry cleaning machinery in accordance with
the hotels standards. Cleans, presses, and finishes staff
and guest garments if required.

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Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

Linen Room AttendantReceives dirty linen, issues clean linen and service towels to hotel
personnel. Inspects condition of linen, removes damaged linen from service, and requests
replacement items.
Public Space SupervisorSupervises, trains, and inspects the performance of the public space
cleaners to ensure that all public areas meet the hotels standards.
Public Space CleanerCleans and maintains all furnishings and surfaces in public areas to
meet the hotels standards of cleanliness.

Employee Schedules
The executive housekeeper oversees the employee scheduling process for the various housekeeping
positions and shifts. Scheduling the right number of employees to guarantee all job positions are covered,
and the guest experience will meet the propertys standards, requires a lot of thought. Of course, this is
true of all areas in a hotel but the housekeeping schedule needs to be particularly accurate. Why? Because
cleaning guestrooms between the time guests check out and check in or go out for the day requires an
organized team of housekeeping employees to accomplish. The responsibility for planning the number
of employees needed to finish all housekeeping tasks correctly falls to the executive housekeeper.
Hotels must be staffed by dependable hospitality professionals who realize their important contribution
to the property and its guests each day. Once a schedule has been written and posted by the executive
housekeeper, it is the responsibility of every employee to check it to make sure they know when to be
at work. Often, it is necessary for the schedule to be changed. That makes it necessary for employees to
check the schedule at the end of shift each day so they know when and where to be the next day. The
schedule will show the employee:
Datesthe calendar days they are scheduled to work
Shift timesthe time to arrive and depart each day
Work assignmentthe location within the hotel and job tasks to be performed each day
If every employee on the schedule arrives on time, dressed to work, and prepared to complete job
assignments to the very best of their ability, the hotel, its guests, and employees will benefit.

Green Practices
Hotels used to change and launder linens
each day. However, new green practices
in hotels are educating and encouraging
guests to indicate to housekeeping that last
nights towels may be reused and the linens
may remain on the bed for another night.

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

131

Section

8.5

Inventory
Terms you

should know
Parthe number of each
recycled inventory item
that needs to be on hand
to support daily, routine
housekeeping operations.

he executive housekeeper has to provide employees with the


equipment, linens, amenities, and cleaning supplies to properly
maintain guestrooms and other guest areas. This means he or she is
responsible for maintaining the inventory of various items to guarantee an
efficient housekeeping operation. Inventories must be kept at the correct
level or amount needed to ensure an efficiently run housekeeping operation.
This means executive housekeepers must make certain all inventories
are kept at a par level. Par refers to the number of items that must be on
hand to support daily, routine housekeeping operations. For example,
a property has a total of 250 beds, housekeeping will need to maintain a
par of 250 sets of sheets in inventory in order to have sufficient stock for
one days operation. Maintaining a par level of items needed for daily
operations is also true of other operational areas such as maintenance,
front office, and food and beverage.
Inventory control involves using an effective purchasing system along
with control mechanisms that allow inventory to be issued and tracked
so the executive housekeeper knows that correct amount of needed stock
is on-site at all times.

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Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

How par levels are determined depends on the type of inventory. The executive housekeeper is
responsible for two types of inventories:
Recycled InventoryIncludes items that can be cleaned and reused such as linens, towels,
and equipment. Linens are the most important recycled inventory item and next to labor cost,
the highest expense the executive housekeeper must manage. One par for linens is equal to
the total number of each linen type needed to outfit all guestrooms one time.
Non-recyclable InventoryIncludes items that are consumable goods such as soap,
shampoo, and toilet paper. Since non-recyclable items are used up, inventory levels are
closely tied to the purchase ordering system. A purchase ordering system for non-recyclable
inventory items establishes a par number that is based on two figuresa minimum quantity
and a maximum quantity.
Minimum Quantitythe smallest number of purchase units that should be in stock at any
time.
Maximum Quantitythe greatest number of purchase units that should be in stock at any
time. This maximum quantity must be consistent with available storage space and must not
be so high that large amounts of the hotels cash resources are tied up in an overstocked
inventory. The shelf life of an item also affects the maximum quantity of purchase units that
can be stored.

Comparison of Par Stock and Actual Usage for Guest Amenities


Guest Supplies
Par Stock For One Month

Item

Potential Usage Per


Occupied Room

Shampoo
Bathfoam
Small Soap

1.0
1.0
1.0

X
X
X

Forecasted Number
of Occupied Rooms
450
450
450

Par Stock Required

=
=
=

450
450
450

Actual Usage For One Month


Item

Potential Usage
Per Room

Shampoo
Bathfoam
Small Soap

1.0
1.0
1.0

Occupied
Rooms
X
X
X

450
450
450

=
=
=

Potential
Consumed

Actual
Consumed

Variance

450
450
450

370
513
752

<80>
63
302

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

133

Monitoring Inventory
The executive housekeeper can monitor the actual use rates for each product kept in inventory by
recording both purchases and the issuing of cleaning supplies. The best methods for tracking inventory
are:
An Automated Inventory Control SystemUsing bar codes or radio-frequency identification
(RFID) tags, all inventory items are scanned when received into inventory, issued to employees
for use, and returned back into storage. The system tracks all items and maintains an updated
inventory count at all times. This reduces the risk of loss due to theft or human error.
A Monthly Inventory CountInvolving a manual count of every inventory item that is currently
on the storage shelves at the end of each month. Using an inventory form, these items are listed as
beginning inventory column for the next month. The totalor ending inventory amount shows
the actual number of each item for the months ending count. This number is next compared to
the amount of stock that is expected to be in the ending inventory. The difference between the
actual quantities on hand and the amounts expected to be on hand is known as a stock variance.

Sample Linen Count Sheet


Inventory Count Sheet
Guestroom Linens
Name

Date
Item

Closet

Floor
Cart 1

Cart 2

Cart 3

Pillowcases
King-size Sheets
Queen-size Sheets
Twin Sheets
Bath Mats
Bath Towels
Hand Towels
Washcloths

If the amount on hand is less than expected then a loss of stock has occurred and should be investigated.
If the amount is higher than expected then somewhere stock has either been incorrectly counted or
marked as issued when it in fact it was not.
The executive housekeeper should act on information gathered during inventory time and put in
place better ways of controlling the storage, issuing, and record keeping for inventory items.

134

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

Section
8.6

Managing Inventories
A

variety of cleaning supplies is needed for the housekeeping


department. Basic cleaning supplies include all-purpose cleaners,
disinfectants, germicides, bowl cleaners, window cleaners, metal polishes,
furniture polishes, and scrubbing pads.

Cleaning Supplies and Guestroom Amenities


Purchasing

Cleaning supplies and guestroom amenities fall into the non-recyclable


inventory group with par levels closely tied to how quickly these items
are consumed. The minimum quantity for any given cleaning supply
item is determined by how long it takes for a fresh supply to be ordered
and received from an outside vendor. This is known as the lead time
quantity. Hotels must maintain enough stock to prevent running out due
to a lengthy reorder time period. This is known as maintaining a safety
stock level. This means stock levels should never fall below this amount.

Formula for Safety Stock

Reorder
Product
Safety
Daily
X Lead Time = Stock
(in days)
Consumption
Level

Terms you

should know
Vendoran outside company
that provides goods or
services to the hotel.

Lead-Time Quantitythe
number of purchase units
consumed between the time
that a supply order is placed
and the time that the order is
actually received.

Safety Stock Levelthe


number of purchase units
that must always be on
hand for smooth operation
in the event of emergencies,
spoilage, unexpected
delays in delivery, or other
situations.

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

135

Terms you

should know
Reorder Pointthe level of
inventory when a reorder of
inventory items must occur.

Reorder Point

Continuous monitoring of stock will ensure each item never falls


below safety stock levels. Then, when current inventory levels are
approaching the amount considered to be the safety stock level, and
taking into consideration the amount of lead time required for reorders,
the executive housekeeper will be able to determine when the reorder
point (ROP) has been reached.

Formula for Reorder Point

Normal
Safety
Reorder
Consumption
Stock +
= Point
During
Lead
Level
(ROP)
Time
Sample of Calculation of Safety Stock and
Reorder Point Levels

Housekeeping must have one bar of bath soap in stock for every guest
bathroom each day. The hotel has 250 guest baths and the executive
housekeeper knows it takes six weeks for a new stock of soap to arrive.
Heres an example of how he or she would determine how much safety
stock to keep in inventory and when to reorder soap.

136

Daily Consumption
1 bar of soap per day X 250 guest bathrooms =
250 bars consumed per day

{ 1 x 250 = 250 }

Lead Time for Reorder


6 weeks X 7 days a week = 42 days lead time

{ 6 x 7 = 42 }

Normal Consumption During Lead Time


250 per day consumption X 42 days lead time =
10,500 consumption during lead time

{ 250 x 42 = 10,500 }

Safety Stock
250 bars of soap needed per day X 42 days lead
time = 10,500 bars of soap as safety stock

{ 250 x 42 = 10,500 }

Reorder Point (ROP)


10,500 safety stock + 10,500 normal
consumptions during lead time = 21,000 bars of
soap in inventory determines reorder point

{ 10,500 + 10,500 = 21,000 }

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

Issuing

Controlling the inventory of guestroom amenities and cleaning supplies starts by maintaining accurate
counts of the products in the main storeroom, followed by establishing strict issuing procedures to
regulate the flow of products from the main storeroom to the floor storage closets. Shortages of amenities
and cleaning supplies can result in incorrectly stocked guestrooms, guest inconvenience, and wasted
labor hours as room attendants search for supplies they need to do their job.

Tracking

Consumption of guestroom amenities and cleaning supplies should be tracked using some type
of checklist showing daily use by housekeeping staff, which is entered into a computerized tracking
system. This will reduce loss due to theft and provide an easy way for the executive housekeeper to
know exactly how much is used each day.

Sample Control Form for Issuing Guest Supplies


Guestroom Supplies Requisition
Par
stock

Reorder
Point

Bar soap

1 case

case

Tissue

1 case

case

Toilet paper

1 case

case

Shower caps

100

50

Pens

1 box

box

Memo pads

2 pkgs

1 pkgs

Pencils

1 box

box

Do Not Disturb signs

30

15

Glasses

1 case

case

Room folders

30

15

Wastebaskets

Item

Requisition
(same as Par)

Cost of Item
Requisition

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

137

Section

8.7

Linen Inventory
O

ne par of any linen type is not enough for an efficient operation. Linen supplies need to be able to
outfit all guestrooms over a period of days. In order to establish a par number for linens, you must
consider three things: the laundry cycle, replacement linens, and emergency situations. The laundry
cycle is the most important factor in determining linen pars. At any given time, large amounts of linen
are moving between guestrooms and the laundry which means that housekeeping should maintain
three par of linens.

The Laundry Cycle

Many use this simple laundry cycle rhyme to remember the three pars:
Clean and Used
on the Bed
Todayclean
linens from
closet placed
on beds today
(one par)

Dirty and Being


Laundered Today
yesterdays dirty
linens which are
being laundered
today (second
par)

Clean and Ready for Use Tomorrow


linens washed yesterday returning
from the laundry to the linen closet
(third par)

The executive housekeeper needs to make sure the laundry manager is maintaining an accurate
daily count of all linens from when they are sent to laundry to when they are returned to the storage
closet. This allows for shortages to be spotted and prevents excessive amounts of linens being stocked
unnecessarily.

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Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

Linen Storage

Linen storage rooms must be kept locked at all times with access limited
to designated employees. All linens returning from the laundry need to
rest in storage for at least 24 hours. This will increase the life of the linens
by giving the fabric a chance to relax, allowing the wrinkles to smooth
out before the next use. Also, linen storage closets should be relatively
free of humidity, have adequate ventilation, and contain shelving that
prevents damage from occurring to the fabrics. Linens are to be organized
by linen type to cut down on the amount of time required to load the
housekeeping carts and to make it easier to take a physical inventory.

Terms

you
should know
Floor Parthe amount of
each type of linen that is
required to outfit all rooms
serviced on a particular floor.

Issuing Linens

An effective method for controlling linen is to maintain floor par for


all floor storage closets. The executive housekeepers should establish
and post linen floor pars in each linen closet for use by the employee
responsible for restocking the shelves each day.
The executive housekeeper can use the occupancy report to create a
linen distribution list that indicates how much linen is needed in each
floor linen closet to bring the numbers up to par levels for the next day.
Typically, restocking occurs at the beginning of the evening shift. A
member of the housekeeping staff restocks the floor linen closets with
the linen returning from the laundry.
Sample Master Linen Inventory Control Chart
Location Name:
Location Number:
PART I
1. Item
2. Last Inventory Date ( )
3. New Record
4. Subtotal 2 + 3
5. Recorded Discards
6. TOTAL 4 5
PART II
7. Storage Room
8. Storage Room
9. Storage Room
10. Linen Room
11. Laundry
12. On Carts
13. In Rooms
14. On Rollaways, Cribs, etc.
TOTAL ON HAND
15. Add 7 Through 14
PART III
16. Losses 6 15
17. Par Stock ______Turns
18. Amount Needed 17 15
19. On Order
20. Need to Order 18 19

GMs Initials:

Pillow Case

Top Sheet

Prepared by:
Inventory Date:
Fitted Sheet Bath Towel

Bath Mat

Face Cloth

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

139

Section

8.8

Housekeeping Green Practices


Terms

you
should know
Going Greena term used
to describe the process of
making decisions about how
to conduct business and
provide services to hotel
guests while taking into
consideration the impact
those decisions will have on
the environment.

Sustainable Green
Practicesthe concept of
taking into consideration the
impact business decisions
and practices have on the
environment, then finding
and implementing methods,
materials, or systems that will
minimize that impact over a
long period of time.

140

he hospitality and tourism industry was one of the first to see the
positive effects of going green and developing sustainable green
practices. Environmentally friendly policies contribute something known
as the triple bottom line, which means green practices result in:
1. Economic Impact
a. Energy savings (electricity and water)
b. Waste reduction and lower disposal costs (trash)
c. Labor cost reductions
2. Environmental Impact
a. Conservation of natural resources
b. Reduction of pollution
c. Protection of wild places and wildlife
3. Social Impact
a. Good stewardship of the natural world
b. Environmental accountability
c. Responsible cleaning practices

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

Housekeeping Green Team


The role of a green team is to monitor energy use, reduce waste, and establish green practices in the
housekeeping department. Typically, a green team is made up of a group of employees from various
housekeeping positions and shifts. They are provided scheduled time to meet and discuss ways to
implement green practices that contribute to the triple bottom line.

Common green practices include:


Replace incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps wherever possible.

Install digital thermostats in guestrooms.

Implement a towel and/or linen reuse program.

Install low-flow, 2.5-gallons-per-minute or less showerheads in all guestroom.

Install low-flush, 1.6-gallon toilets in all guestrooms.

Implement a recycling program.

Legend
Saves energy

Saves energy

Saves on water
consumption

Recycle

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

141

Apply Your Learning


Section 8.1

1. List the five areas in a hotel that housekeeping is responsible for cleaning.
2. What items is housekeeping responsible for providing to guestrooms?
3. When guests arrive at a hotel, what do they expected to find?
4. Who is responsible for overseeing the housekeeping operation?

Section 8.2

1. List five resources the executive housekeeper must oversee.


2. How does the role of the executive housekeeper differ between a full-service hotel and a rooms-only
property?
3. Why is evaluating an important area of responsibility for the executive housekeeper?
4. What are the goals of the executive housekeeper when directing employee activities?
5. What two areas do the housekeeping standards cover? Write a short paragraph explaining how they
differ and why each one is important. Use complete sentences.

Section 8.3

1. What is the main product a hotel sells?


2. Who is principally responsible for making certain guestrooms meet the propertys standards?
3. List the correct sequence of steps for guestroom cleaning. Explain what happens in each step.
4. What is the purpose of the room inspection? Write a short paragraph explaining the process. Use
complete sentences.
5. List the three steps followed when housekeeping needs to report a guestroom repair. Explain why
each step is an important part of the process. Use complete sentences.

Section 8.4

1. What is a guestroom attendant responsible for accomplishing each day? Explain your answer.
2. What tasks does the floor attendant perform? Explain how this assists the guestroom attendants. Use
complete sentences.
3. What items and duties is the laundry attendant responsible for accomplishing each day? Explain your
answer.
4. List the four main tasks performed by the linen room attendant and explain why he or she should
inspect each item daily. Use complete sentences.
5. Why is it important for employees to regularly check the schedule and what information should the
employee look for? Explain your answer.

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Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

Section 8.5
1. List the items typically found in the recycled inventory and explain why they are consider recycled
item.
2. Why are guest amenities considered non-recyclable inventory items? Explain your answer.
3. Why does housekeeping need to know when a non-recyclable item has reached the minimum quantity
level? Explain your answer.
4. Why is monitoring inventory of levels of housekeeping items so important? Write a short paragraph
explaining why you believe it is an important process. Use complete sentences.
5. Why is taking a monthly inventory count of every item necessary? Explain your answer.

Section 8.6

1. Why is it necessary to maintain a lead time quantity of non-recyclable inventory items on the shelf?
Explain your answer.
2. If it takes 12 weeks to receive toilet paper from a vendor, what would be the lead time needed for a
reorder? Show how you calculated the answer.
3. If a hotel has 325 guestrooms and places 2 ink pens in each room per day, what is the daily consumption
of ink pens? Show how you calculated the answer.
4. Calculate the safety stock level for shampoo for a hotel with 410 guest bathrooms. The lead time for
reorders is two weeks. Show how you calculated the answer.
5. If the safety stock level of tissues is 15,000 and the normal consumption is 12,000, what would be the
number used to determine the reorder point (ROP)? Show how you calculated the answer.

Section 8.7

1. Why is one par of each linen type not enough for an efficient housekeeping operation? Write a short
paragraph explaining why you believe this to be true. Use complete sentences.
2. What is a floor par and how is it used to guarantee housekeeping has enough linens in stock?
3. How many pars are needed in the laundry cycle? Explain where each par is located in the cycle and
why each is a necessary step. Use complete sentences.
4. How is the occupancy report used by the executive housekeeper when distributing linens?

Section 8.8

1. List four common green practices along with the environmental benefits each provides. Use complete
sentences.
2. What is the role of the housekeeping departmental green team? Explain your answer.
3. What does the phrase triple bottom line refer to? Write a short paragraph explaining each part of the
triple bottom line. Use complete sentences.

Chapter 8 Executive Housekeeping Operations

143

9
r
e
t
p
a
Ch

t
n
e
m
e
g
a
n
a
M
s
e
i
t
Facili
XSection
X
9.1
Introduction

XSection
X
9.2

Facilities Management and the


Chief Engineer

XSection
X
9.3

Maintaining Property Appeal

XSection
X
9.4

Preventive Maintenance

XSection
X
9.5

Routine and Emergency


Maintenance

XSection
X
9.6

Emergency Preparedness Plan

XSection
X
9.7

Facilities Green Practices

Competencies
1. Identify the role of the facilities management department
at a hotel.
2. Identify the responsibilities of the facilities management
department.
3. Identify the primary responsibilities of the chief engineer
in overseeing the operation of the facilities management
department.
4. Explain the importance of a well-maintained property for
both the interior and exterior spaces.
5. Explain the purpose of facilities management regularly
scheduling and performing preventive maintenance,
routine inspections, and manufacturer-recommended
maintenance on systems, equipment, and other high-cost
items.
6. Identify the process for reporting, completing, and
tracking repairs by the facilities management department.
7. Identify the role of year-round routine maintenance for
grounds, landscaping, high-traffic guest areas, and snow
clearing.
8. Discuss the four key planning areas for an emergency
preparedness plan along with the role of maintaining
emergency backup systems at a hotel.
9. Identify the three Es of green initiatives and most
common green practices that fall under the facilities
management department.

144

Hospitality Profile

Deirdre Wallace
Green Hotel Pioneer
Deirdre Wallace is president of The Ambrose Hotel
and leader in the development of green hotel best
practices. The Ambrose, a beautifully tranquil craftsmanstyle boutique hotel in Santa Monica, California, was
Ms. Wallaces first signature hotel to go green. The
Ambrose was the first LEED-EB (Leadership in Energy
and Environmental Design Existing Building) hotel
and one of the first five LEED-certified (the U.S. Green
Building Councils benchmark certification) hotels in
the United States.
After The Ambroses successful launch in 2003, Ms.
Wallace also became the first green hotelier in the U.S.
By going off the beaten path, Ms. Wallace took her
conventionally built hotel and introduced green practices
and components into all aspects the operations of the
hotel.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks

profile about this industry professional to complete the


Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own
about the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

145

Section 9.1

Introduction
Terms

you
should know
Facilities Management
the management of all
aspects of the hotels
physical structure including
all guest areas, along with
the necessary operating
equipment, systems, utilities,
and employee work stations,
without which the hotel could
not provide a comfortable,
guest experience.

he facilities management department plays a critical role in


the hospitality and tourism industry by overseeing the proper
maintenance and operation of all buildings, systems, and equipment
in use. Facilities is also responsible for guaranteeing the property is
visually appealing, meets all safety standards and requirements, and
provides a comfortable place for guests to stay. Because facilities has a
major impact on staff-only areas as well, it is key to assuring employees
have an efficient, comfortable, safe work environment. Consequently,
the facilities management department is considered the manufacturing
plant for just about everything the property needs to function efficiently.
The scope of responsibilities for facilities will depend on the size and
organization of the property but typically will include:
System building design
System and building operations
Building and guestroom maintenance
Equipment selection, installation, maintenance, and repair
Contract management and compliance
Utilities and waste management
Budget and cost control
Security and safety
Regulatory compliance
Parts inspections and control
Renovations, additions, and restorations
Special projects
Staff training
Emergency planning and response
Corporate reporting
A properly run facilities management department is a major contributor to:
Guest satisfaction
Employee productivity
Property revenue and profits

146

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

Section
9.2

Facilities Management and the


Chief Engineer

anaging facilities falls to a chief engineer or engineering manager


depending on the size of the property. Many of the front of house
and back of house areas facilities has to oversee are managed by another
department. The chief engineer or engineering manager will have shared
responsibility with each areas management team. This includes the front
desk, housekeeping, laundry facility, and food and beverage areas.

Terms

you
should know
Front of Housethe
functional areas of the hotel
in which employees have
extensive guest contact,
such as food and beverage
facilities and the front desk.

Back of Housea staff-only


area of the hotel, used for
functional purposes, such
as storage, break rooms,
offices, engineering, and
maintenance.

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147

The four key areas that are overseen property-wide by the chief engineer or engineering manager are:
1. Safety and Securityresponsible for the proper operation of building systems such as:
Fire protection systems
Water purification and treatment systems
Locking and security monitoring systems
Buildings, pathways, and parking areas
Pool and recreation areas/equipment
Furniture, guestrooms, and other public areas
Employee work areas
Equipment and machinery
2. Legal and Regulatory Complianceensures compliance with:
Building codes
Health department regulations
EPA and other federal environmental mandates
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulations
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations
3. Serviceprovides services to guests, other departments, and the property brand or owner
4. Cost Controlmanages cost of:
Utilities including electricity, fuel, and water
Preventive (planned) and emergency
(unplanned) maintenance
Capital expenditures for furniture, equipment,
replacement building systems, and other high
cost items

148

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

Because of the technical nature attached to the various


responsibilties, engineering managers will need to have a
background in areas such as:
Military service
Contracting or construction firms
College, trade, or technical school education
On-the-job experience
The Director of Engineering (DOE) position will
typically require a four-year university degree along
with work experience in managing costs, staff, and
departmental operations. Other management
positions will not necessarily require a degree,
but will expect some type of educational
background and work experience in
facilities management. Many people begin
their facilities management career as entrylevel employees while in school.

ADA
Facilities management must
comply with ADA regulations for:
Wheelchairs and other mobility
devices
Building/guestroom access and
emergency egress (exit)
Elevator
Curb ramps
Handicap parking
Pool lift
Visually impaired
Braille signage, room numbers,
elevator buttons, and menus
Audible fire alarm
Deaf or hard of hearing
Telecommunications device for
the deaf (TDD phone)
Flashing strobe light fire alarm
Service animals
Chapter 9 Facilities Management

149

Section

9.3

Maintaining Property Appeal


Terms

you
should know
Curb Appealthe visual
attractiveness of a building as
seen from the street.

150

urb appeal is often referred to as the silent salesperson for hotel


properties in the hospitality and tourism industry. Why? Because it
is the first part of a hotel a guest sees. Consequently, making a good first
impression is important. Never forget that the hotels exterior is what
often draws guests attention to the property while the interior makes
them want to spend time there.
It falls to the facilities management department to make certain that
the outside areas are as well maintained as the lobby, guestrooms, and
other inside guest spaces. However, this does not always happen. Many
facilities engineers often think taking care of the exterior is less important
than maintaining the inside spaces. This belief can cause the property
to lose sales. Even today, in the age of online hotel reservations, some
people still travel without any fixed plans for where they will stay each
night. Instead, they wait to look for accommodations at the end of the
day and this is when curb appeal becomes a sales tactic that draws walkin guests to the property.

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

Exterior facilities include:

Elevators

Exterior Walls

Foundation

Landscaping and
Grounds

Parking Lots

Pool

Roof

Structural Frame

Utilities (electric,
phone, cable systems)

Windows and Doors

Once a guest is in residence, they will begin to notice all the details of the interior space. This is when
maintenance has to make certain that each guest area has been properly maintained. The little things,
along with big items such as furniture, wall coverings, and floors, reflect attention to detail on the part
of the facilities management department.

Pineapple Fun Fact


A guest comment card entry
concerning the hotels condition
stated: The manager promised
that I wouldnt find a single flea
in my bed. He was right; they were
all married with families.

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

151

Section 9.4

Preventive Maintenance
Terms

you
should know
Preventive Maintenance
a systematic approach
to maintenance in which
situations are identified
and corrected on a regular
basis to control costs and
keep larger problems from
occurring.

