MATHEMATICAL TEXTBOOKS
By G.
A.
WENTWORTH,
A.M.
Mental Arithmetic.
Elementary Arithmetic.
Practical Arithmetic.
Primary Arithmetic.
Grammar School
Arithmetic.
Higher Algebra.
New Plane Geometry.
New Plane and Solid Geometry.
Syllabus of Geometry.
Geometrical Exercises.
Plane and Solid Geometry and Plane Trigonometry.
New Plane Trigonometry.
New Plane Trigonometry, with Tables.
New Plane and Spherical Trigonometry.
New Plane and Spherical Trig., with Tables.
New Plane and Spherical Trig., Surv., and Nav.
New Plane Trig, and Surv., with Tables.
New Plane and Spherical Trig., Surv., with Tables.
Analytic Geometry.
TEXTBOOK
OF
GEOMETBY
REVISED EDITION.
BY
G. A.
WENTWORTH,
A.M.,
BOSTON,
U.S.A.:
G. A.
WENT WORTH,
TYPOGBAPHT BY
J. S.
GUSHING &
Co.,
Co.,
BOSTON, U.S.A.
BOSTON, U.B.A.
PREFACE.
***
of abstraction
requisite
and do not
for
in
avoided
pre
and pleasure.
treatise, the
as
experience and
shown
more
is
view.
in
;
power
for
argument.
etry, it
and
tions,
possess,
to
to be
render
but it is helieved
tion, which every child derives from observation
that these notions have been limited and denned with mathematical
;
precision.
for
utility in
for operations,
giving
style
have
and per
their introduction.
large and
distinct,
dotted,
and the
employed
The given
327374
PREFACE.
iv
stration
what
is
given
is
The reason
another.
still
is
for
each
demon
indicated in
is
step
printed
email type between that step and the one following, thus preventing
the necessity of interrupting the process of the argument
to a previous section.
is
The number
in the
construction of
referring
on which
The constituent
by
a demonstration.
necessary to turn the page in reading
This arrangement presents obvious advantages.
at once
what
is
is
to the figure
required, readily refers
reason,
and
lays
Geom
a foundation
for
completely
establishing
the
science.
which he
exercises
is
may
in
the
reproduce them
in
work
commit
of these
in order
and
to acquire a readiness in
much
to the
mem
to
an examination
cations,
eo
and to
ory a number of theorems
is
Some
appli
is
to
mental faculties.
G. A.
EXETER, N.H.
1878.
WENTWORTH.
PEEFACE.
TO THE TEACHER.
WHEN
the pupil
well to let
guage
Book
reading each
is
in his
own
be
lan
that the
and
the
cultivate
will allow
After a
in this
be required to
draw the
line
He
should be
be true to demonstrate
it
which may
to questions
The Teacher
is
and
also
to
strongly advised
to
stant base
b,
and a variable
altitude
x,
and
false,
if
the converse
many
propositions.
illustrate,
geometrically and
variable
also a variable
is
If x
is
to
asked him on
be.
to
possible,
He
figures freehand.
the
indicate
of neat
habit
and a
zero for
limit, the
a limit.
if,
An
arithmetical
may
be
etc.,
PREFACE.
VI
3 3 3
To o
ff&gt;
rVtiW
te&gt;
is
also 20.
Again,
series
^,
if
we multiply 60
yfo,
^uW
^inr.
as a limit,
we
In
this
way
the
pupil
The Teacher
is
may
led
to
a complete compre
tions.
easily be
limits.
difficult,
and
sufficient time
should be
for
if
book be allowed.
G. A.
EXETER, N.H.
1879.
W.
PKEFACE.
VI}
worn
out.
plates, the
all
of the
for
new
former edition.
few
in
form than before, and the treatment of Limits and of Loci has been
made
as easy of
comprehension as possible.
edition.
struction,
adapted
to
beginners.
loci,
problems of con
carefully graded
and
specially
it
he becomes acquainted
The author
has observed with the greatest satisfaction the rapid growth of the
demand
for original
exercises,
and he
The part on Solid Geometry has been treated with much greater
freedom than before, and the formal statement of the reasons
for the
separate steps has b efen in general omitted, for the purpose of giving a
A
and
tb the demonstrations.
brief treatise on
is
issued in
if
that arrangement
is
found to be gen
PREFACE.
Vili
this
Geometry heretofore by
up
work
The author
is
indebted to
many
gestions
W. Le
Mo.;
J.
M. Taylor,
J.
L. Patterson, of Lawrenceville,
bridge, Mass.
bridge, Mass.
New
T.
M.
De Long,
N.
G. A. Hill,
J.;
Ira M.
of Hamilton, N.Y.
G.
of Boulder, Col.
W.
of
Cam
Sawin, of Cain
and W.
J.
Lloyd, of
York, N.Y.
EXETER, N.H.,
1888.
WENTWORTH.
CONTENTS.
GEOMETRY.
PAGE
DEFINITIONS
STRAIGHT LINES
PLANE ANGLES
"l
.
MAGNITUDE or ANGLES
.10
ANGULAR UNITS
METHOD or SUPERPOSITION
11
.
SYMMETRY
13
MATHEMATICAL TERMS
14
POSTULATES
AXIOMS
SYMBOLS
15
.16
16
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
I.
THE STRAIGHT
LINE.
17
PARALLEL LINES
22
33
TRIANGLES
40
QUADRILATERALS
56
POLYGONS IN GENERAL
66
EXERCISES
72
CONTENTS.
BOOK
THE
II.
CIRCLE.
PAGE
75
DEFINITIONS
77
TANGENTS
89
MEASUREMENT.
92
THEORY or LIMITS
94
.98
MEASURE or ANGLES
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION
106
EXERCISES
126
BOOK
III.
THEORY OF PROPORTION
131
PROPORTIONAL LINES
138
SIMILAR TRIANGLES
145
SIMILAR POLYGONS
153
156
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION
167
PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION
173
EXERCISES
175
BOOK
IV.
AREAS OF POLYGONS.
AREAS OF POLYGONS
180
COMPARISON OF POLYGONS
188
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION
192
PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION
204
EXERCISES
205
BOOK
V.
CIRCLES.
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
209
...
.230
...
....
.
.
222
240
237
GEOMETRY.
DEFINITIONS.
1,
wood
If a block of
sented in Fig.
Each
face
1, it
will
the
of
have
block
called
The edge
in
of these surfaces
meet
is
meet
is
called a line.
3,
The corner
at
lines
called a point.
4,
For computing
principal directions
its
is
measured
in three
A
A
A
to
B.
to C.
to
D.
(height or depth).
2, .
*;*:
;*
&gt;;
:"
solid, therefore,
...GEOMETRY.
and
thickness.
It is
surface of a solid is no part of the solid.
there
solid.
the
of
or
limit
the
surface,
boundary
simply
and breadth. So that,
fore, has only two dimensions, length
number of flat surfaces be put together, they will
if
5,
The
any
simply a boundary
has only one dimen
So that, if any number of straight lines be put
length.
line.
they will coincide and form one
line
is
no part of a surface.
It is
line, therefore,
together,
7,
point
the line.
is
no part of a
point,
therefore,
line.
So that, if
position simply.
coincide and form a single point.
together, they will
solid,
other way.
body, or marked out in some
A geometrical solid is
9,
It
points,
ideal,
Hence,
must be
lines,
or on the
material way.
Lines, for example, drawn on paper
and
some
and
thickness,
width
blackboard, will have some
to
used
are
when
they
will so far fail of being true lines; yet,
it is assumed that they represent
help the mind in reasoning,
and without thickness.
breadth
without
perfect lines,
DEFINITIONS.
10,
letters,
as
BF;
by a
is
point
named by a
letter, as
(Fig. 2)
a line
fine dot,
and
named by two
is
bound
11,
by the
faces
which
FlQ
it.
By
it
vanishes we may
If a point
and may
13,
moves continuously
This line
moving
surface
in space,
may
and
as of unlimited extent.
solid
may
solid.
motion.
ABCD
points A, B, C,
the lines AE,
respectively.
CD, and
faces
AD
and
EFGH.
The
lines
AB, BC,
~"~
D will generate
The
D
A
A~"~"
~"
"
yF
The
surface
ABCD will
15,
Geometry
is
and magnitude.
16,
and
solids,
GEOMETRY.
17,
18,
curved
19,
line is a line
no part of which
as the line
is
is
straight,
CD.
broken line
is
a series
of different successive
straight
lines, as the line
ER
20,
lines, as
A
line,
mixed
line is
the line
straight line
a curve.
FlG
GH.
is
line,
and a curved
will lie
22,
curved surface
is
is
plane.
With
reference to
form
and
With
reference to extent,
lines,
surfaces,
and
solids
are
called magnitudes.
25,
A plane figure
is
same plane.
26,
tilinear
curvilinear figures
and those formed
lines are called mixtilinear figures.
;
DEFINITIONS.
in
STRAIGHT LINES.
29,
may
30,
Through a point an
be drawn.
31,
lines
determined
of straight lines
if its
and a point
is
known
and one
direction
and form
one,
the
but one
same point
and only
32,
Two
one point
coincide
extent,
and form
in the
in other words, a
straight line
whole
of
line.
is
determined
throughout their
in the
in other
Hence,
of the line
direction coincide,
can be drawn
if
is
known.
All straight
same
number
line are
its
indefinite
but one
coincide
line.
and not
line,
GEOMETRY.
34,
straight line determined by
as prolonged indefinitely both ways.
Often only the part of the line between two fixed points
This part is then called a segment of the line.
considered.
AB"
to designate a
segment
and B.
38,
Every straight
is
39,
If the
&
"line
expressed by saying
AB, the
line, as
expressed by saying
line
AB";
"line
and from
BA"
magnitude of a given
line is changed, it
longer or shorter.
becomes
B we add GB to AC,
AB to C, we subtract
AC=AB
magnitude
is
multi
it is
prolonged by
its
own
plied,
is
Hence,
line.
Thus
(Fig.
6),
AC=2AB, AD = ZAB,
if
and
DEFINITIONS.
Lines of given length
may
also be multiplied
be
may
and
divided by a number.
PLANE ANGLES.
40, The opening between two straight lines which meet is
The two lines are called the sides, and
called a plane angle.
the point of meeting, the vertex, of the angle.
41.
it is designated by a cap
placed at the vertex, and is
read by simply naming the letter
as,
given vertex,
ital letter
FIG.
7.
angle
(Fig. 7).
DA
sides
AD and AC.
FIG
Two
if
they
FIG.
angle
If the line
BAG into
AD (Fig.
two equal
8)
is
parts,
drawn
BAD
so as to divide the
and CAD,
AD
is
a bisector of
it.
GEOMETRY.
44.
Two
tween them
and
AOD
45,
as,
side be
the angles
BOD
(Fig. 10).
When
one
straight
line
FIG. 10.
equal
angles
DCA
angles is
Thus, the
DOB
and
C
46,
When
FIG. 11.
the sides of an an
CA
sides
its
and
CB
a straight angle.
is
A perpendicular to
makes a
is
a right angle,
pendicular to
DC
is
DCA
it.
perpendicular to
AB, and
AB
is
per
DC.
49.
gle
is
as,
angle
C (Fig.
13).
DEFINITIONS.
(Fig. 14).
FIG.
52,
FIG. 14.
13.
and straight
and inter
angles, are called oblique angles
secting lines that are not perpendicular to each other are
called oblique lines.
right
53,
When
and
gles.
54,
Two
angles
are
called
FlQ
and each
is
called the
complement
10).
55, Two
angles are called supplementary when their sum is
equal to a straight angle and each is called the supplement
of the other as,
and
angles
10).
;
DOB
DO A
(Fig.
MAGNITUDE OF ANGLES.
56,
The
of its sides,
size of
GEOMETRY.
10
line
the angle
AOC depends
angle
OA
OA
position
dicular to
angle
OA,
AOB
to the position
OB, perpen
it
if it
AOD
OD,
it
tion
OA
AOA
AOB
OB
the position
by the dotted line
,
and
if it
continues
its
tion
or
ANGULAR
57,
If
we suppose
00
(Fig.
from a position
turn about
OA
UNITS.
17) to
coinci
it makes a com
comes again into
and
plete revolution
dent with
until
coincidence with
OA,
it
will describe
whole
the point
ference.
11
DEFINITIONS.
58, By adopting a suitable unit of angles
express the magnitudes of angles in numbers.
we
are able to
of a revolution,
it
generated when
is
00
an angle of 180
is
generated when
has
made
is
00
written, 5
has
made
13
12".
onefourth
a straight angle is
of
a revolution and
onehalf
90;
00
contains 360.
is
But
is
divisible
by
so
many
METHOD OF
is
different integral
numbers.
SUPERPOSITION.
its sides.
GEOMETEY.
12
ABC
kind.
the side
ED be placed
on
shall fall
B;
then,
on the side
if
BA,
the side
if
is
if
is
BC
Thus,
AB
AD
D
#
FlQ 19

equal to the
sum
of
AB
C
/
B
FIG. 20.
Again
we have
E
DEF will take the position CBH, and the angles DEF
the vertex
angle
if
FIG. 21.
on
and
If the vertex J
is
13
DEFINITIONS.
SYMMETRY.
60, Two points are said to be symmetrical with respect to a
third point, called the centre of sym\p
metry, if this third point bisects the
FlQ 22
straight line which joins them. Thus,
as a centre, if C
are symmetrical with respect to
and
p&gt;
PP
1
.
this
line
straight
bisects
at
right
rical
if
with respect to
XX
XX
62,
bisects
PP
as an axis,
at right angles.
said to be
sym
AB
point in
ABO,
with respect to
as
ABO
as a centre.
If
63,
ABC
ABO,
axis,
with respect to
the figure
cal to
an
AB
axis.
A JB C
XX
is
an
as
symmetri
with respect to
XX
as
GEOMETRY.
14
64,
spect to a point,
metrical with
to
respect
line
sym
this straight
line.
FIG. 27.
MATHEMATICAL TERMS.
66,
proof or demonstration
falsity
of
is
a course of reasoning by
any statement
is
logically
established.
67,
68,
theorem
is
a statement to be proved.
that which
An
axiom
is
is
admitted
without proof.
70,
construction
is
metrical figure.
71,
A problem is
72,
The
a question to be solved.
the con
analysis, or course of thought by which
(1)
struction of the required figure is discovered
of the figure with the aid of ruler and
(2) The construction
The
compasses
(3)
tions;
15
DEFINITIONS.
The
(4)
is
which often
exist,
possible.
73,
74,
a problem.
75,
sition to
corollary
which
76,
is
it is
scholium
is
of a proposition.
The
77,
its
converse of a
theorem
is
formed by interchanging
Thus,
is
equal to B,
is
equal to D.
(Direct.)
If
is
equal to
is
equal to B.
(Converse.)
78,
The
If
negative of
A
If A
If
79,
D,
opposite of a proposition is
its
hypothesis and
is
equal to
is
not equal to B,
B,
The converse
is
its
equal to D. (Direct.)
is not
equal to D. (Opposite.)
of a truth
is
POSTULATES.
81,
Let
be granted
That a straight
any other point.
2.
That a straight
1.
to
it
line
line
or can be terminated at
3.
any point.
That a circumference may be described about any point
GEOMETRY.
16
AXIOMS.
82.
1.
to the
to
each other.
2.
If equals are
3.
If equals are
added
to equals the
If equals are
5.
6.
each other.
things, are equal to
are
halves of the
which
7.
Things
same thing, or
or equal
of equal
to each other.
things, are equal
8.
9.
The whole
The whole
is
is
its parts.
taken together.
83,
increased by.
diminished by.
Def.
X multiplied by.
Ax.
... axiom.
f
divided by.
is
Cor.
=:=
is
is
Adj.
Iden.
is
&lt;
..
Cons.
hypothesis.
corollary.
adjacent.
identical.
construction.
supplementary.
therefore.
Sup.
angle.
Bangles.
_L perpendicular.
Alt.int.
Jl perpendiculars.
Ex.
II
parallel.
lie
parallels.
A triangle.
A triangles.
definition.
Hyp.
=
&gt;
circles.
circle.
parallelogram.
17 parallelograms.
alternateinterior.
...
rt
right.
st
Q.E.D.
Q.E.F.
exercise.
straight.
.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
I.
THE STRAIGHT
PROPOSITION
84i
I.
LINE.
THEOREM.
ABCA =
To prove
Proof,
C shall
Apply the
fall
to the Z.
Then
(because
Z ECA
FED.
GA
Therefore the
will coincide
Z EGA
is
with
ED,
equal to the
points common).
Z FED.
59
Q. E. D.
85,
COR.
1.
86,
COR.
2.
87,
COR.
3.
COR.
4.
88,
At a given point
perpendicular, and only one, can
89,
COR.
HINT.
draw
Ax.
5.
in
a given
equal.
7.
Ax. 3.
be erected.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
18
PROPOSITION
II.
BOOK
I.
THEOREM.
To prove
AOB
Proof.
the
is
a straight
Z AOB
is
line.
st.
Hyp.
46
Z.
But
/.
the
Ax. 9
55
Q. E. D.
COR.
The sum of
to
about a point
number
of lines
a point in a plane
is
is
which
equal
PROPOSITION
93.
CONVERSELY
ments of each
same
19
THEOREM.
III.
straight line.
AC
A C and CB in
Suppose
CF to
the
same
rt. A.
straight line.
Then
81
90
But
.
Z 0CF= Z
Then
.*.
94.
CB
and
A C and CB are
common
Ax. 1
Z OCA.
0C5.
