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vonMisesyieldcriterion

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ThevonMisesyieldcriterion[1]suggeststhattheyieldingofmaterialsbeginswhentheseconddeviatoricstressinvariant
reachesacriticalvalue.Forthisreason,itissometimescalledthe plasticityor flowtheory.Itispartofaplasticitytheorythat
appliesbesttoductilematerials,suchasmetals.Priortoyield,materialresponseisassumedtobeelastic.
InmaterialsscienceandengineeringthevonMisesyieldcriterioncanbealsoformulatedintermsofthevonMisesstressor
equivalenttensilestress, ,ascalarstressvaluethatcanbecomputedfromtheCauchystresstensor.Inthiscase,amaterialissaid
tostartyieldingwhenitsvonMisesstressreachesacriticalvalueknownastheyieldstrength, .ThevonMisesstressisusedto
predictyieldingofmaterialsunderanyloadingconditionfromresultsofsimpleuniaxialtensiletests.ThevonMisesstresssatisfies
thepropertythattwostressstateswithequaldistortionenergyhaveequalvonMisesstress.
BecausethevonMisesyieldcriterionisindependentofthefirststressinvariant, ,itisapplicablefortheanalysisofplastic
deformationforductilematerialssuchasmetals,astheonsetofyieldforthesematerialsdoesnotdependonthehydrostatic
componentofthestresstensor.
AlthoughformulatedbyMaxwellin1865,itisgenerallyattributedtoRichardEdlervonMises(1913).[1][2]TytusMaksymilian
Huber(1904),inapaperinPolish,anticipatedtosomeextentthiscriterion.[3][4]Thiscriterionisalsoreferredtoasthe
MaxwellHuberHenckyvonMisestheory.

Contents
1Mathematicalformulation
2ReducedvonMisesequationfordifferentstressconditions
3PhysicalinterpretationofthevonMisesyieldcriterion
4ComparisonwithTrescayieldcriterion
5Seealso
6References

Mathematicalformulation
MathematicallythevonMisesyieldcriterionisexpressedas:

where istheyieldstressofthematerialinpureshear.Asshown
laterinthisarticle,attheonsetofyielding,themagnitudeofthe
shearyieldstressinpureshearis3timeslowerthanthetensile
yieldstressinthecaseofsimpletension.Thus,wehave:

where istheyieldstrengthofthematerial.Ifwesetthevon
Misesstressequaltotheyieldstrengthandcombinetheabove
equations,thevonMisesyieldcriterioncanbeexpressedas:

or

ThevonMisesyieldsurfacesinprincipalstresscoordinates
circumscribesacylinderwithradius

aroundthehydrostatic

axis.AlsoshownisTresca'shexagonalyieldsurface.

Substituting

withtermsoftheCauchystresstensorcomponents

Thisequationdefinestheyieldsurfaceasacircularcylinder(SeeFigure)whoseyieldcurve,orintersectionwiththedeviatoricplane,
isacirclewithradius

,or

.Thisimpliesthattheyieldconditionisindependentofhydrostaticstresses.

ReducedvonMisesequationfordifferentstressconditions
Theaboveequationcanbereducedandreorganizedforpracticaluseindifferent
loadingscenarios.
Inthecaseofuniaxialstressorsimpletension,
Misescriterionsimplyreducesto

,thevon

,
whichmeansthematerialstartstoyieldwhen reachestheyieldstrengthofthe
material ,andisinagreementwiththedefinitionoftensile(orcompressive)yield
strength.
ItisalsoconvenienttodefineanEquivalenttensilestressorvonMisesstress, ,
whichisusedtopredictyieldingofmaterialsundermultiaxialloadingconditions
usingresultsfromsimpleuniaxialtensiletests.Thus,wedefine
IntersectionofthevonMisesyieldcriterion
withthe
plane,where