152

reventive maintenance occurs on an as-needed basis with the


goal of keeping everythingsystems, equipment, and other high
cost itemsin good working order. This is particularly important for
equipment and systems in constant use such as:
Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC)
Laundry equipment and machinery
Fire protection systems
Swimming pool, hot tub, and other recreational equipment
Kitchen equipment
On arrival, guests expect to stay in a fully functioning hotel. The
responsibility of delivering on this expectation falls to the maintenance
department. Keeping up with everything is one of the major challenges
taken on by the chief engineer and the maintenance team. Most engineers
enjoy the challenge of finding ways to keep everything functioning
correctly and often state that this challenge is what drew them to the
job in the first place.

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

Determining when maintenance is required can be done in one of three ways:


1. Detecting maintenance needs during a routine inspection
2. Receiving reports of items requiring maintenance
3. Following manufacturers guidelines for proper maintenance

Sample Preventive Maintenance Procedures: HVAC Wall Units

Le Tomas Hotel
Routine Inspection

Date: 01/23/13

Frequency: Monthly

Equipment Inspected:
Guestroom #135
1. Check HVAC unit for proper operation.
2. Check condition of filter.
3. Inspect condition of heating/cooling coils.
Preventive Maintenance Needed:
Remove unit from room and blow out whole unit.
Clean coils with coil cleaner and steam or pressure wash.
Clean blower wheels thoroughly.
Clean condensate pan and paint with bituminous paint.
Lubricate fan motors to manufacturer's specifications.
Check all electrical components and connections.
Run unit and check full operation.
Record amp draw against manufacturer's specifications.
Clean and repaint any deteriorated surfaces.
On units in coastal locationsafter full service, recoat unit with tectyl corrosion treatment.

Routine Inspection
Conducting routine preventive maintenance inspections is key to keeping all the service, systems,
and equipment working. At the beginning of each year, the chief engineer will set up a calendar showing
when preventive inspections will be conducted along with items already on a routine maintenance
schedule. The dates of the upcoming inspections are based on the previous years inspection dates in
order to keep the inspection process moving at a steady pace. During an inspection, the engineer will
check that each item is functioning correctly and look for:
Signs of wear or weakness that could result in a breakdown
Current condition of previous repairs
Evidence that routine manufacturer-based maintenance did occur

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153

Sample Preventive Maintenance Guestroom Checklist

154

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

D
Init ate
ials

Doors
Bathroom

Thermostat controls and fan (operation)


Knob on thermostat (secure)
Filter (clean or replace)
Condensation water drain (clean and add Algaecide tablet)
Grille (clean)
Switches (check)
Lamp sockets (tighten)
Lamp shades (repair or note for replacement)
Cord on hanging light pullswitch (check)
Cover on hanging light (secure)
Bulb (replace if necessary)
Plugs (replace if necessary)
Outlet wall plates (inspect, clean, secure)
Switches (inspect, clean, secure)
Switches and receptacles (replace missing screws)
Receptacles (change if necessary)
Audio (check radio channels)
Video (check television channels)
Knob (replace if necessary)
Fine tuning (adjust if necessary)
Antenna outlet (secure plate)
Antennae connectors (check, repair if necessary)
Remote control (check batteries)
Security mount (check for secure wall mount)
Replace message light cover (if necessary)
Dialing instructions (replace if necessary)
Defects (report any other defects to front desk)
Drawer handles and knobs (check, replace if necessary)
Drawer guides (lubricate if needed with WD-40)
Stains (clean and touch up)
Chair legs (check)
Table tops (check, repair small defects)
Headboards (check and secure)
Casters or legs (check and secure)
Chair bumpers (check, replace if missing)
Springs on chairs (check)
Night stands (check and secure)
Coat racks (check and secure)
Window guides (lubricate with WD-40)
Mirror hangers (check and secure)
Window hardware (check and secure)
Bedframe (check and secure)
Inspect and secure all drapery tracks, rollers and pull cords
Hangers (replace if rusty or missing)

General

Bedding/
Drapery/ Windows/
Closets Mirrors

Furniture

Telephone

Television

Switches &
Receptacles

Lamps

Air Conditioner

D
Init ate
ials

ENCLOSURE #2
SAMPLE ROOM CHECK LIST

Handles (check and secure)


Lock cylinder set screw (check)
Hinges and hinge pins (oil with WD-40 and secure)
Door chain and viewer (check, repair if necessary)
Lock striker plates (check and secure)
Night latch (check)
Door frame rubber bumpers (check, replace if needed)
Door stops (check and replace if necessary)
Toilet flush valve (check)
Toilet cover bumpers (check)
Seat hinges (check and secure)
Toilet seal (check for evidence of leaks)
Bath drain plug and pop-up (check)
Mixing valve (secure handle)
Mixing valve washers (replace if necessary)
Hot and cold faucets (check/replace `H' and `C' buttons)
Escutcheon plates (secure)
Shower curtain hooks (check and replace if needed)
P trap under basin (check)
Drain pop-up (check)
Faucet strainer (clean or replace)
Basin bowl hangers (reglue or resecure)
Toilet paper holder (check)
Clothes hanger on bathroom wall (check and secure)
Floor and wall tile (grout tile and caulk around tub if needed)
Soap dish and grab bar (check and secure)
Towel rack (check and secure)
Lavatory counter (check and refasten)
Non-slip pads in tub (check condition)
Exhaust grill (clean)
Tissue holder (check and replace)
Baseboards (check and replace/reglue as needed)
Carpet (check)
Vinyl (check, reglue if necessary)
Pictures (check)
Ceiling (check for cracks and/or peeling paint)
Paint (check paint on walls and door casings)
Rate card (confirm on door)
Fire exit plan (confirm on door)
Check for air leaks under A/C units
Cracks in sidewalks

Reported Maintenance Issues


The housekeeping department is an important part of the preventive maintenance process. Guestroom
attendants will frequently spot common maintenance issues during guestroom cleaning. It is the
responsibility of the chief engineer to set up a functional reporting system between the housekeeping
department and facilities maintenance.
Repair reporting systems should allow attendants to provide information about the needed repair.
Once a repair is reported, a work order will be generated and assigned to a maintenance employee for
completion. All completed repairs must be reported back to the chief engineer at the end of each day.
It is the chief engineers responsibility to inspect the repair and report to housekeeping that the repair
has been completed. Remember, one of the main reasons for guest dissatisfaction is a poorly maintained
guestroom.
Some repairs will require a guestroom to be removed from available inventory. This will result in lost
revenue and has a serious impact on the front desks ability to accommodate guests. The chief engineer
should have a plan to keep the time a guestroom is out-of-service to a minimum. Once a guestroom is
once again ready to receive guests, both housekeeping and the front desk will need to be notified.

Manufacturer Guidelines
Major systems and high cost pieces of equipment will come with manufacturers recommendations
on how to properly maintain them for maximum life expectancy. Following those recommendations
can prevent needless repairs and extend the equipments life expectancy. Making certain this happens
is the responsibility of the chief engineer. Typically, the chief engineer will keep the manufacturers
guidelines on file and use equipment data cards to track maintenance work performed on each system,
piece of equipment, or machine.

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

155

Section 9.5

Routine and Emergency Maintenance


R

outine maintenance deals with the general upkeep that is required on a routine, scheduled basis
all year round. This is to ensure the property never looks unkempt or neglected. Most routine
maintenance is performed by entry-level maintenance employees and typically includes:
Lawn mowing
Landscape raking and trimming
Seasonal bedding plant installation
Exterior and interior high-traffic area paint touchup
Snow shoveling

Emergency repairs should be the result of unexpected mechanical or system breakdowns, not because
the facilities management department failed to properly maintain systems, equipment, and machinery.
This can also be referred to as corrective maintenance. Emergency breakdowns can have a big impact
on the propertys ability to operate depending on the type of emergency repair needed. This is due to
the unexpected:
Repair Costsfor supplies and parts
Labor Costsfor employees involved in
the situation
Property Damagefor additional damage
resulting from the emergency breakdown
Vendor Costsfor cost of bringing in
outside technicians to do repairs

156

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

Section
9.6

Emergency Preparedness Plan


T

he facilities management department and the chief engineer are key


players in a hotels emergency planning process. This is because the
buildings, as structures meant to house and protect people, fall under the
departments direct control. The goal of emergency planning is to ensure
guest and employee safety, security, and comfort during a wide variety
of emergency situations. In certain emergencies such as a hurricane or
toxic chemical spill, guests and employees may need to shelter in place
or be evacuated to a safer location. Having a plan in place that contains
specific responsibilities and duties for each employee to carry out during
the emergency is essential to the property meeting its goals of safety,
security, and comfort.

Terms you

should know
Shelter in Placetaking
immediate shelter where
you areat home, work, or
schooland remaining there
until you are told by the
authorities it is safe to leave.

Emergency planning must include procedures for the following:


Natural disasters
Floods
Earthquakes
Wildfires
Severe weather
Hurricanes
Tornadoes
Blizzards and whiteout conditions
Power outages
Terrorism

Emergency Backup Systems


During emergency situations, hotels may experience a loss of basic utilities such as electricity and
telephone service. Having backup services in place for temporary property operations should be a part
of every emergency preparedness plan and should include:
Emergency power systems such as a whole building generator and batteries
Emergency fuel supplies (gasoline, propane, and diesel fuel)
Emergency communication system (cell phones or hand-held radios)
Because these systems spend most of their lifetime waiting to be needed, it is important to routinely
inspect, service, and test operate them to guarantee each is fully functional and will work to maximum
capacity when an emergency happens.

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

157

Section 9.7

Facilities Green Practices


T

he facilities management department is responsible for driving most


of the sustainable green practices in place at a hotel. This is because
areas like water conservation and energy management fall under the chief
engineers responsibilities. However, the entire hotel has to approach
sustainability of all its green programs using the three Es to drive every
green initiative.

The three Es:


Economicsgreen practices are good for business.
Environmentgreen practices protect and save natural
resources.
Equitygreen practices contribute to local community
conservation efforts.

158

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

The types of green practices in place at many hotels include property-wide efforts for:
Recycling
Have a program in place to recycle paper, plastic, cardboard, glass bottles, and
aluminum cans.
Energy Conservation and Management
Establish set temperatures for guestroom thermostats, install motion detectors to control
when HVAC systems turn on and off, and install low-energy usage light bulbs.
Solid Waste Management
Reduce trash sent to the landfill by buying products with less packaging and find local
charities to donate unused guestroom amenities such as soap and shampoo.
Water Conservation
Encourage guests to reuse towels to cut water use by the laundry facility.
Waste-Water Management (sewage)
Install low-flush toilets and low-flow shower heads.
Install a grey water recycling system for use in watering hotel landscaping.
Hazardous Materials Management
Store and dispose of cleaning solutions, used oil, solvents, paint, pesticides, antifreeze,
old batteries, and aerosol cans using environmentally approved containers or processes
designed to prevent contamination of the soil or ground water supply.
Find safe alternatives to replace the use of hazardous products to eliminate the
possibility of contamination or employee injuries from leaks or spills.
Land-Use Planning and Management
Explore ways to balance the operational requirements of the hotel against the needs of
wildlife and protecting the environment. Implement conservations methods wherever
possible.

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

159

Apply Your Learning


Section 9.1

1. What three things does a well-run property contribute to a hotel?


2. List five facilities management departmental responsibilities and explain the purpose of each.
for equipment and
3. The facilities management department acts as a
.
systems that allow the property to
4. How does a properly run facility contribute to guest satisfaction? Explain your answer.

Section 9.2

1. List five items belonging to the chief engineers safety and security area of responsibility.
2. What does the acronym DOE stand for?
3. What areas of a hotel would belong in the front of house category?
4. What does the acronym OSHA stand for?
5. What areas of a hotel would belong in the back of house category?
6. What four areas are facility managers responsible for handling?

Section 9.3

1. How does good curb appeal help a property to be profitable?


2. Why is maintaining the outside of a hotel in good condition just as important as having nice guestrooms?
3. List four exterior spaces facilities management should keep well-maintained.
4. Why is attention to detail so important when maintaining the inside of a hotel?
5. Explain why making a good first impression is so important in the hospitality and tourism industry.

Section 9.4

1. What is the purpose of performing preventive maintenance?


2. Why must the chief engineer make certain that routine inspections are scheduled and completed?
Explain your answer.
3. List the three ways the need for maintenance can be determined.
4. What should the engineer check for during a routine inspection?
5. What happens when a guestroom is not properly maintained?
6. What type of method does the chief engineer use to track maintenance on each system and machine
over a period of years?

160

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

Section 9.5

1. What is the purpose of routine maintenance?


2. How does routine maintenance differ from preventive maintenance?
3. Why do emergency repairs occur?
4. How could emergency repairs be prevented?
5. List the four ways emergency breakdowns impact efficient operation.

Section 9.6

1. What items would typically be included in an emergency power system plan?


2. List the four major groups of emergencies that must be covered by a preparedness plan.
3. Why would having a clear method of communication be important during an emergency?
4. Why is maintaining backup systems in good working order important to the effective emergency
operations of a hotel?

Section 9.7

1. How could a hotel benefit financially by using green practices?


2. How could a hotel reduce the amount of solid waste it sends to a landfill each day?
3. Why is it important to have a recycling program operating at a hotel?
4. What water conservation efforts could a hotel use to reduce the amount of waste water it produces
each day?
5. What type of items might a hotel have that would be considered as hazardous materials?

Chapter 9 Facilities Management

161

0
1
r
e
t
p
Cha

e
g
a
r
e
v
e
B
d
n
a
d
o
Fo
s
e
c
i
v
r
e
S

XXSection 10.1
Introduction

XXSection 10.2

Types of Food and Beverage Operations

XXSection 10.3

Food and Beverage Guest Cycle

XXSection 10.4

Food and Beverage Financial Cycle

XXSection 10.5

Restaurants and the ADA

XXSection 10.6

Food Safety and Sanitation

XXSection 10.7
Restaurant Operations

XXSection 10.8
Kitchen Operations

XXSection 10.9

Responsible Beverage Operations

XXSection 10.10

Banquets, Catering, and Event Planning

XXSection 10.11

Food and Beverage Green Practices

162

Competencies
1. Identify the restaurant industrys position as a major
source of jobs in the U.S.
2. Identify the purpose for type of service, menu
options, and cost in each of the five main categories
of food service outlets.
3. Explain the guest and employee segments of the
food and beverage guest cycle.
4. Explain the need for implementing, and consistently
using, financial controls for labor costs, food costs,
menu pricing, and cash control in a food and
beverage operation.
5. Identify the purpose of safety and sanitation in
food service operations and the need for a written
Sanitation Risk Management (SRM) program such as
HACCP.
6. Identify the four main styles of table service and the
purpose of each.
7. Explain the goal of providing excellent food to food
service operations.
8. Identify the need for responsible beverage
operations, the role of a dram law, and liabilities,
legalities, and responsibilities servers, bartenders,
restaurants, bars, lounges, and other beverage
service providers face when serving alcohol.
9. Explain the role of banquets, catering, and special
events in food and beverage operations.
10. Identify the ten most common green practices used
by food and beverage facilities.

Hospitality Profile

Thomas J. Corcoran, Jr.


Chairman of the Board
of FelCor Lodging Trust
IIn 1991, Mr. Corcoran co-founded FelCor, Inc., one of
the nations largest hotel Real Estate Investment Trusts
(REIT) and the nations largest owner of full service,
all-suite hotels. In 1994, FelCor went public with six
hotels and a market capitalization of approximately $120
million as a REIT under the name FelCor Suite Hotels,
Inc. In 1996, the Company listed on the New York Stock
Exchange as FCH and in July 1998, changed its name to
FelCor Lodging Trust Incorporated. Mr. Corcoran served
as president and CEO of FelCor from 1991 to 2006,
until his appointment as chairman in February 2006.
Additionally, he served as the chair of AH&LA in 2008.
A REIT is a corporation that uses the combined money of
many investors to purchase and manage income property.
Many hospitality and tourism businesses, in particular
hotel properties, are owned and operated by real estate
investors such as Mr. Corcoran.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks

profile about this industry professional to complete the


Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own
about the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

163

Section

10.1

Introduction
I

t is estimated that more than 13 million people in the United States work in the restaurant industry.
This means that nearly one in ten Americans holds a position that provides some type of food and
beverage service. This makes the industry the second largest source of U.S. jobs, with a growth rate of
1.3 million jobs over the next ten years. With over 900,000 food and beverage locations in the U.S. and
sales exceeding $600 billion a year, the restaurant industry is expected to continue growing.1

Typically, the restaurant industry is broken into a variety of markets. Since the focus of this chapter
will be on food and beverage operations found in the hospitality and tourism industry, the category
discussed will belong generally to the Commercial group. The other two categories, Military and
Institutional, have some connection with hospitality and tourism and may be discussed periodically.

National Restaurant Association, Our Members Are More Than Just Restaurants, http://www.restaurant.org/aboutus.html (January 2012)

164

Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

Section
10.2

Types of Food and Beverage Operations


T

odays guests have an enormous number of dining options to choose from. Dining decisions are
usually based on the amount of time available to eat, the cost of the dining experience, and the type
of dining outlets in a specific location. Many times guest choices are made on the spur of the moment;
others are planned events. Additional considerations include dietary, cultural, religious, or medical
needs or preferences. All the variables of how and why guests make dining decisions could result in an
endless list of restaurant types. . However, using common characteristics (type of service, menu options,
and cost, etc.) as links, most restaurants fall into the following categories:
Quick-ServiceMcDonalds, KFC, Taco Bell, and Arbys
Quick-CasualChipotle, Panera Bread, and Subway
Family-DiningBob Evans, Cracker Barrel, and Dennys
Casual-DiningApplebees, Chilis, LongHorn Steakhouse, Olive Garden, and T.G.I. Fridays
Fine-DiningThe Capital Grille, Mortons, and Ruths Chris Steakhouse

Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

165

Terms you

should know
Rooms-Only Hotelan
economy hotel property
that has only guestrooms
to offer guests; no dining
or recreation options are
available on site.

Hotel Dining Options


Depending on the size of the hotel, the dining options can include
all or none of the five main restaurant categories. For example, a roomsonly hotel will not have an on-site restaurant while a full-service resort
property may offer a variety of food and beverage choices ranging from
a poolside snack bar to a gourmet fine-dining restaurant featuring a
celebrity chef.

Destination Dining
Guests are always looking for special experiences and a recent trend
in hotels is to create dining options that are destinations all on their own.
The goal is to appeal not only to hotel guests but to make the
dining experience enticing to both locals and visitors as well.
This creates a stand-alone facility which is marketed to the
public both individually and as part of the hotel. This trend
has produced dining destinations that feature celebrity chefs,
enticing menus, unique locations, and fabulous guest service.
Many properties are finding destination dining to be a very
profitable way to attract local and visitor business.

166

Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

Section
10.3

Food and Beverage Guest Cycle


T

he guest cycle for food and beverage operations typically involves two sets of sequential actions
that are caused by:
1. The guests perspective of services desired.
2. The employees perspective of how to provide what the guest is requesting.

The guest perspective acts as the foundation and deals with the activities the guest engages in during
each stage of the cycle. Those guest actions then will trigger and guide the employee, as a service provider,
in what needs to happen next in order to provide what the guest wants or needs. This is true of all types
of food and beverage outlets whether they are free-standing restaurants or hotel-based dining options.
Employees Perspective
Prepare For Service

Take Order

Serve Order

Complete Service

Greet & Seat

Dine

Bill Settlement/Depart

Guests Perspective
Dining Reservation

Pre-Arrival

Arrival

Occupancy

Departure

Pineapple Fun Fact


On the afternoon of April 19, 1775, Monroe Tavern in Lexington,
Massachusetts, served as the headquarters for British Brigadier General
Earl Percy and his one thousand reinforcements. His troops occupied the
tavern for one and one-half hours. They converted the dining room into a
field hospital while the weary British soldiers consumed liberal quantities
of food and drink. A bullet hole is still visible in the ceiling as a reminder
of the disorderly conduct of these uninvited guests.
Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

167

Section

10.4

Food and Beverage Financial Cycle


H

ow profitable a food and beverage operation will be depends on controlling four key items: labor
costs, food costs, menu pricing, and cash control. Finding the perfect balance between the right
number of employees and a menu priced to sell, while remaining profitable, is very difficult. Cash control
requires the use of a strong protocol since many people may be involved in the process of guest bill
settlement. Fortunately, there are tools and methods available to help find the right balance for managing
costs, creating a well-priced menu, and handling cash as it flows through the operation.

The Menu
The menu is the key determining factor in the type food and beverage option a hotel will operate.
For guests, the menu communicates what the overall dining experience will be. While for employees,
the menu dictates what and how food items will be prepared. For the kitchen, the menu will determine
equipment needs and employee skill requirements. For managers, the menu is the chief cost control,
marketing, and sales tool. The menu also drives purchasing needs such as:
Food items
Kitchen and food service equipment
Linens, china, glassware, and silverware
Furniture
The managers can use the menu to determine the restaurants:
Type
Price range
Level of service
Dcor and physical layout
Staffing needs
In order for a menu to be successful, and the food facility to show a profit, the menu must meet
guests needs and expectations. At a hotel property, this means the food and beverage operations must
align with the level of guest service, theme, and quality provided by the hotel itself.

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Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

Food Costs and Menu Pricing


Menu pricing is a complex process, so a variety of formulas are available
to ensure the price of each menu item covers the cost of food and labor
needed to produce it. Menu pricing typically begins by determining the
total cost of all ingredients called for by a standard recipe plus the cost
of the labor and other expenses necessary to produce and serve the item
for guest consumption. Once the cost is determined, it is important for
the restaurant to maintain the cost at that specific dollar amount to keep
food and labor costs from reducing profits.

Formula for Food Costs

Standard Recipe Cost (SRC) + Labor Cost (LC) = Food Cost (FC)
For example: food cost to produce one slice of apple pie

Terms you

should know
Standard Recipea formula
for preparing a menu item
based on a specific portion
size by using guides for
measuring ingredients,
cooking/preparation
procedures, garnish, and
equipment required to
produce a menu item.

Price Pointthe price a


product is sold for on the
retail market.

$0.38 (SRC) + $0.33 (LC) = $0.71 (FC)


The price posted on the menu and paid by guests is known as the
items price point. The price point is created by dividing the food cost by
the percentage of profit the restaurant feels is necessary to meet revenue
goals. Typically, it will be somewhere between 25 and 30 percent, with the
actual percentage used determined by the restaurants financial objectives.
Also, the percentage has to be set at an amount that will be attractive to
guests and fill tables with diners.

Formula for Price Point

Food Cost (FC) Profit Percentage (P%) = Price Point


For example: price point for a slice of apple pie in a casual dining
restaurant

$0.71 (FC) 27% (P%) = $2.62 Price Point

Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

169

Section 10.5

Restaurants and the ADA


L

ike hotels, food service facilities must comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) by
making reasonable accommodation for employees and guests.

People with disabilities need to access tables, food service lines, and condiment and beverage bars
in restaurants, bars, or other establishments where food or drinks are sold.
There must be an accessible route to all dining areas, including raised or sunken dining areas and
outdoor dining areas, as well as to food service lines, service counters, and public restrooms.
In a dining area, tables must be far enough apart so a person using a wheelchair can maneuver
between the tables when patrons are sitting at them. All wheelchair-accessible tables must allow a guest
in a wheelchair to sit comfortably with legs under the table top, and must be dispersed throughout the
dining area rather than clustered in a single location. Space for service animals trained to sit under the
table at their owners feet must be provided as well.

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Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

171

Section

10.6

Food Safety and Sanitation


Terms you

should know
Control Pointrequirements
attached to specific points in
the food service process to
prevent unsafe and unsanitary
conditions or situations from
occurring.

ood service facilities must pay close attention to food safety and
sanitation issues to prevent foodborne illnesses or emergencies from
occurring. Each state and local area has food sanitation regulations that
clearly define how to prevent unsanitary and unsafe restaurant conditions.
Periodic inspections are conducted to ensure restaurants are in compliance
with those regulations. Why? Because it is the only way to make sure the
dining public is safe from illnesses such as salmonella, the most common
form of food poisoning. Plus, foodborne illnesses are bad for business.
No one wants to eat at a restaurant he or she believes to be unsafe or
unsanitary. Training employees to follow all food safety and sanitation
procedures and protocols is the secret to preventing issues.
A sanitation risk management (SRM) program focuses on reducing
overall sanitation risks by identifying the risks at each control point in
the food service operation. In a SRM program, standards and procedures
for each control point are given for each of the four resources:
Inventorycontrols that protect food products, beverages, and
nonfood items from spoilage, contamination, pilferage, and waste.
Peopleemployee training in the use of proper sanitation practices.
Equipmentrequirement for the proper cleaning and maintenance
of all equipment.
Facilitiesrequirement of a food facility design and layout that
has a positive effect on the facilitys ability to provide a safe and
sanitary dining environment.

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Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

HACCP
A common SRM program is the Hazardous Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. HACCP
is a systematic approach to identify, evaluate, and control food safety hazards. Critical control points
(CCPs) are the activities in the food process that must be controlled to ensure food safety. The written
HACCP plan must detail hazards, identify the CCPs critical limits, specify CCP monitoring and methods
of recordkeeping, and outline a strategy for implementing the plan.

Sample HACCP Reporting Form

Process Step

CCP

Chemical/
Physical/
Biological
Hazards

Critical
Limit

Monitoring
Procedures/
Frequency/
Person(s)
Responsible

Corrective
Action(s)/
Person(s)
Responsible

HACCP
Records

Verification
Procedures/
Frequency/
Person(s)
Responsible

Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

173

Section

10.7

Restaurant Operations
T

here are many variations in the procedures and techniques food service operations use to serve
food to guests, but most can be categorized under one of five main styles of table service:
Plate Servicefollows these basic procedures:
1. Servers take guests orders in the dining area.
2. Kitchen staff members produce food orders, portion them, and place them on plates in the
kitchen.
3. Servers pick up or place the orders on trays, sometimes using plate covers to keep food warm
and facilitate stacking, and take them to the guests. They may use tray stands (also called
tray jacks) or have food runners to assist by holding the plated meals while the server places
each guests order on the table.
4. Buspersons assist servers and clear tables.
Cart Servicecart service is an elaborate service style in which menu items are prepared on
a cart beside guest tables by specially trained staff members. Cart service is typically found at
fine dining establishments.
Platter Servicefollows these procedures:
1. The food is prepared by food production staff in the kitchen.
2. Food is then arranged attractively on the service platters for delivery to the dining room.
3. Servers line up in the kitchen and select a platter to carry into the dining room.
4. Food is paraded into the dining area and presented to the guests.
5. Platters are placed on side stands to keep food warm while guests are given a very hot,
empty dinner plate.
6. Servers, moving counter-clock wise around the table, transfer the food to guest plates.
Family-style Servicethe kitchen places food on large platters or in large serving bowls that
servers deliver and place in the middle of the guests table. Guests serve themselves by passing
the food around the table.