Ax. 3
CF coincide.
in the
same straight
Hyp.
OCB.
II.
and
line.
III.
Q.E. D.
are true,
80
namely,
If the exterior sides of two adjacent angles are not in a
straight line, these angles are not supplements of each other.
If two adjacent angles are not supplements of each other,
;
same
straight line.
20
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION IV.
THEOREM.
I.
C.
Z OCB = Z ACP.
Z OCA + Z OCB = 2
Proof,
(being sup.adj.
rt.
90
A,
90
A)
AACP=2rt.
(being sup.adj.
A,
).
Ax.
common
Z OCB Z ACP.
Then
In like manner we
Z OCA.
Ax. 3
may prove
Q. E. D.
96.
COR.
the
If one of the four angles formed by
of two straight
right angles.
lines is
intersection
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION V.
97.
From a
21
can be drawn
one,
to this line.
JT
D\
\
V
Let P be the point and AB the line.
To prove that one perpendicular, and only
from Pto AB.
one,
can be drawn
AB
AB
Proof,
an axis until
P takes.
position,
D in
PDP
POP
is a straight line,
(Between two points only one straight
Z PCP is
Turn the
Then
.
PD and P D,
st.
figure
CP will
Z, and
POD
line
Z PDP
about
coincide with
is not a
straight line.
can be drawn.)
is
not a
st.
OP, and
P.
DP with DP.
59
..
the
Z.
PZ&gt;C,
PZ&gt;^,
.*.
PC
is
one
_L,
to
^15, and
and only
PD
is
one, can be
not _L to
AB.
drawn from
P to
47
AB.
Q.E.D,
PLANE GEOMETRY.
22
BOOK!
I.
PARALLEL LINES.
98,
DEF.
lie in
the same
plane and do not meet however far they are prolonged in both
directions.
99,
lie in
when
they are on the same side of the straight line joining their ori
when they are on opposite sides
gins, and in opposite directions
of the straight line joining their origins.
PROPOSITION VI.
100, Two straight lines in the same plane perpen
dicular to the same straight line are parallel.
B
Proof.
AB
and
CD
if
shall
but this
is
97
impossible.
and only
(From a given point without a straight line, one perpendicular,
one, can be drawn to the straight line.}
.
Q.E.D.
AB
REMARK. Here
AB
they
method.
101,
to
a given straight
line,
line.
and only
23
PAEALLEL LINES.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION VII.
H
M
ar
ar
K
Let AB and EF be
perpendicular to
HK\_EF.
To prove
Proof,
Then
HK be
(7J_ to
HK.
100
EFia
But
/.
(through the
that
EF,
to
AB.
line
EF.
101
\\
to
a given
line).
Q.E.D.
AB
If
CD
Hyp.
MN,
can be drawn
.ffiTis J_ to
is,
103,
and
EF
\\
coincides with
called
transversal,
are
eight angles formed,
as follows
the
named
The angles
interior
b,
c,
g are called
h are called ex
a, d, f,
e,
terior angles.
angles.
24
PLANE GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION VIII.
BOOK
I.
THEOREM.
Let EF and
GH
Z.B = /.Q.
To prove
Proof.
drawn J_
Then
Through
to
AD
is
likewise _L to
that
is,
Apply
of
AD
BC, suppose
GH.
102
EF,
Us is _L to
to
the other),
AD.
so that
OD shall
fall
on OA.
00 will
Then
(since
and
95
on OB,
fall
/. COD = Z BOA,
being vertical
A)
the point
(since
Then
the J_
CD
/.
OCD
coincides with
Z OB A,
and
is
97
BA,
can be drawn}.
equal to
59
it.
Q. E. D.
Ex.
it is
Ex.
is
1.
if it is
double
its
complement
if
onefourth of
2.
onethird of
its
supplement.
if it is
double
its
supplement
if it
PAKALLEL
25
LINES./
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION IX.
When two
CONVERSELY
MA
\f/
AB
To prove
Proof,
Suppose
then
II
to
CD.
MN drawn through H
Z MHK= Z HKD,
(being
alt.int.
of
II
II
to
CD
104
lines).
Z AHK= Z HKD.
/. Z MHK= Z AHK.
But
MNis
But
.*.
AB, which
II
to
101
Hyp.
Ax.
AB coincide.
CD.
coincides with
JOT,
Cons.
is
II
to
QD.
Q.E. D.
Ex.
3.
How many
clock at 2 o clock
by the hands of a
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
26
PROPOSITION X.
106,
line,
I.
THEOREM.
by the
Z EHB = Z HKD.
Z EHB = Z AHK,
To prove
Proof,
95
Z AHK= Z HKD,
But
(being alt.int.
Aof\\
104
lines).
Ax.
In like manner we
may
prove
Z EHA = Z HKC.
COR. The alternateexterior angles
107,
and
also
Ex.
4.
Q. E. D.
EHB
and CKF,
is
bisected,
and
if
a line
is
vertex perpendicular
the sides of the given angle.
with
5.
If the bisectors of
PARALLEL LINES.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION XI.
CONVERSELY
27
When two
ly a third straight
H and K,
AB
To prove
Proof,
Suppose
CD.
to
\\
MN drawn through
5"
II
to
CD.
Z EHN= Z HKD,
Then
(being ext.int.
But
.
of
II
106
lines).
Z EHB = Z HKD.
Z EHB = Z EHN.
.the lines
JOT"
MNia
But
.
.AB, which
and
II
to
101
Hyp.
Ax.
AB coincide.
CD.
coincides with
MN,
Cons.
is
II
to
CD.
Q. E. D.
Ex.
6.
The
bisector of one of
two
28
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XII.
THEOREM.
I.
B
straight line
To prove
Z BIIK+ Z HKD = 2
Proof,
Z EHB + Z EHK = 2
(being sup.adj.
rt.
rt.
A
4
90
zt).
Z EHB = Z HKD,
But
(being ext.int.
Substitute
Z HKD
Z
then
for
of
II
Z EHB in
106
lines).
the
BHK+ Z HKD  2
first
rt.
equality
A.
Q. E. D.
AHE
Ex.
9.
tary angles.
bisectors of adjacent
complemen
PARALLEL LINES.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION XIII.
CONVERSELY
110.
29
When two
angles.
AB
To prove
Proof,
Suppose
Then
to
II
CD.
MN drawn through H
NHK+ HKD = 2
Z.
to
\\
rt.
CD.
109
A,
Z.BHK+HKL = 2rt.A.
But
Hyp.
.Z.NHK+Z.HKD = Z.BHK+Z.HKD.
Z.
.
NHK=
the lines
MNis
But
.
AB,
Z.
AB and
II
to
common
Z.
BHK.
MN
HKD
Ax. 3
coincide.
CD.
Ax.
MN,
Cons.
is
II
to
CD.
Q.E.O.
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
30
I.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION XIV.
to
straight lines which are parallel
other.
each
to
are
line
parallel
straight
Ill,
Two
a third
K
Let AB and CD be parallel
AB
To prove
Proof,
Since
(if
a straight
Since
to EF.
CD.
to
II
Suppose
HK drawn _L
CD
EF are
and
to
line is
AB
and
EF are
II,
Ex
10.
It has
lines
AB
is
II
97
EF.
_L to
Us, it is J_ to
rt.
to
102
CD,
fflTis also _L to
(each being a
..
HKis
II,
one of two
to
AB.
Z).
108
CD,
if
102
two
cut
parallels are
Q.
by a
E D
trans*
rems.
PARALLEL
XV.
PKOPOSITION
31
LINES.
THEOREM.
fcr
r
F
Let AB be parallel
and BC
to EF,
to
MN.
Proof,
sect at
Prolong
(if
necessary)
to
Z MHF,
BO and FE until
D.
they inter
81 (2)
Z B = Z EDO,
Z DHN= Z ^D(7.
Then
and
(being
ext.int.
A of
II
and
106
106
ines),
and
is
is
Z ^,
Z DJ77V,
of Z EHM and of Z NHF.
which
the supplement
is
equal to
Q. E. D.
REMARK. The
when both
pairs
of parallel sides
in the
same
vertices.
direction,
in opposite directions,
from their
32
113,
Two
PLANE GEOMETKY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XVI.
THEOREM.
I.
K
F
and AC
Let AB be perpendicular
to FD,
Z BAG
Z DFG,
To prove
equal
to
to GI.
and supplementary
to
/.DPI.
Proof,
Suppose
AKis
Then
AK drawn _L
to
\\
to
to
AC.
100
112
(two angles are equal. whose sides are
from
II
and extend
their vertices).
The
.
is
87
(complements of equal angles are equal).
. .
Z DFI,
the
.\/.DFG = ^BAO.
supplement of Z DFG, is also
Ax.
tf/.BAC.
REMARK. The
are supplementary
the supplement
or both obtuse
angles are equal if both are acute
if one is acute and the other obtuse.
Q.E.D.
they
33
The perpendicular
114,
be
to
THEOREM.
is
a straight
Line.
D\
i
Let AB be the given straight line, P the given point,
the perpendicular, and PD any other line drawn
PC
from
to
AB.
To prove
Produce
Proof,
On
AB
plane of
PC to P
PC
making
CP
&lt;
PD.
CP = PC;
CPD
until
and draw
it
DP
D.
The
(since
line
CP will
Z PCD  Z
P will
The point
(since
.
P&gt;CD t
line
each being a
fall
rt.
by hyp.).
PC= P Cby
CP
cons.).
PD = line P D,
PC +CP =2 PC.
PC + CP
+ DP
and
But
&lt;PD
(a straight line
.
is
Cons.
1
,
.2PC&lt;2PD, or PC&lt;PD.
Q.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
34
115,
BOOK
X,
stood to
to the line.
PROPOSITION XVIII.
THEOREM.
drawn from a
point in a
cutting off equal dis
perpendicular
tances from the foot of the perpendicular, are equal.
116,
Two
oblique lines
to
a given
line,
CA =
To prove
Proof,
CO.
the plane of
CF&s
an
FA
(since
Z CFA = Z CFO,
Point
each being a
will fall
(since
.
COR.
pendicular
to
comes into
.line
C4
Two
oblique lines
a given
rt.
FO,
Z by hyp.).
upon point 0,
FA = FO
by hyp.).
= line
the
(their extremities being
117,
axis, until it
CFO.
CO,
same points).
drawn from a
Q. E. o.
point in a per
PROPOSITION XIX.
35
THEOREM.
by them.
C
To prove
Proof.
CA+CB&gt;OA
AO to
Produce
meet the
AC+ CE
Then
(a straight line
and
is
&gt;
+ OB.
line
CB
at
E.
OA + OE,
BE+OE&gt;BO.
Add
we have
CA+CE+BE+OE&gt;OA +
Substitute for
We have
OE+ OB.
OE from
CA+CB&gt;OA
OB.
Ax. 5
aEilx
36
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XX.
I.
THEOREM.
b
Let OC be perpendicular to AB, OG and OE two oblique
lines to AB, and GE greater than CG.
OE
To prove
Take
Proof.
CF equal
to
OG.
&gt;
0F= OG,
Then
(two oblique lines
in a
JL,
116
_L,
are equal).
OC to
D, making CD
Prolong
Draw
and FD.
=00.
ED
Since
AB
is
_L to
But
OE+ED&gt;
116
OF+ FD,
118
sum
(the
But
20E&gt;20F, or
OF= OG.
OE&gt;
Hence
OE
OF.
&gt;
OG.
aE
120, COR.
a point
to
cuts off the greater distance from the foot of the perpendicular.
PROPOSITION XXI.
37
THEOREM.
FE=FK.
To prove
GFA
Fold over
Proof,
the plane of
on
OF as
an
CFB.
The
(since
line
Z CFE= Z. CFK,
each being a
E must
fall
rt.
by hyp).
K,
Q. E. D.
Ex.
11.
Show
that
the bisectors
of two
supplementaryadjacent
Ex.
12.
Show
straight line.
52
37".
PLANE GEOMETRY.
38
BOOK
PROPOSITION XXII.
I.
THEOREM.
OA
and
OB equal, CA
and
PA = PB.
Proof,
CB unequal.
Hyp.
116
Since
or
is
off"
equal dis
lines,
CA
CB,
Let
CA
Then
draw DB.
DB = DA,
But
116
_L,
equal).
CB&lt;CD+DB,
(a straight line
is
DA for DB,
CB&lt;CD + DA.
That
is,
CB&lt;CA.
and we have
line,
mine
39
middle of that
THE Locus OF A
line deter
line.
POINT.
If
it
is
or group of lines.
is
so
drawn
line
is
Con.
The
of a straight line
122, 123
PLANE GEOMETEY.
40
BOOK
I.
TRIANGLES.
127.
The bounding
ABC.
lines are called the
and
their
sum
is
called
by
is
triangle
its
triangle,
FIG.
1.
128,
An
is
ACD.
The
interior
angle
ACE
is
"
FIG. 2.
the
adjacent to the exterior angle
other two interior angles,
and B, are called opposite;
interior angles.
Scalene.
Isosceles.
Equilateral.
is
triangle,
when
its
Obtuse.
Right.
130,
triangle,
triangle
when one
Acute.
with reference to
Equiangular.
angles, a right
an obtuse
of its angles is a right angle
is
called,
its
TEIANGLES.
41
when one
when all
triangle,
triangle.
132, The side on which a
triangle is supposed to stand is
called the base of the triangle.
Any one of the sides may be
In the isosceles triangle, the equal sides
taken as the base.
side,
the base.
altitude of a triangle
is
as,
AD.
triangle.
136, If two
triangles have the angles of the one equal respec
tively to the angles of the other, the equal angles are called
homologous angles, and the sides opposite the
are
equal angles
In general, points,
lines,
and
THEOREM
side,
side.
In the
is
A ABC(Yi%.
1),
AB +
BC&gt;AC, for
sides, AB&gt;ACBC, or
a straight line
and by taking
ACBC&lt;AB.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XXIII.
THEOREM.
42
I.
138,
equal
is
to
A
Let ABC be a
triangle.
Z B + Z BOA + Z A = 2 rt. A.
to AB, and prolong A
Suppose CE drawn
Z ECF+ Z ECE + Z J5O4 = 2 rt. Z,
To prove
Proof,
Then
II
(/ie swra o/
a^
the
about a
on the same
oin
=2
rt.
side of
to F.
92
straight line
A).
Z A  Z J57CF,
But
(Jetn^r ext.int.
106
o/\\ lines).
w&/.B = Z.BCE,
(being
alt.int.
Then
Con.
tracted
II
1.
If the
from two
sum
104
lines ).
Substitute for
139,
A of
and 5.
Q. E. D.
is
sub
the
right angles, the remainder is equal to
third angle.
2. If two triangles have two angles of the one
are equal.
two
angles of the other, the third angles
equal
141, COR. 3. If two right triangles have an acute angle of
the one equal to an acute angle of the other, the other acute
angles are equal.
COR.
140,
to
43
TRIANGLES.
COR.
142,
4.
In a
triangle there
COR.
143,
5.
In a
144,
6.
In an equiangular
PROPOSITION
145,
sum
XXIV.
THEOREM.
C*
*i
Let
BCH
*"*
Z BCH Z A f Z B.
To prove
Proof.
(the
sum
of the three
of a
rt.
Z.BCH=Z.A +
then
A=2
A).
common
Z ACB
Ax. 3
B.
Q. E. D.
146,
COR.
The
exterior angle of
a triangle
is
greater than
44
PLANE GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
XXV.
BOOK
I.
THEOREM.
CD
A
In the triangles
/LB = ^E.
To prove
Proof,
Apply
coincide with
ABC and
ff
AB = DE,
DEF, let
Z.A = Z.D,
A ABC= A DEF.
the A AB C to the A DEF so that AB shall
DE.
A C will
ZA = ZD,by hyp.)
(for
DF,
the extremity
C of
(for
the extremity
.
ZB = ZE,by hyp.)
C of .#(7 will
fall
upon
EF
EF produced.
lines DF and EF,
or
must
/.the two
Q.E.D.
149,
COR. 2. Two right triangles are equal if a side and an
acute angle of the one are equal respectively to a side and
homologous acute angle of the other,
45
TRIANGLES.
PROPOSITION
XXVI.
THEOREM.
In the triangles
E
let
AB = DE, AGDF,
A = ^D.
AAC=A DEF.
To prove
Proof,
Apply the
coincide with
Then
A ABC to
the
DE.
will take the direction of
= ZD,by hyp}
(for ZA
the point
C will
(for
fall
DF,
AC= DF,
by hyp.).
.the two
151,
COR.
equal, each
to
Two
each.
are
right triangles are equal if their legs
46
PLANE GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION XXVII.
BOOK
I.
THEOREM.
angle of the
y
E
In the triangles ABC and ABE, let
but ZABC greater than /.ABE.
AC
To prove
Proof,
Place the
AB of the
&gt;
AB = AB, BC=BE;
AE.
other.
Suppose
In the
Hyp.
Iden.
Z EBF= Z. CBF.
A EBF&K& CBFwQ
Cons.
the
equal,
and the included /. of one equal respectively
and the included Z. of the other).
150
to
two sides
.\EF=FC,
(being homologous sides of equal A).
AF+ FE
Now
(the
sum
of two sides of a
.
AE,
A is greater than
137
&gt;
AF+FO AE,
or,
AC&gt;AE.
Q.E.D.
TRIANGLES.
PROPOSITION XXVIII.
47
THEOREM.