where

arethecomponentsofthestressdeviatortensor

.
Inthiscase,yieldingoccurswhentheequivalentstress, ,reachestheyieldstrengthofthematerialinsimpletension, .Asan
example,thestressstateofasteelbeamincompressiondiffersfromthestressstateofasteelaxleundertorsion,evenifboth
specimensareofthesamematerial.Inviewofthestresstensor,whichfullydescribesthestressstate,thisdifferencemanifestsinsix
degreesoffreedom,becausethestresstensorhassixindependentcomponents.Therefore,itisdifficulttotellwhichofthetwo
specimensisclosertotheyieldpointorhasevenreachedit.However,bymeansofthevonMisesyieldcriterion,whichdepends
solelyonthevalueofthescalarvonMisesstress,i.e.,onedegreeoffreedom,thiscomparisonisstraightforward:AlargervonMises
valueimpliesthatthematerialisclosertotheyieldpoint.
Inthecaseofpureshearstress,

,whileallother

,vonMisescriterionbecomes:

.
Thismeansthat,attheonsetofyielding,themagnitudeoftheshearstressinpureshearis
timeslowerthanthetensilestressin
thecaseofsimpletension.ThevonMisesyieldcriterionforpureshearstress,expressedinprincipalstresses,is

Inthecaseofplanestress,

,thevonMisescriterionbecomes:

Thisequationrepresentsanellipseintheplane

,asshownintheFigureabove.

ThefollowingtablesummarizesvonMisesyieldcriterionforthedifferentstressconditions.
Load
scenario

Restrictions

SimplifiedvonMisesequation

General Norestrictions
Principal
Norestrictions
stresses
General
plane
stress
Principal
plane
stress
Pure
shear

Uniaxial

Notes:
Subscripts1,2,3canbereplacedwithx,y,z,orotherorthogonalcoordinatesystem
Shearstressisdenotedhereas inpracticeitisalsodenotedas

PhysicalinterpretationofthevonMisesyieldcriterion
Hencky(1924)offeredaphysicalinterpretationofvonMisescriterionsuggestingthatyieldingbeginswhentheelasticenergyof
distortionreachesacriticalvalue.[4]Forthisreason,thevonMisescriterionisalsoknownasthemaximumdistortionstrainenergy
criterion.Thiscomesfromtherelationbetween andtheelasticstrainenergyofdistortion
:
withtheelasticshearmodulus

In1937[5]ArpadL.Nadaisuggestedthatyieldingbeginswhentheoctahedralshearstressreachesacriticalvalue,i.e.theoctahedral
shearstressofthematerialatyieldinsimpletension.Inthiscase,thevonMisesyieldcriterionisalsoknownasthemaximum
octahedralshearstresscriterioninviewofthedirectproportionalitythatexistsbetween andtheoctahedralshearstress,
,
whichbydefinitionis

thuswehave

ComparisonwithTrescayieldcriterion
AlsoshowninthefigureisTresca'smaximumshearstresscriterion(dashedline).ObservethatTresca'syieldsurfaceis
circumscribedbyvonMises's.Therefore,itpredictsplasticyieldingalreadyforstressstatesthatarestillelasticaccordingtothevon
Misescriterion.Asamodelforplasticmaterialbehavior,Tresca'scriterionisthereforemoreconservative.

Seealso
Yieldsurface
HenriTresca
MohrCoulombtheory
Yield(engineering)
Stress
Strain
3Delasticity

References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

vonMises,R.(1913).MechanikderfestenKrperimplastischdeformablenZustand.Gttin.Nachr.Math.Phys.,vol.1,pp.582592.
Ford,AdvancedMechanicsofMaterials,Longmans,London,1963
Huber,M.(1903).Specicworkofstrainasameasureofmaterialeort,TowarzystwoPolitechniczne,Czas.Techniczne,Lww
.TheMathematicalTheoryofPlasticity.Oxford,ClarendonPress
S.M.A.Kazimi.(1982).SolidMechanics.TataMcGrawHill.ISBN0074517155

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