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Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

Buffet Serviceusing hot or cold buffet service tables, guests may serve themselves food items
such as:
Salads, fresh fruit, and other chilled side items
Hot vegetables, meats, poultry, and fish
Breakfast items, muffins and crepes
Omelets from prepared-to-order stations
Sauces, dressings, and relishes
Desserts and breads
Beef, ham, and other roasts in whole steamship rounds that are hand cut by staff at
carving stations

Each type of service will appeal to a specific target audience. The level of guest service and type of
environment where the food facility is located will determine the target audience and the type of service
most attractive to guests.

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175

Job Positions
The food and beverage industry requires a skilled and knowledgeable workforce. This is due to the
complex process involved when planning a menu, preparing or cooking each item, and then guaranteeing
guests are served quality food and beverages. The variables, such as when certain food items are available
or controlling food preparation and service to guarantee a consistent process, offer a unique challenge
to each employee. Consequently, food service employees must pay attention to detail, know exactly
what guests expect, and follow their propertys food and service standards.
Food and beverage job positions are typically divided into three main categories:
Managershave a wide variety of duties from running the kitchen, creating the menu, hiring
and training staff, setting financial goals, and overseeing day-to-day operations. Consequently,
the larger the operation, the more varied the management positions.
General manager
Executive chef
Operations manager
Supervisor
Production Stafffocus primarily on the food production process and traditionally have little
to no direct contact with guests. However, the production staff has a major impact on the overall
guest experience through the type and quality of food being sent from the kitchen to the dining
public.
Chefs
Cooks
Pantry staff
Stewards
Receiving staff
Bakers
Dishwashers
Service Staffhave the biggest impact on the dining experience since these positions have direct
contact with guests. The types of positions required will depend on the type and size of each
food and beverage operation along with the duties to be performed based on the menu, level of
guest service, and guest expectations.
Greeters/hosts/hostesses
Restaurant servers
Banquet servers
Beverage servers
In-room dining attendants
Counter staff
Buspersons
Bartenders
Cashiers
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Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

Section
10.8

Kitchen Operations
E

xcellent food is the goal for all successful food service


facilities. This can only be achieved when the food and
beverage production staff have the proper tools, equipment,
and training to make the goal of excellent food a reality.

fing

Proper equipment and tools will ensure


food is cooked using the correct procedure,
as well as provide storage for hot and
cold food waiting to be served. Timing
Sa
in kitchen operations is critical.
fet
y
Guests seated together expect to
dine together. However, menu items
ordered may have different cooking
times, which means the kitchen must
be prepared to hold hot and cold items for
serving together based on the longest cook time.
That will require planned coordination by the
kitchen staff.

Staf

Timing

Proc

edur

in
nn

Pla

Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

177

Section

10.9

Responsible Beverage Operations


Terms you

should know
Dram Shop Lawsin general,
provide consistent guidelines
about who is responsible
when third parties suffer
because of an intoxicated
persons actionswill vary
from state to state.

he careful service of alcoholic beverages is an important responsibility


for employees involved in restaurant, bar, and lounge facilities. In
some states where dram shop laws are in place, servers, bartenders, and
owners can be held liable if an intoxicated guest causes injury to another
person. Therefore, anyone involved in serving alcoholic beverages must do
so responsibly. Typically, guests understand that alcohol-service rules are
not simply house rules, but based in law. However, once a person begins
to consume alcohol, his or her ability to make decisions is one of the first
things to be impaired. So, laws surrounding the sale and consumption
of alcohol place a heavy responsibility on the restaurant, bar, or lounge
operation and the servers working there.
The legal minimum age to serve or clear alcohol will vary from state
to state. In order to hold a position involving the serving of alcohol, a
person must be 18 to 21 years of age and trained how to responsibly
control alcohol risks.
Many states require people serving alcohol to be licensed or certified
to ensure they fully understand the serious business of serving alcohol.
One goal of a license or certification is to prevent underage drinking.
Another is to deal with the liability laws that allow a third party to sue the
establishment, and sometimes the server, for injuries and suffering inflicted
by an intoxicated guest. The belief is that trained, certified professionals
serving alcohol will reduce the likelihood of a serious alcohol-related
incident such as allowing an intoxicated person to drink and drive.

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Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

Alcohol Service Training


Training is a key element in beverage operations involving alcohol.
It is the best way to ensure employees know who can legally be served,
how to prevent underage drinking, and stop intoxicated guests from
causing harm to others. Anyone appearing to be underage must be asked
to present a valid form of identification and determined to be legally of
age to drink before being served any type of alcohol. Alcohol service
training also teaches employees their responsibility for staying up-todate on all current alcohol-related laws and ordinances.

Terms you

should know
Ordinancescodes created
to clearly define how specific
regulations or laws will be
locally enforced.

For example, Controlling Alcohol Risks Effectively (CARE) is a training


program created to meet the needs of the places and people responsible
for serving alcohol to the public. This course trains servers, bartenders,
and bar backs to:
Effectively monitor and control guests alcohol consumption
Intervene before a problem occurs
Follow ID-checking policies
Recognize false identification cards
Handle under-age guests
Describe the physical effects of alcohol
Explain the laws regarding alcohol service
Know how to apply the CARE training in a beverage service
operation

Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

179

Section 0.10
1

Banquets, Catering, and Event Planning


Terms you

should know
Audio-Visualmaterials
using sight or sound to
present information such
as DVDs, PowerPoint
presentations, or speakerrequested microphone sound
systems.

nitially found in hotels and restaurants, one area of food and beverage
operations that has become very profitable is the banquet, catering,
and event planning group. Today, hotel and resort food service providers
are developing desirable locations such as museums, zoos, and other
local attractions into venues for all types of banquets and catered special
events. This is done by creating partnerships that allow for revenue and
marketing to be shared by the organizations involved. It also allows
event planners to choose from a variety of unique and entertaining
dining experiences. How does a planner decide which type of service is
required? By determining the purpose of each event, such as:
Banquetsa formal business dinner, charitable gathering,
ceremony, or celebration that often involve awards or speeches
to honor people or the reason for the event. Banquet service
encompasses menu, room setup, audio-visual (A/V) needs, plus
any additional support services.
Cateringfood service at an on-site meeting or convention space,
off-site locations, local attractions, and private homes. Typically,
food is prepared in the catering kitchen location and moved to
the catered event venue.
Special Eventshigh-cost organized events that tend to be
very elaborate and involve multiple elements such as food,
entertainment, and dcor, often held at a hotel or specially chosen
location at any time of day or night and typically built around a
specific theme or concept.

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Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

Layouts for Room Setup


Typically, the event type will favor a particular room layout. However, variations on the layout
can be made to create a more custom feel to the event and allow guests to feel it was built to meet their
unique requirements. This can be done by placing tables and chairs in an unusual pattern or spacing
within the banquet room. Some common types of room setups include:
Banquet Setup
This setup is the most common one for banquets or meetings where meals will be served. Chairs are
placed around round banquet tables. The tables are usually 6 feet, 8 feet, or 10 feet in diameter. Do not
overseat each table and make sure each guest has enough elbow room to eat comfortably.
Banquet seating is commonly calculated based on round tables that will hold 10 people using 6-foot
round tables. Banquet style allows for small group interaction at each table. Banquet seating is often
used for dinner events, wedding receptions, awards ceremonies, or as a separate space for breakfast
and lunch breaks.
Theater Setup
Theater floor plans typically line up rows of chairs and space aisles depending on the width of the
room and the total seating needed. Some facilities have actual auditoriums, which make great spaces
for formal presentations. Theater floor plans allow for the maximum number of people to fit into a large
or small meeting/banquet room.
Reception Room Setup
Reception space typically includes numerous high boy tables throughout a room, as well as tables
for banquet and bar services. This allows for guests to mingle and move easily about the room. Because
it isnt necessary for dedicated seating space, this will reflect the largest number of individuals who can
fit into a smaller meeting room space.
U-Shaped and Hollow Square Setup
U-shaped floor plans lay out tables and seating to form a U toward the front of the room where
the speaker will lead a discussion. This allows A/V to sit in the center of the U and project to a screen
next to the speaker.
The hollow square setup is very similar to the U-shape. The major difference is that both ends are
closed. This arrangement can accommodate more guests and is generally geared more towards discussions.
Classroom Setup
Classroom layout includes rows of tables and chairs. Six-foot tables can comfortably hold two people
while eight-foot tables can easily hold three people. The tables are typically arranged in rows joining
two tables in length with an aisle for people to access the seats running down the middle of the room.

Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

181

Diagram of the Room Setup


Banquet

Theater

U-Shape

Round Table Seating Capacities

Classroom

Rectangular Table Seating Capacities

36-inch table seats four people

24-inch x 60-inch table seats two people

42-inch table seats five people

24-inch x 72-inch table seats three people

48-inch table seats five people

24-inch x 96-inch table seats four to five people

54-inch table seats six people

30-inch x 72-inch table seats six people

60-inch table seats eight people

30-inch x 96-inch table seats eight people

72-inch table seats ten people

182

Reception

Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

Section
10.11

Food and Beverage Green Practices


F

ood service operations can readily go green by making sure they are
in compliance with all environmental regulations, adopting pollution
prevention methods, and using resource conservation practices.
The top green practices for food service operations are:
Conserve Energy and Water
1. Use low-flow pre-rinse spray nozzles at the dish machine. Use Energy
Star compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) instead of incandescent
bulbs in storerooms, break rooms, offices, wall sconces, kitchen
exhaust hoods and walk-in refrigerators.
2. Use ultra low-flow toilets and flow restrictors on restroom faucets.
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
3. Buy products in returnable, reusable or recyclable containers.
4. Recycle cardboard, paper, glass, metal and plastics, and food (donate leftover cooked food
to a local shelter and look for a local composting site when disposing of food waste, waxed
cardboard, paper napkins, paper beverage cartons, and wooden crates).
5. Recycle cardboard, paper, glass, metal and plastics, and
food (look for a local composting site when disposing of
food waste, used cooking oil, waxed cardboard, paper
napkins, paper beverage cartons, and wooden crates).
6. Use takeout containers that can be composted (paper)
or recycled (#1 and #2 plastics, aluminum) instead of
Styrofoam.
Pollution Prevention
7. Properly maintain grease traps and kitchen hoods to
prevent overflows and emissions to the sewer and
storm drain systems.
8. Keep outdoor waste storage, parking, and sidewalks
free of litter, grease spills and other potential pollutants.
Use sweeping and spot cleaning for most clean ups. If
washing is needed, use a cleaning method that keeps
cleaning water out of storm drains.
9. Use organically or sustainably produced foods in the
kitchen.
Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

183

Apply Your Learning


Section 10.1

1. How many more jobs are expected to be added to the restaurant industry over the next ten years?
2. List the three main market groups food and beverage operations are typically divided into.
3. How does the restaurant industry rank in the United States as a source for jobs?

Section 10.2

1. List the five main categories restaurants fall into.


2. Why would a family of five choose to eat at a quick-service restaurant on a school night?
3. Who does a fine-dining experience appeal to and why?
4. What type of hotel might operate all five categories of restaurants and why would each be necessary
to the hotels profitability?

Section 10.3

1. List the two segments the guest cycle for food and beverage is divided into.
2. List what occurs in segment 1.
3. List what occurs in segment 2.

Section 10.4

1. What are the four key items a food and beverage operation needs to control?
2. What is the purpose of a standard recipe?
3. Why must all ingredients, labor, and other expenses be included when calculating food costs? Explain
your answer.
4. If the food cost for a hotdog is $0.78 and the snack bar selling them needs to make a profit percentage
of 38 percent, what should be the price point for this item? Show how you calculated the amount.

Section 10.5

1. List three types of access a guest with disabilities may need when dining at a restaurant.
2. What areas of a restaurant will guests with disabilities need to access?
3. What must a dining table allow a guest in a wheelchair to do?
4. Should all wheelchair access tables be located in the same section of the restaurant? Explain why you
think it is a good or bad idea.
5. Explain how to accommodate a guest with a service animal.

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Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

Section 10.6

1. What does the acronym SRM stand for?


2. Explain why food safety is so important?
3. How can food safety and sanitation issues be prevented? Write a brief paragraph using complete
sentences.
4. What does HACCP stand for?
5. What is the purpose of a CCP? Explain your answer.
6. Why does a HACCP plan need to be in writing? Write a brief paragraph using complete sentences.

Section 10.7

1. List the four main styles of table service and the purpose of each.
2. Who would family-style service appeal to and why?
3. If you owned a hotel, would you offer guests a breakfast buffet and why?
4. Which type of table service style would you expect to find in an exclusive fine-dining restaurant and
why?
5. Explain the purpose the production staff serves in a restaurant. Write a brief paragraph using complete
sentences.

Section 10.8

1. What is the goal of all food and beverage facilities and why is it so important?
2. What is a critical element in kitchen operation and why?
3. Describe why teamwork helps to coordinate the food production employees.

Section 10.9

1. Why is serving alcohol a serious responsibility for servers and bartenders?


2. What is the purpose of a dram law?
3. Who can be held liable for allowing a person to drive while under the influence of alcohol (DUI)?
4. Who decides if a person is too intoxicated to drive?
5. What is the minimum drinking age and what item should a bartender request to prevent underage
drinking? Explain your answer.

Section 10.10

1. What is the purpose of hosting a banquet event?


2. A guest wishes to host a party at the local science center using a cosmic theme. They also want
fireworks, a live band on stage with dancers, and appetizer-only menu. Which of the three types of
events would you consider this and why?
3. List who you think you would need to involve in planning the event described in question 2.
4. A guest wants to host a small reception with light appetizers and a wine bar for 50 people. Create the
room setup and layout that you would suggest to the events organizer.

Section 10.11

1. How could food be recycled?


2. Where could water conservation be practiced in a food and beverage operation?
3. Is the choice of paper products used in a food and beverage operation important and why?
4. List three ways to prevent pollution in a food and beverage operation.

Chapter 10 Food and Beverage Services

185

1
1
r
e
t
Chap

s
n
o
i
t
a
r
e
p
O
t
r
o
s
Re

XXSection 11.1
Introduction

XXSection 11.2
Resorts

XXSection 11.3
Cruise Lines

XXSection 11.4

Recreational Vehicles and


Tent Camping

XXSection 11.5
Off-Site Partners

Competencies
1. Identify the purpose of resorts, cruise lines,
recreational vehicles, and tent camping in the
hospitality and tourism industry.
2. Identify the types of resorts and the target
guest markets attracted to each type.
3. Identify the role of cruise ships in the
hospitality and tourism industry, the types of
ships, and the target guest market for each
type.
4. Identify the role of recreational vehicles
(RVs) and tent camping in the hospitality and
tourism industry, the type of RVs available, and
the target guest market for both RVs and tent
camping travel.
5. Explain the purpose of using internal resources
for sources of guest experiences and the
purpose of building strong partnerships with
outside businesses, agencies, and other
sources for guest activities.

186

Hospitality Profile

Jonathan Tisch
Chairman
Loews Hotels
Jonathan M. Tisch has been chairman of Loews Hotels
since 1989. He is co-chairman of the Board of Directors
and a member of the Office of the President of Loews
Corporation, the parent company of Loews Hotels.
Mr. Tisch is widely recognized as an advocate on behalf
of the multi-billion dollar travel industry and serves as
chairman emeritus of the U.S. Travel Association, the
national non-profit association representing all segments
of the travel industry. Mr. Tisch served as chairman of NYC
& Company, New York Citys official tourism marketing
agency and convention and visitors bureau.
Concurrent with his national efforts to help stimulate
travel and tourism in the aftermath of September 11th,
Mr. Tisch served as chairman of New York Rising, a task
force committed to reviving tourism in New York City.
In recognition for his leadership and civic involvement,
Crains New York Business named Mr. Tisch one of the
Top Ten Most Influential Business Leaders. He was
also named CEO of the Year by the Executive Council
of New York in 2006.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks

profile about this industry professional to complete the


Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own
about the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

187

Section 1.1
1

Introduction
R

esorts, cruise lines, camp grounds, and recreational vehicle sites tend to be in locations where the
climate, scenery, recreational areas, theme parks, or historical significance make it a desirable tourist
destination. Historically, resorts were large properties with extensive landscaped grounds, hiking trails
and gardens, and sports facilities featuring golf and tennis. The guests they primarily attracted were
ones who could afford the expense of a resort stay. Cruise lines focused on attracting the very wealthy,
while campgrounds appealed to travelers on a tight budget, and recreational vehicle travel attracted
people wishing to explore in comfort.

Todays guests have a wide variety of choices available when selecting the types of accommodations
and activities that best fit their lifestyle and personal preferences. Resorts and other non-traditional
accommodations can be large or small; busy, mobile, quiet, or secluded; have all-inclusive amenities,
personalized services, or the comforts of home. It all depends on the type of travel experience the guest
wishes to have.
Another area that has gained popularity over the past few decades is the expansion of the types
of activities guests can choose. Traditionally, guest activities were limited to offerings such as golf or
tennis. Today, however, they can range from
cultural tours, to cooking lessons featuring local
cuisine, to organized visits to nature centers and
museums. Guests seeking to stay in a resort,
or use nontraditional travel options, typically
want to immerse themselves in a memorable
guest experience.

188

Chapter 11 Resort Operations

Section
11.2

Resorts
E

arly resorts were built as summer retreats that allowed guests to


escape the heat of the city. Most were near water or in mountainous
areas for the cooler climates they offered. Entertainment and fine dining
were, and still are, significant parts of resort operations, and are often
key elements in attracting guests. Today, a resorts guest base will also
vary according to the season. This means resorts must offer a year-round
menu of activities and experiences that will attract a wide variety of
guests to the property.
Recently, business travelers have become a major market for resort
hotels. This has resulted in resorts expanding their efforts into attracting
the group market and meeting market. This is done by creating spouse
and family activity options so the group can enjoy a working vacation as
well as offering the typical banquet, meeting, and special event venues.

Types of Resorts
Many resorts offer a specialized experience such as:
Spa Resorts
Water has historically been a large part of the spa experience. Even
today, spa resorts emphasize the value of water as part of the healing
experience. This is accomplished by surrounding the guest with physicians,
instructors, nutritionists, massage therapists, and spa products, all selected
to promote health and wellness. Other key elements in the spa resort
experience are:

Terms you

should know
Group Marketbusiness a
hotel receives through an
outside event planner or tour
operator wishing to book
room nights, meals, and other
hotel services for a business,
family, or tour group.

Meeting Marketbusiness a
hotel receives from an outside
organization, business,
or association wishing to
book meeting/convention/
conference room services.

Fitness
Stress management
Pampering and relaxation
Health and wellness

Chapter 11 Resort Operations

189

Terms you

should know
All-Inclusivea resort where
the cost of all lodging, meals,
airport transfers, spa services,
and activities are bundled
into a package price.

Ski Resorts
The modern Olympics
drew attention to what was
traditionally a European
winter sport. By the 1960s,
resorts located in mountainous
areas around the world
(traditionally closed for the
winter) started developing
ski runs, installing ski lifts,
improving road access, and
putting safety measures in place so they could expand into year-round
operations. Today, ski resorts are estimated to bring in $3.5 billion in
revenue per year.
All-Inclusive Resorts
All-inclusive resorts were created to meet the needs of guests looking
for a destination vacation that offers a stress-free atmosphere, dining
option choices, and plenty of activities at a set price. Typically, this type
of resort appeals to guests who want to prepay the total cost of the trip
during the pre-arrival stage of the guest cycle. To accommodate this type
of guest, each resort will offers a variety of guestroom packages ranging
from a deluxe guestroom to a suite featuring a personal butler and chef.
Guests select the package that fits their budget, book the dates, and make
payment to the resort. After booking, guests will receive a detailed menu
of choices that allows guests to know precisely what the:

Pineapple
Fun Fact

Accommodation packages include (lodging, meals, activities, taxes,


tips, entertainment, and more).
Types of recreational activities offered in the package (golf, tennis,
sailing, parasailing, or diving).
Types of entertainment included (local tours, cultural activities,
crafts, parties, and shows).

The resort with the largest


number of rooms in the
world is Genting Highlands
Resort in Malaysia. It has
6,118 rooms. To keep
guests entertained, there
are more than 80 shops,
90 restaurants, one
cinema, a casino, a 50room karaoke bar as well
as two theme parks.
190

Once guests are on site, they can enjoy the items covered by their
package through use of a key card. The card is coded by the front desk
during check-in with the chosen packages room, dining, activities, and
entertainment options. Guests are asked to charge each transaction back
to their room using this card.
Employees process the card like
a payment card into the POS
system. The POS will then report
the guest activity to the PMS for
posting to the guests folio each
day. If a guest dines or uses a
service outside what the package
covers, a charge will be posted
to the guest folio for settlement
at departure

Chapter 11 Resort Operations

Section
11.3

Cruise Lines
C

ruise ships are floating resorts that have gained in popularity over the past 40 years. Cruises appeal
to anyone looking for an all-inclusive vacation where they can arrive, unpack, relax, and enjoy.
Typically, cruise prices include meals and in-between snacks on board; a stateroom, activities, parties
and entertainment; plus an exciting voyage to some of the most enchanting and culturally-enriching
places in the world. It is important to note that the cruise industry has one the highest guest satisfaction
scores, and repeat business ratings, in the hospitality and tourism industry.

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191

Types of Cruise Ships


Cruise excursions occur on seas, oceans, rivers, and lakes all around the world. A variety of ships
exist in order to meet the needs of guests looking for both conventional and unconventional cruise
experiences. The types of cruise ships include:
Mainstream Cruise Ships
The most popular type cruise ship which is capable of carrying 850-3,000 passengers and includes all
sorts of standard resort features, amenities and services such as restaurants, bars and pubs, nightclubs
and discos, shopping areas, theaters and cinemas, galleries and museums, libraries, casinos, personal
care areas with gyms and spas, swimming pools and other sport facilities.
Mega Cruise Ships
This is the largest and most sophisticated type of cruise ship with the capacity to carry 3,000-5,000
passengers. The mega cruise ship offers a level of luxury only the most exclusive land-based resorts
can match. This ship features world-class entertainment and celebrity chefs along with all the luxury
amenities expected from guests seeking this type of experience.
Small Cruise Ships
This type of cruise ship can range from motor- or sail-powered
yacht-like vessels to medium-sized classic cruise ships with a capacity
up to a few hundred passengers on board. The small cruise ship
focuses on providing more intimate and relaxing experiences while
traveling to less familiar destinations. It is designed to provide
specific services (ecotourism, culture or history cruises, etc.) or
as the only way to navigate through waters, small inlets, ports,
or archipelagos that would not support larger vessels, while still
providing the same level of comfort and basic amenities as that of
mainstream cruise vessels.
Ocean Cruise Ships
This type of cruise ship is built to more exacting standards than more conventional vessels, with a
substantially stronger design and structure. An ocean cruise ship is constructed to withstand the harsh
deep-water conditions of an ocean crossing during long voyages such as an around-the-world cruise.
Luxury Cruise Ships
This is a motor- or sail-powered ship
equipped with the most sophisticated and
technologically advanced nautical systems,
high standard features, and luxurious guest
comforts to meet the special demands of an
exclusive and wealthy clientele looking for
longer itineraries and more exotic destinations
around the world.

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Chapter 11 Resort Operations

Adventure Cruise Ships


Cruise ships designed and equipped to provide services that include visits
to remote destinations that are commonly out-of-the-way or inaccessible to
larger vessels. Marketed to a very specific type of guest wishing to visit unusual
destinations, these small boats are able to venture into remote areas, anchor,
and allow guests to privately interact with the locations people, wildlife, or
wild places. Adventure cruise ships are far smaller than mainstream vessels,
usually sail-powered, and are only able to accommodate six to eight guests
in small but comfortable cabins.
Expedition Cruise Ships
This is a specially-designed ship, or adapted research or icebreaker vessel,
operated by specialized companies. An expedition cruise ship offers customers
an exclusive experience in remote destinations and waterways such as the
Arctic and Antarctic regions or coastal areas in ecological and environmentally sensitive reserves. The
ship provides an adequate level of comfort, safety, and services.
River Cruise Ships
Always smaller than seagoing cruise ships, and with a capacity for no more than a few hundred
passengers, this vessel is specially designed to navigate rivers and inland waterways. The river cruise ship
offers exciting experiences ranging from onboard ultra high-tech units, to nostalgic trips on paddleboat
ships in rivers such as the Amazon, Nile, Rhine, Seine, Volga, Mississippi, Yangtze, and many more.

Chapter 11 Resort Operations

193

Section 1.4
1

Recreational Vehicles and Tent Camping


E

xploring the great outdoors on state lands, national parks, nature preserves, and other wild places
are the key elements in the continued popularity of recreational vehicle (RV) and tent camping
because they appeal to guests who enjoy outdoor activities and a healthy, active lifestyle. In particular
wildlife watchers, hunters, paddlers (canoes and kayaks), and hikers find RVs and camping the perfect
way to travel. Consequently, a huge RV and camping industry existing within hospitality and tourism
to support the guest demand.

Recreational Vehicles (RV)

Motor homes, travel trailers, folding camping trailers, and truck campers all make up the types
of vehicles classed as recreational vehicles (RV). They are designed as temporary living quarters for
recreational camping, travel, or seasonal use. Today, it is estimated that more than 8 million households
own an RV. The attraction to RVs is affordable travel. Studies by the RV industry show the cost of a trip
for a family of four in a RV can range from 30-50 percent less than if they were to travel by car, stay in
hotels, and eat in restaurants. The savings vary depending on the type of RV used and do factor in the
high cost of gasoline. Guests who see the journey as the experience are the main target market for RV
travel.