Now Z A
Proof.
greater than
But
ZA
equal to
is
equal to
D,
or less than
And Z
is
D, or
D.
not equal to
D,
A ABC would
for then
A DEF,
than
is
AC = DF;
be
150
and
the included
sides
and
and
BG would be
D,
equal to
for
then
EF.
BC would
EF.
be less
152
/.
ZA
is
greater than
D.
Q.E.D.
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
154,
In an
XXIX.
I.
THEOREM.
B
Let ABO
AB and AC
Z B=Z
To prove
Proof,
Suppose
C.
(two
&
.\Z.B =
155,
COR.
An
Hyp.
Iden.
Cons.
150
of the one are equal
of the other).
C.
Q.E.D.
is equiangular,
equilateral triangle
and each
14.
The
an
isosceles triangle
perpendicular
15.
triangle
49
TKIANGLES.
PEOPOSITION
XXX.
THEOREM.
is isosceles.
= ZC.
In the
rt.
AB = AC.
Suppose AD drawn J_ to BO.
A ALB and ADC,
AD = AD,
4.B = Z.Q.
.*. rt.
A ALB =
an
rt.
Iden.
Hyp.
A ADC,
149
side
and
COR.
157,
Ex.
16.
triangle
is
An
equiangular triangle
is
also equilateral.
to the base of
an
isosceles
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
50
PROPOSITION
XXXI.
X,
THEOREM.
C
In the triangle
ACB
let
Z A CB
To prove
greater than
B.
AE equal to AQ.
Take
Proof.
AB
Draw EC.
AAEC=Z.ACE,
(being
Z AEG is
But
(an exterior
/.
of a
Substitute for
is
Much
greater than
Z ACE its
Z.ACB\*
then
146
greater than Z. B,
A is greater
Z A CB
and
154
equal
greater than
Z ACE.
Z ACB
Ax. 8
Z ^(7,
Z AEC.
Z. B.
greater than
^Cand
be an
17.
isosceles triangle.
DBCmll
TKI ANGLES.
PROPOSITION XXXII.
51
THEOREM.
159, CONVERSELY
If two angles of a triangle are
unequal, the sides opposite are unequal, and the
greater side is opposite the greater angle.
:
In.
angle E.
To prove
AB
Now AB
Proof,
is
&gt;
ACE
be greater than
AC.
than AC.
AB
But
is
equal to the
And
AB
than the
(if
is
not
B,
two sides of a
less
A are unequal,
greater
.
be
154
(being
less
C would
B,
is
AB
Z.
the
opposite are unequal,
opposite the greater side).
is
greater than
would be
158
and
the
AC.
Q. E. D.
Ex. 18. ABC and ABD are two triangles on the same base AB, and
on the same side of it, the vertex of each
triangle being without the
other.
If AC equal AD, show that BC cannot
equal
BD.
sum of the lines which join a point
within a triangle to the three vertices is less than
the perimeter, but
greater than half the perimeter.
Ex.
19.
The
PLANE GEOMETRY.
52
BOOK:
I.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION XXXIII.
BC=B
BC
let
AB = A B AC=A C
A ABC = A A B C
To prove
AB
AABC
in the position
Place
C, having its
in coincidence with its equal AC, and its
C
side
greatest
1
.
and draw
vertex at
opposite
Proof.
BB
Since AB = AB
Z ABB = Z AB B,
B
(in
an
isosceles
the
A opposite
Since
Hence,
Hyp.
154
CB = CB\
ZCBB = ZCB R
^ ABC= Z AB C,
/. A ABG= A AB O= A A B C
Hyp.
154
Ax. 2
150
(two
&
to
two
TRIANGLES.
PROPOSITION
53
XXXIV. THEOREM.
and
AC=A C
A AC= A A
To prove
Proof,
upon
Then
let
AB^A Bf,
coincide with
ABC and A B C
(for
each being a
AC=A C
Since
the point
(two equal oblique lines
C will
from a point
.*.
the two
Z).
9
,
fall
upon
&lt;7
in a _L cut
rt.
off"
121
JL).
PLANE GEOMETRY.
54
PROPOSITION
BOOK
XXXV.
I.
THEOREM.
162,
distant
from
is
Proof,
Draw O^and
In the
rt.
(two
rt.
AB and AC.
OG J_ to AB and A C respectively.
equidistant from
A ^O^Fand AOO
AO=AO,
JBAO =
CAO.
Iden.
..AAOF=AAOG,
148
Hyp.
respectively to the
equal
OF= OG,
is
equidistant from
AB and
AC.
Q. E. D.
What
is
Ex.
20.
At a given
Ex.
21.
22.
At a given
Ex.
length
Ex.
Ex.
\ 57.
119.
23.
24.
of a
given line
Equidistant from the extremities
?
?
TRIANGLES.
PROPOSITION
XXXVI.
THEOREM.
163,
from
55
its sides, is
Let
be equidistant from the sides of the angle
BAG, and let AO join the vertex A and the point 0.
To prove that
Proof.
AO is
Suppose
the bisector of Z.
OF
and
OG
BAG.
drawn
J. to
AB
and AC,
respectively.
In the
rt.
A ^O^and AOG
..
(two
rt.
OF= OG,
Hyp.
AO^AO.
Iden.
AAOF=AAOG,
AO
other).
Z FAO = /. GAO,
(homologous
.*.
161
of the one are equal to the
is
of equal A).
the bisector of
Z BAG.
Q.E. D.
164.
distant from
its sides, is
PLANE GEOMETRY.
56
BOOK
I.
QUADRILATERALS.
165.
quadrilateral is a portion of a plane bounded by
four straight lines.
The bounding lines are the sides, the angles formed by these
sides are the angles, and the vertices of these angles are the
vertices, of the quadrilateral.
166.
is
trapezium,
parallel.
167.
trapezoid
is
sides,
and
A parallelogram is a
its
oppo
Trapezium.
169.
Trapezoid.
is
rectangle
Parallelogram.
its
its
angl&lt;
right angles.
170.
rhomboid
is
angl&lt;
oblique angles.
171,
172,
A
A
square
rhombus
Square.
173,
is
The
Rectangle.
side
its
Rhombus.
sides equal.
its
sides equal.
Rhomboid.
57
QUADETLATEEALS.
174,
The
is
is
trapezoid
legs are equal.
The
when
is
its
the
PROPOSITION
178,
XXXVII.
THEOREM.
A.
Let ABCE
"be
a,
AC
its diagonal.
A ABC= A AEQ.
To prove
In the
parallelogram and
Iden.
Z.ACB = CAE,
Z.CAB = Z.ACE,
and
(being alt.int.
of
II
104
lines).
..AAC=AAEG,
(having a side
and two
147
adj.
and
Q.E.D.
58
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
XXXVIII.
PROPOSITION
I.
THEOREM.
179,
and
To prove
also,
Draw AC.
Proof.
AABC^AAEC,
(the
diagonal of a
..
178
BC= AE,
and
AB= CE,
/.B = Z.E,mdL/.BAE=BCE,
Also,
II
and
112
their vertices).
180,
181.
COR.
2.
everywhere
L.
Two parallel
lines
distant.
equally
C
D
DC are parallel,
distances
the
measure
in AB to DC,
dropped from any points
For
J
1.
are equal.
lines
are
Con.
Q. E. D.
if
AB
and
DO.
AB
equal,
by
180;
59
QUADRILATERALS.
XXXIX.
PROPOSITION
THEOREM.
side
AB equal and
To prove
EC.
Draw AC.
Proof.
In the
to
II
Hyp.
AC=AC,
BCA = Z.CAE,
(being alt.int.
of
II
Iden.
104
lines).
150
(having two sides
and
AB = EC,
Z.BAC=/ACE,
Also,
(being homologous
..AJBis
(when two straight
II
of equal &).
105
to J^C;
by a third straight
the figure
ABCE
is
O,
168
Q. E.
60
183,
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XL.
THEOREM.
I.
a parallelogram.
AE and AB =
BG =
EC.
To prove figure
ABCE a O.
Draw AC.
Proof.
In the
A AB
AEQ
0= AE,
AB=CE,
AC= AC.
.:AABC=AAEC,
and
Hyp.
Hyp.
Hen.
160
and
(being homologous
..BO is
AB
and
(when two straight
lines lying
is
of equal &).
II
ioAJE,
II
to
105
EC,
the figure
(having
its
ABCE
is
O,
168
61
QUADRILATERALS.
PROPOSITION XLI.
THEOREM.
184,
bisect
each
other.
AE=BC,
179
ZOAE=ZOC,
OEA=QBC,
and
(being alt.int.
of
II
104
lines).
..AAOE = AOC,
(having a
side
and two
adj.
of the one equal respectively to
two adj.
of the other).
side
147
and
Ex.
is
25.
D.
a parallelogram.
Ex.
26.
Ex.
27.
is
equal.
a rectangle.
and
29.
The diagonals
to
each other,
62
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
XLIL
PROPOSITION
I.
THEOREM.
CD
In the parallelograms
A B AD = A D and
,
Z.A
ADCD and A B C D
let
AB =
Z.A&gt;.
ABCD to A C D so that
Apply
and coincide with A D
Then AB will fall on A B\
f
AD will fall on
BO
Now,
and
through point
.
and
C falls
D
..
the point
/.
(7
must
.
fall
.
on
Z&gt;(7and
by
hyp.).
to
II
AD
BO and B C* coincide,
the lines
In like manner,
..
B will fall on B\
=A B
(for AB
are
C
both
DC
or
101
produced.
coincide.
101
are
II
to
f
.
Z)(7and
DC
on
DC
falls
C falls
on both
D C produced.
and D C
or
BC
the two
UJ
coincide,
186,
COR.
Two
and equal
63
QUADRILATERALS.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION XLIII.
every transversal.
AB, EG, CD
From A, B, and
Proof,
II
to
on the
AD.
tf
suppose
HP.
Then
CO = MP,
are
(parallels comprehended between parallels
.
180
equal).
.AE=BF=CO.
Ax.
Z.A = AB = Z.C,
Also
(being ext.int.
of
II
106
lines)
E=Z.F=/.O,
and
(having their sides
/.
II
and
directed the
A ABE= A BCF= A
and two
adj.
/.
112
the vertices).
CDG,
respectively equal to
of the others).
adj.
a,
side
147
and two
AB mm BC= CD,
Q. E. o.
64
PLANE GEOMETRY.
COR.
188,
The
1.
BOOK
I.
triangle
and
DE be
For, let
BC and
to
II
Draw through
this line is
DE, by
to
II
a line
to
II
111.
bisect
AB.
BC. Then
The three
by
fore,
AC, that
DE
COR.
189,
sides of
side.
AB,
AB bisects AC,
it
is
190,
COR.
and
3.
to
II
bisects
which joins
to
II
188.
AC, by
is
triangle
The
2.
is
BC.
BC, by
O by
188
any
COR.
trapezoid
is
For,
189,
and therefore
the bases of
rx;
a trap
?
x
JP\ \
j
/
the bases,
to
and
is
EF
is
II
of
to
AD,
to F, the
sum
A ADB
Then, by
EF drawn
BF= FG
is,
The median of a
parallel
of the bases.
join
4.
to
For
191,
that
construction,
The
bisects
Also, since
AB sui& = %AB.
In the
ADBC
join
II
II
II
II
fore
FG
is
the prolongation of
= * (AB + DC).
EF.
Hence
EFG
is
II
to
AB
65
EXERCISES.
EXERCISES.
30. The bisectors of the angles of a triangle meet in a point which
equidistant from the sides of the triangle.
and
HINT. Let the bisectors
intersect at 0.
BE
AD
Then
being in
AD
is
is
AC and
equidistant from
BE
in
is
is
AB.
equidistant from
AC
equidistant from
(Why
BC
and BC,
?)
in a
triangle.
Then
at 0.
and C. (Why ?)
from A and B.
is
_L bisectors
being in
And
FF
EEf and
is
being in
Hence
in the JL bisector
32.
EE/
is
DD /
intersect
is
equidistant
equidistant from
(Why?)
The perpendiculars from the
meet in a point.
HINT. Let the JL
DD
equidistant from
and
C,
and therefore
vertices of
a*
eides
be
Through A, B, C suppose B C A C
to BC, AC, AB, respectively.
drawn
f
II
AH
is
JL to
B C
f
,
AB
Then
(Why ?)
^
ACBff are Hf (why?),
= BC. (Why ?) That is, A is the middle point of B &. In the same way,
B and C are the middle points of A C and A B respectively. There
fore, AH, BP, and C!2Tare the _L bisectors of the sides of the A A B C
,
,}
CG=GO=
dis
through 0.
66
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
I.
POLYGONS IN GENERAL.
A polygon
192,
is
The bounding
sum
and
their
polygon.
The angles which the adjacent sides make with each other
are the angles of the polygon, and their vertices are the ver
tices of the polygon.
of
of a polygon
diagonal of a polygon
as
is
is
AC,
Fig. 1.
B
JO
D
E
Fio.
194,
FIG.
1.
An
FIG.
2.
3.
equilateral polygon
is
all its
equiangular polygon
is
all its
sides equal.
195,
An
angles equal.
196.
convex polygon is a polygon of which no side, when
produced, will enter the surface bounded by the perimeter.
197.
and
Each angle
is less
198.
sides,
concave polygon
when produced,
perimeter.
199,
of such a polygon
than a straight angle.
is
is
Fig. 3.
The angle
FDE
is
is
and
meant.
is
POLYGONS.
200.
Two
67
coincide.
201.
Two
if
the angles
of the one are equal to the angles of the other, each to each,
when taken in the same order. Figs. 1 and 2.
202, The equal angles in mutually equiangular polygons
are called homologous angles
and the sides which lie between
equal angles are called homologous sides.
;
203,
Two
if
the sides of
the one are equal to the sides of the other, each to each,
taken in the same order. Figs. 1 and 2.
FIG.
FIG.
4.
5.
FIG.
6.
FIG.
when
7.
as,
Figs. 6 and 7.
If two polygons are mutually equilateral
may
and equiangular,
be applied the one to the other
204,
polygon of three sides is called a trigon or triangle;
one of four sides, a tetragon or quadrilateral ; one of five sides,
sides,
a dodecagon.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
68
BOOK
PROPOSITION XLIV.
205,
The
sum
I.
THEOREM.
sides.
To prove
Proof,
AC, AD,
and AE.
The sum
of the
polygon.
Now
and the sum
..
the
of the
sum
the polygon
of the
= (n
A = the
there are (n
of the
2) 2
of the
rt.
A.
2)
of each
A,
sum
that
of the
of the
A,
A = 2 rt. A.
is,
the
sum
of the
138
A of
a E. D.
equal
to
right angles.
69
POLYGONS.
XLV.
PROPOSITION
THEOREM.
\
Let the figure ABODE be a polygon, having its sides
produced in succession,
To prove the sum of the ext. A = 4 rt. A.
Proof,
and the
Denote the
ext.
A by
int.
a, b,
c,
A
d,
of the
polygon by A, B,
AA + Za = 2rt.A,
Z B f Z b = 2
and
C,
D,
JS,
e.
rt.
90
A,
as
the
many
sum
of the interior
adj.
A=2
rt.
and exterior
A.
A=2
rt.
A taken
2 n
or,
But the
interior
A = 2 rt. A
2 n
or,
.*.
rt.
the
=
rt.
A.
taken as
(n
2)
rt.
rt.
many
times as the
A,
A.
exterior A = 4
rt.
A.
Q.E.D.
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
70
PROPOSITION
XL VI.
I.
THEOREM.
and
J_
to
the diagonal
In the
Proof,
AC is
AC=AO.
.AABC^AADC,
Z BAQ= Z DAO,
(homologous
upon
if
Hence
and
Hyp.
ABC is
AD, CB
of symmetry,
Hen.
Hence,
aoris
and
..
an
BD.
and
turned on
on CD, and
OB
160
to three sides
of the other).
Z EGA = /. DCA,
of equal A).
AC
on
as an axis,
AB will
fall
OD.
65,
and
is
J_ to
BD^
POLYGONS.
71
PROPOSITION XLVII.
THEOREM.
r
D
To prove
the centre of symmetry of the figure.
Proof. Let
be any point in the perimeter of the
Draw
NMIL
Join
to
YY
and
IKL
to
61
to
XX
).
KI= OM,
But
comprehended between
(Us
KL = OM,
..
and
LO
In like manner
is
180
Us
are equal).
KLOMia a O,
182
and parallel).
we may prove
KM.
KI= KL,
Now
figure.
XX
KM.
179
each
.
is
equal to
any straight
.
is
KM.
line
0,
is
bisected at 0.
64
Q. E. D.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
72
BOOK
I.
EXERCISES.
34.
to the
is
The bisector
by producing one of
36.
37.
State
38.
The
39.
State
40.
41.
State
42.
The
43.
altitudes
upon the
legs of
an
an
(See Ex.
an
33.)
44? The perpendiculars dropped from the middle point of the base of
an
isosceles triangle
45.
State
upon the
47.
Show
that the
sum
hexagon
is
equal to
Show
is
f of a right
angle.
49.
How
is
50.
many sides has a polygon, the
sum of its exterior angles ?
to
the
equal
51.
How many
is
double that of
is
double that of
52.
exterior angles
its
How many
sum
sum
its
sum
73
EXERCISES.
53.
BAG is
If from
AQ in
and meet
D, show that
If
BD
AD.
constant,
and equal
to the
sum
55. The lines joining the middle points of the sides of a triangle divide
the triangle into four equal triangles.
56.
The
The
61.
The
rhombus
or a square.
of
is
62. The line joining the middle points of the diagonals of a trapezoid
equal to half the difference of the bases.
HINT.