Tent Camping

Old school camping in the form of pitching a tent, relaxing around the campfire, and taking all the
natural world has to offer is still a popular component in hospitality and tourism. Campgrounds on the
beach, in the mountains, forest, and by a lake average 33.7 million guests per year. Tent camping is a
very inexpensive way to travel and experience various destinations such as National Parks or wildlife
refuges. However, the reason most people give for going camping is to have fun and relax. The two
most popular activities are swimming and hiking during a camping trip.

194

Chapter 11 Resort Operations

Section
11.5

Off-Site Partners
O

ne element that guests look for when selecting a type of resort, cruise ship itinerary, RV, or tent
camping venue is the type of available activities. Typically, this helps guests to make their final
choice and, therefore, is an aspect of resort and nontraditional operations that should be well planned.
Identifying guest preferences is the key to success. Once the research on what guests want to do is
complete, it is important to begin developing a variety of guest choices using all available resources.
This includes local vendors for activities such as white water rafting or local tours. Often the recreation
department is responsible for overseeing guest activities but that will vary by operation.
Guest activities, or programming as it is sometimes called, should first explore available resources
within the resort or non-traditional operation. Recruiting employees with special skills is a common
method for providing interesting guest activities. Another method is to reach out to the local community
and partner with businesses, agencies, or other sources for guest activities. Often, these outside vendors
are already in the guest activity business and have the experience, training, and expertise necessary to
meet guest recreational needs.
For example, guests at a resort have asked the concierge if there
is anywhere to go whitewater rafting. The resort has already set up
an agreement with a local outdoor shop as a provider of rafting
experiences. The concierge is quickly able to set up a trip for the
guests. Without the agreement, the concierge would have had
to provide the guest with a list of local providers of rafting
adventures. The guests would have had to book the trip for
themselves. Guests will see this as poor guest service by the
resort. Another bonus is the revenue-sharing agreement
between the resort and the vendor, which ensures both
profit from the partnership.
What types of activities do guests typically expect?

Chapter 11 Resort Operations

195

Activities can include:


Sports and Recreation
Water and snow skiing
Jogging
Fitness center
Swimming
Golf
Tennis
Volleyball
Fishing
Wave runner and sailboat rentals
Bike rentals
Parasailing
Aquacycle paddle bikes
Kayak and canoe rentals
Boat rentals
Beach service
Cultural and Other Tour Operators
Eco tours (dolphin, stingray, sea turtle
encounters, reef visits, etc.)
Cultural tours
Trolley tours
Lighthouse tours
Horse-drawn carriage tours
Charter fishing
Kayak and rafting tours
National and state parks service
Casino and dining cruises
Vineyard and wine-tasting tours

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Chapter 11 Resort Operations

Transportation
Many transportation providers also offer guest
experiences such as:
Bus tours
Train tours
Helicopter tours
Mountain gondola adventures
Cable car or trolley car adventures
Monorail (Disney, Las Vegas, and
Seattle)
Ship or boat tours
Segway city tours
Limousine tours

Chapter 11 Resort Operations

197

Apply Your Learning


Section 11.1

1. What part of resort and other non-traditional operations has gained popularity over the past few
decades? Write a short paragraph, using complete sentences.
2. What type of destinations are resort and non-traditional accommodation guests attracted to? Explain
your answer.
3. In the past who was most likely to take a cruise and why?

Section 11.2

1. What makes a resort different from an airport hotel?


2. Why would a business traveler be attracted to a resort hotel?
3. List the three specialized types of resort and the target guest market for that type.
4. List what is included in an all-inclusive resort price point.

Section 11.3

1. List the eight types of cruise ships and the target guest market for that ship.
2. Why is cruise ship travel so attractive to guests? Explain your answer.
3. List the type of waterways on which cruises are known to be operated.
4. If you wanted to visit Antarctica, what type of cruise ship would you select? Explain why that is the
best choice.
5. If you wanted to cross the Atlantic Ocean to visit England, what type of cruise ship would you choose?
Explain your answer.

198

Chapter 11 Resort Operations

Section 11.4

1. Why do guests choose to own and travel using recreational vehicles?


2. Who is attracted to tent camping? Explain your answer.
3. What does the acronym RV stand for and what type of travel options does it offer?
4. What type of destinations do RV and tent camping guests choose to visit and why?
5. What are the most popular activities for guests who RV or tent camp?

Section 11.5

1. What is the key reason cited by guests when deciding to visit a resort, take a cruise, go on a trip in a
RV, or take a tent camping trip? Explain your answer.
2. List three things you would enjoy doing on a camping trip. Explain your choices.
3. List three types of transportation-based guest experiences you would enjoy. Explain your choices.
4. List three cultural activities you would enjoy on an RV trip. Explain your choices.

Chapter 11 Resort Operations

199

2
1
r
e
t
Chap

e
c
n
a
n
i
F
l
a
n
o
i
t
a
r
Ope

XSection
X
12.1
Introduction

XSection
X
12.2

Revenue Centers vs. Cost Centers

XSection
X
12.3

Introduction to Night Audit

XSection
X
12.4
Night Audit Calculations

Competencies
1. Identify the financial goal of a hotel or
lodging property.

XSection
X
12.5

2. Identify the key difference between a revenue


center and a cost center along with the areas
belonging to each.

XSection
X
12.6

3. Identify the steps required to complete a


night audit and the role of the night auditor
in the process.

Yield Statistic

Financial Impact of Green Practices

4. Identify the purpose of the occupancy


percentage (OP), average daily rate (ADR),
and revenue per available room (RevPAR) as
key night audit calculations.
5. Explain the purpose of calculating the
yield statistic each day and the reason for
comparing it to the occupancy percentage.
6. Identify green practices which will reduce
a hotels carbon footprint and also reduce
operating costs.
200

Hospitality Profile

Joori Jeon, CPA, CAE


Executive Vice President
AH&LA
Joori Jeon is executive vice president and chief financial
officer for AH&LA, and president and COO of its not-forprofit affiliate, the American Hotel & Lodging Educational
Foundation (AH&LEF).
As the senior financial executive of the largest trade
association representing every sector of the U.S. lodging
industry, Ms. Jeon oversees the associations $22 million
operating budget. Her overall responsibilities include
establishing financial policies and practices; directing
and coordinating finance, human resources, and office
administration; and developing and implementing a
budget to support the associations strategic plan.
As president and COO of AH&LEF, the charitable-giving,
fund-raising, and endowed fund-management subsidiary
of AH&LA, Ms. Jeon is responsible for raising the
foundations profile as the premier charitable fundraising
engine of the industry.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks

profile about this industry professional to complete the


Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own
about the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

201

Section 2.1
1

Introduction
Terms you

should know
Rack Ratethe term which
represents the highest
possible rate a guest may be
charged for a room.
Night Auditthe nightly
process that checks, corrects,
and balances all accounts for
registered hotel guests.

he scope of operational finance in the hospitality and tourism industry


will vary according to the specific type of business involved. The
financial goal of any hotel is to make a profit, and it takes the efforts of
all employees to make that happen. Because each segment of the industry
has its own way of processing operational finances, this chapter will focus
on the methods used by hotels.
The rooms division is responsible for producing revenue from the
sale of guestrooms. The front office must oversee the monitoring and
measuring of how successful the division is at generating a profit. Hotels
must sell rooms at the most profitable room rate possible and measure
daily how well the employees are selling those rooms at or near full rack
rate. The front office employees who book guestrooms will be asked for
discounted room rates and must know when and how to apply those lower
rates. Balancing guests requests for lower rates with the hotels need to
remain profitable is achievable if all operational financial transactions are
monitored, tracked, and reported using the night audit process.
Larger hotels will also need to measure the profitability of the food
and beverage department. Often, the restaurant and catering areas will
produce the second largest amount of profit for a hotel after the sales
of rooms. However, this chapter will focus primarily on the front office
financial practices found in the hotel and lodging industry, particularly,
the role of revenue centers and the night audit process.

202

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

Section
12.2

Revenue Centers vs. Cost Centers


N

ot all areas or departments in a hotel generate revenue. Some departments are considered revenue
centers while others are considered cost centers. The difference between the two is significant and
plays a large part in how financial decisions are made in a hotel.
Revenue centergenerates income for the hotel through the sale of services or products to
guests. Revenue centers include:
Rooms
Food and beverage
Sales
Concessions, rentals, and commissions
Fitness and recreation facilities
Cost centerdoes not directly generate
income but acts as a support center to the
areas producing revenue. Cost centers
include:
Marketing
Facilities management/engineering
Accounting
Human resources
Security

Pineapple Fun Fact


Hospitality and tourism generates
approximately $100 billion in tax revenue
for local, state, and Federal governments
in the U.S. each year. If you were to
place 100 billion dollar bills end to end,
the line of cash would circle the Earth
397 times.
Chapter 12 Operational Finance

203

Section 2.3
1

Introduction to Night Audit


Terms you

should know
Guest Folioaccount
balanced daily by the night
auditor and used to report
each guests financial
transactions.

Guest Ledgercollection of
all guest folio accounts for
registered guests completed
by the night auditor and
used to measure a hotels
profitability.

Guest Credit Limitsthe


maximum amount of money
held in a guests folio account
to cover expenses during
the stay, commonly used
by business travelers with
the credited dollar amount
prepaid to the hotel by his or
her company.

s the key revenue center, the front office is responsible for generating
the largest portion of a hotels profits. In order to maintain revenue
at the highest level possible, the night audit process monitors, posts, and
calculates the days financial activity.
Traditionally, guests do more than sleep when staying in a hotel. They
will also eat, shop, and have fun. In order to make the guest experience as
seamless as possible, most properties allow guests to charge the expense
of food, merchandise, and recreation back to their room. This means
they add those costs and expenses to their guest folio during each day
of the stay. Because of this activity, the night audit acts as the control
process for updating all financial activity to each guest folio (cash and
credit). This ensures each transaction is recorded and the guest account
balanced. It is the most accurate way to guarantee the guest bill is correct
and ready for settlement when the guest departs. Once all the guest folios
have been updated, the auditor must begin posting those totals to the
guest ledger. The purpose of the guest ledger is to collect all charges
into one document for reporting to the accounts receivable section of the
accounting department. The guest ledger totals will indicate if the hotel
was operating at a profit or loss for the day.
An effective audit increases the probability of accurate account
settlement. As the name implies, night audits are conducted late at
night during the time the hotel experiences the lowest guest demand
for services. Typically, hotels are busiest during the day and evenings.
This makes night time the perfect time to perform the close-of-business
activities covered by the night audit and to reopen accounts for the next
day of business.

Purpose of Night Audit

The main purpose of the night audit is to verify the accuracy and
completeness of the guest folios and compare them against the departmental
transaction reports. Specifically, the night audit is focused on:
1. Verifying all posted entries to guest and non-guest accounts
2. Balancing all front office accounts
3. Resolving room status discrepancies
4. Monitoring guest credit limits
5. Producing the night audit reports
6. Recording the close of one business day and the opening of the
next days business
204

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

The night audit process also allows the hotel to gain a clear picture of:
How well business was conducted for that day
The profit earned or losses incurred
The cost of doing business and where expenses occurred

Roles of Night Auditor

The night auditor must be capable of paying close attention to accounting details, use appropriate
methods, and track guest credit restrictions. The auditor must clearly understand the affect of guest
transactions on the front office accounting systems. Night auditors are expected to:
Calculate
Room revenue
Occupancy percentage
Average daily rate (ADR)
Revenue per available room (RevPAR)
Prepare
Summary report of front desk cash transactions
Summary report of front desk credit card activity
Report data showing the front desks financial performance for the day
Summary report on front desk operation to management

Steps in the Night Audit


The night audit is typically completed using a Property Management System (PMS) and other
computerized technology. However, it is necessary for front office employees to be capable of completing
the night audit manually in case of an emergency situation. The night audit has a sequence of steps that
should be followed to ensure it is completed correctly.
Guest Folio

Step-by-Step Guide to Night Audit

Guest Name: John D. Smith


Room: 317
Date

Step 1: Update guest folio:

Rate:

3/15

3/16

3/17

3/18

186 94

337 36

627

109 00

109 00

109 00

7 64

7 64

7 64

Balance Forward
Room

Post the days room rate.

Sales Tax
Restaurant

98 77

56 31

Calculate and post sales tax.


Post the days financial transactions such as:
Restaurant charges
In-room dining
Merchandise purchases
Bar charges
Recreation charges
Phone calls (charged to guestroom on hotel phone system)
Laundry-valet charges
Other costs

Account No. 004351


Arrival Date: 3/15

109

In-Room Dining

21 44

Merchandise

12 35

Bar
75 00

Recreation
Local
Long Distance

Telegrams
Laundry - Valet

14 00

14 00

Cash Disburse

Total

186 94

Less: Cash
Carried Fwd.

186 94

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

337 36

627 76

205

Step 2: Balance each guest folio:


Total all charges for each day of the guests stay.
Subtract any cash paid by guest toward the bill (post cash amount on date it was paid).
Post the amount carried forward to the next days column.
Calculate the amount to be carried forward to that days guest ledger sheet for each day.

Sample Guest Folio: A guest is staying for three nights and checking out on March 18th.
Guest Folio
Guest Name: John D. Smith
Room: 317
Date

Rate:

3/15

3/16

3/17

3/18

186 94

337 36

627 76

109 00

109 00

109 00

7 64

7 64

7 64

Balance Forward
Room
Sales Tax
Restaurant

109

Account No. 0043517


Arrival Date: 3/15

98 77

56 31

In-Room Dining

21 44

Merchandise

12 35

Bar
75 00

Recreation
Local
Long Distance

Telegrams
Laundry - Valet

14 00

14 00

Cash Disburse

186 94

Total
Less: Cash
Carried Fwd.

206

186 94

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

337 36

627 76

Tracks all guest transactions for one business day. Guest charges for
each department are posted and totaled during the night audit process.

Guest folio previous days balance.


Guest Name:
Room:
Date

Guest Folio Template


Account No.
Arrival Date:

Rate:
4/7

4/8

4/9

4/10

4/11

Balance Forward
Posting of charges in guest folio for each business day.

Room
Sales Tax
Restaurant

In-Room Dining
Merchandise
Bar
Recreation
Local
Long Distance

Telegrams
Laundry - Valet
Cash Disburse

Total
Less: Cash
Carried Fwd.
Total of balance carried forward, room rate, sales
tax, and other posted charges in left hand boxes.
Cash amounts paid by guest in order to reduce amount carried over on final bill.
Balance to be carried over to the next day on the guest folio and to the
guest ledger for the opening of the next business day.

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

207

Step 3: Update the guest ledger:


Bring the previous days balance forward and enter it in the designated column.
Enter the daily room rate in the designated column.
Enter the daily sales tax in the designated column.

Tracks all guest transactions for one business day.


Guest folio previous days
balance for each guest.

Guest Ledger Template

Guest folio charges are


posted in each departments
column and totaled.

Hotel Name:
Date:
Room No.
No. Guests

Name

Balance
Carried Room Sales
In-Room
Forward Rate
Tax Restaurant Bar Dining

317

Smith, John

186.94

109.00

7.63

238

Davis, Chris

614.07

169.00

11.83

237

Jones, Mary

172.94

109.00

7.63

House Total

973.95

387.00

27.09

387.00

27.09

City Ledger
<Advance Deposit>
Accounts
Receivable
Total

208

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

Telephone
Local

Long
Dist.

Step 4: Total the guest ledger:


Add the Balance Carried Forward column and post the total in the House Total box.
Add the Room Rate column and post the total in the House Total box.
Add the Sales Tax column and post the total in the House Total box.

Cash amounts paid by guest in order to reduce


amount carried over on final bill.
Total of balance carried forward, room
rate, sales tax, and other posted charges
in left hand boxes.

Laundry

Recreation

Merchandise

Total
Charges

Refunds credited to guest folio


or advance deposit amount
credited to the guest folio.

Cash

Transfers

Balance
Carried
Allowances Forward

Balance to be
carried over to
guest ledger for
opening of next
business day
(amount should
match balance
carried over for
next day on
guest folio as
well).

Amount used to
open the guest
folio for the next
business day.
Amount in this
column must
match the
numbers shown
for that day in
the guest folio
carried forward
column.

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

209

Terms you

should know
City Ledger Control Folio
the amount posted as
the balance due from all
individual guests, groups, and
companies, also known as the
City Ledger.

<Advance Deposit Control


Account>the amount
posted for all advance
deposits or prepayments
received from guests for
that date, also known as the
Advance Deposit.

Step 5: Calculate the Accounts Receivable total:


Enter the City Ledger Control Folio balance in the designated
box.
Enter the <Advance Deposit Control Account> in both the
Balance Carried Forward column and the Total Charges
column (as indicated by <> brackets).
Subtract the <Advance Deposit Control Amount> from the
City Ledger Control Folio balance.
Add the amount remaining in the City Ledger Control Folio to
the House Total.
Post the total in the Accounts Receivable Total column.

Sample Calculation of Accounts Receivable Total

109.00

7.63

169.00 11.83

City Ledger Control Folio balance is


entered in the row labeled City Ledger.

109.00

7.63

<Advance Deposit Control Account> amount is


entered in the row labeled Advance Deposit.

House Total

City Ledger

973.95 387.00 27.09

25,000.00

<Advance Deposit> <2,136.00>


Accounts
Receivable
Total

23,837.95 387.00 27.09

<000.00> The brackets on


How to calculate Accounts Receivable total:
each side of the numbers
City Ledger
25,000.00
indicate subtraction needs
Advance Deposit
<2,136.00>
to occur.
22,864.00 Balance
+ House Total
973.95
23,837.95 Accounts Receivable Total

210

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

Night Audit Calculations

Section
12.4

nce the night auditor has updated each guest folio and posted guest charges to the guest ledger,
the next task involves completing three hotel accounting calculations. The most important of
the three is revenue per available room (RevPAR), which measures how well the hotel is performing
financially. However, in order to calculate the RevPAR, the auditor must first determine the hotels
occupancy percentage (OP), which measures how well the hotel is at attracting guests to the property,
and average daily rate (ADR), which determines the nightly average price for rooms sold. Both make
up the key pieces of information needed to measure the daily financial performance of the hotel.

Sample Hotel Accounting Calculations


Occupancy Percentage (OP)
Measures how successful the hotel is in attracting and selling rooms to guests:
Number of Rooms Occupied
X 100 = Occupancy Percentage
Number of Rooms Available
Sample OP calculation:

200 Rooms Occupied


350 Rooms Available

= 0.571 x 100 = 57% OP

Average Daily Rate (ADR)


Determines the average price for rooms sold each night. The formula for calculating ADR is:
Daily Room Revenue
= ADR
Number of Rooms Sold
Sample ADR calculation:

$50,000 Revenue
200 rooms sold

= $250.00 ADR

Revenue per Available Room (RevPAR)


Measures financial performance of a hotel based on the number of rooms sold against the number of rooms
available for sale. The formula for calculating RevPAR is:
Average Daily Rate X Occupancy Percentage = RevPAR
Sample RevPAR calculation:

$250.00 ADR

x 0.57 OP =

$142.50 RevPAR

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

211

Section 2.5
1

Yield Statistic
F

ront office staff are expected to sell rooms at the full rack rate unless the guest qualifies for an
authorized rate such as corporate, government, American Automobile Association (AAA) discount,
or others special promotions. In order to determine if the sale of room nights is at the most profitable
rate, the front office manager will need to calculate the yield statistic. The closer the yield statistic is
to 100 percent, the better the hotel is performing. The front office manager will also compare the yield
statistic to the occupancy percentage. This allows the manager to see how many rooms had to be sold
in order to achieve the yield statistic.
The yield statistic is calculated by determining the ratio of the revenue generated by the actual number
of rooms sold against the potential revenue the hotel could have made if all rooms of every size and
type had sold at full rack rate. The formula for calculating the yield statistic is:

Actual Rooms Revenue


X 100
Potential Rooms Revenue

Yield Statistic

Sample Yield Statistic Calculation


A hotel has:
Types of Rooms
300 Standard
100 Deluxe
50 Jr. Suites
50 Executive Suites
500 Rooms Total

Rack Rate

Actual Rooms Sold

Actual Rate Sold

$119.00
$159.00
$259.00
$400.00

215
25
10
15

$ 99.00
$119.00
$200.00
$325.00

$84,550.00

265

$31,135.00

$31,135.00
= 0.368 X 100 = 37% Yield Statistic (rounded up)
$84,550.00
265 rooms sold
= 0.53 X 100 = 53% Occupancy Percentage
500 rooms available

Looking at the sample yield statistic calculation, it is clear the hotel is only generating 37 percent
of the revenue it is capable of producing. Using this number, the hotel manager and employees can
easily see they are not successfully selling rooms at a high enough rate. The occupancy percentage also
indicates they are selling over half the rooms available at the hotel, which should have everyone asking
themselves why the yield statistic and the occupancy percentage are so far apart. The financial goal is to
have both showing the same percentage. In order to reach this goal, they must now question how they
can improve the yield statistic since the occupancy percentage shows the hotel is successfully selling
rooms. Consequently, the next step must be for all employees to plan a better strategy for selling room
nights at a more profitable rate.
212

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

Section
12.6

Financial Impact of Green Practices


H

otels have large heating and cooling systems, use huge amounts
of paper products, provide guests with amenities that are barely
used, and consume vast amounts of fresh water. Each costs the hotel a
lot of money which reduces profits. However, hotels have found that by
going greenusing available resources in an environmentally friendly
fashionthey can reduce the propertys carbon footprint and operating
costs.
By using low-use water devices such as low-flush toilets, water costs
are reduced; lowering guestroom thermostat temperatures saves on
energy consumption; and giving leftover items such as food, guest soap,
and shampoo to local agencies in need gives the items new life and gains
a charitable donation tax deduction for the property. Reusing products,
recycling plastic or aluminum, and reducing waste is a win-win for both
the environment and hotel operating costs.

Cost Effective Green Practices


Front Officeuse recycled paper products for guest copy of bill
settlement, use paperless office systems, and use key cards made
from recycled materials.

Terms you

should know
Carbon Footprintthe
measurement of the amount
of greenhouse gases produced
through the use of fossil
fuels for electricity, heating,
cooling, and transportation.

Gray Waterwastewater
created by activities such as
doing laundry, dishwashing,
and bathing, which can
be recycled on site in a
landscape irrigation system.

Food and Beverageuse recycled paper products, send


leftover food to a local homeless shelter, and recycle all glass
and aluminum.
Housekeepinguse alternative green cleaning products in
place of polluting chemicals and send leftover amenities such
as shampoo and soap to a local family services charity.
Maintenance/Facilities Managementrecycle used oil, use
recycled gray water for irrigation, and place recycle containers
around the property to collect plastic and aluminum.

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

213

Apply Your Learning


Section 12.1

1. What is the financial goal of a hotel and why do you believe it is important to achieve it? Explain your
answer.
2. What does the term full rack rate mean and why is it important? Explain your answer.
3. How can front office employees who book guestrooms help make a hotel more profitable? Explain
how they can accomplish this goal.

Section 12.2

1. What is the purpose of a revenue center and why is it important to hotel financial operations? Explain
your answer.
2. What role does a cost center have in a hotel and is it necessary to have cost centers? Explain your
answer
3. List three revenue centers found in a hotel and explain the types of services each area provides to
guests that make that center profitable. Use complete sentences.

Section 12.3

1. Why is the night audit the best way to ensure guest folios are up-to-date and accurate? Explain your
answer.
2. List the six items the night audit must focus on completing each night and explain why you believe
each one to be an important part of the process.
3. Why is keeping guest charges updated in the guest folio such an important task? Explain your answer.
4. What three guest charges are posted to the guest ledger each night and on what line is each one
totaled?
5. Using these numbers:
a. House Total: $546.00
b. City Ledger: $10,000.00
c. Advance Deposit: <1,233.00>
Calculate the Accounts Receivable Total in the bottom half of the guest ledger provided.
House Total
City Ledger
Advance Deposit
Accts. Receivable Total

214

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

Section 12.4

1. What is the purpose of calculating the occupancy percentage (OP) and why is this an important piece
of financial information? Explain your answer.
2. What is the ADR used to determine and why do hotels need to track this number? Explain your
answer.
3. What does RevPAR calculate and why do hotels need to know what this number is for each night?
Explain your answer.
4. Calculate the RevPAR for the Tomas Hotel using the following:
a. OP: 88%
b. ADR: $125.00

Section 12.5

1. Explain the purpose of calculating the yield statistic.


2. Why is it necessary to compare the yield statistic to the occupancy percentage? Explain your answer.
3. If the hotel is selling more than half of its rooms but only showing a yield of 25 percent, explain what
the front office manager and employees need to do next. Write a short paragraph using compete sentences.

Section 12.6

1. What is the meaning of the term carbon footprint and why is it important for hotels to know about
it? Explain your answer.
2. Housekeeping must remove any partially used bars of soap and bottles of shampoo. How can those
items be reused as a green housekeeping practice? Explain your answer.
3. Explain one way Food & Beverage can recycle or reuse leftover food. Write a short paragraph using
complete sentences.

Chapter 12 Operational Finance

215

Unit 4

Sales and
Marketing
XChapter
X
13
Marketing

XChapter
X
14
Sales

216

Unit Overview

ales and marketing are the key elements in taking


products, goods, or services off the shelf and
placing them in the hands of guests. All hospitality
and tourism businesses need marketing and sales
departments in order to manage the cost of doing
business and maximize profits. Why? Because
sales and marketing must depend on each other
for success. Guests will buy items that capture
their attention, but only if they are made readily
available for purchase. This is why marketing
is responsible for generating guest interest in
products, goods, or services, and sales focuses
on helping guests to make the purchases.
Exactly how does this work?
Sales
Makes direct or indirect guest contact
Implements a variety of sales methods
and tactics to encourage guest purchases
Closes the sale of products, goods, or
services to the guests
Marketing
Initiates a marketing plan and targets a
specific market segment
Makes guests aware of the products,
goods, or services
Creates guest interest in the items
through marketing strategies, plans, and
messages

217

3
1
r
e
t
Chap

g
n
i
t
e
k
r
a
M

XSection
X
13.1
Introduction

XSection
X
13.2

Operational Role of Marketing

Competencies

XSection
X
13.3

1. Identify the marketing activities used in the


hospitality and tourism industry; know the
difference between marketing and advertising.

XSection
X
13.4

2. Identify the role of marketing in the hospitality


and tourism industry and the purpose of
measuring return on investment (ROI) for all
marketing efforts.

XSection
X
13.5

3. Identify the four Ps of marketing and the role of


each in the development of a marketing plan.

XSection
X
13.6

4. Identify the purpose of analyzing market


segments when deciding which target market to
focus on when build a marketing plan, strategy,
and message.

Basic Four Ps of Marketing


Lodging Market Segmentation
Tools of Marketing

Marketing Messages

XSection
X
13.7

Marketing Ethics: Honesty in Advertising

XSection
X
13.8
Green Practices

5. Explain the use of demographics and


psychographics in researching and positioning
products for specific market segments or target
markets.
6. Identify the purpose of communicating marketing
messages to guests.
7. Explain the role of ethics and ethical practices in
hospitality and tourism marketing.
8. Explain the purpose of implementing green
practices as part of the marketing plan, strategy,
or message.

218

Hospitality Profile

Andy Ingraham
Founder/President/CEO
NABHOOD
Andy Ingraham grew up in a family of entrepreneurs in
The Bahamas. After completing school in Jamaica, a
move to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, saw the launch of Mr.
Ingrahams career in hospitality and tourism.
Mr. Ingraham founded the National Association of Black
Hotel Owners, Operators & Developers, Inc. (NABHOOD)
in 1999 and serves as President/CEO. NABHOOD was
formed to increase the number of African-Americans
directly involved in the development, management,
operation and ownership of hotels. Another goal was to
increase vendor opportunities and executive level positions
for minorities, thereby creating wealth within the AfricanAmerican community. Mr. Ingraham is also President/
CEO of Horizons Marketing Group Intl. Inc., a marketing
and public relations corporation that places special focus
and emphasis on encouraging and developing AfricanAmerican and multicultural-based tourism.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks

profile about this industry professional to complete the


Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own
about the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

219

Section 3.1
1

Introduction

arketing involves a variety of efforts by hospitality and tourism


businesses to encourage guests to choose a hotel, restaurant,
attraction, or transportation business over its competitors. The key to
effective marketing is to find the right tool, method, or feature that
will influence guest decisions. Marketing encompasses every piece of
information the business produces about itself for the purpose of gaining
more guest business. This can include special promotional offers, an
advertising campaign, brochures, coupons, magazine advertising, the
companys website, a guests word-of-mouth referral to family and friends,
and any other available marketing methods.
Many confuse marketing with advertising or vice versa. Both are
important but are very different from each other. How marketing is
handled will depend on whether the business is privately owned and
operated, part of a brand operation, or operated by a management or
investment company.

220

Chapter 13 Marketing

Marketing vs. Advertising


What is the difference between marketing and advertising?
Marketingis a beginning to end process that formulates ideas and plans that bring the
buyer to the product or service. Marketing is involved in developing, branding, and designing
products, doing research about the customer, planning media campaigns and promotions
(which includes advertising) to highlight an items features and benefits, and building the
overall business by attracting guests.
Marketing activities include:
Market research
Effectiveness of advertising campaigns and promotions
Sales generated by advertising
Public relations
Measuring guest satisfaction with products and services
Advertisingis part of the marketing process and involves a businesss paid, public, non-personal,
persuasive messages promoting guest use of its services. Typically, advertising focuses on a single
product or service by promoting the reasons guests should choose a hotel, restaurant, attraction,
or transportation business over the competition.
Advertising is done through:
Radio and television commercials
Newspaper and magazine advertisements
Flyers
Brochures
E-mails
Web advertisements
Calls to potential clients

Chapter 13 Marketing

221

Section 3.2
1

Operational Role of Marketing


T

he marketing department is responsible for managing the business of marketing for the hotel,
restaurant, attraction, or transportation business. Each member of the marketing team must
put available time, budget, and resources to good use by developing programs that drive guest and
market awareness of the specific business. Marketing begins by researching the guests most likely to
use a particular product or service. Then, based on the research information, an advertising campaign
can be created to raise guest awareness of the product or services. A successful advertisement should
generate sales that are tracked by the marketing team to determine how successful the campaign was
at generating revenue.

Pineapple Fun Fact


The Savoy in London, England, opened
in 1889, marketing itself as offering the
latest in guest amenities. In particular,
bathrooms with hot and cold running
water removed the need for housekeepers
to hand-deliver water for bathing each day.
However, not everyone was impressed; in
1893 the writer Oscar Wilde commented:
What is it good for? If I want hot water,
I call for it.

222

Chapter 13 Marketing

Market Research

Terms you

Questions asked during research include:

should know

Who are the potential guests for this product or service?


What do potential guests want or need?

Return on Investment (ROI)

How can those needs be met?

a performance measurement
used to evaluate whether the
cost of generating business
produces enough profit to
make it worth the investment
of money, time, and effort.

What are potential guests willing to pay?


What would be an attractive price for this specific product or
service?
Who are the competitors, and what are their strengths and
weaknesses?
What product or service is the competition unable to provide and
how can that be emphasized to guests?
In order to conduct the research and create a successful plan for promoting
a product or service, the marketing team must:
1. Assess the information learned from the research
2. Determine the product or service most likely to attract guests
3. Set business objectives and goals
4. Align the marketing budget and activities to the businesss objectives
5. Build a campaign, promotion, special offer, or other marketing
method for a product or service
6. Measure and report the performance of each marketing effort
7. Establish the framework for each marketing efforts performance
by measuring Return on Investment (ROI)

The Formula for ROI

Measuring the Return on Investment is the most effective method for


determing if the money spent provided enough sales to make it worth
the cost of marketing a product or service. The marketing goal of every
business is to generate the largest amount of sales possible to guests.
The formula for measuring ROI is:

ROI=

(Gain for Investment Cost of Investment)


Cost of Investment

Chapter 13 Marketing

223

Section 3.3
1

Basic Four Ps of Marketing


Terms you

should know
Marketing Planthe specific
actions planned to interest
potential clients in a specific
product, good, or service,
and to persuade them to buy
those items. The marketing
plan is used to implement a
marketing strategy.

trategy is the key to successful marketing because it helps to determine


the best way to bring in guest business. The basic four Ps are used to
create the right marketing plan that can attract guests from within the
group of customers most likely to use or purchase the product or service.
This involves careful planning and thought since one element has influence
over the other choices. This is known as creating a marketing mixthe
right product at the right price, offered in the right place and promoted
in the right waythat is subject to change and must be monitored and
modified as needed. Once the basic plan is in place, the remaining Ps of
marketing (which will be covered in year 2 of this program) come into
use to refine and add detail to the goals.

Product

Price
Marketing
Strategy

Place

Promotion

In order to effectively position the hotel, restaurant, attraction, or


transportation business, the four Ps of marketing should be used:
Productmatch the product to the right market
Questions the marketing team must ask when selecting a product
are:
What does the guest want from the product or service?
What guest need will it satisfy?
What benefits or features are attractive to guests?
How is it different from the competitions product or service?
What must the product or service cost in order to be profitable
yet attractive to guests?
224

Chapter 13 Marketing

Priceoffer the product at the price the market is willing to pay


Questions the team must ask when deciding on a price for a product or service are:
Is the guest price sensitive?
Will a slight decrease in price help gain more sales?
Will a slight increase in price be noticed?
How will an increase or decrease in price affect profits?
How does the price compare to the competitions pricing?
Placedistribute the right product at the right price in the right place to the market
Questions to ask when selecting the right place for marketing the product or service are:
Where do guests look for this type of product or service?
How likely are they to search online or go to a website?
What would be the best place to advertise the product or service?
Where should the sales team focus their efforts?
What places does the competition use and how effective are their efforts?
Promotionpromote the right product, price, and place in the right way
Questions to ask when selecting how to communicate with potential guests are:
Where and when can the product or service be effectively promoted to guests?
Is this a seasonal product?
How does the competition handle their promotions?
What can be learned from the competitions efforts?
How will the guest audience be reached?
For example :
Newspapers
TV or radio
Internet
Billboards
Flyers

Chapter 13 Marketing

225

Section 3.4
1

Lodging Market Segmentation


A

process whereby managers


divide a varied market into
distinctive and relatively
homogenous subgroups
or segments such as the
convention or family reunion
markets.

ll hospitality and tourism industry businesses will analyze the


various guest markets or market segmentations to determine the
group most likely to be attracted to the hotel, restaurant, attraction, or
transportation business. The reason behind this marketing practice is to
target a variety of consumer groups with different behaviors to determine
each groups needs and budgets. Individuals within each group will have
shared characteristics and needs that, once identified, allow the hotel to
determine the purpose of the stay. The most common reasons are either
business or leisure. Once this informations is known, a marketing or
promotional offer can be developed to sell a product or service to the
segment. By knowing how different market segments may respond to
specific marketing efforts, the marketing team can ensure marketing
dollars are spent effectively.

Target Marketthe

Target Markets

Terms you

should know
Market Segmentationsthe

market segment for which


a property is best suited
such as a beachfront
property marketing a special
promotion to attract families
on vacation.

226

One important decision the marketing team must make early on


concerns the guests, or target market, they wish to attract to the hotel,
restaurant, attraction, or transportation business. Selecting the right target
market is critical since it will influence other major decisions during the
creation of the marketing plan.
Selecting the right target market will answer the question of who will be
attracted to:

Chapter 13 Marketing

Demographics and Psychographics


Market segment researchers will typically use demographics and
psychographics to answer the questions of:
Who are the guests in each market segment?
What services does each market segment want from a business like
mine?
What communication tools can effectively reach each market
segment?
Based on the answer to my questions, which market segment is the
best match to what my business has to offer?

of a variety of factors such


as age, gender, educational
level, income, marital status,
occupation, religion, and
family size to identify and
group guests into a specific
market segment.

Psychographicsthe

Once a target market segment has been identified, hospitality and tourism
businesses can:
Focus on marketing the right
product at the right price to the
right group of guests

should know
Demographicsthe analysis

What are the needs or preferences of each market segment?

Positioning the Product

Terms you

analysis of the lifestyle


choices and preferences of
guests, such as discovering
what would be attractive to
families with young children
versus older, retired couples,
to create a detailed profile for
use in determining which is
the best to target as a market
segment.

Position the product through


careful marketing to attract guests
in the target market segment

Develop a promotion or other


advertising campaign designed to
sell the product

Communicate the marketing


message aimed at attracting the
selected market segment

Chapter 13 Marketing

227

Section 3.5
1

Tools of Marketing
T

o guarantee each marketing dollar is well spent, the marketing department has to decide on the type
of tools and strategies that will be the most effective with the selected target market. A marketing
strategy describes how the organization will achieve its marketing objectives, and needs to be realistic
about the cost of implementing the strategy.

228

Chapter 13 Marketing

Types of Marketing Tools


Because strategies lack detail, the next step is to decide on the tactics that will produce the most sales.
Tactics involve the use of an assortment of marketing tools. Each one will vary according to the type of
campaign or promotion developed, media used, and sales goal.

Direct Marketing

Marketing messages are communicated directly to guests in a specific target market. One advantage
of direct marketing messages is the results of the effort can be easily measured. The measurement is
known as a response rate. As guests respond to the campaign or promotion, they are asked how they
learned about it. The count of each source cited is used to calculate each marketing efforts response
rate percentage. For example, a hotel website can ask guests making an online booking for a special
weekend rate how they learned about the promotion. The higher the percentage, the more successful
the direct marketing effort was in reaching guests.
One of the most common tools is direct marketing which focuses on the guest using:
Mobile messaging
E-mail
Interactive consumer websites
Online display ads
Fliers
Catalogs
Promotional letters
Outdoor advertising
Social media
Toll-free phone number
Postage-paid postcard

Chapter 13 Marketing

229

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

The power Internet searches have over todays marketing efforts cannot be stressed enough. Through
a tool known as Search Engine Optimization (SEO), website marketing experts research and carefully
use a series of words potential clients may enter when searching for hospitality and tourism options.
Why? Because the sole purpose of marketing using SEO is to spread the word about available products
and services. Using key words in the marketing materials, website, or shopping cart title and content,
the SEO expert can increase the chances of an Internet search hit during a potential clients web search.
If the SEO expert has done the research on the market segment correctly, and determined who is
most likely to be attracted to the business, he or she can then identify the most relevant key words.
Incorporating the key words a consumer is most likely to enter will significantly increase the chances
of a potential client finding the businesss website.
Most search engines rate the frequency of a key word hit along with the quality of the content of
the site, then rate it as either an authoritative content site or not. The higher the rating, the more likely
a websites link will appear on the first page of the search results. Poorly rated websites are considered
to have worthless content and will appear on the last pages of a search. The goal of SEO is to constantly
update and refresh the key words used to produce search engine hits in order to maintain a high SEO
rating.

User Registration Database (URD)

To create a user registration database, the gathering of specific information from the user is necessary.
Typically, this will include the persons name, physical address, business name, phone numbers, and
e-mail address. Since the average person will not complete a long form, limiting the fields to the needed
information is a good practice. Using this information, the marketing team will send either hard-copy
or electronic marketing newsletters to the potential guest.

230

Chapter 13 Marketing

Marketing Messages

Section
13.6

he main objective of a marketing message is to create a positive,


desirable image of the product or service for prospective guests.
The message needs to highlight the value, or offer an incentive
which will result in a guest purchase, visit, or booking. It is also
important to attach the message to the right delivery tool to make
sure it reaches the right audience.
Three key decisions the marketing team must make during the
creation of a marketing strategy are:
1. What goods or services are to be promoted?
2. What message about the goods or services needs to be
communicated to potential guests?
3. What method of communicating the message would work
best with the target segment?
From these three questions, the marketing team can then
begin to create a marketing message by determining the specific
information about the goods or services most likely to appeal
to the target guest segment. Another important factor is how
frequently the message will be communicated to guests. For
example, for a TV advertisement, the marketing team must
decide how often the TV ad should be shown and what time of
day the largest number of guests in the target segment would be
watching. The most successful marketing messages are the ones
that are consistently communicated in such a way as to influence
the guests to make repeat purchases, visits, or bookings.

Chapter 13 Marketing

231

Section 3.7
1

Marketing Ethics: Honesty in Advertising


A

n important consideration in marketing is to follow the rules of marketing ethics by always using
ethical practices. This means all marketing and advertising should be legal, honest, and truthful.
It also means conforming to the principles of fair competition and acceptable business practices during
the marketing process. In order to compete both fairly and ethically, a business should focus on the
products, goods, or services offered, and highlight the advantages to guests when they choose that
business over its competition. The goal is to focus on the positive and not the negative. Pointing out the
shortcomings of the competition will very likely cause guests to perceive this as a negative marketing
experience and result in the loss, not the addition, of business.
Marketing must also value diversity and not discriminate in any way. Once again, the use of Respect
and Value Everyone (RAVE) is a must.
Ethical marketing practices should:
Highlight characteristics correctly and accurately
Associate product value with the product, good, or services price
Explain policy for delivery, exchange, return, repair, or maintenance
Explain the product, good, or service guarantee
Show copyrights, property rights such as patents, trademarks, designs, models, or trade names
Recognize approvals, awards, prizes, certifications, or diplomas
Explain benefits for charitable causes

232

Chapter 13 Marketing

Green Practices

Section
13.8

onserving resources and limiting waste are important parts of


doing business. Today, green marketing is considered a financially
sound business practice. It shows a concern for the environment
through the use of sustainable green marketing practices.
Hospitality and tourism industry green marketing efforts have found
ways to:
Use recycled materials for print materials
Use paperless marketing tools such as the Internet, TV, and
social media
Communicate green practices as part of the marketing message
Select marketing vendors who also use green practices
Reduce office waste

Today, the methods and materials used in green marketing practices


are readily available including:
Recycled paper stock
Vegetable-based ink
Paperless marketing tools
Reduced packaging
Reusable marketing materials

Chapter 13 Marketing

233

Apply Your Learning


Section 13.1

1. What type of activities are considered a part of the marketing process?


2. Explain the difference between marketing and advertising.
3. What is the key to a successful marketing effort?

Section 13.2

1. Explain the responsibilities of the marketing department.


2. What does the acronym ROI stand for?
3. What must each member of the marketing team be responsible for developing?

Section 13.3

1. List the four Ps of marketing and the purpose of each.


2. What are the two key objectives of marketing? Explain your answer.
3. What is the purpose of a marketing plan?
4. Why is creating the right marketing mix important? Explain your answer.

Section 13.4

1. What is a market segment?


2. Why is selecting a market segment an important marketing decision? Explain your answer.
3. What else is involved when selling the right product to the right market? List the steps.
4. Explain the meaning of the term demographic.
5. How do psychographics help with marketing decisions? Explain your answer.
6. List the four parts to the product positioning process.

Section 13.5

1. What is the purpose of a marketing strategy? Explain your answer.


2. List five marketing tools you think would be effective when marketing to vacationing families.
3. What is the purpose of direct marketing?
4. What is a key advantage of using direct marketing methods?

234

Chapter 13 Marketing

Section 13.6

1. Explain the three key decisions a marketing team must make when creating a marketing strategy.
2. What do the most successful marketing messages hope to accomplish? Explain your answer

Section 13.7

1. What does the phrase honesty in advertising mean?


2. Does diversity have a role in ethical advertising? Explain your answer.
3. Why is it important to create legal and truthful marketing messages? Explain your answer.
4. List five ethical marketing practices and why they are important.

Section 13.8

1. Why is it important to use green practices as part of a businesss marketing effort? Explain your
answer.
2. List three ways green marketing efforts can be accomplished.
3. What type of methods and materials could you use to create a marketing handout?
4. What method could you use to create a paperless marketing strategy?

Chapter 13 Marketing

235

4
1
r
e
t
Chap

Sales

XSection
X
14.1
Introduction

XSection
X
14.2

Role of the Sales Department

XSection
X
14.3

Structure of the Sales Department

XSection
X
14.4
Prospecting

XSection
X
14.5
Types of Sales

Competencies
1. Identify the role of sales in the hospitality and
tourism industry.
2. Identify the key objectives and various tasks of
a hospitality and tourism sales department.
3. Identify the structure and positions found in a
hospitality and tourism sales department.
4. Explain the responsibilities of a hospitality and
tourism sales professional.
5. Identify the purpose of prospecting and the
role of the Internet, networking, relationshipbuilding, strategic alliances, and referrals in
hospitality and tourism sales.
6. Identify the types of sales, the purpose of
upgrading sales, and the role of specialty sales
in hospitality and tourism.

236

Hospitality Profile

Kemmons Wilson
(1913-2003)
Founder of Holiday Inn
In the early 1950s, the new interstate highway system,
cheap gasoline, big cars, and prohibitively expensive air
travel meant that even the rich were packing up the car
and taking road trips. In 1951, Kemmons Wilson decided
to take his wife and children on vacation from Memphis,
Tennessee, to Washington, D.C. After 800 miles in a
car with five children and a wide variety of not-so-good
experiences at a number of motels, Wilson vowed to get
into the motel business and make some changes.
After the trip, he told his wife he was going to start his
own hotel chainone that would not charge extra for
children, and would make traveling as a family both
comfortable and safe. Within a matter of years, his
company consisted of more than 450 properties. Along
the way, he set the industry standard for room size
(12 feet by 30 feet), motel design, types of amenities
(including air-conditioning, free TV, and in-room phones),
cleanliness, and easy accessibility.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks


profile about this industry professional to complete the
Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own
about the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

237

Section 4.1
1

Introduction
T

he sales department is responsible for selling all aspects of a hospitality


and tourism business. While the structure will depend on the type of
business and the financial goals it needs to meet, the overall purpose of any
sales department is the sameto sell the businesss products, goods, or
services to guests in order to make the business successful and profitable.
While this explanation may sound simple, the reality of hospitality and
tourism sales requires both effort and dedication on the part of the
sales department team.
While selling the products, goods, or services, the sales team also
must:
Act as sales professionals
Know the products, goods, or services being sold
Connect with the right persons or guests
Build a lasting relationship with the guests
Be good communicators
Know the competition

238

Chapter 14 Sales

Section
14.2

Role of the Sales Department


T

he main objective of the sales department is to increase the businesss bottom line, while the primary
task of a sales professional are to locate, connect, and engage clients for the express purpose of
selling the products, goods, or services available from his or her company. The tools and methods of
sales will vary but the one thing all sales departments need is a sales staff with good people skills. The
sales staff also needs to develop exceptional sales skills through practice, flexibility, and a willingness
to change with the times. Sales departments are always looking for the next great tool, method, or skill
that will help to sell products to existing and new clients or guests.
Through the use of various sales tactics and best practices, the sales department has changed radically
over the past ten years. No longer are sales team members forced to compete with one another for sales,
but are instead encouraged to work as a collaborative group focused on common sales goals.
This is accomplished by:
1. Evaluating current sales
2. Setting sales goals (new and updated)
3. Tracking sales goals
4. Identifying areas in need of improvement
5. Building a strong client/guest base
6. Building an efficient sales team
7. Hiring and training right-fit sales
professionals

Pineapple Fun Fact


Approximately 2.6 million hotel rooms are
sold every day in the United States. That
is enough rooms to lodge every person
living in the cities of San Francisco,
Atlanta, Washington, D.C., Miami, and
Denver combined.
Chapter 14 Sales

239

Section 4.3
1

Structure of the Sales Department


T

he sales department will vary according to the type of hospitality and tourism products, goods, or
services being sold. This is also true of the job positions and number of staff employed in the sales
department. However, the responsibilities of the sales professional will be basically the same:
Find and connect with potential clients
Present the products, goods, or services in a desirable way
Answers questions and solve problems about the products, goods, or services
Assist clients to select right-fit products, goods, or services
Make the sale
In order to accomplish his or her responsibilities, the sales professional must be willing and able to:
Be organized and use good time-management skills
Use good listening skills
Be well-spoken
Set and achieve sales goals
Use good influencing skills
Focus on the clients needs
Build strong, long-term relationships with the clients
Sample Sales Organizational Chart
Vice President of
Sales and Marketing

Director of Meeting,
Events, and
Convention Sales

Director of Sales

Sales
Manager

Sales
Manager

Salesperson
240

Salesperson

Chapter 14 Sales

Salesperson

Salesperson

Salesperson

Sales Positions
Vice President or Director of Sales and Marketing
Responsible for identifying and implementing sales strategies
Responsible for creating a sales plan and monitoring its success throughout the year
Responsible for all aspects of the sales operation
Responsible for identifying new sales opportunities
Director of Meeting, Events, and Convention Sales
Responsible for identifying sales opportunities in specialty areas
Responsible for overseeing the meeting, events, and convention sales team
Responsible for managing the meeting, events, and convention sales operation
Director of Sales
Responsible for managing daily sales operations
Responsible for overseeing sales managers and sales staff
Sales Manager
Responsible for guiding the day-to-day sales efforts
Responsible for assisting in identifying new sales opportunities

Chapter 14 Sales

241

Section 4.4
1

Prospecting
Terms you

should know
Cold Calla sales tactic of
visiting or phoning potential
clients who were not
expecting to be contacted
by a salesperson. In some
countries this is no longer
allowed.

hen asked what is the most challenging part of the job, a sales
professional will usually answer in one wordprospecting.
Prospecting requires the salesperson to continuously be on the lookout
for new clients. This is especially true of hospitality and tourism sales
staff since selling guestrooms, meals, admission, and transportation is
an ongoing process.

Internet Prospecting Tools


Another big change has been in the approach to sales. Where once the
cold call was the sales professionals prospecting tool of choice, it has been
replaced by more effective Internet-based methods capable of quickly
reaching large numbers of potential guests. Todays sales professional is
discovering new sales best practices using technology and the Internet,
particularly in the area of prospecting.
The two main Internet prospecting tools are:
Online Lead Generationthe use of a custom
form to be completed by a potential client
prior to being given access to some type of
online website offer, information, or content.
Typically, the online offer is used to attract a
specific market segment or guest demographic.
This prospecting method allows sales to collect
usable information on potential clients that can
then be followed up with an e-mail or phone call.
A privacy policy disclosure must accompany
the form that requires the user to click accept
before completing the process.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Databasethe
CRMs used in hospitality and tourism can include personal guest
information, such as contact addresses and phone numbers, as
well as family size, location, and other demographic information,
or organizational information for business, group, or convention
business. The CRM database should be used to record purchase
information, service calls, customer support needs, and contract
information. Anything relative to past and future customer
interactions should be placed in a CRM database.

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Chapter 14 Sales

Networking and Relationship Building


A business network is a type of social network whose reason for existing is to generate business activity.
Networking allows the salesperson to build new relationships while creating business opportunities
as well. Often considered a very cost effective way to generate new business, it does involve a personal
commitment since it requires each salesperson to build one-on-one relationships with existing and new
clients.
Many find a business network an effective way to manage the time commitment networking requires.
In a business network, members meet on a regular basis for the purpose of exchanging business leads
and referrals with one another. Using the new information, each salesperson follows up by
contacting each sales lead to begin the process of developing a new business relationship.

Building Strategic Alliances


This relationship is typically less formal. It allows businesses targeting
the same market segment to work together to build attractive
products, goods, or services that highlight the advantages and
cost savings available to potential clients. For instance a
hotel, florist, and photographer join forces to produce
a marketing/advertising campaign for brides that
packages all three brands into one product
for sale at a promotional price. The goal
of all three is to increase business by
joining forces.

Referrals
Referrals are a traditional, very
effective sales tool used to collect the
names of potential new clients from existing
customers. One reason this is a favorite of sales
professionals is that the referral is coming from a
known customer who is helping to widen the circle of relationships for the salesperson. It is a winwin for everyone. The client being referred has a word-of-mouth recommendation from someone he
or she trusts, and the salesperson has a very good chance of making a sale. This creates an advantage
by cutting out the sales lead screening process, thus saving time and money. Usually, a referral results
in a potential client in the market for the products, goods, or services represented by the salesperson,
making the time between initial contact and closing the sale quick and efficient.