64.
Draw CE
\\
DB.
\
\
are supplementary.
If the angles at the base of a trapezoid
angles are equal, and the trapezoid is isosceles.
65.
66.
The diagonals
67.
trapezoid
is
of
an
isosceles.
DF
ADF
other
PLANE GEOMETRY.
74
BOOK
I.
that
DE
is
AB
sides produced.
71. If the two angles at the base of a triangle are bisected, and
through the point of meeting of the bisectors a line is drawn parallel to
the base, the length of this parallel between the sides is equal to the sum
of the segments of the sides between the parallel and the base.
72.
is
the hypotenuse
73. The sum of the perpendiculars dropped from any point in the
base of an isosceles triangle to the legs is constant,
and equal to the altitude upon one of the legs.
HINT. Let
PD
and
PE
the
altitude
to
BF
the
altitude.
What
secting lines
is
II
to the base,
73.
In the triangle CAB the bisector of the angle C makes with the
an angle equal to half the difference of the
perpendicular from C to
angles A and E.
76.
AB
77.
is
If one angle of
equilateral.
an
isosceles triangle
is
BOOK
II.
THE CIRCLE.
DEFINITIONS.
circle is a portion of a plane bounded by a curved
210,
dis
line called a circumference, all points of which are equally
within called the centre.
tant from a
point
211,
A radius is a straight
circumference
line
centre to the
and a diameter
is
are equal.
secant
is
two
All
its
radii.
as,
AD,
Fig.
1.
213,
Fig.
is
tangent touches the circumference
called the point of contact, or point of
tangency.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
76
BOOK
II.
215,
An
circumference.
216,
chord
is
its
extremities in the
circumference.
Every
cliord subtends
AB
spoken
of,
is
AB (Fig. 3)
BCDEA.
If a chord
meant unless
A segment of a circle
an
arc
and its chord.
by
217,
is
is
the circum
it is
and
its
arc are
otherwise stated.
218,
by two
radii
intercept.
if its
vertex
is
in the
is
inscribed in
circle is inscribed in
circle
a polygon
if
if
its
sides
are
the circumference
touches the sides of the polygon but does not intersect them.
224,
is
polygon
77
if
if all
the
the circum
two equal
Two
circles
circles
PROPOSITION
227,
The diameter of a
other chord;
and
THEOREM.
I.
than any
and the circum
circle is greater
ference.
p
Let AB be the diameter of the circle AMBP, and
AE any other chord.
To prove
AB
&gt;
AE, and
AB
bisects
the circle
and
the
circumference.
Proof,
From
I.
C,
draw
OR
CE^CB,
same
But
(the
falls
sum
of two sides of a
&gt;
AE,
upon
APB,
because
all
A is
&gt;
137
he third side).
Ax. 9
AB AE.
on AB as an axis until
59. The points A and B will remain fixed;
AMB will coincide with the arc APB
AC+ CB
Then
II.
circle).
AC+CE&gt;AE,
points
or
&gt;
A MB
in
each
are
equally distant
centre C.
it
from the
210
59
Q.E.O.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
78
PROPOSITION
228,
II.
BOOK
II.
THEOREM.
ference of
circle in
LetHKbe any
To prove that
points*
HK can
AMP.
points.
Proof,
If possible, let
From
HK intersect
Then
the circumference in
K,
O, draw OH, OP, and OK.
OJiTare equal,
circle).
OK
But
this
120
impossible,
Therefore,
points.
to
a straight
in only
line).
two
a E. a
PROPOSITION
79
THEOREM.
III.
v^
229,
In the same
circle, or
equal
circles,
equal an
ABP and A B P
Proof,
Apply
so that Z.
B will fall
(for
OE = O R
Then
the arc
Z O = Z V.
BS = arc IPS
O ABP to O A &P,
arc
To prove
let
upon
BS
and
08= O S
and
0*.
8 upon 8
226
).
since all points in the arcs are equidistant from the centre.
210
.
CONVERSELY
.arc
BS=&rc
Let arc RS
arc
B &.
RS
To prove
ZO = ZO
Proof, Apply O ABP to O A E F, so that arc BS shall fall
upon arc R S B falling upon B S upon S and
upon
Then BO will coincide with B 0\ and SO with S O
.
,&lt;0
and
coincide
and are
equal.
Q. e.
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
80
II.
ABP and A B P
let chord
RS =
To prove
Draw
Proof.
In the
arc
the radii
A OBS and
B8
arc
OB, OS,
O JZ
0&gt;B
08= the
and
Hyp.
radii
.AB08=AB
and
/S"
B8=B 8
OR
the radii
O B and
O&gt;8
226
160
(three sides of the one being equal to three sides of the other).
229
(in equal
CONVEESELY
equal
RS= arc R S
chord S = chord B 8
Z =Z
Let arc
To prove
Proof.
1
.
229
subtend equal
and
OB
and
.
OS= O B
.AOBS=AO B 8
and
chord
to
each
and
at the centre),
226
respectively.
150
the included
B8 = chord B 8
equal).
aE
D.
PROPOSITION V.
81
THEOREM.
greater are.
JC.
0,
To prove
chord
Proof.
Draw
the radii
the radii
but
&
having two
CONVERSELY
OA
and
AB
/.
(the
be
Hence, in the
AMB
equal each
sides
&gt;
OF,
152
AF,
to each,
unequal).
To prove
In the
But
AB
is
greater than
Z AOB
/.
(the
is
AF.
greater than
arc
OB
AB
falls
is
to each,
Z AOF, ^
Hyp153
without OF.
AF.
Q.E.D.
82
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION VI.
THEOREM.
232,
the chord
and
a chord
to
II.
bisects
it.
^_
AB
at M.
To prove
Proof,
Draw
In the
rt.
OA
and
OB
circle.
A OA M and OB M
the radius
OA = the
radius
OB,
and OM = OM.
.\AOAM=AOBM,
(having the hypotenuse
and a
/.
(equal
233,
COR.
Hen.
161
and a
AM= BM,
229
.*,TGAS=&Tc8,
The perpendicular
middle of a
For the centre is
erected at the
and is therefore in
equidistant
122
the perpendicular erected at the middle of the chord.
234,
chord
235,
COR.
2.
at the
middle of
COR.
The
3.
parallel chords
is
a system of
PROPOSITION VII.
83
THEOREM.
CONVERSELY.
Draw
Hence,
in the
rt.
_l_
to
a chord
bisects
AP=CH,
OA = the radius
A OPA  A OHC,
the radius
..
(having a side
and hypotenuse
.
COJTVEBSELY
Proof,
In the
the radius
Let OP =
To prove
rt.
00.
161
and hypotenuse
OP = OH.
equidistant from 0.
OH.
AB = CF.
A OPA and OHO
OA = the
/.
Ax. 7
AB and OF are
.*.
it).
OP= OH,
Hyp.
161
/.
CF.
Ax
C.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
84
BOOK
II.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION VIII.
OE
To prove
Proof,
Suppose
AO drawn
same
OF.
OR JL to
AG.
OH= OF,
Then
(in the
&lt;
236
centre).
Join Elf.
OE and OH
AB and
bisect
(a radius A.
a chord
AG,
bisects
232
respectively,
it).
AB
A G,
CD
or its equal
is
greater than
by hypothesis,
the half of AB, is greater than AH, the half of AG.
Since,
AE,
to
the
(the greater of
AHE
is
two sides of a
Z AEH,
Z
opposite to
158
it).
Therefore, the
less
than the
of a
.OE&lt;
OE
A
&lt;
159
OH,
is
of
to it).
OH.
Q.E.Q
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION IX.
238,
cles,
CONVERSELY
In the same
85
circle, or
distance
is
equal cir
from the
less
the greater.
AB
To prove
Proof,
Suppose
AG drawn
Then
(in the
sameQ
OH= OF,
OE
Therefore, the
236
&lt;
centre).
OH.
EH.
Join
A OEHfhe Z OHE
OH _L to AG.
Hence,
In the
CD.
&gt;
is
less
than the
Z.
Z OEH,
opposite to
158
it).
of a
AE
A
&gt;
AH,
is
159
to it).
&gt;
Q. E. D.
86
BOOK
PROPOSITION X.
THEOREM.
II.
a radius at
A.
239,
its
PLANE GEOMETRY.
extremity
M
Let
MB
MB tangent
To prove
Proof,
From
to
A.
the circle.
line to
MB,
as
OCH.
114
OH&gt;OA,
(a JL
is
a point
to
straight line).
MB
MB
is
without the
circle at
213
A.
Q. E. D.
COR.
240,
radius
1.
drawn
tangent
to
circle is
the circle.
is
to
Hence,
OA
is
perpendicular
For,
if
MB
is
to
the
tangent
without
MB, except A, is
to MB, and
the shortest line from
therefore perpendicular to
MB
114)
that
is,
MB
is
per
pendicular to OA.
241, COR. 2.
by
COR.
3.
perpendicular
upon a tangent
contact.
to
let
fall
from
the centre of
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION XI.
Parallels
243,
87
a circum
ference.
F
FIG.
FIG.
1.
2.
arc
OF
FF
Suppose
AB at F
This J. to
.%
to
arc
a chord
DF.
arc
drawn
AB.
J_ to
CD.
CF= arc
bisects the
102
232
DF,
chord and
its
subtended arc).
241
is
It is also _L to
(a radius A.
1.
Fig.
To prove
Proof.
secant.
227
82
FI&gt;),
is,
11
at
M.
arc AM = arc BM
Then
Case
arc CM = arc DMand
= arc BD.
/.by subtraction, arc AC
CASE III. When AB and CD are tangents. Fig. 3.
Suppose AB tangent at E, CD at F, and GH to AB.
Case
arc OE = arc EH
Then
arc OF = arc
and
I.
II
..
by
addition,
arc
EQF= arc
^.ZTF.
I.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
88
BOOK
II.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION XII.
244,
line,
one circumference,
(7,
and only
one.
AB and BO.
At the middle points of AB and BC suppose
Join
Proof,
Since
sect in
BC
is
AB,
_I
erected.
some point 0.
The point
0, being in the J_ to
AB
is
Therefore
is
As two
is
245,
points.
COR.
For,
Two
if
TANGENTS,
89
PROPOSITION XIII.
246,
The tangents
to
THEOREM.
circle
drawn from an
exte
with
B.
c
Let AB and AC be tangents from A to the
whose centre is 0, and AO the line joining A to
To prove
AB = AC,
AB
(a tangent to
In the
rt.
is
Z BAO = Z
OB and 00.
and
Draw
Proof,
_L to
radius
drawn
0.
CAO.
AC _L to
OB, and
circle is _L to the
circle
240
OC,
to the
point of contact).
same
circle).
OA = OA.
..A OAB = A OAC
Iden.
(having a side
and hypotenuse
Z BAO = Z
and
CAO.
Q. E. D.
248,
DEF.
common
tres,
common tangent
exterior tangent
and a common
centres.
when
it
161
and hypotenuse
to
two
two
circles
circles is called
is
interior tangent
when
it
90
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XIV.
249,
II.
THEOREM.
line of centres is
chord at
middle
its
point.
CO
To prove
_L to
AB at
its
middle point.
_L
of the chord
AB
233
(a _L erected at the middle of a chord passes through the centre of the O).
/.
the line
(7(7
Ex.
centres
(i.)
(ii.)
(iii.)
78.
CO
this _L,
it.
is
_L to
if
Q.E. D.
the line of
is
is
equal to the
is
(iv.) is
less
sum
sum
of the radii
of the radii
than the sum but greater than the difference of the radii
(v.) is less
by
a figure.
radii.
91
TANGENTS.
PROPOSITION XV.
THEOREM.
To prove
is
CO
of the
.
the line
CO
Ex.
this _L
it.
is
.*.
chord
circle).
CO
1
.
Q. E. D.
79.
is
Ex.
80.
are parallel.
Ex.
81.
The perimeter
is
equal
Ex.
lateral
82.
is
The sum
of
equal to the
two opposite
sum
of the other
two
sides.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
92
BOOK
II.
MEASUREMENT.
To measure a quantity
251,
times
it
of
any kind
is
to find
how many
known
contains another
is
tains another
a quantity
contains the unitquantity, is called the numerical measure
of that quantity
as, 5 in 5 yards.
;
The magnitude
252,
of a quantity
magnitude
is
always
same
kind.
relative to the
No
quantity
measure
The
when
applied to both.
is
ratio of
to b
written
is
,
or
b.
Two
253,
common
common
terms of a
unit
is
called a
each quantity
is
common measure
Thus, a
foot,
which
feet.
3
foot,
3f
2J
feet
254,
is
Hence, 2^
and 3f feet is of a
and 22 times in
2J feet,
of 2J feet
contained 15 times in
J
feet
J
by taking %
of
When two
have no common
expressed in integers,
it
is
will indicate the exact value of the ratio of the given quanti
ties.
It is possible,
by
as little as
we
please.
93
RATIO.
lines,
V5= 1.41421356
Now
but
such that
.....
.
than 1.414214.
less
If,
of the ratio
lies
and there
and
between
fore differs
By
that will differ from the true value of the ratio by less than a
billionth, a trillionth, or any other assigned value whatever.
and
is
(ri)
of equal parts,
m times,
but
n
that
is,
the value of %
lies
between
The

error, therefore, in
is less
than
.
made
to
and
But by increasing n
decrease indefinitely,
and
to
indefinitely.
become
w+
it
 can be
than any
cannot be made
less
to zero.
The
ratio of
an incommensurable
its
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
94
256.
when
measure
the unit of
is indefinitely
II.
ratios are
equal
if,
diminished, their ap
values
when
b be
two incommensurable
lie
is
much
as
thev cannot
Now
and a
differ so
is
if
is
d has any
n
diminished, can be made
a b
:
=a
1
:
by hypoth
less
Therefore
fore
n
Then
indefinitely diminished.
d&lt;.
can be indefinitely
there
and
a
(if any) between the fixed values
a fixed value. Let d denote this difference.
Then
esis
whose true
the difference
:
But
ratios
than
d
:
0,
d.
and
there
1
.
THE THEORY OF
LIMITS.
having
it is called a variable.
different successive values,
it can be shown that the value of a variable, measured
When
be
made
to differ from
assigned quantity,
is called the limit
lutely equal to the constant, that constant
of the variable, and the variable is said to approach indefi
nitely to its limit.
limit
if
THEORY OF
LIMITS.
second
it
shall
95
M?
tr
move
to
B, that
is,
to
M;
the next
the
M"
and so on indefinitely.
Then it is evident that the moving point may approach as
near to
as we please, but will never arrive at B.
For, how
ever near
may
it
be to
at
any
it
it must,
will pass over onehalf the interval still remaining
therefore, approach nearer to B, since half the interval still
;
remaining
is
B, since half
the interval
still
is
an in
AB
B
constant zero as
its limit.
If the length of
denoted by
limit,
by v
x,
AB
and the
is
after
two seconds,
= 1,
=1+
= 1 f
x
a?
=1
v = ^\
^ = ^
v = %\
v
J,
a?
#=l}^f^J,
and
is
its
J
f
J,
so on indefinitely.
+ + +
Now
j,
sum
of the series,
when
terms
is
is
2.
the
number
of the
96
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
TG + dhr
II.
+ nflnr + ydhnr +
as a limit.
258.
indefinitely
diminishes,
nitely
if
and
zero
approaches
the vertex
A approaches
indefi
increases
so long as
comes
A OB is
a triangle
for if
be
BC
lines
of
and E, F, H,
K[
square.
The length
polygon,
lines,
is
represented
by the dotted
greater than
that
of
the
it
is
made up
of
THEORY OF
which
circumference between
its
97
LIMITS.
is
less
extremities.
circumference between
The length
its
extremities.
of the circumference
is
A:
________^^
N ~~
~C
Let
AM
and
AN
AB = AC.
If possible, suppose AB
AC,
AB
To prove
AD = AC.
Then the variable AMm&y assume values between AD and
Proof,
AB,
But
while
&gt;
t*he
variable
always be
less
than
AD.
continue equal.
.*.
AN must
and take
it
AB cannot be
&gt;
AC.
Hence
AC cannot be
neither of which
AB = AC.
is
&gt;AB.
greater
PLANE GEOMETRY.
98
BOOK
II.
MEASURE OF ANGLES.
PROPOSITION XVI.
THEOREM.
arcs.
CASE
I.
When
Z AOB =
~ arc AB
Z.EDF arc EF
To prove
Proof.
Let
From
same O, or equal
(1)
and
&lt;D,
/.
ACB
into
229
EDF
EDF
arc
at the centre).
(2)
(2),
EF
MEASURE OF ANGLES.
CASE
II.
When
99
ACB and A C S
AB and A B
Z ACB
AB
______
arc
To prove
AB
Since
AB and AB
DB
ing a remainder
less
Draw C D.
Since
Case
I.
Z AGE
ACB
Z.
and
arc
arc
AB
AB
^,^fr
1260
.
(If two variables are constantly equal, and each approaches a limit, their
limits are equal.)
Q.I.Q.
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
100
II.
262,
The circumference,
is
Since an angle at the centre has the same number of anglethe intercepted arc has of arcdegrees, minutes, and seconds as
degrees, minutes,
An
is
the centre as
its
intercepted arc
is
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION XVII.
/.
Proof.
CA = radius
Eadius
.\Z.B =
CB.
154
A,
PCA = Z
But
(the exterior
Z of a A
Z PCA
But
(the
is
at the centre
.
./.
to the
equal
is
sum
CAB).
+ Z.A,
measured by PA,
is
.145
measured by
measured by
PA.