Chapter 14 Sales

243

Section 4.5
1

Types of Sales
T

he purpose of any sales tactic, method, or tool is to exchange products, goods, or services with a
client, customer, or guest for a specific amount of money. This
is the basic role of sales in any business. How that is accomplished
depends on the situation, type of client, what type of item is
being sold, and the clients timeline for completing the sales
process.

Traditional Sales
The first task of any sales professional is to build a client base
of regular users of his or her companys products, goods, or
services. In the hospitality and tourism industry, this will
often involve having a corporate client base that
regularly needs accommodations, food service,
entertainment, and transportation provided
by outside vendors. The salesperson acts
as the vendor representative, determines
the clients needs, and matches them to
products or services available from his or
her business. The next step is to present the
product or service options to the client, assist
in the selection process, and attach a price to the
item selected by the client. Using the client choices and
the costs associated, the salesperson will write a contract,
and have it approved and signed by the client. Once a signed contract is
in place, the products or services can be provided for client use.
Typically, sales professionals will conduct this type of sale with:
Existing clients to sell existing products, goods, and services
New clients to sell existing products, goods, and services
Existing clients to sell new products, goods, and services
New clients to sell new products, goods, and services

244

Chapter 14 Sales

Upgrading
Selling is the job of every employee, especially for those working in the hospitality and tourism
industry. Many see sales strictly as the responsibility of the sales team; however, upgrading guests
by means of upselling, cross-selling, and suggestive selling can often be accomplished by non-sales
employees as well. These three techniques are effective ways to increase revenues and training is the
key to getting everyone on board using these methods. For example, hotels have a variety of room types
and rates. When guests check in, the front desk may simply quote a room rate and make no attempt
to sell additional services or amenities. Training front desk staff to offer guests other room options by
highlighting added features that justify a rate increase, can frequently result in a guest deciding to move
up to a nicer view, more amenities, or a larger space. This is particularly true of business travelers. The
three tools both sales and non-sales staff can choose to use are:
Upsellingthis practice encourages a client or guest to
upgrade to more expensive products, goods, or services.
The advantage is the client or guest gets a better or higher
grade item while the company makes a more profitable
sale.
Cross-sellingthis technique involves selling additional
products to an existing client. The advantage to the
client is dealing with one supplier/vendor for multiple
products, goods, or services, while the company
increases its products, goods, or services sales base.
Suggestive sellingthis type of selling influences a guests
choice by highlighting a variety of options using words that describe the item to make it appealing.
Restaurant servers often use this as a way of selling appetizers and desserts.

Specialty Sales
The area of specialty sales is a major source of revenue for the hospitality and tourism industry. Often,
it is the second-highest source of revenue for hotels, restaurants, and entertainment venues. Frequently,
clients or guests traveling for fun or business will have a need for blocked guestrooms, meeting space,
group dining, and special events. This need is met by the sales professionals who focus on the specialty
line of sales. The most common types of specialty sales are:
Group salesfocuses on group sales for weddings, family reunions, organized tour groups,
school trips, and other event involving a large number of guests.
Catered event salesfocuses on planned events involving food and other activities typically
available to family groups, company outings, and organizational events.
Meeting room salesfocuses on planned off site meetings by business travelers, organizations,
and other groups.
Convention/conference salesfocuses on providing all aspects of a convention or conference
groups needs, including hotels rooms, meeting space, exhibitor space, and meals.

Chapter 14 Sales

245

Apply Your Learning


Section 14.1

1. What are the responsibilities of the sales department?


2. List three behaviors of the sales professional.
3. Why is knowing the products, goods, or services an important part of the sales professionals job
responsibilities?
4. What type of communication skills do you believe a sales professional should have?

Section 14.2

1. Explain why you believe sales professionals need to have strong people skills.
2. How would a sales professional perfect the skills of the job?
3. List the seven steps in forming a collaborative sales group.
4. Explain why you believe a sales professional has to be able to change in order to maintain his or her
exceptional sales skills.

Section 14.3

1. Explain the reasons behind the need for a sales professional to be well-spoken.
2. Explain why the sales professional has to focus on selling what the guest or client needs?
3. Should a sales professional present products, goods, or services by highlighting what they do and
how they meet the guest or clients needs? Explain your answer.
4. Who is responsible for everything that occurs in the sales department and why is that the case?
5. Can a sales manager or salesperson specialize in the type of products, goods, and services they sell
for the hospitality and tourism industry? Explain your answer.

246

Chapter 14 Sales

Section 14.4

1. What is a cold call and why is it no longer a best practice for making sales?
2. List two Internet prospecting tools and explain how each is used.
3. What is a business network and how could it help a salesperson be successful?
4. If you own a hotel in a popular travel destination and want to build a strategic alliance for pulling in
more business from high school senior trips, what other businesses could you partner with and why?
5. Why are referrals a win-win situation for everyone involved? Explain your answer.

Section 14.5
1. What is the basic reason behind selling products, goods, and services?
2. List who sales professionals typically sell to and list the type of products, goods, or services sold.
3. What is upselling?
4. What is cross-selling?
5. You are a front desk representative. How could you use suggestive selling with a guest?
6. You are making a sales call to a client who is considering booking a catered event at your restaurant.
What could you offer the client that would upsell the event? Offer at least two upsell items and describe
each one for the client showing why it is desirable for him or her to buy the more costly items.

Chapter 14 Sales

247

Unit 5

Safety and
Security
XChapter
X
15
Operational Safety

XChapter
X
16
Security

248

Unit Overview

he hospitality and tourism industry has


an obligation to provide a safe and secure
environment. Why? For two very good reasons:
guests and employees. Guests expect a safe
and secure experience and employees deserve
a safe and secure workplace. Both safety and
security require serious thought about possible
situations, which leads to a lot of planning,
and constant monitoring, to prevent incidents
from occurring. Often, the roles of safety and
security get blended together in the minds
of guests and employees, but they are very
different from one another. Each deals with
an entirely different area of concern.
This unit will focus on safety as the
operational method for preventing injury,
illness, or other risks to guests and employees,
and security as the method protecting guests
and employees from crime, attack, and
terrorism.

249

5
1
r
e
t
Chap

l
a
n
o
i
t
a
r
Ope
Safety

XSection
X
15.1
Introduction

XSection
X
15.2
Occupational Safety

XSection
X
15.3
Risk Management

XSection
X
15.4

Occupational Safety and Health


Administration (OSHA)

XSection
X
15.5
Operational Safety

Competencies
1. Identify the purpose of maintaining a
safe, healthy environment for guests and
employees.
2. Identify the role of occupational safety and
the purpose of a job safety analysis report in
providing safe work conditions to employees.
3. Explain the risk management process and the
use of the 14 elements of a health and safety
program in the workplace.
4. Identify the role of the Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA) in ensuring
a safe and healthy work environment for all
American workers by overseeing Hazardous
Materials Communication (HazCom)
Standards.
5. Identify the safety policies and procedures
regarding operational safety for slips, trip, and
falls along with fire safety and safe lifting.

250

Hospitality Profile

Tom Wright
Architect
Tom Wright is the British architect who rose to fame in
the hospitality and tourism industry when his design was
chosen for the Burj Al Arab Hotel (Tower of the Arabs) in
Dubai. Completed in 1999, the Burj Al Arab Hotel was
designed to resemble a billowing sail reflecting Dubais
seafaring heritage. Considered to be one of the worlds
most luxurious hotels, the Burj Al Arab soars to a height
of 321 meters (1,053.14 feet) and dominates the Dubai
skyline. Mr. Wright was asked to not only design a safe,
functional, luxury hotel, but to take his design beyond
the average and to create a building that would become
an international icon for Dubai. His goal was to create a
hotel that would be forever associated with its location
just as the Eiffel Tower is with Paris, France.
Mr. Wright studied at the Royal Russell School and later
at the Kingston University School of Architecture. Mr.
Wright became a member of the Royal Institute of British
Architects in 1983 and went on to become a director
of the Lister, Drew, Haines, and Barrow architectural
practice, which was taken over in 1991 by Atkins. Today,
he is working on projects in Australasia, the Far East,
the Middle East, Europe and the USA.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks


profile about this industry professional to complete the
Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own
about the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

251

Section 5.1
1

Introduction
S

afety affects the health and well-being of guests and employees and does have a direct impact on the
financial success of any hospitality and tourism business. Why? Because companies that knowingly
allow injuries, illnesses, and other risks to occur, and do nothing to prevent the situations, will certainly
face a loss of business. Also, the lack of preventive measures will result in high legal costs from the law
suits filed by injured or ill guests and employees against the business and its leaders for endangering
the health and safety of others.
Hospitality and tourism businesses need to be
seen as safe places to go, visit, and experience.
In order for this to be true, the business
need to assess where the dangers might
be, find ways to prevent unsafe
conditions from occurring, and
continuously monitor safety
to prevent any unforeseen
incidents from happening.
Hospitality businesses
have some unique areas of
safety to focus attention
on such as swimming
pools, hot tubs, gyms,
and other recreational
facilities provided for
guest enjoyment.
The best tool is to
have a team of safety
conscious employees
who are following
a master safety plan
meant to prevent unsafe
conditions and situations.

252

Chapter 15 Operational Safety

Section
15.2

Occupational Safety
S

afety is everyones responsibility and


prevention is the main goal of occupational
safety. Managers and employees must work
together to keep both front-of-house and back-ofhouse areas from becoming a safety risk. The key
is to constantly monitor for and prevent identify
unsafe situations before it threatens someones
safety. An alert and careful employee is the best
method for preventing falls, slips, trips, and other
common accidents from occurring. Spotting and
taking immediate action on safety risks such as
wet floors, slippery walkways, cluttered areas,
fixtures in the way, or unsecured equipment will
prevent many injuries. Every company should
have a list of safety rules stating how employees
should follow safe work practices.
Occupational injuries and lost workdays
have a big effect on how well each department
in a company can function. They often result
in a shortage of staff, important tasks do not get completed, and guest service standards will drop
significantly. Loss of quality in guest service can cause a loss of revenue since guests will go elsewhere
if they feel better appreciated. Injured employees will suffer as well since time off work could mean time
off without pay. It is a lose-lose-lose situation for the guests, employee, and business.
A job safety analysis is a detailed report that lists every job function performed by all employees.
This is often completed on a department-by-department basis. The job list provides the foundation
for analyzing the potential hazards of a particular position. From this analysis, job breakdowns can be
made and safety procedures attached to ensure all employees receive training on prevention of illness
or injuries to themselves and others. Additionally, all potential hazards can be listed so employees are
aware of the risks they need to be mindful of preventing.

Pineapple Fun Fact


The worlds first seven-star hotel is Dubais Burj Al Arab Hotel.
Guests are assured of the ultimate in personalized service.
Check-in occurs at a private reception desk on each floor with
rooms serviced by a group of highly trained butlers. Designed
to resemble a billowing sail, Burj Al Arab soars to a height of
1,053 feet, dominating the Dubai skyline.
Chapter 15 Operational Safety

253

Section 5.3
1

Risk Management
R

isk management is the process of assessing existing risks, taking action to minimize or prevent the
risks, and preventing unforeseen accidental loss by implementing a safety program. In order for a
risk management program to succeed, it must have the full support of top management, supervision, and
employees. Typically, a safety committee will be placed to monitor the program and to make changes as
needed to improve the programs effectiveness. However, responsibility for the success of the program
belongs to every person on staff.

Elements of a Health and Safety Program


The National Safety Council has cited 14 elements as necessary parts in effective risk management
through a health and safety program:
Element 1Hazard Recognition, Evaluation, and Control
Establishing and maintaining safe and healthful conditions requires identifying hazards,
evaluating their potential effects, developing ways to eliminate or control them, and planning
action priorities.
Element 2Workplace Design and Engineering
Safety and health issues are most easily and
economically addressed when facilities, processes,
and equipment are being designed.
Element 3Safety Performance Management
Standards must be set for safety performance
by reflecting regulatory requirements,
additional voluntary guidelines,
and best business practices.
Element 4Regulatory Compliance
Management
The Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA),
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), and state safety and health
agencies establish and enforce safety and
health regulations.

254

Chapter 15 Operational Safety

Element 5Occupational Health


This element addresses the immediate needs of injured or ill employees by providing first aid
and response to emergencies. Some programs may focus on employee off-the-job health using
a wellness program.
Element 6Information Collection
This includes inspections, record keeping, industrial hygiene surveys and other occupational
health assessments, injury/illness/incident investigations, and performance reviews. Records
should be used to identify hazards and measure safety performance and improvement, followed
by an analysis to identify patterns in the injuries that occurred. All should be kept in a database
for easy accessibility.
Element 7Employee Involvement
Involvement of employees in the planning, implementation, and improvement of safer work
practices leads to more effective solutions and procedures.
Element 8Motivation, Behavior, and Attitudes
Motivation aims to change employee behavior and attitudes to create a safer, healthier workplace.
Element 9Training and Orientation
All employees must know and follow company policies and procedures by learning to perform
their jobs safely and efficiently. Training should include hazard recognition, regulatory
compliance, and prevention.
Element 10Organizational Communications
Effective communication within the company must keep employees informed about policies,
procedures, goals, and progress regarding safety and health issues.
Element 11Management and Control of External Exposures
All safety and health programs must address risks beyond the organizations walls by creating
contingency plans for what if worst-case scenarios and other liability exposures.
Element 12Environmental Management
Environmental management should have a program of its own; however, many safety and
health programs already include it.
Element 13Workplace Planning and Staffing
Safety and health considerations are important when staffing a companys workforce. Items
to be considered include work safety rules, employee assistance programs, and requirements
resulting from the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Element 14Assessments, Audits, and Evaluations
Every organization must have tools to measure safety and health conditions, monitor compliance,
and assess progress achieved through the safety and health program. This can include selfassessments, third-party assessments, and voluntary regulatory assessments.

Chapter 15 Operational Safety

255

Some ways of achieving the goals set by the 14 elements of a safety and health program are:
Have a written policy showing the organizations commitment to a safe and healthy workplace
and which sets expectations for employee performance.
Collect employee input on safety and health matters.
Conduct regular internal health and safety inspections of the property.
Set realistic goals for reducing accidents.
Hold employees accountable for reducing accidents.
Raise employee awareness of safety and health issues using signs, posters, e-mails, contests, and
wellness fairs.
Use training that is a key tool in creating a safe and healthy workplace.

SafetySmart is proud to introduce


an all new line of safety awareness
products based on The Simpsons.

is an EI Partner

256

Chapter 15 Operational Safety

Section
15.4

Occupational Safety and


Health Administration (OSHA)
T

he Occupational Safety and Health Administration is a Federal agency


created in 1970 to make certain that the safety and health concerns of
American workers are being met. OSHA is tasked with providing training
and educational programs to small businesses and corporations for the
purpose of improving workplace safety and health. OSHAs mission is
a serious one and should not be taken lightly by anyone working in the
hospitality and tourism industry. Why? Because failure to be in compliance
with OSHAs standards can result in a costly fine and/or closure of the
business, either permanently or until the violation has been corrected.

Here is how OSHA describes itself:

With the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Congress created
OSHA to assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men
and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training,
outreach, education, and assistance. The Occupational Safety and Health
Act covers employers and their employees either directly through OSHA
on a federal level or through an OSHA-approved state program. State
programs must meet or exceed federal OSHA standards for workplace
safety and health.

Terms you

should know
Compliancethe
observance of official or legal
requirements that conform to
a written standard specifying
the protocols and procedures
to be in use and in place at
all times.

President of the United States

Department of
Agriculture

Department of
Commerce

Department of
Defense

Department of
Education

Department of
Energy

Department of
Health & Human
Services

Department of
Homeland Security

Department of
Housing & Urban
Development

Department of
Interior

Department of
Justice

Department of
Labor

Department of
State

Department of
Transportation

Department of
Veterans Affairs

AdministratorAssistant Secretary of Labor


for Occupational Safety and Health

Chapter 15 Operational Safety

257

Terms you
should know
HazComshort for Hazardous
Materials Communication
Standard, this OSHA
standard lists the steps
necessary for an organization
to be in compliance with the
use of hazardous chemicals
in the workplace.

Hazardous Materials Communication


One area in which OSHA has a large impact on hospitality and tourism
businesses is chemical use in the workplace. OSHA defines a hazardous
chemical as any liquid, solid, or gas that could present a physical or health
hazard to an employee. For hospitality operations, this typically includes
cleaning agents, degreasers, flammables, greases, paints, pesticides,
aerosols, and compressed gases. While all these items are commonly in
use in a persons home, they are used less frequently or in much smaller
quantities. It is because businesses buy hazardous chemicals in very large
amounts and use them frequently that led to the need to regulate the use,
distribution, storage, and disposal of these chemicals by means of federally
mandated standards. This led to the creation of the Hazardous Materials
Communication (HazCom) Standards and Requirements. OSHA, as an
agency, is expected to inspect all businesses for compliance with this
standard and to fine or shut down any business found to be in violation.

In order to ensure chemical safety in the workplace, information


must be available about the identities and hazards of the chemicals and
must be communicated to the two main groups involved with hazardous
chemicals used. OSHAs HazCom Standard requires the development
and communication of information between those manufacturing the
chemicals and the people using them:
Chemical manufacturers and importers, who are required to
evaluate the hazards of the chemicals they produce or import,
prepare labels and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), and clearly
communicate information about those hazards to their customers.
All employers with hazardous chemicals in use must:
Be provided hazardous chemical information by the
manufacturer by means of the MSDS
Keep all MSDS information in a book labeled MSDS in a
readily accessible place for use by exposed employees
Place labels on all chemical containers in use in the
workplace
Provide training to employees required to work with
hazardous chemicals and update training whenever a new
chemical is introduced into the workplace
258

Chapter 15 Operational Safety

Operational Safety

Section
15.5

perational safety policies and procedures are a necessary part of hospitality and tourism
responsibilities to prevent accidents and injuries. By implementing three simple operational safety
rules, a business can set expectations for employees about workplace safety and their contribution to a
safe work environment and accident-free operation.
The three operational safety rules are:
1. Take adequate time. No job is so urgent that
you must do it in an unsafe, hurried manner.
Make time to correct unsafe conditions
immediately. If an unsafe or hazardous
condition cannot be corrected in a timely
manner, report it at once to management.
2. Do it safely the first time. Every employee
must do his or her job in a safe and correct
manner. This is the best way to prevent
accidents.
3. All hospitality and tourism businesses should
have a safety policy which explains the rules
for a safe work environment to employees
and the expectation for employee use of safe
work practices.

Chapter 15 Operational Safety

259

Slips, Trips, and Falls


Almost one in every five work-related injuries results from a slip, trip, or fall. Falls kill more than
1,200 people at work each year. That makes them the biggest cause of workplace fatalities after motor
vehicle accidents. Slips, trips, and falls are expensive, disruptive, painful and sometimes tragic. However,
there are many situations that can cause slips, trips, and falls which can be prevented by eliminating
workplace hazards and training employees to take workplace safety seriously.
Best practices for preventing slips, trips, and falls are:
Wear correct footwear that is appropriate for work and weather conditions inside and outside.
Remove mud, snow, etc., from shoes when entering a building.
Be aware of changes in surface levels and work floor coverings. Alter your stride to take shorter,
slower steps.
Walk, dont run, through work areas. Dont take shortcuts around machinery and equipment.
Avoid areas that are cluttered or dimly lit.
When carrying a load of items, make sure you can see over and around it. Get help to carry heavy
or awkward objects and use carts or other aids for carrying heavy loads.
Clean up, correct, remove or report unsafe
conditions such as spills, electric cords,
frayed carpets, worn stairs and other
hazards that could result in a slip/trip/fall
injury. Warn others that a hazard exists by
placing signs or cones or by isolating the
hazard with caution tape or barricades.
Do not allow equipment, tools, materials
or other obstacles to accumulate in aisles
or walkways. Never store or place items on
stairs.

260

Chapter 15 Operational Safety

Keep desks and file cabinet drawers


closed when not being used or when
unattended.
Always use a ladder or step stool. Never
stand on a chair, desk, shelf, crate or
box, or any other unstable item to reach
something.
Walk erect using even strides and good
balance. Always use handrails when
available.
Maintain floors so they are clean and
free of water, oil, or grease. Areas such
as the engineering shop may need to be
periodically steam cleaned. Tiled floors
such as in kitchens should have an etched
or rough surface.
Apply non-slip surfacing such as
adhesive backed sheets, anti-slip paint,
open-spaced grates, or mats, to ramps,
docks, platforms, kitchen tiles, or
stairways thought to be hazardous.
Paint edges where elevation changes
occur with caution yellow paint. Post
signs to warn of dangerous areas.
During winter months, remove snow
and ice and apply sand and salt before
employees and guests use a walkway.
Note areas that drain poorly, retain snow,
or are habitually slippery, and initiate
permanent changes to eliminate the
hazard.
Conduct periodic inspections of the property and grounds to identify and correct slip, trip, and
fall hazards. Consider hazards to employees and guests. Inspect interior and exterior walkways,
stairs, handrails, pavement conditions, parking areas, and lighting for needed repairs or changes
to correct a safety issue.

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261

Fire Safety
Preparedness on the part of a hospitality and tourism business is the key element of fire safety. This
requires developing a fire-safety plan which includes:
Fire Protect Systems
Fire alarms such as a visual alarm and voice alarm for guests with disabilities (ADA requirement)
Sprinklers
Fireproof doors
Guestroom smoke detectors

262

Chapter 15 Operational Safety

Fire Safety Plan


A fire safety plan must include:
1. A procedure for reporting a fire.
2. A procedure for notifying, relocating, or evacuating occupants.
3. A site plan showing:
a. Guest assembly point(s)
b. Location of all fire hydrants
c. Routes to be used by fire department vehicle access
4. Posted floor plans (on room-side guestroom doors) identifying the locations of the
following:
a. Exits
b. Primary evacuation routes
c. Secondary evacuation routes
d. Accessible exit routes for guests with disabilities (ADA requirement)
e. Areas of refuge
f. Manual fire alarm boxes
g. Portable fire extinguishers
h. Occupant-use hose stations (wall-mounted fire hose boxes located in building
hallways)
i. Fire alarm annunciator (buzzer) and controls
j. Sprinkler control valves
5. A list of major fire hazards associated with the normal use and occupancy of the
premises, including maintenance and housekeeping procedures such as kitchen grease
and trash can fires.
6. Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for maintenance of systems and
equipment installed to prevent or control fires.
7. Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for maintenance, housekeeping,
and controlling hazard sources such as gas cans containing fuel for lawnmowers and
leafblowers.

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263

Safe Lifting
One of the most common on-the-job injuries is due to improper lifting. This type of injury can be
reduced or prevented by following these guidelines for safe lifting:

Guidelines for Safe Lifting

1. Inspect the object before lifting. Do not lift any item that you cannot get your arms around or
that you cannot see over when carrying.

2. Look for any protrusions, especially when lifting trash or bundles of linen. Quite often, these
items can contain pointy objects or broken glass. Exercise special care to avoid injury.
3. When lifting, place one foot near the object and the other slightly back and
apart. Keep well balanced.
4. Keep your back and head straight. Because the back muscles are generally
weaker that the leg muscles, do not use the back muscles to lift the object.
5. Bend slightly at the knees and hips but do not stoop.
6. Use both hands and grasp the object using the entire hand.
7. Lift with the leg muscles.
8. Keep the object close to the body. Avoid twisting
your body.
9. If the objects feels too heavy or awkward to hold,
or if you do not have a clear view over the object,
set it down.
10. When setting an object down do not use your
back muscles. Used the leg muscles and follow
the procedures used to lift objects.

264

Chapter 15 Operational Safety

Apply Your Learning


Section 15.1

1. Who is affected when safety and health conditions are ignored?


2. What can result from poor safety conditions in the workplace?
3. List three things a business should do to ensure safe practices are in place.

Section 15.2

1. Who is responsible for safety and why do you believe this to be true?
2. List three common types of injuries and a reason each might happen in the workplace.
3. How can injuries prevent a department from providing excellent guest service?
4. What is the purpose of a job safety analysis? Explain your answer.
5. What is the purpose of assigning safety procedures to a hazardous task? Explain your answer.

Section 15.3

1. What is the purpose of a risk management program?


2. What three items are part of the risk management process?
3. What is the goal of Element 1 in a Health and Safety Program?
4. Why is Element 7 critical to the success of a Health and Safety Program? Explain your answer.
5. Why would Element 9 be a key part of a Health and Safety Program? Explain your answer.
6. Explain why you believe Element 10 could cause a Health and Safety Program to be either successful
or a failure.
7. List three of the seven ways the goals of the 14 elements can be achieved.

Section 15.4

1. What does the acronym OSHA stand for?


2. What is the main reason behind the Federal government creating OSHA in 1970?
3. Why is compliance with OSHA Standards not an option for hospitality and tourism businesses?
Explain your answer.
4. Why is being in compliance with the HazCom Standard so important to all hospitality and tourism
businesses? Explain your answer.
5. List the two main groups most affected by hazardous chemicals. Explain why each is covered by the
HazCom Standard.

Section 15.5

1. List and explain the purpose of the three operational safety rules.
2. List five ways to prevent a slip, trip, or fall.
3. What is the key element in fire safety by any hospitality and tourism business? Explain your answer.
4. List the seven parts of a good safety plan.
5. Why is lifting one of the most common on-the-job injuries?
6. Explain ways to prevent lifting injuries in the workplace.

Chapter 15 Operational Safety

265

6
1
r
e
t
Chap

Security

XSection
X
16.1
Introduction

XSection
X
16.2
Hotel Security

XSection
X
16.3
In-House Security

XSection
X
16.4
Key Control

XSection
X
16.5
Operational Emergencies

XSection
X
16.6

Emergency Preparedness

Competencies
1. Explain the role of security in protecting people
and property during criminal, severe weather,
and emergency situations.
2. Identify the security functions of providing
reasonable care under the innkeepers laws
requiring hotels to provide travelers with a safe
haven at night.
3. Identify the roles of a hotels security officers
and managers in protecting people and
property.
4. Describe the role of security in maintaining
control over both metal and electronic key
systems for a property.
5. Identify the types of emergencies common
during daily operations that are handled by the
security team.
6. Identify the role of emergency preparedness
to guarantee an emergency response plan is in
place for a variety of potentially life-threatening
emergency situations.