262
MEASURE OF
CASE
When
II.
To prove
&gt;,
\i
J.Q1
\&gt;&gt;\
Z EBA
Proof,
AJKiLIJSI
2),
fall
EA.
is
measured by
J
Draw
the diameter
EGP.
arc
Case
I.
Case
I.
PE),

CASE
When
III.
ABF
Draw
Proof,
the diameter
BOP.
Case
I.
Case
I.
P^4),
Q.E.D.
FIG.
264,
1.
FIG.
2.
FIG.
3.
An
COR.
1.
For
it is
COR.
semicircle is
3.
an
An
as,
Z CAD.
obtuse angle.
For
it
equal.
Fig. 2.
less than a
measured by an arc
as,
Z GBD.
Fig. 2.
COR.
4.
*LANE GfEQMETRY.
102
PROPOSITION XVIII.
BOOK
II.
THEOREM.
To prove
Draw AD.
Proof,
(the exterior
of a
145
opposite interior A}.
But
and
(an inscribed
,.Z
COA
Z. is
is
measured by %
measured by \
263
(AC+ BD).
Q.E.D.
Ex.
83.
of
Ex.
85.
The
upon the
MEASURE OF ANGLES.
PROPOSITION XIX.
103
THEOREM.
is
ill
MAH
fee
MO
Proof.
the diameter
ACF.
Z MAFiszrt.
(the radius drawn
MAF being
ference
240
Z,
Z,
rt.
is
measured by
is JL to it).
the semicircum
AEF.
Z HAF is
But
(an inscribed
.%
to
is
measured by J arc
MAH
is
by
measured by
263
HF,
arc).
(AEF HF)
A EH.
Q. E. D.
Ex.
86.
If
two
circles
through the point of contact, the chords joining their extremities are
HINT. Draw the common tangent.
parallel.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
104
PROPOSITION
BOOK
XX.
II.
THEOREM.
or
FIG.
CASE
I.
1.
To prove
(Fig. 1)
secants.
measured by
is
AB
EC).
Draw CB.
Proof,
By
taking
of a
A is
away
equal
ZB
Z AGE
But
(an inscribed
..
Z. is
is
sum
from both
is
Z B is
and
to the
145
sides,
measured by \
AB,
measured by \ OE,
measured by $
measured by
%(AB
CE\
263
MEASURE OF ANGLES.
CASE
II.
tangents.
(Fig. 2) be
measured by
is
105

(AMJ3
ASH).
Draw AB.
Proof.
OAB,
Z
(the exterior
By
of a
A is
sum
equal to the
of the
taking away
145
sides,
But
269
J
and
CASE
measured by 1 (A
is
ASB).
III.
OA.
measured by %
is
secant.
(Fig. 3) be
MB
Draw
Proof.
(ADS
CES).
OS.
ZACS=ZO + ZCSO,
(the exterior
By
Z of a A is
taking
away
equal
to the
sum
Z ACS is measured
But
(being
Z CSO is
and
(being
.
an
sides,
by 
ADS,
263
inscribed Z),
measured by
$CES,
145
measured by
%(ADS
269
chord).
CES).
Q.E.D.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
106
BOOK
II.
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
XXL
PROPOSITION
At a given point in a
271.
perpendicular to that
PROBLEM.
straight line, to erect a
line.
HOB
FIG.
I.
Let
To
erect
1.
to the line
From
Construction,
AC at the point
2.
1).
0.
as a centre, with
AC
OB,
describe
Then the
OR is the _L
line
R.
and
are two points
Since
and B, they determine the position
Proof.
7?"
at
the line
HE at
its
middle point 0.
123
II.
When the given point is at the end of the
Let B be the given point. (Fig. 2).
To
erect
a J_
Construction,
to
the line
without
AB
and from
AB at E.
it
to
BD the J_ required.
The Z. B inscribed in a semicircle, and
BD, and
Proof.
O
CB
line.
AB at B.
intersecting
OR.
Join
required.
is
is
is
therefore
264
a right angle.
Hence
BD
is
_L to
AB.
o. E F
.
PROBLEMS.
107
PKOPOSITION XXII.
PROBLEM.
272,
fail
line, to let
.
,.,
let fall
_L to the line
From C
Construction,
From .ZTand
Q.
AB in two points,
.5"
and K.
\HK,
Draw CO,
and produce
CM
Proof, Since
C and
is
it
to
meet
AB
at
the _L required.
K) they determine a _L to
HK
______
NOTE.
longdotted,
and auxiliary
M.
full lines,
J?"and
123
Q. E.
F.
108
273,
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XXIII.
PROBLEM.
Construction,
greater than
line.
line.
AB.
From
AB,
II.
and
C and
E.
Join GE.
Then the
line
GE bisects AB.
Proof, G and
are two points equidistant from A and B.
Hence they determine a J_ to the middle point of AB.
123
Q.E.
F.
88.
90.
To
given points.
find a point
X which
X
PKOBLEMS.
PROPOSITION
XXIV. PROBLEM.
a given
arc.
arc.
274,
To
To
bisect
bisect the
arc
ACB.
Draw
Construction,
From
AB,
and
109
AB.
the chord
D and E,
Draw DE.
Proof,
Since
AB.
123
Ex.
91.
To construct a
circle
92.
its
PLANE GEOMETRY.
110
To
275,
PKOPOSITION
XXV.
a given
angle.
bisect
BOOK
II.
PROBLEM.
E as
From
Construction.
From
and
E at A and
EA,
B.
secting at C.
Proof,
and
In
EC bisects the Z E.
the A AEC an& BEG
AE = BE, and AG= BC,
EC = EC.
..A AEC^&BEC,
(having three sides equal each
..
Cons.
Men.
160
to each).
Ex.
93.
To divide a
Ex.
94.
To construct an
Ex.
95.
To
F.
find a point
PROBLEMS.
PROPOSITION
Ill
XXVI.
PROBLEM.
276,
line, to
construct
/. at
From
equal
to the Z.
as a centre, with
From O as a
any radius, as
at
and F.
HCm
/.
(in equal
arc
(in equal
triangle.
Hm are equal.
Cons.
Hm,
230
.ZC=ZA,
229
draw
in
DB + EC.
If an interior point
C, the angle
and
EF= arc
EF,
HG at m.
is
Proof,
Ex.
AE,
AE,
CM at H.
tices
ZA
From
A.
BOG
Q. E.
F.
of a triangle
is
at the centre}.
ABC
is
joined to the ver
of the
greater than the angle
BAG
PLANE GEOMETRY.
112
XXVII.
PROPOSITION
Two angles of a
277,
BOOK
II.
PROBLEM.
triangle.
of the A.
line,
as JEF,
and at any
point, as If,
construct
and
Then
Proof.
Z a equal
Zb
sum
since
the third
two
A of
of the
the
Z A,
276
Z B.
Z required.
of the three
and
equal to
Z. c is the
Since the
to
A a,
b,
of a
and
A = 2 rt. A,
2
c,
rt.
138
92
A\
A a and b,
c.
Ax.
3.
Q. E.
Ex.
to 37
F.
H3
PROBLEMS.
278,
line
parallel to
D
Let AB be the given
line,
the point
Then
C construct
Z.
FCHis
the line
\\
the
to
.\HFia
(when two straight
lines,
II
to
AB.
Z EDB.
ECF= Z EDB.
276
AB.
Z ECF= Z EDB.
Proof.
point.
Construction,
At
A3,
Cons.
108
Q.E.F.
Ex.
99.
To
also equidistant
find a point
X equidistant
lines.
lines
PLANE GEOMETRY.
114
BOOK
II.
XXIX. PROBLEM.
PROPOSITION
279,
parts.
0
From
Construction,
From
II
line.
AB
is
draw the
length,
and apply
or
(if three
more
A C is
\\s
to
it
AO
as
many
AO,
as
(7,
draw CB.
AO
draw
lines
187
Proof. Since
AO.
to
line
of division on
is
Ex.
101.
To divide a
line
by two
F.
different
methods.
Ex. 102. To
find a point
two
sides.
make
115
PROBLEMS.
XXX.
PROPOSITION
280,
Two
and
sides
PROBLEM.
D
7)
and
Construction,
At A,
given
the included Z.
Take
to
and
= /. A.
the extremity of
AB,
c,
and
and the
c respec
c.
276
A.
On^Dtake A C equal
to b.
Draw CB.
Then
A AGE is the A
required.
Q. E.
F.
find a point
which shall be equidistant from two
given intersecting lines and at a given distance from a given point.
a triangle a line
to the
between the sides shall have a
sides of

PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
XXXI.
PROPOSITION
PROBLEM.
281,
side and two angles of
given, to construct the triangle.
Let
To construct the
Construction,
[I.
A and B
a triangle being
triangle.
Take
EC equal
to
c.
At
the point
At
the point
C construct
EH and
A COE
Then
the /.
is
the
276
EQK equal to Z B.
GK intersect at 0.
required.
Q. E. F.
REMARK.
side,
Ex.
108.
straight railway passes two miles from a town.
place
four miles from the town and one mile from the
railway. To find by
construction how many places answer this description.
is
Ex. 109. If in a circle two equal chords intersect, the segments of one
chord are equal to the segments of the other, each to each.
Ex. 110.
AB is any chord
and
PROBLEMS.
117
PROPOSITION XXXII.
The three
282,
sides of
PROBLEM.
a triangle being
given&gt;
to
7
A*A
^BB
and
o.
AB equal to
o.
From
arc
?i,
triangle.
Draw
and from
B as a centre,
C.
A GAB is the A
Then
required.
Q.E.F.
Discussion,
to or greater
is
equal
Ex. 111. The base, the altitude, and an angle at the base, of a tri
angle being given, to construct the triangle.
Ex. 112. Show that the bisectors of the angles contained by the oppo
(produced) of an inscribed quadrilateral intersect at right angles.
Ex. 113. Given two perpendiculars, AB and CD, intersecting in 0, and
a straight line intersecting these perpendiculars in
and F\ to construct
a square, one of whose angles shall coincide with one of the right angles
site sides
at O,
(Two
solutions.)
shall lie in
EF.
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
118
PROPOSITION XXXIII.
II.
PROBLEM.
CASE
I.
is
than the
less
Let
be greater than
a,
angle.
Construct
276
b.
From
B as a centre,
BO and
Draw
Then both the
called the
ambiguous
Discussion,
to the JL
BH,
,D
.
JD /
is
is
and there
^L.
x ...
a

will be
tri
,D
ABH.
angle
If the given side a is less than the
JL from B, the arc described from
B^
/^/
is
Cand C
we
equal
the arc described from
a,
case.
If the side
AE at
AE, and
impossible,
.
\a
i
THE CIKCLE.
119
ZA
If the
is right or obtuse, the
problem is impossible for the
side opposite a right or obtuse angle is the greatest side.
159
CASE
If a
II.
If the Z.
is
is
to b.
equal
acute,
AE
There
is
isosceles
therefore
B ,P
Vx
the
J[
If the
Discussion,
ZA
is
is
impossible
opposite them, and a
obtuse A.
III.
If a
is
greater than
b.
ED
from
the acute Z. A.
solution
If the
from
There
namely, the
ZA
is
is
y^
A ABC.
If the /.
from
sides of
A ABC
ED
/?\
^
C
~~rA
ED
A, at the points
C and
&lt;?
\B
The
^\
*
&lt;j/
v
answers the required conditions,
^_
c
but the AA.BC does not, for it does
tion
the line
sides of
on opposite
A, and we have two equal right
which fulfil the required conditions.
cuts
B will cut
A ABO
The
~^c~
A have equal
cannot have two right
or two
right or obtuse,
for equal sides of a
If the given Z.
is acute, the arc described
on opposite sides of A, at
the line
and
A ABC*
i&gt;/
AEG.
the problem
CASE
B as
namely, the
A.
A A BO.
There
is
"
"~
.....
^
v&lt;1
"
F.
120
PLANE GEOMETEY.
PROPOSITION
Two
284,
sides
BOOK
II.
XXXIV. PROBLEM.
to construct the
parallelogram.
/
/
/
/
Let m and
angle.
To construct a parallelogram.
AB equal to
Draw
Construction,
At
construct the Z.
and take
From
o.
equal to
(7,
276
AH equal to m
From
to
o,
describe an arc.
EH and EB.
Draw
The quadrilateral
Proof.
/.
ABEH\$&gt;
required.
AB = HE,
Cons.
^#= 5^7.
Cons.
the figure
(having
the
its
ABEHis a O,
183
F.
PEOBLEMS.
PROPOSITION
XXXV.
PROBLEM.
285,
angle.
tri
121
To circumscribe a
circle
Construction,
Since
BO is
tersect at
From
about
Bisect
At
triangle.
ABC,
AB and
some point
The point
AB,
271
Js.
these J
will in
0.
A B C is
and
273
Proof.
BO.
is
the
OB,
describe a circle.
required.
equidistant from
also is equidistant
from
and B,
B and
122
(7,
and a
OB,
the point
is
O,
described from
will pass
circle or of a
given arc.
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
122
XXXVI.
PROPOSITION
Through a given
287,
point, to
II.
PROBLEM.
draw a tangent
to
circle.
given
&gt;iJ
CASE
I.
When
Let C be the
To draw a tangent
to
From
Construction,
CASE
II.
the centre
AM
Proof,
circle.
the circle at C.
Through
Then
gent to the
on the
straight line
C draw
AM
to
271
00.
is
_!_
239
circle.
When
Let
Join
Construction,
On
OE.
OE as
Draw
Then
EM
is
OM and EM.
the tangent required.
Z OME is
Proof,
264
a right angle,
EM
is
In like manner, we
may
prove
M.
239
O.
Q. E.
F.
123
PROBLEMS.
PROPOSITION
To inscribe a
288,
From E, with
The
Since
it is
radius
EH
EH,
describe the
O KHMis the O
is
AB and AC;
and
an
centre,
O KMH.
A,
is
it is
BC,
circles,
162
A and be inscribed in
equidis
in the bisector
AC and
equidistant from
/. is
E as
circles.
since
the sides
equidistant from
described from
272
required.
in the bisector of
(every point
..
275
C.
draw
triangle.
A ABC.
Bisect A A and
From E,
of the
triangle.
circle in the
Construction,
Proof,
a given
circle in
PROBLEM.
XXXVII.
it.
124
PLANE GEOMETRY.
PKOPOSITION
BOOK
XXXVIII.
II.
PROBLEM.
line,
and
M the given
angle.
_i_
FO
From
Proof,
The segment
AKB
The point
is
(every point in
and B,
122
equidistant from
middle of a straight line is equidistant
But
BE L to OB.
BE tangent to the O,
is
/.
/.
a radius at
Z ABE is
(being
t *.
its
extremity
measured by
is
239
tangent
arc
inscribed
Cons.
is
to
(a straight line
An Z
JL erected at the
from
.
is
in
the
segment
segment
AKB
AB,
to the
O).
269
chord).
is
AKB contains Z M.
measured by
263
Ax. 1
0. E.
F.
125
PROBLEMS.
PROPOSITION
XXXIX.
PROBLEM.
291,
lines.
F
Let AB and CD
"be
two straight
lines.
Then apply
EB to CD as many
EB.
times as possible.
Then apply
FD to EB as many
Then apply
FD.
times as possible.
HB.
KD.
Then apply
is
The
line,
then be as follows
HB = 2KD,
EB = FD+HB = 5KDCD = 3 EB f FD = 18 KD
AB = 2 CD + EB = 41
CD
18
/.the ratio
CD
18
Q.E.F.
126
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
II.
THEOREMS.
114.
The shortest
line
line
116.
In the same
or in equal
circle,
circles,
if
less
If
in the arc
ABC
is
BC, then
On PA
HINT.
an inscribed equilateral
PA = PB + PC.
take
PIT equal
to
triangle,
PB, and
join
BM.
circle
"118.
119.
be inscribed?
an equilateral triangle
circle inscribed in
is
A
A
circle
circle
isosceles trapezoid.
circle inscribed in
rt.
A is
equal to the
the circle
the
is
Prove that
DAB
Z.
equals onethird
Z DOB.
125.
If
two
circles intersect,
and a secant
is
point of intersection, the chords which join the extremities of the secants
are parallel.
HINT. By drawing the common chord, two inscribed
quadrilaterals are obtained.
127.
If
an equilateral triangle
is
is
is
drawn.
the ends of the diameters passes through the other point of intersection.
EXERCISES.
129.
point
at F.
127
D in
Prove
(i.)
all positions of
through any
J^and
at
AQ
Loci.
130.
131.
circumference.
132.
is
triangle,
upon
having a
the given
133. Prove that the locus of the vertex of a triangle, having a given
base and a given angle at the vertex, is the arc which forms with the
base a segment capable of containing the given angle.
134.
136.
137.
chords of a given
all
in a given circumference.
drawn from
all
circle.
that ca.n
to a given circumference.
A straight line
and touches
at one
other end.
138.
1
fi&ed rods
139.
straight rod
which are
In a given
moves
_L to
circle let
AOB
be a diameter,
00 any
radius,
CD
Find the
CONSTRUCTION OF POLYGONS.
To construct an
140.
142.
To construct an
144.
equilateral A,
The perimeter.
The altitude.
The angle
141.
having given
The radius of the circumscribed
143.
The radius
isosceles triangle,
at the vertex
having given:
and the
circle.
base.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
128
145.
146.
BOOK
II.
altitude.
147.
148.
circle.
alti
tude.
ABC be the A re
EF the given perimeter.
Let
HINTS.
quired, and
The altitude
,.