266

Hospitality Profile

Mark Williams, CHT


Director of Development
Chair, AH&LA
Under 30 Gateway
Mark Williams joined Coakley & Williams in February
2007 after spending nearly five years with Walt Disney
World in Orlando, Florida. His Disney experiences
covered a multitude of roles including: attractions,
entertainment, food and beverage, employee training,
and resort operations. As the director of development,
Mr. Williams is involved with building effective training
programs for use in a company portfolio of 24 hotels.
As a full-service management company, Coakley &
Williams offers a range of services in operations, sales
and marketing, accounting, human resources, and other
programs that benefit its clients. Training is another major
facet in the services provided to clients.
Mr. Williams is very involved with AH&LA and has
previously chaired the Multiunit Lodging Operators &
Owners Forum. As the chair of the Under 30 Gateway, he
assists other members in building strategic relationships
so each person is able to develop a strong hospitality
and tourism career.
Before joining Coakley & Williams, Mr. Williams graduated
in August 2006 with a Bachelor of Science Degree in
Hospitality Management from the University of Central
Floridas Rosen College of Hospitality Management in
Orlando, FL. In 2011, he received his Masters of Business
Administration (MBA) from Grand Canyon Universitys
Ken Blanchard School of Business.

Your Task: Use the information contained in the textbooks


profile about this industry professional to complete the
Professional Profile Activity in the student workbook. You
may need to conduct additional research of your own
about the profile topic covered in the workbook as well.

267

Section 6.1
1

Introduction
Terms you

should know
Human Traffickingthe act
of recruiting, transporting,
transferring, harboring or
receiving a person through a
use of force or other means,
for the purpose of exploiting
them. Exploitation occurs
when the person is forced
into illegal acts such as
prostitution, unpaid labor, or
slavery.

268

ecurity in the hospitality and tourism industry must be capable of


protecting guests, employees, and the physical assets of the property
from criminal activities, severe weather, and emergency situations. This
is particularly true of a hotel, which serves as an overnight home base for
guests. Consequently, security efforts are not limited to crimes such as
theft. . Today, hotel security needs to be capable of dealing with anything
from housing guests during a hurricane, to preventing meth lab activities,
to monitoring for human trafficking. Following the events of September
11, 2001, security took on the stronger role of guarding against acts of
violence and terrorism to ensure guests and employees a secure place
to stay and work.
It is not the role of hotel security to replace law enforcement but to act
as a watchdog for guests, employees, and property security by building
a good relationship with the local authorities. Communication is a key
element in security. Hotel security staff must communicate effectively
with employees, law enforcement, and other community agencies to
guarantee that appropriate levels of security are achieved.

Chapter 16 Security

Hotel Security

Section
16.2
Terms you

should know

ecurity functions somewhat differently in a hotel than it does for other


types of businesses involved in the hospitality and tourism industry.
This is because guests are taking up temporary residence at the property
and have the right to feel protected against harm. Consequently, hotels
have the added responsibility of exercising reasonable care when providing
guests with a safe and secure place to stay. This duty of reasonable care
mandates vigilance in protecting guests from foreseeable risks. The
obligation to protect guests is not met merely by warning them, but must
be combined with a security program meant to maintain a secure property.
The Reasonable Care Standard used by most hotels states:
Hotels have a general duty to exercise reasonable care for the
safety and security of their guests.
Hotels have a general duty to reasonably protect guests from harm
caused by other guests, employees, or non-guests.
Hotels have an affirmative duty to make the premises reasonably
safe for their guests. This obligation includes a two-fold duty to
either correct a hazard or warn of its existence.

The innkeepers laws date back to the days of horse and carriage travel
and are based on common law. These laws began as a way to provide
travelers with a safe haven at night and, to this day, each state has its
own statutes and court rulings which hotels are expected to know and
follow. Specifically, innkeepers laws include statutes about the type of
security program hotel security personnel must have in place.
Locking systems, key control, and access control

degree of care that a cautious


person would use under like
circumstances.

Innkeepers Lawslaws
passed in the 1700s
to protect travelers and
overnight guests from
inconvenience and injury.
The laws today focus on
the hotel operators areas
of responsibility such as
guest security, evictions, and
discrimination.

Common Lawthe general

Innkeepers Laws

Some of the areas covered by innkeepers laws are:

Reasonable Carethe

body of case law that


governed England and the
American colonies prior to
the American Revolution.
The principles and rules
of action that derive their
authority from the community
customs and traditions that
evolved over the centuries
as interpreted by judicial
tribunals.

On-premises security personnel


Lighting and door viewports
Police/local law enforcement liaisons

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269

Section 6.3
1

In-House Security
M

ost hotels use either in-house security staff or an outside private security firm to provide onpremises protection for guests and the facility. Typically, a security officer is outfitted with a badge
and uniform to make him or her clearly identifiable. The security officers role is to serve in a protective
capacity by stopping and holding anyone they believe to be engaged in a criminal activity until local
law enforcement arrives on the scene. This is accomplished by making a citizens arrest.
Only law enforcement officers can exercise the lawful power of arrest on a person suspected of
committing a crime, but most states allow individuals to make a citizens arrest by lawfully depriving a
person of his or her freedom when caught in a criminal act. However, in order to be capable of making
a citizens arrest, the security officer must be fully trained on the applicable statutes and laws in that
specific state at the time they are hired into the position.
The key functions of a security officer are to:
Patrol all areas of the property at random times to ensure guest and employee safety and security.
Investigate any incidents reported by guests and employees, determine if law enforcement should
be involved, and assist law enforcement as needed.
Report to management the results of daily patrols, all investigations, and other security activities
experienced.

Front Office Security


The front office plays an active role in protecting both its guests and the property as a whole. Both
front desk and uniformed services employees are able to continuously observe everyone who arrives and
departs from the property. They are also in a good position to spot and report any suspicious activities,
items, or vehicles. Front office participation involves a two-pronged approach when assisting security
staff by:
1. Safeguarding sensitive guest information and confidentiality
2. Maintaining watch (when possible) over areas such as the:
a. Lobby
b. Parking lot
c. Back of house office spaces
d. Restaurant entrances
e. Elevators
f. Guest hallways
g. Pool/gym/recreation entrances

270

Chapter 16 Security

Pineapple Fun Fact


On July 2, 1777, the Vermont Constitution
was adopted at Elijah Wests Tavern in the
township of Windsor. It was the first in the new
world to outlaw slavery and to require a free
education for all citizens, male and female.
Today, the property is a Vermont State Historic
Site known as The Old Constitution House.

During emergency situations, the front office can also act as central command under the direction
of the security director, officers, and any local agency involved such as the police or fire department.
The front desk is expected to make contact with each guest on property at the time and communicate
any emergency procedures the guest needs to be aware of and follow. Uniformed services can control
access to and from public areas, meeting spaces, and guestrooms, as well as help move guests to a safe
location or distance if necessary.

Guestroom Security
Housekeeping has a special responsibility for
guestroom security since employees have direct access
to both guestrooms and the guests personal property.
Housekeeping staff are also in a position to monitor for
intruders, use of guestrooms for illegal activities, presence
of weapons, and the planning of possible acts of terrorism.
While cleaning guestrooms and public spaces,
housekeeping should check items such as locks, deadbolts,
window latches, and other security devices to make sure
they are in good working order. For example, to protect
both guests and the property against a potential crime:
A housekeeping attendant should report
any problem such as a non-locking
guestroom door to maintenance for
repairs.

A maintenance engineer should then


notify the front desk that the room door
is being repaired.

A front desk representative should


remove the room from active inventory to
prevent it being assigned to a guest.

AMERICAN HOTEL & LODGING ASSOCIATION

GUEST
SAFETY TIPS
1

Don't answer the door in a hotel or motel room


without verifying who it is. If a person claims to
be an employee, call the front desk and ask if
someone from their staff is supposed to have
access to your room and for what purpose.

Keep your room key with you at all times and


don't needlessly display it in public. Should
you misplace it, please notify the front desk
immediately.

Close the door securely whenever you are in your


room and use all of the locking devices provided.

Check to see that any sliding glass doors or


windows and any connecting room doors
are locked.

5
6

Dont invite strangers to your room.

Place all valuables in the hotel or motel's safe


deposit box.

When returning to your hotel or motel late in the


evening, be aware of your surroundings, stay in
well-lighted areas, and use the main entrance.

Take a few moments and locate the nearest exit


that may be used in the event of an emergency.

10

If you see any suspicious activity, notify the hotel


operator or a staff member.

Do not draw attention to yourself by displaying


large amounts of cash or expensive jewelry.

Copyright 2003 The American Hotel & Lodging Association


1201 New York Avenue, NW, #600
Washington, DC 20005-3931
www.ahla.com

COM001727

Chapter 16 Security

271

Section 6.4
1

Key Control
A

key control system is essential to preventing


unauthorized access to all areas of the hotel.
Keys issued to employees use a key numbering
system to identify the areas the key can access
and should only be issued to employees by a
member of management. Any key issued as part
of an employees job responsibilities must go
to a staff member with a valid work reason for
accessing an area and the key must not be taken
from the property. All other keys can be issued
to employees on an as-needed basis. Most hotels
keep employee-use keys locked in a safe or key
control box. Employees are then expected to sign
a log book when using a key. This allows the
security team responsible for key control to track
key usage. Something as simple as a locked door,
and a system for controlling who can access a key,
can have a significant effect on hotel security.

Guestroom Keys
Some hotel guestrooms use a unique double locking system, while other properties use a single locking
mechanism paired with a flip-latch security door guard. Regardless of the type of system, unoccupied
guestrooms will have the door lock set as a single lock setting. However, when a guest enters the room
he or she may engage the second locking mechanism either by turning the door handle into doublelock mode or latching the security door guard into place. Most properties have more than one level of
guestroom keys:
Guestroom keyissued by front desk staff and should only be capable of opening a specific
guestroom in single-lock mode only.
Master keyopens all guestrooms in single-lock mode only.
Emergency keyopens all guestrooms even when they are in double-lock mode. This key
would not be needed for hotels using security door guards.

272

Chapter 16 Security

Operational Emergencies

Section
16.5

he security team must be prepared to handle a variety of common operational situations that can
pose a risk to the property such as short power failures or a stuck elevator. An employee discovering
anything out of the ordinary must notify security immediately. Following the propertys policy and
procedures, the security officer must take control of the situation, direct employee efforts, notify
management of the situation, and cooperate with all local authorities involved. The types of situations
which may occur during normal operations are:
TheftLoss of either guest or hotel property must be reported and investigated by a security
officer or manager. Depending on the severity of the crime, security may turn the investigation
over to local law enforcement.
Power OutagesOfficers will patrol guest hallways and public spaces to maintain a high level of
security. Guests in occupied rooms should be kept informed about the situation and questioned
to determine any medical or special needs while the power is off.
Elevator MalfunctionsSecurity is to be notified immediately when an elevator stalls between
floors and the alarm activates indicating someone is trapped inside. Using the elevators emergency
phone system, the security office makes contact with the trapped guest(s) to determine any medical
needs or other emergency situation existing beyond being in a stalled elevator. Security should
remain in the area and assist maintenance, the elevator services vendor, or local authorities to
free the guest(s) from the elevator.
Medical EmergenciesSecurity responds to all medical emergencies on property to assess the
situation, determine the level of medical response required, and place the call for assistance to
911 and other authorities who need to be involved.
Guest or Employee DeathSecurity instructs an employee reporting a death to secure the area
and leave everything untouched. Security will respond and take control over the area. At the
same time, security must notify management and local law enforcement of the situation. Once
law enforcement and emergency services are on site, security assists the authorities during the
investigation.

Chapter 16 Security

273

Section 6.6
1

Emergency Preparedness
T

he security team at a hotel must be prepared to handle a wide variety of sensitive and potentially
dangerous situations. The best method for being prepared is to build a detailed emergency response
plan. An emergency preparedness committee, made up of employees and managers from every department
and area, and under the direction of security, should be formed and charged with creating a formal,
written plan for the property to implement. The committee should use the preparedness cycle when
creating the emergency response plan.
The stages of the preparedness cycle are:
1. PlanDetermine the types of emergencies the property could face along with the best ways
to protect both people and property during each one.
2. Organize and equipDetermine, purchase, and store all emergency preparedness supplies;
this should include equipment, food, water, and possibly a backup power generator.
3. TrainMake certain every employee knows, and is capable of carrying out, his or her
responsibilities during an emergency.
4. Exercise (practice)Conduct mock emergencies to allow employees to practice responding
in an emergency situation.
5. Evaluate and improveReview and look for gaps in the plan that caused problems during
the emergency exercise and take corrective action to prevent them from happening again.

Evaluate
and improve

Exercise

Plan

Preparedness
Cycle
Organize
and equip
Train

274

Chapter 16 Security

Emergency Response Plan


The emergency response plan must clearly state how the property will respond to each type of
emergency and the duties to be carried out by employees during that particular situation. It should
be a detailed plan capable of being put into use at a moments notice since most emergencies happen
without warning. The security team should oversee the process and provide training to each department
so everyone on staff knows how to properly respond to the various types of emergency situations.
Questions the propertys emergency preparedness committee should also ask during the
emergency planning process include:
Whos in charge of key elements in the plan and who should assist in managing the response
activities?
Who will manage shutting down or modifying property operations before and during the
emergency?
What method is the best choice for communicating with employees, community responders, and
local, state, and federal agencies?
Is evacuation necessary and what is the safest place to send guests and employees?
Where is the best place for the emergency operations center?
How can the property and vital records/documents be protected from damage or destruction?
How can the property assist during a community-wide emergency?
What will be needed to restore the property to full operational capacity once the emergency is
over?
These questions will also help determine the type of:
Equipment to purchase and store
Methods and procedures to be followed
Employee job assignments and responsibilities
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275

The types of emergencies requiring a response plan are the serious, potentially life-threatening ones
that, without a plan in place, could have disastrous results. Hotels must have an emergency response
plan in place for:
Firethe plan must cover fire response and recovery for a fire occurring within the hotel and
for wild fires threatening from the local area.
Severe Weather Emergenciesthe plan must describe response before, during, and following
severe weather such as tornados, hurricanes, blizzards, and flooding.
Natural Disastersthe plan must cover response, evacuation, and shelter during and following
an earthquake, volcanic activity, or tsunami.
Threat of Violencethe plan must describe handling of any intruder, guest, or employee who
shows sign of becoming violent.
WeaponsMonitor for detecting weapons on property and reporting it to law
enforcement.
Active ShooterResponse plan for evacuating people using the safest escape route or
sheltering in place during an active shooter incident.
Anti-Terrorismthe plan must describe monitoring, detecting, and reporting suspicious activities
or items that may indicate a potential terrorist group is working in or targeting the property.
Human Traffickingthe plan must cover monitoring and reporting activities that indicate a
possible human trafficking operation is active within the property.
Meth Labsthe plan must detail monitoring and reporting a potential methamphetamine lab
or other illegal controlled substance trafficking occurring at the property.
Evacuationthe plan must cover evacuating guests and employees to a safe distance based on
the type of danger and the location of the safest place to be in that situation.

Bomb Threats: Determining Safe Evacuation Distances


How far away should guests be moved so that they are truly safe is a common question asked by
employees and security staff. The distance is determined by the type of bomb threat and the level of
danger the device involved poses for the employees and guests being evacuated. On the next page is
a chart detailing the various types of bomb threats a hospitality and tourism facility could experience
and the minimum safe evacuation distances.

276

Chapter 16 Security

Bomb Threat Stand-Off Distances


Threat Description

Improvised Explosive Device (IED)

Explosives Capacity Building Evacuation


(TNT Equivalent)
Distance

Pipe Bomb

5 LBS

Outdoor Evacuation
Distance

70 FT

1200 FT

Suicide Bomber

20 LBS

110 FT

1700 FT

Briefcase/Suitcase

50 LBS

150 FT

1850 FT

500 LBS

320 FT

1500 FT

SUV/Van

1,000 LBS

400 FT

2400 FT

Small Moving Van/


Delivery Truck

4,000 LBS

640 FT

3800 FT

Moving Van/
Water Truck

10,000 LBS

860 FT

5100 FT

Semi-Trailer

60,000 LBS

1570 FT

9300 FT

Car

Preferred area (beyond this line) for evacuation of people in


buildings and mandatory for people outdoors.
All personnel in this area should seek shelter immediately inside
a building away from windows and exterior walls. Avoid having
anyone outside - including those evacuating - in this area.
All personnel must evacuate (both inside of buildings and out).

Source: Department of Homeland Security

Partnering with Law Enforcement


Most major emergencies will fall under the direction of an outside agency. Depending on the type of
situation, it may be the local police, fire department, FBI, or even the Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA). Consequently, during emergency response situations, there is a need for good
communication and total cooperation to exist between hotel security and the responding agency. By
partnering with the appropriate agencies, mock emergencies such as a guestroom fire can be practiced.
This will allow employees and local responders to test each emergency response procedure. Afterwards,
each policy or procedure can be evaluated for how it helped or hindered the situation, and improvements
can be made based on the feedback from both employees, management, and local authorities.
Chapter 16 Security

277

Apply Your Learning


Section 16.1

1. What must a security team in the hospitality and tourism industry be capable of providing? Explain
why this is important.
2. Since 9/11, what additional areas of responsibility has security had to take on? Explain why this was
necessary.
3. Why do you believe hotel security should never be used to replace law enforcement? Write a short
paragraph.

Section 16.2

1. What is the purpose of providing reasonable care to hotel guests? Explain your answer.
2. What type of law are innkeepers laws based on and why were they created in the first place? Write
a short paragraph.
3. What are the areas covered by innkeepers laws and why do you think each one is important to guest
security? Explain your answer.

Section 16.3

1. What is the role of the in-house security team at a hotel and what are officers not allowed to do and
why? Write a short paragraph.
2. What are the three key functions of a security officer and what do you believe is the purpose of each?
Explain you answer for each function.
3. What can the front office employees contribute during an emergency situation and how can they
assist security? Write a short paragraph outlining how and where the front office can assist security.
4. How can housekeeping assist security during the course of a normal work day? Explain your answer.

Section 16.4

1. Why does the issuing of keys to employees need to be controlled and their use monitored? Explain
your answer.
2. A hotel has a single locking mechanism on guestroom doors. What other security items could the
door have installed to better protect guests? Explain why you believe each item is necessary.
3. A guestroom door has a double-locking mechanism and a fire breaks out on the floor. Security must
make sure all guests have evacuated. What key will the officer need to unlock a double-locked door?
Explain why it is the only key that will work using complete sentences.

278

Chapter 16 Security

Section 16.5

1. Explain why you believe security should be involved when an elevator gets stuck between floors and
what the security officer must do to keep the trapped guest safe and secure. Write a short paragraph.
2. Why do you believe security should be called when a guest falls ill at the hotel? Explain your answer.
3. What dangers could a power failure pose for guests staying in a hotel? Explain your answer.

Section 16.6

1. Why is emergency preparedness an important part of the security plan for a hotel? Explain your
answer.
2. List the five stages of the preparedness cycle and the goal of each stage.
3. Why does each type of potential emergency need to have a written plan detailing how it should be
handled by hotel security and the rest of the hotel staff? Explain your answer.
4. Housekeeping reports a guest has a hand gun in the guestroom. How should security respond to this
potentially dangerous situation? Write a short paragraph.
5. Why does the security team need to develop a strong relationship with local law enforcement? Explain
your answer.

Chapter 16 Security

279

y
r
a
s
s
o
Gl

Year 1

280

A
Acronymsa word formed from a sequence of initials or groups of letters such as R.A.V.E.p.91
<Advance Deposit Control Account>the amount posted for all advance deposits or prepayments received
from guests for that date, also known as the Advance Deposit.p.210
Advocacythe action of supporting a cause, situation, or need based on the facts and feelings of those
involved.p.64

All-Inclusivea resort where the cost of all lodging, meals, airport transfers, spa services, and activities are
bundled into a package price. p.190

Amenitiesservices or items offered to guests or placed in guestrooms for convenience and comfort at no
extra cost such as soap, shampoo, and stationery.p.122

Assetshotel equipment, machinery, or computer systems that are considered both valuable and necessary
for the smooth operation of the property.p.124

Audio-Visualmaterials using sight or sound to present information such as DVDs, PowerPoint


presentations, or speaker- requested microphone sound systems.p.180

Average Daily Rate ADR)an occupancy ratio derived by dividing net rooms revenue by the number of
rooms sold.p.106

B
Back of Housea staff-only area of the hotel, used for functional purposes, such as storage, break rooms,
offices, engineering, and maintenance.p.147
Be outstanding at your job.p.60

Bottom Linethe last line of a financial statement that shows the net profit or loss of a company or
organization.p.76

Branda particular product or company associated with a name, logo, or unique characteristic that serves
to identify that particular product or company.p.58

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C
Carbon Footprintthe measurement of the amount of greenhouse gases produced through the use of fossil
fuels for electricity, heating, cooling, and transportation. p.213

City Ledger Control Foliothe amount posted as the balance due from all individual guests, groups, and
companies, also known as the City Ledger.p.210

Cold Calla sales tactic of visiting or phoning potential clients who were not expecting to be contacted by a
salesperson. In some countries this is no longer allowed. p.242

Common Lawthe general body of case law that governed England and the American colonies prior to the
American Revolution. The principles and rules of action that derive their authority from the community
customs and traditions that evolved over the centuries as interpreted by judicial tribunals.p.269

Compensationsomething given or received as an equivalent for loss of services or guest


inconvenience.p.64

Compliancethe observance of official or legal requirements that conform to a written standard specifying
the protocols and procedures to be in use and in place at all times.p.257

Control Pointrequirements attached to specific points in the food service process to prevent unsafe and
unsanitary conditions or situations from occurring.p.172

Convictionsfixed or firm personal or business beliefs not easily changed without good reasons provided by
other people or situations.p.39

Curb Appealthe visual attractiveness of a building as seen from the street.p.150

D
Demographicsthe analysis of a variety of factors such as age, gender, educational level, income,
marital status, occupation, religion, and family size to identify and group guests into a specific market
segment.p.227

Discretionary Incomethe money left after necessities such as food, housing, and clothing have been paid
for that can be spent for luxury items and vacations.p.53

Diversitythe human quality of being different or varied.p.12


Dram Shop Lawsin general, provide consistent guidelines about who is responsible when third parties
suffer because of an intoxicated persons actionswill vary from state to state.p.178

282

Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

E
Emotional Engagementthe emotional connection that an employee feels for his or her job, that causes
him or her to perform the job to the highest standard.p.76
Employee Moralethe overall outlook, attitude, satisfaction, and confidence that employees feel at
work.p.92

Entry-Levelfirst-level employment in a hospitality firm which usually requires a HS or equivalent level


of education, training, and experience qualifications. It gives a recruit the benefit of a gainful occupation,
opportunity to learn and gain experience, and serves as a stepping-stone for higher-level jobs.p.26

Ethicsthe rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the conduct of the members of a
profession.p.38

Executivea leader given the responsibility to manage the affairs of an organization and the authority to
make decisions within specified boundaries.p.26

Expertise Buildingdeveloping the knowledge and skills required to perform on the job at the highest
level.p.24

F
Facilities Managementthe management of all aspects of the hotels physical structure including all guest
areas, along with the necessary operating equipment, systems, utilities, and employee work stations, without
which the hotel could not provide a comfortable, guest experience. p.146

Floor Parthe amount of each type of linen that is required to outfit all rooms serviced on a particular
floor.p.139

Forecastingthe process used to predict the sales of guestrooms and the rate that should be charged for a
specific time of year. It helps front office managers to know when to raise or lower room rates to maximize
sales. p.106

Fraudrefers to all types of crime in which someone wrongfully obtains and uses another persons personal
data in some way that involves criminal activity or deception, typically for economic gain. Information
obtained is then used to commit illegal purchases or other financial transactions without the consent of the
person to whom the information legally belongs.p.72

Front of Housethe functional areas of the hotel in which employees have extensive guest contact, such as
food and beverage facilities and the front desk. p.147

Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

283

G
Going Greena term used to describe the process of making decisions about how to conduct business and
provide services to hotel guests while taking into consideration the impact those decisions will have on the
environment.p.140
Gray Waterwastewater created by activities such as doing laundry, dishwashing, and bathing, which can
be recycled on site in a landscape irrigation system.p.213

Green Practicesenvironmentally friendly and ecologically responsible decisions and processes that
guarantee natural resources will continue to be readily available in the future.p.106

Group Marketbusiness a hotel receives through an outside event planner or tour operator wishing to book
room nights, meals, and other hotel services for a business, family, or tour group. p.189

Guest Credit Limitsthe maximum amount of money held in a guests folio account to cover expenses
during the stay, commonly used by business travelers with the credited dollar amount prepaid to the hotel by
his or her company.p.204

Guest Cyclethe step-by-step process the guest goes through during a hotel stay.p.46
Guest Folioaccount balanced daily by the night auditor and used to report each guests financial
transactions.p.204

Guest Ledgercollection of all guest folio accounts for registered guests completed by the night auditor and
used to measure a hotels profitability.p.204

H
Hard Skillsskills used to follow established protocols, operate equipment, maintain facilities, and utilize
computer systems. p.23

HazComshort for Hazardous Materials Communication Standard, this OSHA standard lists the
steps necessary for an organization to be in compliance with the use of hazardous chemicals in the
workplace. p.258

Hospitalitythe reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers at resorts; membership clubs,
conventions, attractions, special events; and other services for travelers and tourists. p.6

Human Traffickingthe act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harboring or receiving a person through
a use of force or other means, for the purpose of exploiting them. Exploitation occurs when the person is
forced into illegal acts such as prostitution, unpaid labor, or slavery.p.268