.
isosceles.
To construct a
150.
151.
One
153.
The radius
and one
154.
The radius
155.
An
An
149.
leg.
altitude
l
156.
sum
of the legs.
To construct a
triangle,
having given
V157. The
at the vertex.
**
158.
The
159.
and the
at the vertex.
160.
161.
One
162.
163.
One
164.
165.
rt. Z..
leg.
side,
side,
sides
and the
angles.
166.
An
167.
Two
168.
of the diagonal
and one
side.
129
EXERCISES.
To construct a
173.
174.
The
171.
172.
One
side
and the
"of
difference of the
two adjacent
sides
and the
of the
diagonals.
...
176.
One
177.
178.
To
side
circle.
179.
One
side
182.
To construct an
altitude,
and one
isosceles trapezoid,
angle.
having given:
The bases and the
183.
185.
186.
To construct a
187.
184.
angle.
altitude.
the diagonal.
circle.
having given
The two bases and the two diagonals.
The bases, one diagonal, and the Z formed by the
diagonals.
The four
trapezoid,
sides.
188.
CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCLES.
Find the locus of the centre of a
190.
191.
circle
P and
192.
Which
193.
194.
195.
Q.
130
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
To construct a
circle
II.
and which
AB and
also
CD.
196.
197.
198.
199.
To construct a
circle
AB and
which
shall
lines
a given circle K.
P and
AB.
202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.
Touch a given
Touch a given
line
P.
Touch two given lines and touch one of them at a given point
Touch a given line and touch a given circle at a point P.
Touch a given line AB at P and also touch a given
To inscribe a circle in a given sector.
X209. To describe
Q.
circle at
circles
P.
circle.
circles, so
that
two
others.
211.
213.
through
it shall
form with
Given a point
P a line
Given two points P, Q, and a line AB; .to draw lines from P
^214.
and Q which shall meet on AB and make equal angles with AB.
HINT. Make use of the point which forms with P a pair of points
symmetrical with respect to AB.
215.
,
216.
To find the shortest path from Pto Q which shall touch a line AB.
To draw a tangent to a given circle, so that it shall be parallel
BOOK
III.
292,
proportion
equal ratios.
proportion
ing forms
is
may
"
is
read,
the ratio of
::c:d;
d"
means.
294,
In the proportion a b
:
tional to a, b,
and
In the proportion
a and
=c
d,
is
a fourth propor
c.
a:b
= b:c,
c is a third proportional to
a:b
= b :c,
b.
In the proportion
between a and c,
is
mean
proportional
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
132
PROPOSITION
III.
I.
295,
is
ad
To prove
be.
a=C
AT
Now
7
b
y
ad =
be.
PROPOSITION
o. E. D.
II.
two
A mean
quantities
proportional between
their
root
product.
is equal to the square
of
296,
In the proportion a
=b
c,
V = ac,
the extremes
(the product of
is
equal
295
to the
root,
a E. D.
Va&lt;?.
PROPOSITION
III.
is equal to the
// the product of two quantities
two may be made the
product of two others, either
in which the other two are
a
extremes
297,
made
proportion
of
the means.
To prove
Let ad=bc.
a:b
= c:d.
bd.
Divide both members of the given equation by
Then
=c
Q.E.D.
THEORY OF PROPORTION.
133
PROPOSITION IV.
298,
ond
to the fourth.
Let a:b =
= b:d.
a:c
To prove
c:d.
fj
Multiply each
member
of the equation
by
.
=*
Then
a:c = b:d.
or,
Q.E.D.
PROPOSITION V.
299, If four quantities are in proportion, they will
be in proportion by inversion ; that is, the second term
will be to the first as the fourth to the third.
To prove
Now
Divide each
bo
member
295
of the equation
by
ac.
*=
Then
a
or,
= ad.
a=d
c.
at.*
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
134
III.
PROPOSITION VI.
300, If four quantities are in proportion, they will
be in proportion by composition ; that is, the sum of
the first two terms will be to the second term as the
sum
term.
of the last two terms to the fourth
Let a:b = c:d.
a + b :b
To prove
Now
Add
T
b
1 to
each member
f
In like manner,
f
a+
is,
or,
~y
of the equation.
+lr=  +1
d
b _c
Then
that
= c + d:d.
~~d~
=c+d
d.
+b b
d:c.
b
:a=c
+
+
:
^^
PROPOSITION VII.
will
// four quantities are in proportion, they
the
that
division
is,
difference
;
be in proportion by
be to the second term as
of the first two terms will
the difference of the last two terms to the fourth
301,
term.
To prove
Let a:b =
a b:b = c
h~"f7
member
of the equation.
 1=11;
Then
ab__cd
7
is,
In like manner,
d:d.
a_c
Now
that
c:d.
5
a=c
d .c.
135
THEORY OF PROPORTION.
PROPOSITION VIII.
302,
And, by
v
By
,.
300,
301,
cd
c}d: c
division,
a\b
or.
d.
Q.E. D.
PEOPOSITION IX.
In a
series of
tecedents is to the
303.
antecedent
is to its
consequent.
a+ c+ e+g
Denote each
ratio
by
Then
Whence,
Add
br,
b.
= ? = = i = f.
c
= dr,
=fr,
g=
hr.
these equations.
Then
a+c+e+g
Divide by
Then
h.
r.
a=
+ d+f+h = a
(b
= (b + d+f+ h)r.
+ d+f+h).
or,
Q. E. D.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
136
BOOK
III.
PROPOSITION X.
304,
aek
= cgm
bfl
a c e
T =T 7
b
d f
vr
NOW
= m.n.
dhn.
=m

Ic
hi
k:l
Whence, by multiplication,
_ cgm
aek ~~
dhn
bfl
aek bfl
or,
= cgm
dhn.
Q.E.D.
PROPOSITION XI.
305,
of the terms of
roots,
Let
n
I
n
and
Q&gt;
NT
NOW
By
^=~
n
b
dn
By
= c:d.
= cn :d n
I
1
i
b = C* d*.
a=c
7
y
a :b
To prove
a.b
n
or
or,
,1
:
= ci
,1
Q.E.O.
the products ob
Equimultiples of two quantities are
same number.
the
them
tained by multiplying each of
by
306,
Thus,
ma and mb
are equimultiples of
a and
b.
THEORY OF PROPORTION.
137
PROPOSITION XII.
307,
same
Let
and
To prove
ma :mb
a:b.
by m.
ma = a
mi
Then
mo
ma :mb = a:b.
or,
Q.E.D.
sumed
that fractions
251256.)
Hence, in speaking of the product of two quantities, as for
instance, the product of two lines, we mean simply the product
of the numbers which represent them when referred to a com
mon
unit.
An
of
PLANE GEOMETRY.
138
BOOK
III.
PROPORTIONAL LINES.
PROPOSITION
If a line
309,
angle
is
I.
THEOREM.
sides of
tri
proportio nally.
FIG.
1.
In the triangle
FIG.
ABC
let
EF
2.
EB = FC
Toprove
ZS Zp
CASE
When AE and EB (Fig. 1) are commensumble.
Find a common measure of AE and EB, as BM.
Suppose BMiQ be contained in BE three times,
and in AE four times.
I.
Then
At
AE
(1)
straight lines
II
to
draw
AC mto seven
FC will
BE and AE
BC.
ill
FC
AF
Compare
(1)
and
(2)
(2),
AE
Ax.
1.
139
PROPORTIONAL LINES.
CASE
When
II.
Divide
AE
into
parts,
EB as many times as it
Since
to a point
of these parts will extend from
less than the unit of measure.
remainder
Draw
KH
II
to
BO.
the
Suppose the unit of measure indefinitely diminished,
ra tios =?==
AE
Therefore
T?
 and
Jf
COR.
1.
by a straight
One
indefi
310,
and approach
side of
,
respectively.
26
a triangle
is to either
part cut
off
corresponding part.
For
300
/.
or
COR.
311.
2.
If two
Let the
Draw
and N.
lines
AN
II
be
to
AB and CD.
CD, cutting the
Us at
L,
M,
Then
187
the theorem,
is,
PLANE GEOMETRY.
140
PROPOSITION
BOOK
III.
THEOREM
II.
&gt;
312,
angle proportionally,
In the triangle
ABC
tri
it is
EF be drawn
AB = AC
AE AF
let
so that
Proof,
EF \\toBG.
From E draw EH
Then
AB AE= AC:
To prove
to
II
A is
(one side of a
to either
part cut
off
BO.
AH,
by a line
II
310
to the base,
as the other
AB AE = AC
But
The
each to
AF.
Hyp.
last
AF=AH.
.*.
.KFand
EH\s
But
/.
EF, which
EH coincide.
II
to
BC.
coincides with
EH,
Cons.
is

to
BC.
Q.E.Q.
141
PROPORTIONAL LINES.
PROPOSITION
III.
THEOREM.
A
Let
CM
"bisect
MA MB = CA CB.
Proof, Draw AE
to MC to meet BC produced at E.
to AE of the A BAE, we have
Since MC
To prove
II
is
II
MA:MB=CE:CB.
Since
MC
is
II
(1)
AE,
to
ZACM=ZCAE,
(being alt.int.
of\\ lines)
Z BCM= Z
and
(being
But
ext.int.
104
;
CEA,
of
II
A CM= Z BCM.
the Z CAE = Z CEA.
..
/.
Putting
two
CA
of a
for
A are
CE in
CE=
106
lines).
the Z.
(if
309
Hyp.
Ax.
156
CA,
(1),
we have
MA:MB=CA:
CB.
Q.E.D.
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
142
III.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION IV.
tances of which
A
ACE
M A M B = CA
To prove
Draw
Proof,
Since
AFis
Since
AF
is
II
of the tri
f
.
OB.
BC&t F.
AF to CM
to OH of the A BOM we have
WA\WB=CF\CB.
to
II
meet
II
to
(being ext.int.
the
CM
bisects the
:.
the
Putting
II
of
I!
Z AFC = Z
A of a A are
CA for CF in
two
of
lines)
106
CAF,
104
lines).
Z ECA,
/.
(if
Z M CA = Z
(being alt.int,
Since
(1)
CM\
theZM CE = ZAFC,
and
309
CAF.
CA = CF,
Ax.
156
are equal).
equal, the opposite sides
(1),
we have
WA M B = CA
:
CB.
Q.E.D.
PROPORTIONAL LINES.
SCHOLIUM.
315,
If a given line
AB
143
is
and B, it
and
divided internally into the segments
divided at
MA
MB
MA
be
said to
is
M,
divided at
and
if it
it is
said
M B.
f
In either case the segments are the distances from the point
If the line is divided
to the line
and
internally, the sum of the segments is equal
if the line is divided externally, the difference of the segments
;
is
equal to the
line.
cc.
___
We
AB
divide
parts from
into 5
inter
.i.i......
A
B
M
AB
line
y;
+ 3,
we then have
MA: MB = 3: 5.
Secondly, we divide
AB
into
two equal
(1)
left of
f
,
M A M B 3:5.
:
Comparing
(1)
and
parts,
and lay
off
A, three of these
such that
(2)
(2),
PLANE GEOMETRY.
144
COR.
317.
1.
The
bisectors of
BOOK
an
III.
and an
interior angle
a triangle
divide the opposite side harmoni
313 and 314, each
cally. For, by
exte
\o
318.
COR.
2.
If
the points
by
M and M
and
The
M and M
M and M
from
from
1
AB
har
298
MM
M B,
M
is,
MA MB = M A
MA M A = MB
if
alternation,
That
is
M,
M\
SIMILAR POLYGONS.
Similar polygons are polygons that have their homol
319.
ED
Thus,
if
the
the polygons
A A,
B,
C,
CD
and
320.
A JB
etc.
ogous sides
145
SIMILAR TRIANGLES.
SIMILAR TRIANGLES.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION V.
321,
ilar.
triangles are
sim
In the triangles*
equal to angles A
ABC and A B C
B C
Apply the
Proof,
so that
AABC
Z
Now
similar.
C* to the
A AEG,
Z
AEJI(ssime
:.
as
Elf is
Z B)=Z
A.
A AEH.
B.
108
ioBC,
II
AAB
ZA
G be
respectively.
A ABC and A B C
To prove
Then the
let angles A, B,
lines,
/.
310
or
AABC
ZB
may
the two
Therefore
A ABC,
so that
prove that
AB A B = BC: J3
:
to
&lt;7
A are similar.
319
Q. E. D.
322,
COR.
1.
Two
2.
Two right triangles are similar if an acute
one
the
is
equal to an acute angle of the other.
angle of
323,
COR.
146
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION VI.
THEOREM.
III.
In the triangles
To prove
Proof,
C&gt;
Draw EH.
Then from the given
proportion,
AB = AC
AE AH
:.
(if
line divide
Hence
Effis
two sides of a
in the
II
to
312
BC,
A proportionally,
it is
II
to the
third
side).
A ABC&nd. AEH
106
and
(being ext.int.
..
of
II
lines).
.:AB\
that
AE=
AB A B =
1
is,
322
are similar,
to
two
of the
SIMILAR TRIANGLES.
147
But by hypothesis,
The
last
each to each
Hence
first
in the
AE=A B
160
(having three sides of the one equal respectively
But
..
to three sides
of the other).
aE
The homologous
sides
must be
in proportion.
angles
PLANE GEOMETKY.
148
PROPOSITION VII.
BOOK
III.
THEOREM.
to
an angle of
In the triangles
ABC and A B C
AB ~
= AC
AB
Proof,
Apply
the
AB
so that
A AEH.
AC
AC
AB__
AC^
EH divides the
sides
AB
and
A C pro
toC,
(if a
ZA
AE AH
is,
portionally
A ABC,
to the
AB
Now
similar.
A.
AABC
Then the
That
AABC
let
AC
A ABC and A B C
To prove
line divide
Hence the
and similar.
AABC
312
A proportionally,
two sides of a
is
similar to
it is
\\
to the
third side}.
mutually equiangular
A ABO.
Q. E. D.
149
SIMILAR TRIANGLES.
PROPOSITION VIII.
THEOREM.
ilar.
be
In the triangles A B C and ABC let A B A C B
respectively parallel, or respectively perpendicular,
to AB, AC, BC.
,
AABC
To prove
Proof,
and
The corresponding
ABC similar.
jf
or supplements
112, 113
of each other,
(if
two
&lt;y
II,
or
_L,
A + A = 2rt.A, B + B = 2rt.A
B + B = 2rt.A
A=A
2d.
C= C
B= B\
AA
3d.
Since the sum of the A of the two A cannot
1st.
the two
is
A ABC and A B C
&
140
exceed four
admissible.
138
are similar,
321
are similar).
150
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION IX.
THEOREM.
III.
sides.
A o
A
ABC and A B C
let the
CO
CO
To prove
In the
Proof,
rt.
AC
AB
AC
AB
CO A and C O A
ZA=Z A
(being homologous
..
(two
rt.
&
A CO A
of the similar
and
having an acute Z
319
COA
323
are similar,
an acute
}.
of the other
are similar).
AC
AC
CO
CO
In the similar
A AB C and A B C
AC
AC
Therefore,
CO
_
~=
319
AB
AB
AC = _.
AB
=_
Q. E. O.
151
SIMILAR TRIANGLES.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION X.
drawn through
Straight lines
329,
the
same point
/B
ABC
E
A E cut the straight
_ = _=
AE
Toprove
Proof,
\E
\D
/C"
Since
OA B OBC
,
is
to
II
OB C
and
similar,
BO
DE
CD
A OAB
AE,
etc.,
the pairs of
are mutually equiangular
and
and
AS
"
OB
ff
sides of similar
(homologous
&
are proportional).
Ax
In a similar way
BC
BO
it
may
be shown that
_ CD
CD
DE
CD
D
Q. E. D.
REMARK.
AB
\OB
_^
B C \00
=
J
is
==== D E^
^
\OD
152
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PBOPOSITION XI.
THEOREM.
III.
more nonparallel
straight lines intercept proportional segments upon
two parallels, they pass through a wmrrwn, point.
If three or
CONVERSELY:
AC
AC BD=CE
:
To prove that
Proof,
AB, CD,
that
Prolong
we
If
BF so
DF.
designate by
shall have by
329,
F the
0.
OE,
point where
AC:BD=CE:DF
OE
cuts
BF, we
But by hypothesis
AC:BD = CE.DF.
each
..
..
F coincides with F.
.EF prolonged
O.
passes through
0.
153
SIMILAR POLYGONS.
SIMILAR POLYGONS.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION XII.
ABODE similar to A B C D E
ZA=ZA
To prove
319
(being homologous
Also,
of similar A).
Z ABE = Z A B E
Z EEC = Z E B C
Z ABC = Z A B C
we may prove Z BCD = Z B C D
319
and
By
Proof,
adding,
In like manner
etc.
Now
AE = AB ^( EB\
AE
AB
(the
BO ^( EC\
B
C \E &)
\E &)
homologous
sides of similar
CD = ED
C
ED
A are proportional).
PLANE GEOMETRY.
154
BOOK
PROPOSITION XIII.
332,
of the
If two polygons
cure
III.
THEOREM.
and similarly
B
Let the
placed.
B
DE
B
ABODE
A
C
and
polygons
C
vertices, as
E and E
1
,
be similar.
draw diagonals
EB EC
A EAB, EEC, ECD
To prove
A EAB EB C E CD
similar respectively
Proof, In the A EAB and E A B
EB, EC, and
to
Z.A=/.A
(being homologous
and
319
of similar polygons)
AE
AB
AE
AB
319
(having an
A EAB and E A B
are similar,
and
ZABC=ZA B C
Also,
(being homologous
And
(1)
of similar polygons).
ABE= Z A B E
(being homologous
326
of similar A).
/.
EBC
(2)
(1),
1
.
Ax. 3
SIMILAR POLYGONS.
155
EB _ AB
Now
BO = AB
BC A^
And
Av
XIA.
(having an
r~ttT~\i
*~T\I
A EBCw& E B C
we may prove
326
are similar,
In like manner
1
JL
~7f"
and
A ECD and E C D
similar.
Q. E. D.
PROPOSITION XIV.
333,
the
THEOREM.
same
P P = AB A B
= CD
AB A B = EG:
To prove
(the
..
(in
homologous
AB+BC,etc.
AB
CD
319
etc.,
+B C
etc.
=AB: A B
303
series of
"
That
P:f = AB:A B
t
is,
sides of similar
PLANE GEOMETRY.
156
BOOK
III.
THEOREM.
Each
F
In the right triangle ABC, let BF be drawn from the
vertex of the right angle B, perpendicular to AC.
I.
To prove
In the
Proof,
rt.
the acute /.
is
common.
A are similar.
In the
rt.
the acute /.
Hence the
Now
as the
rt.
(7 is
II.
and
AF,
BF,
BF,
CBF,
FO, the
To prove
323
common.
A are similar.
323
Hence the
OF and BCA
medium
medium
AC AB = AB
:
AF,
157
AB,
AB,
A F,
AC, the
:
Also
in the similar
A AfiCand FBC,
Q E
.
o.
The squares of
COR.
335,
1.
The proportions
in II. give,
AB* = ACxAF,
By
by
and
295,
BC* = ACxCF.
we have
AGx CF
COR.
336,
2.
are proportional
The squares of
to
l^
COR.
337,
angle
3.
264).
the hypotenuse
^L
r^
OF
An
_/lL/ /\ ^J_
I77&gt;o4&gt;
_/T_
ZF
is
a right
Therefore,
is
the segments ^_
of the diameter.
II.
&
_^
diameter
adjacent segment.
REMARK. The pairs of corresponding sides in similar triangles may be
called longest, shortest, medium, to enable the beginner to see quickly
these pairs but he must not forget that two sides are homologous, not
;
lie
sides,
but because
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
158
III.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION XVI.
338,
triangle
is
to the
equal
legs of a right
Let ABC
fee
B&
To prove
BF to AC.
=
A& ACxAF
Draw
Proof,
Then
= ACX OF
= AC(AF+
By adding, AB* + SO*
BC*
and
339,
to
334
COR.
The square
of either leg
CF)
= AC\
The
is
square
ber V2.
ABCD,
For
if
AC
SCHOLIUM.
to the side
is
a E. D.
is equal
of a right triangle
then
we have
AC = 2
2
or
AC*
~
= 2,
or
AC
^g
=
V2.
The projection of a
line
CD
upon a straight
AB
CP
DR
PR
CD.
Thus,
CD
upon AB.
is
the projection of
A~
line
AB
is
PROPOSITION XVII.
159
THEOREM.
DC
To prove
Proof,
If
fall
(Fig. 1),
DB = BC DCIf
2),
In either case,
JOB*
Add
AD
DC.
and we have
rt.
of the hypotenuse}.
Put
2BCx
above equality,
DC.
Q. E. D.
160
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XVIII.
THEOREM.
III.
In any obtuse
CD be the
To prove
+ Iff + 2Cx
DB = BC+DC.
A3* =
Proof,
Squaring,
Add Alf
DB* =
C*
to both sides,
AD* + 52? =
+ DO* + 2Cx
DO.
DO.
and we have
W*+AD +D
i
But
338
and
(the
sum
Put
a rt.
of the squares of the two legs of
of the hypotenuse).
A is equal to
the square
Q.E.O.
the altitudes
PROPOSITION XIX.
161
THEOREM.
I.
is
that side.
II.
"be
I.
Toprove
II.
Since
Proof,
the
AME
will be obtuse,
=M + AM + 2JBMx MD,
and
152
343
any obtuse A the square of the side opposite the obtuse /. is equal to the
sum of the squares of the other two sides increased by twice the product
of one of those sides
and
(in
the
Then
(in
MD
AS
and
on that
side)
AC = MC + AM2MCx MD,
342
any
Add
Then
Then
BM= MC.
AS + AC = 2 BM + 2AM\
2
first.
aE D
NOTE. This theorem enables us to compute the lengths of the medians
if
known.
162
PLANE GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION XX.
BOOK
III.
THEOREM.
OAxOB=ODx
To prove
Draw
Proof.
In the
0.
00.
A O and ED.
263
Z A  Z D,
AD}.
263
A are similar,
(two
&
are similar
Whence
:
/. the
when two A of
322
of the other).
OA,
OD,
OB,
..
OAxOB = ODxOO.
295
Q.E. D.
346,
SCHOLIUM.
This proportion
OA = 00
OD
OB
OA
may
be written
OD~OB
00
that
segments.
proportional.
163
XXL
PROPOSITION
THEOREM.
is
0.
EC and AD.
OBC
Draw
Proof.
In the
A OAD and
is
common,
A = Z.B,
263
(two
the two
Whence
:
two
A are similar,
322
of the other).
OA x 00= OB x OD.
295
Q. E. D.
until
B and D approach
it is
true
continues true
if
the secant
when
and
D coincide
at
OA x 00= OH\
This truth
is
OB
turns
by
Whence,
Therefore,
H.
164
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XXII.
THEOREM.
III.
and
the external
segment*
Let OB
"be
the point
to
OG OB = OB
To prove
Draw
Proof.
In the
M.
EM and BO.
A OB M and OBO
/.
OEM
Z.
(being
an
Z.
is
is
common.
measured by % arc
Z C is
measured by
(being
an
J
263
O.
322
of the other).
OB,
OB,
OM,
OC,
:
B M,
(having two
Whence
arc
269
chord).
inscribed Z).
.\/.OBM=Z.
..
MB,
Q. E. D.
165
THEOREM.
bisector of an angle of a
product of the sides of this
angle diminished by the product of the segments
determined by the bisector upon the third side of the
349,
triangle
is
equal
to the
triangle.
AD
Let
AD* =
To prove
Proof,
BAG
ABxAC~DBx DC.
Circumscribe the
ABO.
^BAD = ZCAE,
Z.B =
285
Hyp.
263
E,
(two
Whence
:
But
322
AB,
AE,
AD,
A 0,
..
(the
AB x A0= ADxAE
= AD(AD+DE)
= AI?+ADxDE.
of
295
ADxDE=DBxDC,
345
Q is
constant).
..ABxAC=AD + DBxDC.
AD* = AB X AC DB x DC.
i
Whence
if
E D
.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
166
PROPOSITION
350,
BOOK
XXIV.
III.
THEOREM.
sides is
AB xAC=AEx AD.
In the A ABD and A EC,
Z BDA a Z,
ABO
To prove
Proof,
is
Z EGA
is
(being inscribed in
and
..
(two
rt.
&
rt.
Z BZ
264
Z,
semicircle),
263
E.
having cm acute
Whence
Cons.
rt.
/.
an acute
AB,
AE,
AD,
AC,
.:.
323
Z.
of the other
ABxAC^AExAD.
295
Q.E. D.
known.
167
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION
XXV.
PROBLEM.
7?
Let AB,
m,
To divide
n,
Construction,
On
AX take AC=m,
lines.
m,
n,
and p.
acute
with
to
AB.
CE=n, EX^p.
Draw EX.
From
E and
JTand
(a line
draw
.5"
UK and GH
to
II
BX.
sides of
II
to the
sides proportionally).
/.
AH UK KB = AC
:
Substitute m, n, and
Then
AIT
CE EX.
:
HK KB  m
:
n p.
:
Q. E.
F.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
168
PROPOSITION
BOOK
XXVI.
PROBLEM.
a fourth proportional
352, To find
straight lines.
m,
n,
m,
n,
Draw Ax and Ay
Construction,
III.
On Ax
to
to three
given
andp.
andp.
take
On Ay
AB equal to m, BQn.
take
AD=p.
Draw BD.
From C draw
DF
is
\\
to
BD,
to
meet
Ay
at F.
Proof,
(a line
CF
AB
BG = AD
sides of
II
309
DF,
to the
sides proportionally}.
Substitute m, n,
Then
and^&gt;
=p
AB,
JBC,
and
AD.
DF.
Q. E. F.
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
XXVH.
PROPOSITION
To
353,
PROBLEM.
a third proportional
find
169
to
two given
straight lines.
Let m and
n be the
Construction,
and take
Produce
AB
AB to D,
D draw DE
making
CE is the
(a line
A E ED = A C
:
sides of
=
AC.
EC.
third proportional to
Proof,
ED
0to meet
to
II
AC=n.
m,
Join
Through
lines.
m and n.
to
II
AC produced
AB and AC.
CE.
to the
at
E.
309
sides proportionally}.
is,
Q.E.
x, if (1)
=
,
(2)
Special Cases
2,
(4)
(1)
2,
3, c
= 3,
;
(5)
= 4;
a = 2c.
c
F.
c
(2)
= 3,
7,
c=ll;(3)
PLANE GEOMETRY.
170
BOOK
PROPOSITION XXVIII.
To find a
354,
mean
III.
PROBLEM.
straight lines.
H
m
A~
ra
^
TT
On
Construction,
AC= m,
take
and
n.
m and n.
AE
OB = n.
On
CHis
Proof,
..
AC CH = CH
337
CB,
to the
diameter of a
the diameter).
n.
proportional between in and
mean
Substitute for
A O and OB
their equals
m CH = CH
Then
circle
m and n.
n.
Q. E.
355,
mean
straight line
ratio,
when
Ex.
21 8.
(1)
is
to the greater
and
segment as
to the less.
is
Construct x
:
Special Cases
is
if
a;
=
= 3; (2)a=l,
2, 6
= 5
(3)a
F.
3,
7.
171
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION
XXIX.
PROBLEM.
356,
ratio.
"
X.
.
.%"""
A
Let AB be the given
line.
To divide
a 0.
Then
AB
is
divided internally at
in
AG AB  AB
Proof,
and externally
at
ratio.
:
348
AF,
(if
the tan
external
segment).
Then by
301 and
300,
AGAB:AB = ABAF
AF,
(1)
(2)
..
Hence
or,
by
(1)
becomes
inversion,
Again, since
(2)
becomes
AC AB = BC AC;
AB AC= AC BC.
C A = AG = AB + AF,
C B C A == C A AB.
:
299
Q.E.F.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
172
XXX.
PROPOSITION
Upon a given
357,
BOOK
line
III.
PROBLEM.
to
homologous
a given side
E
Construction, From E draw the
diagonals EE and EC.
From E draw E B E C and E D\
making AA E B B E C and C E D equal respectively to
1
A AEB,
From
E D
j5"Z&gt;
DE
The corresponding
Proof,
E B C ECD and
,
(two
^"(7
322
Z) are similar,
to
two
are similar,
similar
(two polygons. composed of the same number of
similarly placed, are similar).
to
331
each other and
PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.
173
PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.
219.
To compute the
its sides.
At
least
A or B is acute.
Suppose
it is
the angle B.
4 c2
6 )(2aca c
2
4c3
2 2
2
= {(a + c) b } {b* (a c) }
4c2
_ (a
c)
(a
5) (6
+a
c) (6
+ c)
4c2
c = 2s.
b = 2(sc
Let
af6 +
Then
f
a +
Hence
2s
2 (s
a)
2(s
2(s
6),
a).
 6) x
2(s
c)
4c2
By
simplifying,
220.
root,
By?
344,
Whence
(Fig. 2)
.
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
174
To compute the
221.
By
I 349,
By
313,
P  ab
III.
 AD x BD.
*
^1=^ =
be
,
J?Z&gt;
a+b
a+b
BD =
and
a + b
abc2
Whence
(a
6)
c2
/!_
ab (a
c)
(a
(a
c)
2
Z&gt;)
a5x2sx2(sc)
(a
+ by
Whence
222.
circle
circumscribed about a
tri
By
350,
ABxAC=AExAD
be
But
R x AD.
(sa)(sb}(sc).
abc
Whence
223.
or obtuse
right, acute,
and
5, is
7, 9,
and
12, is the
7, 9,
and
11,
224.
is
angle opposite
The legs of a right triangle are 8 inches and 12 inches find the
the projections of these legs upon the hypotenuse, and the dis
of
lengths
tance of the vertex of the right angle from the hypotenuse.
226.
227.
(4)
175
EXERCISES.
THEOREMS.
Any two
228.
Two
229.
ing one
circles
circle in
touch at P.
A, B,
C,
ABC,
chord
AB
is
are similar.
AB C
AM
HINT. Draw the diameter AE, join BE/qpd. compare the triangles
thus formed.
231.
chords
is
HINT.
AC
233.
234.
that
AC = ED.
ABCD,
In a parallelogram
diagonal
Prove that
in their
two perpendiculai
CD
of
in F, the side
a line
in G,
DE
and the
BE,
join
AC,
338.
is
side
The tangents
common chord
to
two
bisect their
BO
Apply
common
of
tangents.
two intersecting
circles, if
any point
produced, will
($ 348.)
""
If
AB and CD
and
Q.
common
chords
all
pass
PLANE GEOMETRY.
176
If
two
BOOK
TTI.
circle
circles are
drawn from
HINT. Draw any two of the chords, join the points where they meet
A thus formed are similar.
238.
equal to
th.e
sum
is
similar.
Also the
any quadrilateral
onals.
A ABC
BE
DE
mined by the bisector upon one of the sides.diminished by the product of the other two sides.
HINT. Let
CD
BCH
is
II
of
A ABC. Circumscribe a about the A, produce DC to meet the circumference in F, and draw
BCF similar. Apply 347.
the
&lt;
241.
If a point
BF.
Prove
is
&ACD,
ABC, and
AB is drawn, meeting OB
/through any point A in OA a line parallel to
at B
and then through B f a line parallel to BC, meeting OC at C
and C/ is joined to A the triangle A B C will be similar to the tri
/
angle
ABC.
242.
the
t
points A, B,
C,
PAxPD = PBxPC.
243. The line of centres of two circles meets the common exterior
from P, cutting the circles at the
tangent at P, and a secant is drawn
= PFx PQ.
that
H.
Prove
consecutive points E, F, G,
PExPH
EXERCISES.
177
NUMERICAL EXERCISES.
A line is drawn
AC in D, BC in
*P 244.
Cutting
id
DE.
(g
h.
legs
.
tree casts a
313.)
shadow 90
HAD DC= 2
E.
The
245.
parallel to a side
when
feet long,
How
high
is
the tree
till
\248.
are represented
by
a, b,
they meet.
The
homologous
is
equal to 40.
7, 8.
sides.
249. The perimeters of two similar polygons are 200 feet and 300 feet.
j
If a side of the first polygon is 24 feet, find the
side of the
homologous
second polygon.
**/
^,
250.
line
an equilateral triangle
251.
If the side of
252.
a, find
if
the altitude.
h, find
the side.
Find the lengths of the longest and the shortest chord that can
bo drawn through a point 6 inches from the centre of a circle whose
?
253.
radius
7
/
is
254.
equal to 10 inches.
is
12 inches.
255.
The radius of a
a chord 10 inches
long
chord 24 inches long.
to a
is 5 inches.
Through a point 3 inches from
drawn, and also a chord perpendicular to the
Find the length of this chord, and the distance from one end
diameter.
circle to
is
V 257.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
178
The radius of a
258.
drawn through
From
259.
circle
any chord
?
is
13 inches.
drawn.
is
What
is
the point
BOOK
What
is
ITI.
^ 260.
inches.
The
261.
radii of
two
mon
circle.
15 inches.
is
tangents.
^262.
The
263.
right, or obtuse
PROBLEMS.
To divide one
264.
265.
To produce a
266.
To
313.)
line
5.
267.
to
draw a
line
268.
ABso
that
269.
P within
PAB so
271.
PAB so
272.
PA:
AB = 4: 3.
proportional
AP:5P=2:3.
mean
find a point
P in
AB
so
EXEECISES.
179
in the ratio of 3
5.
To divide a
274.
To construct a
circle
lines.
278.
To
279.
To
HINT. Suppose the problem solved, and DEFQ the inscribed square.
to AB, and let
produced meet
AF
CM
CM in M. Draw Gffand MN to AB, and
produce AB to meet MN at N. The & ACM,
AOF are similar; also the A AMN, AFE
Draw
II
are similar.
the figure
By
these
CMNH
triangles
show that
a square. By construct
can be found.
ing this square, the point
is
280.
To
A.
DH E B
rectangle.
281.
To
282.
To
rectangle.
283.
To circumscribe about a
circle
triangle.
284.
285.
To construct the
expression, x
= ^^
that
~x
is
de
lines,
their ratio.
286.
and
To construct two
their ratio.
287.
and
Having given two circles, with cef*W6s
draw through the point A a straight
B and C, so that AB AC= 1 2.
in their plane, to
circumferences at
making
OA AD .
2.
Join
DC;
and a point
line,
meeting the
OA
and produce
similar.
it
to D,
BOOK
IV.
AREAS OF POLYGONS.
The area
358,
of a surface
is
is
a unit of length ;
359,
PKOPOSITION
THEOREM.
I.
same
B
be AC and
E
AF, having the
altitude AD.
^t^=4lect.AF AE
Toprme
Proof,
I.
When
is
Apply
this
measure
The
and the
AE
to AB
(1)
and
AE, and
at the several
Js.
rect.