284

Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

I
Identity Theftthe term used for a crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of personal information,
such as Social Security or drivers license numbers, in order to impersonate someone else.p.72
Inclusivenot excluding any particular groups of people.p.12
Infrastructurethe basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization.p.10
Innkeepers Lawslaws passed in the 1700s to protect travelers and overnight guests from inconvenience
and injury. The laws today focus on the hotel operators areas of responsibility such as guest security,
evictions, and discrimination.p.269

Intangible Servicesitems of value to guests such as comfort, safety, and enjoyable experiences that meet
their emotional needs and expectations.p.13

J
Jargonthe vocabulary peculiar to a particular industry, profession, or work group.p.86
Job Performance Standardsa measurable set of goals, objectives, and other elements that can be applied
by an employer to determine the level of performance achieved by each employee.p.50

L
Lead-Time Quantitythe number of purchase units consumed between the time that a supply order is
placed and the time that the order is actually received.p.135

Liabilitythe fault imposed against a business for injuries that occurred on the businesss property or as a
result of negligent activities by employees.p.65

Lodgingto temporarily have a room in a hotel, motel, inn, bed & breakfast, or hostel.p.8

Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

285

M
Managementthe experience, education, and skills combined to provide the leadership to a department or
segment of a business operation.p.26
Marketing Planthe specific actions planned to interest potential clients in a specific product, good, or
service, and to persuade them to buy those items. The marketing plan is used to implement a marketing
strategy.p.224

Market Segmentationsthe process whereby managers divide a varied market into distinctive and relatively
homogenous subgroups or segments such as the convention or family reunion markets.p.226

Meeting Marketbusiness a hotel receives from an outside organization, business, or association wishing to
book meeting/convention/conference room services.p.189
Moments of Truthcritical moments when guests and staff interact, offering opportunities for staff to make
a favorable impression, correct mistakes, and win repeat customers.p.47

Moralsgenerally accepted customs of conduct and right living by a society, or an individuals lifetimelearned personal practices of what is right or wrong.p.38

N
Night Auditthe nightly process that checks, corrects, and balances all accounts for registered hotel
guests.p.202

O
Ordinancescodes created to clearly define how specific regulations or laws will be locally enforced.p.179

286

Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

P
Parthe number of each recycled inventory item that needs to be on hand to support daily, routine
housekeeping operations.p.132

Payment Cardsgroup term used for credit, debit, and cash cards used for all types of financial
transactions.p.72

Performance Standards

a list used to provide the employee with specific performance expectations


for each major duty. They are the observable behaviors and actions that explain how the job is to be
done.p.29

Point of Sale POS)the device or location where a sale or financial transaction occurs.p.74
Portfoliothe contents of a case, such as a three-ring binder, that demonstrate recent work or school
experiences, specialized training, skills, certifications, and awards.p.32

Preventive Maintenance a systematic approach to maintenance in which situations are identified and
corrected on a regular basis to control costs and keep larger problems from occurring.p.152

Price Pointthe price a product is sold for on the retail market.p.169


Profit and Loss P&L) Reporta financial statement that summarizes the revenues, costs, and expenses
incurred by a business during a specific period of time.p.76
Project a positive image and energy.p.60

Property Service Standardsthe standards set to ensure consistent quality guest service in areas such as
safety, cleanliness, courtesy, and efficiency that all employees are expected to use.p.31
Provide above-and-beyond service.p.60

Psychographicsthe analysis of the lifestyle choices and preferences of guests, such as discovering what
would be attractive to families with young children versus older, retired couples, to create a detailed profile
for use in determining which is the best to target as a market segment.p.227

Q
Quality Guest Servicea series of enhanced experiences provided to a guest by a hospitality employee to
raise the level of the guests satisfaction.p.50

Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

287

R
Rack Ratethe term which represents the highest possible rate a guest may be charged for a room.p.202
Reasonable Carethe degree of care that a cautious person would use under like circumstances.p.269
Reorder Pointthe level of inventory when a reorder of inventory items must occur.p.136
Rsuma brief written account of personal, educational, and professional qualifications and experience,
for use by an applicant when applying for a job. p.32
Return on Investment ROI)a performance measurement used to evaluate whether the cost of generating
business produces enough profit to make it worth the investment of money, time, and effort.p.223

Revenue Per Available Room RevPAR)a revenue management statistic that measures the revenuegenerating capability of a hotel. p.106

Rooms-Only Hotelan economy hotel property that has only guestrooms to offer guests; no dining or
recreation options are available on site.p.166

S
Safety Stock Levelthe number of purchase units that must always be on hand for smooth operation in the
event of emergencies, spoilage, unexpected delays in delivery, or other situations.p.135

Seamless Guest Experiencethe smooth flow of each guest activity from one to another without disruption,
resulting in an overall positive feeling of satisfaction. p.46

Self-Esteema persons overall evaluation of his or her own self worth, which can be either positive or
negative.p.39

Sensitive Informationa persons information that is confidential and not available to the public, such
as Social Security Number, a drivers license number or state identification card number, bank account
numbers, or credit/debit card numbers.p.74

Shelter in Placetaking immediate shelter where you areat home, work, or schooland remaining there
until you are told by the authorities it is safe to leave.p.157
Show respect and value for everyone.p.60

Skilled-Levelthe next step in developing specific skills and capabilities that can be transferred from one
position to another.p.26

Soft Skillsdesirable qualities for certain forms of employment that do not depend on acquired knowledge.
They include common sense, the ability to deal with people, and a positive, flexible attitude.p.23

288

Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

Standard Recipea formula for preparing a menu item based on a specific portion size by using guides for
measuring ingredients, cooking/preparation procedures, garnish, and equipment required to produce a menu
item.p.169

Supervisorythe level where experience, training, and initiative are combined to create the ability to lead
employees and satisfy guests.p.26

Sustainable Green Practicesthe concept of taking into consideration the impact business decisions and
practices have on the environment, then finding and implementing methods, materials, or systems that will
minimize that impact over a long period of time.p.140

A
B

C
D

Tangible Servicesservices that provide for guest expectations using the physical assets of the

property.p.13

Target Marketthe market segment for which a property is best suited such as a beachfront property

marketing a special promotion to attract families on vacation.p.226

Tourismtourist travel and the services connected with it, regarded as an industry combined with

hospitality.p.6

L
M
N

Vendoran outside company that provides goods or services to the hotel.p.135

O
P
Q
R
S
T

Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

289

Other Terms You Should Know


Accountability Toola company policy that holds employees accountable for individual behavior, actions,
and duties while on the job.

Casino Hotela type of hotel that attracts guests who enjoy gaming, live entertainment, and other
recreational activities such as golf, tennis, or spa facilities. It used to appeal only to vacation and leisure
travelers, but today, convention and conference visitors account for a large portion of casino hotel business.
p. 17

Catering Managerthe person in charge of the department within the food and beverage division of a
hotel. Responsible for arranging and planning food and beverage functions for conventions and smaller hotel
groups, and local banquets booked by the sales department.
Central Reservation Systems (CRS)a centralized reservation system is responsible for maintaining a
room availability inventory for each property included in the system. Central reservation systems are usually
affiliated, meaning the system is shared by a group of common brands or owners, and non-affiliated for
unrelated properties that wish to share a system to increase business.

Chief Engineerthe person responsible for a hotels physical operation and maintenance. pg. 147
Company Culturethe philosophy, values, behavior, dress codes, etc., that together constitute the unique
style and policies of a company. p. 79

Conference and Convention Centera large civic building or group of buildings designed for conventions,
industrial shows, and the like, having large unobstructed exhibit areas and often including conference
rooms, hotel accommodations, restaurants, and other facilities. p. 17

Chronic Hazarda thing that could cause harm over a long period; for example, a chemical that could
cause cancer or organ damage with repeated use over a long period.
Cruise Shipa large, floating hotel that travels from destination to destination providing the same type of
accommodations, recreation, live entertainment, and amenities as land-based hotels and casinos. Cruises
appeal to guests who prefer to unpack once, have their meals provided, have a choice of recreational/
entertainment options and daily destinations to visit. p. 17

Daily Operations Reporta report, typically prepared by the night auditor, that summarizes the hotels
financial activities during a 24-hour period and provides insight into revenues, receivables, operating
statistics, and cash transactions related to the front office; also known as the managers report.
Economy/Limited Service Hotela hotel that provides clean, comfortable, inexpensive rooms that meet the
basic needs of guests, and appeals to budget-minded travelers.

Electronic Locking Systema locking device that operates by means of electric current, having the
advantages of an electric lock connected to an access control system which includes key control, where keys
can be added and removed without re-keying the lock cylinder; fine access control, where time and place are
factors; and transaction logging, where activity is recorded.

290

Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

Emergency Master Keya key that opens all guestroom doors, even when they are double-locked.
European Plana billing arrangement under which meals are priced separately from rooms. p. 117
Extended Stay Hotelsa type of hotel similar to all-suite hotels but usually offering full kitchens and guest
Laundromat. These amenities appeal to travelers staying longer than five days and who prefer less hotel- and
more apartment-like services.

Food and Beverage Managerthe person who directs the production and service of food and beverages.
Front Office Audita daily comparison of guest accounts and non-guest accounts having activity with
revenue center transaction information.
Front Office Auditoran employee who checks the accuracy of front office accounting records and compiles
a daily summary of hotel financial data as part of the front office audit; in many hotels, the front office
auditor is actually an employee of the accounting division.

General Managerthe chief operating officer of a hotel or restaurant. p. 106


Group Blockan agreed upon number of guestrooms set aside for booking by guests planning to stay as a
group for a set number of days. The rooms are blocked for an expected number of guests. A final count of
actual guests booked is normally required ten days out from the arrival date and all remaining rooms are
released back into the property inventory for sale to other guests.

Global Distribution Systems (GDS)a distribution channel for travel reservations systems that provides
worldwide information about hotel, airline, cruise lines, and car rental availability, and allows agents to sell
travel to destinations around the world.

Greenthe symbolic color of environmentalism that describes all efforts to reduce mans impact on the
natural world.

Guaranteed Reservationa reservation that ensures that the hotel will hold a room until a specific time
of day on the guests scheduled day of arrival; the guest guarantees payment for the room, even if it is not
used, unless the reservation is canceled according to the hotels cancellation policy. p. 111

Guest Servicemeeting customer needs in the way that they want and expect them to be met. p. 13
Hazard Communication (HazCom) StandardOSHAs regulation requiring employers to inform employees
about possible hazards related to chemicals they use on the job. p. 258

Hospitality and Tourism Industrythe service industry that includes lodging, restaurants, event planning,
theme parks, transportation providers, and cruise lines. p. 8
Internet Distribution Systems (IDS)online reservation services that allow travelers to book their own
flights, reserve hotel rooms, and select rental cars using a personal computer. Examples of IDS are Expedia,
Hotwire, Priceline, and Travelocity.

Job Safety Analysisa detailed report that lists every job task performed by all housekeeping employees.
Each job task is further broken down into a list of steps. These steps are accompanied by tips and
instructions on how to perform each step safely. p. 253

Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

291

Labor Coststhe cost of wages paid to employees during a pay period, plus payroll and related taxes and
employee benefits such as health insurance and paid vacation time. p. 256

Late Chargescharged purchases made by guests that are posted to folios after guests have settled their
accounts. p. 114

Late Check-Out Feea charge imposed by some hotels on guests who do not check out by the established
check-out time.

Marketing Managerthe person who develops and implements a marketing plan and budget.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)a form that is supplied by a chemicals manufacturer containing
information about a chemical.

Maximum Quantitythe greatest number of purchase units that should be in stock at any given time.
p. 133

Minimum Quantitythe fewest number of purchase units that should be in stock at any given time. p. 133
Modified American Plana billing arrangement under which the daily rate includes charges for the
guestroom and two mealstypically breakfast and dinner. p. 117

Non-Guaranteed Reservationa reservation agreement in which the hotel agrees to hold a room for the
guest until a stated reservation cancellation hour on the day of arrival; the property is not guaranteed
payment in the case of a no-show. p. 111
Non-Recycled Inventoriesthose items in stock that are consumed or used up during the course of routine
housekeeping operations. Non-recycled inventories include cleaning supplies, small equipment items, guest
supplies, and amenities.

Occupancy Percentagean occupancy ratio that indicates the proportion of rooms sold to rooms available
for sale during a specific period of time. p.211
Occupancy Ratiosa measurement of the success of the hotel in selling rooms; typical occupancy ratios
include average daily rate, revenue per available room, average rate per guest, multiple occupancy statistics,
and occupancy percentage.

Occupancy Reporta report prepared each night by a front desk agent that lists rooms occupied that night
and indicates guests who are expected to check out the following day. p. 139

Occupational Safety and Health Act OSHAa broad set of rules that protects workers in all trades and
professions from a variety of unsafe working conditions. p. 257
Other Travel Accommodationsalternative places where travelers can stay overnight other than hotels, such
as camping, recreational vehicle RV, hostels, travel by water in yachts, sailboats, and cruise ships. p. 17

Overflow Facilitiesa property selected to receive central system reservation requests after room
availabilities in the systems participating properties within a geographic region have been exhausted.

Par Numbera multiple of the standard quantity of a particular inventory item that represents the quantity
of the item that must be on hand to support daily, routine housekeeping operations. p. 133

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Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

Permanent Folioa file used to track guest folio balances that are settled to a credit card company.
Perpetual Inventorya system in which receipts and issues are recorded as they occur; this system provides
readily available information on inventory levels and cost of sales.

Physical Inventorythe act of taking a physical count of all the linen and recording the amounts on an
inventory count sheet. This inventory should be conducted at least quarterly if not monthly. p. 139

Postingthe process of recording transactions on a guest folio.


Productivity Standardan acceptable amount of work that must be done within a specific time frame
according to an established performance standard. p. 125

Property Management System (PMS)a computer software package that supports a variety of applications
related to front office and back office activities. p. 110

Reader Boarda posting or closed-circuit broadcast of daily events at a hotel. p. 113


Sales Managerthe person who conducts sales programs and makes sales calls on prospects for group and
individual business, and reports to the marketing manager. p. 241

Shortagean imbalance that occurs when the total of cash and checks in a cash register drawer is less than
the initial bank plus net cash receipts.

Staffing Guidea system used to establish the number of labor hours needed.
Upsellinga sales technique whereby a guest is offered a more expensive room than what he or she
reserved or originally requested, and then persuaded to rent the room based on the rooms features, benefits,
and his or her needs. p. 245
Vacation Ownership Propertiesa property where a guest will purchase a specific number of weeks or
points that are then applied to the type of accommodations the guest wishes to use. The guest then owns
that guest unit for the same time period every year for however long the ownership is contracted to last.
Many people prefer to vacation at the same time and same place every year, and it was this preference that
led to the development of the vacation ownership property. p. 17

Voucher/MCOa voucher or miscellaneous charge order MCO issued to guests who prepay the deposit
amount to the travel agent. The travel agent then forwards the voucher or MCO to the hotel as a proof of
payment and a guarantee that the prepaid amount will be sent to the hotel when the voucher is returned to
the travel agent following the guests stay. p. 111

Walk-Ina guest who arrives at a hotel without a reservation.


Yield Statisticthe ratio of actual rooms revenue to potential rooms revenue. p. 212

Glossary Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

293

Index

Year 1

294

A
Account Balances, 114
<Advance Deposit Control Account>, 210
Accounts Receivable, 210
Acronyms, 91
Active Shooter, 276
Advance Deposit, 111
Advertising, 22, 49, 227228, 232, 243
Advocacy, 64, 66
Airport Hotels, 16
All-Inclusive Resort, 117, 190
All-Suite Hotels, 16
Amenities, 1617, 78, 104, 122, 127,
132133, 135, 137, 159, 188, 192,
213, 245
American Plan, 117
Americans with Disabilities, 61, 113, 148,
170, 255
Anti-Terrorism, 276
Assets, 124
Audio-Visual, 180
Audit, 102
Automated Inventory Control System, 134
Average Daily Rate (ADR), 106, 205

B
Back of House, 122, 147, 270
Banquets, 17, 180
Bed and Breakfast, 17
Bottom Line, 76
Brand, 58, 6667
Brands, 243
Buffet Service, 175

C
Campgrounds, 188
Carbon Footprint, 213
Career Ladder, 22, 26
Cart Service, 174
Cash Bank, 116117
Cashier, 102, 108, 110
Casual-Dining, 165
Catering, 180
Central Reservation Office (CRO), 108,
111
Check-out, 110, 116
Chef, 192
Chief Engineer, 152, 155
City Ledger Control Folio, 210
Cold Call, 242
Comm Center, 95
Commercial Hotel, 16
Common Law, 269
Compensation, 64
Complaints, 30, 65, 103
Compliance, 254255, 257258

Concierge, 16, 102, 106, 108, 110


Condominium, 16
Conference, 1617, 245
Conference and Convention Center, 17
Control Point, 172
Convention, 241242, 245
Convention/conference sales, 245
Convictions, 39
Cost Centers, 203
Cost Control, 146, 148
Cross-selling, 245
Cruise Lines, 191
Cruise Ships, 17, 191193
Curb Appeal, 150

D
Death, 273
Demographics, 227
Departure, 49
Director of Meeting, Events, and
Convention Sales, 241
Director of Sales, 241
Director of Sales and Marketing, 241
Discretionary Income, 53
Diversity, 12, 18, 53, 61, 232
Dram Shop Laws, 178

E
Economy properties, 102
Elevator Malfunctions, 273
Elevators, 151
E-mail, 35, 49, 86, 91, 242, 256
Emergency Maintenance, 156
Emergency Planning, 146
Emergency Preparedness, 157, 274
Emergency Response Plan, 276
Emotional Engagement, 76
Employee Morale, 92
Energy Conservation and Management,
159
Engineering, 147149
Entry-level, 22, 2627, 50, 149, 156
Equipment, 106, 127, 128
Ethics, 38, 232
European Plan, 117
Evacuation, 263, 275, 276
Executive, 26
Executive Housekeeper, 122125, 132134
Expertise Building, 24
Extended-Stay Hotels, 16

F
Facilities Management, 146, 149150,
156158
Falls, 260
Family-Dining, 165

Family-style Service, 174


Fine-Dining, 165
Fire Extinguishers, 263
Fire Response, 276277
Fires, 106, 157, 263
Fire Safety, 262264
Floor Attendant, 130
Floor Par, 139
Floor Supervisor, 130
Food and Beverage, 103, 147
Forecasting, 106
Four Ps, 224
Fraud, 72, 79
Front Desk Representative, 27, 34, 108,
112, 114
Front Office, 100, 102104, 113
Front of House, 122, 147

G
General Manager, 106, 113
Going Green, 140, 213
Gray Water, 213
Green Practices, 102, 106107, 131133,
158159, 183, 233
Green Team, 141
Group Market, 189
Groups, 11, 1617, 245
Group Sales, 245
Guest Complaints, 65, 113
Guest Credit Limits, 204
Guest Cycle, 59, 70, 7274
Guest Experience, 13, 23, 36, 4647,
5861, 6667, 78, 84, 92, 94, 99,
130, 176, 188
Guest Folio, 110112, 204
Guest Ledger, 204
Guestroom Attendant, 27, 122, 124, 126,
129130, 155
Guestroom Maintenance, 129, 146
Guest Service Gold, 29, 6263

H
HACCP, 173
Hard Skills, 23
Hazardous Materials, 159, 258
Hazardous Materials Communication, 258
Hazardous Materials Management, 159
HazCom, 258
Health and Safety Program, 254
Hospitality, 6
Host or Hostess, 17
Housekeeping, 27, 103, 120, 122140
Housekeeping Manager, 130
Human Trafficking, 268, 276

Index Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

295

Identity Theft, 72, 79, 107


Inclusive, 12
Infrastructure, 10
Innkeepers Laws, 269
Intangible Services, 13
Interdepartmental Communication,
9495, 102, 129
Internet, 3, 7, 16, 74, 111, 233, 242
Interview, 23, 32, 3638
Inventory, 120, 135136
Issuing, 137, 139

National Restaurant Association, 3


Natural Disasters, 157, 276
Night Audit, 102, 114, 202
Night Audit Calculations, 211
Night Auditor, 108, 205, 211212
Non-guaranteed Reservation, 111

Jargon, 86
Job Performance Standards, 50
Job Safety Analysis, 253

Occupancy, 4849, 59, 106, 116


Occupancy Percentage (OP), 205, 212
Occupational Safety, 148, 253254, 257
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA), 148, 254
Operational Safety, 250, 259
Ordinances, 179
Other Travel Accommodations, 17

Keys, 116, 124

Par, 132133, 138


Par Number, 138
Payment, 49, 72, 74
Payment Cards, 72
Performance Standards, 29, 50, 106, 115
Plate Service, 174
Platter Service, 174
Point of Sale (POS), 74, 190
Portfolio, 32, 35
Posting, 114
Power Failures, 103104
Power Outages, 157, 273
Pre-Arrival, 59, 190
Preventive Maintenance, 129, 152155
Price Point, 169
Productivity standard, 125
Profit and Loss (P&L) Report, 76
Property Management System (PMS), 108,
110111, 116
Property Service Standards, 31
Prospecting, 242
Psychographics, 227
Public Space Cleaner, 27, 122, 131
Public Space Supervisor, 131

L
Labor Costs, 156, 168170
Land-Use Planning and Management, 159
Laundry, 138139
Laundry Attendant, 130
Laundry Cycle, 138
Laundry Manager, 130, 138
Law Enforcement, 276
Leadership, 26, 106
Lead time quantity, 135
Liability, 65, 255
Linen, 124, 127, 138139
Linen Room Attendant, 131
Lodging, 8, 25

M
Maintenance, 129, 146, 148, 151155
Management, 26
Marketing, 217218
Marketing Messages, 229230
Marketing Plan, 217, 224
Marketing Tools, 229, 233
Market Segmentations, 226
Medical Emergencies, 273
Meeting Market, 189
Meeting Room Sales, 245
Meth Labs, 276
Minimum Quantity, 135
Modified American Plan, 117
Moments of Truth, 47
Monthly Inventory Count, 134
Morals, 38

296

Q
Quality Guest Service, 50
Quick-Casual, 165
Quick-Service, 165

R
Rack Rate, 202, 212
Reader Board, 113
Reasonable Care, 269

Index Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

Recreational Vehicles (RV), 194


Recycling, 102, 106107, 141, 159, 213
Referrals, 243
Registration Record, 112
Regulatory Compliance, 146, 148, 254255
Relationship Building, 102, 243
Reorder Point, 136
Reservationist, 108
Reservation Record, 108, 111
Residential Hotel, 16
Resort Hotel, 17
Restaurant Servers, 245
Rsum, 32, 3435
Return on Investment (ROI), 223
Revenue Center, 203204
Revenue Per Available Room (RevPAR),
106, 205, 211
Risk Management, 172, 254
Room Inspection, 128
Room Rate, 17, 110112, 114, 117
Rooms-Only Hotel, 166
Routine Inspection, 153
Routine Maintenance, 153, 156

S
Safety and Security, 248, 269270
Safety Stock Level, 135136
Sales, 236, 238245
Sales Department, 238240
Sales Manager, 241
Seamless Guest Experience, 60, 106
Search Engine Optimization (SEO), 230
Security, 203, 266, 268277
Self-Esteem, 39
Sensitive Information, 74
Settlement, 49, 108, 110, 112
Severe Weather, 268, 276
Shelter in Place, 157
Shortage, 137, 138
Skilled-level, 26
Ski Resorts, 190
Slips, 260
Soft Skills, 23, 29, 50
Solid Waste Management, 159
Spa Resorts, 54, 189
Sports and Recreation, 196
Standard Recipe, 169
Strategic Alliances, 243
Suggestive Selling, 245
Supervisor, 27, 124, 130, 131
Supervisory, 26
Sustainable Green Practices, 140, 158

T
Tangible Services, 13
Target Market, 194, 226229
Tent Camping, 194195
Terrorism, 106, 157, 271
Theft, 65, 72, 79, 268, 273
Threat of Violence, 276
Tourism, 6, 8
Tour Operators, 14, 196
Transportation, 3, 6, 1415, 49, 51, 53, 61,
67, 78, 102, 108, 197, 242, 244
Trips, 260
Turndown Attendant, 130

U
Uniformed Services, 16, 102, 108, 270271
Upselling, 245
User Registration Database (URD), 230

V
Vacation Ownership Properties, 17
Vendor, 67, 108, 135, 156, 233, 244245
Verbal Communication, 8687

W
Walk-in, 150, 183
Waste-Water Management, 159
Water Conservation, 158159
Weapons, 271, 276

Index Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

297

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Photo

Year 1

Cover iStock.com/Rapid Eye Media


298

All photographs and images in this textbook are presented for educational purposes only and should not be
considered actual materials or settings. All images are copyrighted, and penalties apply to any use other than
this textbooks purpose.
Comstock, 264, 298
Educational Institute, 63, 88, 111, 125, 127, 128, 132, 135, 137, 138, 144, 150, 151, 155, 156, 170, 171, 172, 249, 250,
258, 259, 260, 262, 266, 275
Getty Images, Inc., 44, 45, 56, 57, 238, 280
iStock.com, 3, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 35, 53, 54, 60, 64, 65, 66, 67, 70, 74, 77, 78, 82, 85, 88, 89, 90, 99, 107, 109, 117,
120, 125, 140, 162, 165, 166, 168, 183, 191, 192, 193, 194, 196, 197, 200, 217, 218, 222, 223, 232, 236, 238, 239, 241,
242, 253
SafetySmart/Fox Television, 256
ShutterStock.com, 8, 10, 12, 16, 78, 151, 175, 180, 186, 189, 190, 192, 238, 294
Veer, 100

The American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute (EI) would like to thank the following which were
gracious in permitting EI to photograph their properties.
Courtyard by Marriott Orlando Downtown 730 North Magnolia Avenue, Orlando, FL
Courtyard Orlando Lake Buena Vista in the Marriott Village 8623 Vineland Avenue, Orlando, FL
Hilton Orlando 6001 Destination Parkway, Orlando, FL
Nickelodeon Suites Resort 14500 Continental Gateway, Orlando, FL
Reunion Resort 7593 Gathering Drive, Reunion, FL
JW Marriott Orlando 4040 Central Florida Parkway, Orlando, FL

Photo Credits Hospitality and Tourism Management Program

299