A C will
rect.
AREAS OF POLYGONS.
These rectangles are
181
all equal.
186
Hence
From
(1)
CASE
II.
and
(2)
When
Ax
AE
Dl
F
B
of
them
to
it
remainder
Draw
Since
from
to a point
KH
II
to
K, leaving a
EF.
rect.AF
and
and approach
AE respectively.
..
_
(if
indefi
AB
is
I.
rect.
AF AE
limit, the
Q E D
COB. The areas of two
bases
are
rectangles having equal
to each other as their altitudes.
For
and
be
con
may
sidered as the altitudes,
and
as the bases.
361,
AB
AD
AD
NOTE.
"
In propositions
relating
etc., are often used for
triangle,"
angle,"
etc.
to
"
areas,
area of
AE
the
words
"rectangle,"
"
rectangle,"
area of
tri
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
182
PROPOSITION
IV.
THEOREM.
II.
m
To
E = aXbE a Xb
prove
Then
a
a
361
1
Sb
and
360
By
E
E
Ex. 288.
Find the
aXb
a
ratio of a rectangular
by 14 inches.
Q. E. O.
The length of the rectangle is 4 times its breadth. Compare their areas.
Ex. 291. On a certain map the linear scale is 1 inch to 5 miles. How
many acres are represented on this map by a square the perimeter of
which is 1 inch ?
AREAS OF POLYGONS.
PROPOSITION
363,
of
its
THEOREM.
III.
and
183
is
altitude.
R=aX
a X o=
aXb,
the area of
To prove
Jii,
b.
c
IXl
But
..
364.
SCHOLIUM.
= the area of R.
the area of R = a X
When
and
altitudes).
358
b.
Q. E. D.
Thus,
if
may
be divided
7x4
184
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION IV.
THEOREM.
365,
product of
its
IV.
is
equal to the
and altitude.
C F
base
BE
its base,
and CD
its altitude.
From
Proof,
Then the
figure
draw
II
In the
rt.
AEFD.
179
ZZ7).
..AAJBE=ADCF,
(two
rt.
161
ABCD
of the
=c=
O AEFD.
Ax. 3
363
Ax.
Q. E. D.
366,
COR.
1.
COR.
2.
are
to
to
to
each
185
AREAS OF POLYGONS.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION V.
368,
is
equal to onehalf
Let ABC be a
AB
triangle,
its base,
and DC
its
altitude.
CH
AH
From
The
&ABC=%ABx DC.
From C draw
figure
(hawing
and
draw
ABCHis
its
II
to
BA.
II
to
BO.
168
a parallelogram,
AC
is its
diagonal.
178
(the
The area
base,
diagonal of a CU divides
of the
O ABCH
is
it
its altitude.
by
A ABC,
is
its
365
O,
that
the area of
is,
by
its
altitude.
Hence,
A ABC= %AB X
369, COR. 1
Triangles having equal bases
tudes are equivalent.
.
370,
COR.
2.
DC.
Q. E. D.
and equal
to
alti
each other
;
triangles having equal altitudes are fo each
other as their bases ; any two triangles are to each other as the
as their altitudes
their altitudes.
products of their bases by
186
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION VI.
THEOREM.
IV.
.A
F
B
b
Let ABCH be a trapezoid, and EF the altitude,
To prove
area of
ABCH =
Draw
Proof,
(J3~C+
the diagonal
AB) EF
AC.
By
adding,
372,
the area of
373,
SCHOLIUM.
For,
is
by
equal
191,
to
368
E D
.
the product
OP is equal
to
ABCH= OP X EF.
The area
of an irregular polygon
may
be
gon into
triangles,
and by
employed in practice is to
draw the longest diagonal,
and to let fall perpendiculars upon
of the polygon.
AEEAS OF POLYGONS.
PROPOSITION VII.
187
THEOREM.
angles.
A ABC ABxAC
A ADE ADxAE
To prove
Draw BE.
Proof,
A ABC AC
A ABE ~AE
A ABE AB
A ADE AD
Now
and
(& having
By
the
same
370
AABC_^ABxAO
A ADE AD x AE
Q. E. D.
Ex. 292. The areas of two triangles which have an angle of the one
to an angle of the other are to each other as the products
supplementary
PLANE GEOMETRY.
188
BOOK
IV.
COMPARISON OF POLYGONS.
PROPOSITION VIII.
THEOREM.
A o
A ACB
AA CB
To prove
Draw
T
the perpendiculars
A ACB
(fo;o
are
to
AB
CO and C O
ABx
A^L^ ^
CO
1
.
AB
XW = :Z^ X W
CO
o 7n
But
(the
then
A ACB
AB
AA C B
AB
AB
CO
its
their
equal
homolo
Al?
AB
Q. E. O.
189
COMPARISON OF POLYGONS.
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION IX.
To prove
Proof,
vertices
/S"
= A$
1*1?.
E\
triangles similar
AB*
332
A ABE
ABOE
AJJ C E
fBE*\
AA J?
A CPE
A CDE
(similar
& are
to
A ABE
AA B E*
ABCE
AB O E
375
1
_~
A ODE
A ODE
A ABE = AB
AA B E ^ B
1
series of
.:
8:8 = 13*: AW
sides).
*
1
sum
of the
to
E D
.
each
190
379.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION X.
THEOREM.
IV.
sum
of the squares
C*
=c=
Proof,
Through
CE, and draw
AS f AC*.
A
draw AL\\io
AD and FO.
A BAG, BAG,
Since
are
rt.
A,
GAG
and
CAH
and
BAH
are
straight lines.
BD =
Since
BG, being sides of
the same square, and
BF,
for the same reason, and since
BA =
Z ABD = Z FBC,
sum
of a
rt. Z.
and the
Z.
ABC,
A ABD = A FBC.
double the A ABD,
rectangle BL
the
Now
the
150
is
BD, and
Us
the
AL
same
and
D),
and
BL
AE and BK,
it
may
be proved
BL
^
and CL,
380,
is
equivalent to the
sum
of the squares
CH and
equivalent
to
is
191
COMPAEISON OF POLYGONS.
Ex. 293. The square constructed upon the sum of two straight lines
these two lines,
equivalent to the sum of the squares constructed upon
increased by twice the rectangle of these lines.
their sum.
Con
and BC be the two straight lines, and
Let
is
AC
AB
ACGK
AB
Prolong
respectively.
meet
KG
square
CG
and
EFGH,
Then
respectively.
with sides each equal to
ACGK
the square
and
is
the
sum
BC.
DEHK and
EFGH,
to
the
Hence,
of the squares
and
we have
AB and
ABED
I)
BCFE,
**
BC.
Ex. 294. The square constructed upon the difference of two straight
these two
is
equivalent to the sum of the squares constructed upon
lines
lines,
Let
ABFG
the square
shown
Prolong
in the figure).
ED until
it
meets
H K
AG
in L.
F
G
that
the square constructed
the
sum
of
the
to
constructed
AB
BC
squares
equivalent
upon
upon
and AC diminished by twice the rectangle of AB and AC.
of these rectangles
is,
is
Ex. 295. The difference between the squares constructed upon two
is
equivalent to the rectangle of the sum and difference of
straight lines
these lines.
Let
straight lines
these squares
ACGFDE,
which poly
to
is seen to be
CG
H,
by
prolonging
composed of
gon,
and
the rectangles ACHE and GFDH. Prolong
is
the polygon
_,
K
H
AE
CHto Jand
^"respectively,
making Eland
HK each
rectangle
ACKI, which
AB BC.
is then
equivalent to the
has for dimensions AI
AB + BC,
C
and
EH
PLANE GEOMETRY.
192
BOOK
IV.
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION
XL
PROBLEM.
sum
to the
Construct the
Take
AB equal
AC equal
to
rt.
It
f
to a side of
to a side of
1
,
S is
R.
A.
its
sides equal to
Proof,
(the square
BC.
379
equivalent to the
sum
s).
:.& +
of the
Q.E.F.
is
72
feet,
is
"
How many
Ex. 297.
required to
Ex.
is
298.
equal to
feet.
feet;
each leg
193
PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROBLEM.
PROPOSITION XII.
s
i
J
._
%/_
"""
Construction,
Take
From
to
rt.
JR.
A.
AB equal to a side
of
R.
(the square
on
AX
&\&gt;
its sides
R\
O.
A 0.
equal to
AC
Proof.
larger.
is
~?7*,~~~A
=0=
W  A3
380
==
R  R.
1
Q. E.
to the
sum
of
two squares
difference of
F.
sum
of
two
two
Ex. 302. Find the side of a square equivalent to the difference of two
squares whose sides are 24 feet and 40 feet.
Ex. 303.
diagonal
is
A
10
feet.
194
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XIII.
TV.
PROBLEM.
383,
of
Let
m,
n, o, p,
sum
to the
To construct a square
=c=
f n* f o f
f r
2
.
Take AB = m.
Draw AC = n and _L to AB at A, and draw BG.
Draw GE = o and J_ to BG at O, and draw BE.
Draw EF =p and _L to BE at E, and draw BF.
Construction,
Draw
FH= r
and
J_ to
BF at ^,
BH\s
and draw
BH.
Proof,
^ FIT + EF +
^F + EF* + ^C
2
=0=
* FH* + EO
(the
sum
That
of the squares
is,
^r
EF + CA* + AB\
BH*
=c=
m + n*
f
o f
is
379
+ r.
Q.E.F,
195
PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION XIV.
PROBLEM.
"
A!
B"
.......
"Li
Construction.
Take
PH= A
A"H",
J?"
is
homologous to
and
AB,
IV.
Z P.
PO = AB.
rt.
take
to JR\
A""
OH.
construct
It"
similar to
E.
PO*
\r
fr=^
and
&"
:**
By
addition,
^^ = ^ + ^ =1
to
B76
A""*
B"
A""
.SfoK +
Sf.
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
19G
PROPOSITION XV.
IV.
PROBLEM.
/*
A!
13
A"
polygons,
and take
H.
R*
rt. Z P,
PO = AB.
Take
to
and AS and
Construct the
Construction,
From
B"
A""
= PIT,
and on
construct
Then
R"
PX at IT,
is
P"
A B\
homologous
similar to R.
A"J3",
to
AB,
Proof,
E
other as the squares of their homologous sides).
(similar polygons are to each
By
subtraction,
72
E F
.
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION XVI.
197
PROBLEM.
386,
polygon.
to
a given
to the
given polygon.
AEto
meet
Again, draw CF, and draw
duced at K, and draw CK.
Produce
DK
CF
to
II
to
meet
AF pro
polygon
The polygon
ABGDHE,
ABCDF
DE
is
ABODE
ABCK
II
their vertices
to the
base}.
common,
and
369
H are in
the line
ABCF common,
CFK^ A CFD,
369
base CF
K and D are in the
common, and their
KD
the
In like manner the A CIK^= ABCK.
For the part
and the A
(for the
is
DEF^ A DEE,
common, and
FH
The polygon
ABCDF,
is
is
vertices
II
to
line
base}.
Q. E.
F,
198
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XVII.
PROBLEM.
IV.
387,
ratio to
/ /
m
IB
"V..
R be the given
square, and
___^
R as n
to
is to
AB
Take
equal to a side of R, and
AB.
with
acute
angle
making any
Construction,
On Ay
take
AE=m, EF
n,
and join
m.
draw Ay,
EB.
FG to EB to meet AB produced at C.
On A C as a diameter describe a semicircle.
Draw
At
B erect
\\
the J.
BD,
Proof.
b,
Now
a x
:
that
(a straight line
2
:
is,
= ab.
ratio to x*
= a ab = a
:b = m:n,
2
x2
and
337
to ab.
b.
309
2
Therefore a
By
inversion, x*
BD will
= m n.
a = n m.
x2
R as
Q. E.
F.
PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROBLEM.
PROPOSITION XVIII.
388,
199
ratio to
a given poly
to
it.
^x
\
_ ./
V.
A
Let R he the given polygon and
n
to
H, which shall be
R as
to
is to
Construction,
structed upon
as n is to m.
Upon
gon
AB
S similar
Find a
it
line
AB
upon
AB
387
as a side
to
homologous to
AB,
R.
Then
Proof,
376
(similar polygons are to each other as the squares of their homologous sides).
AB =n:m.
S R = n m.
AB
But
Therefore
Cons.
Q. E. F.
nuse
if
feet.
is
triangles, if the
Ex. 306. The bases of a trapezoid are 8 feet and 10 feet, and the alti
Find the base of an equivalent rectangle having an equal
is 6 feet.
tude
altitude.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
200
BOOK
PROPOSITION XIX.
IV.
PROBLEM.
389.
a given
to
^parallelogram.
f)
b its
altitude.
Upon
and
a its
O ABCD.
to the
base,
MN=
a,
and
N0 = b.
equivalent to the
O ABCD.
MN NP = NP
Proof,
(a JL let fall
line equal to
337
NO,
to the
NP,
diameter
is
a mean
the diameter).
proportional between the segments of
That
390,
ABCD.
is,
COR.
1.
square
may
be constructed equivalent to a
side a mean proportional be
its
given triangle, by taking for
tween the base and onehalf the altitude of the triangle.
i&gt;m
&lt;7z
triangle
COR. 2
to
201
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION XX.
PROBLEM.
J JV
To construct a
and
equivalent
Construction,
At
Upon
erect a J_
Draw
PQ
II
MN&s
MP,
to
having
equivalent to R.
the
sum
of
CM for
its
to
at 8.
MN.
altitude
and
ON for
its
80= PM.
Proof,
MC:SC=SC:
But
ON.
may
be stated
is
337
ON,
Then
base
100, 180
the
base
its
Draw SO A.
Any.O
R, with
to
MN.
altitude equal to
is
a mean
Q. E. F.
lines
PLANE GEOMETKY.
202
BOOK
PROPOSITION XXI.
IV.
PROBLEM.
s
\
Afp
JN
and
Construction.
equivalent
Upon
to
MN.
altitude equal to
JOTas
a diameter, describe
circle.
From
M draw
MS, tangent
to the
R.
cumference at
R.
altitude, is equivalent to
SB
Proof,
(if from
a point without
SM= SM
348
SO,
and
the
is
SM  SB X SC,
1
Then
and the
difference
O, that
MN.
NOTE.
is,
between
SB
and
SO
is
the difference
lines
PKOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION XXII.
203
PROBLEM.
fr
m
W
Let
P and
and
let
AB
Upon A B
Find
m and n respectively
homologous
Then
Proof.
.
But
P
m
m
1
,2
is
n
^2
AB,
to
construct
AB.
P similar
351
to
P.
= AB A B\
:
Cons.
P=c=m
P: Q=m
and
Cons.
:tf=
But
376
(similar polygons are to each other as the squares of their homologous sides).
:.P:Q=P:P.
/.
is
equivalent to Q, and
is
similar to
Ax.
P by construction.
Q. E.
F.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
204
BOOK
IV.
PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.
Ex. 307. To find the area of an equilateral triangle in terms of
its
side.
a,
the altitude
by
h,
S.
O ~2
_5&gt;
Then
axh
But
\/3~
By Ex.
219,
= f V7(s 
X
Hence,
a)
(s
 b) (s 
Vs(sa)(sb)(sc)
Vs (s
a)
(s
b) (s
c).
c).
circle.
R denote
of the triangle,
we
A
Multiply by
But
a,
and we have
2 S.
abc
circle is
equal to
48
EXERCISES.
205
THEOREMS.
310. In a right triangle the product of the legs is equal to the product
of the hypotenuse and the perpendicular drawn to the hypotenuse from
the vertex of the right angle.
311.
If
BD a line
ABC
a right triangle, C
of the right angle,
the_vertex_
~
rr
D, then BD* + AC* = AB* +
is
cutting
AC in
Two
313.
of
its
altitude of one
is
each
314.
.&gt;\
and the
to each,
is
circle.
divides
Every
it
317.
into
straight line
two equal
318. If
sum
\\
the, centre of a parallelogram
parts.
the
^"^
Hf~
drawn through
two adjacent
which
is
321.
The
322.
The
figure
any quadrilateral
legs
two equiva
whose
is
206
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
IV.
NUMERICAL EXERCISES.
324. Find the area of a rhombus,
4,
and their ratio is 3 5.
325.
is
20 feet
sum
is
13
and 35
A house
its
feet
feet,
is
40
feet long,
30
feet,
is
feet.
if
one side
if
the
= b, and leg = c.
= 8. /(rU
altitude = h.
feet
to the eaves,
25
feet wide,
high
The
12
hypotenuse
one leg
Y&gt;
in f
^S
331.
is
328.
330.
diagonals
327.
its
326.
of
the
if
^fl^T
5.
the hypotenuse
332.
the hypotenuse
upon
*"^
333.
feet,
feet respectively.
335.
feet,
ABCD
336.
What
whose radius
is
is
is
"/
and the
altitude
V.
^i=S7
feet,
Find the
BC= 119
feet,
feet
CD = 41
area.
25
the area of a
338.
if
= a,
is 700
square feet. The bases are 30
Find the distance between the bases.
a trapezium;
is
DA = 169 feet,
What
one leg
334.
and 40
if
h.
Upon
is
15
feet,
rhombus
and
if
its
altitude
the altitude
is
is
8 feet.
feet.
Find
c
are 56 feet
a line is
Through a point Pin the side AB of a triangle ABC,
drawn parallel to BC, and so as to divide the triangle into two equiva
Find the value of AP in terms of AB.
lent parts.
340.
207
EXERCISES.
341.
What
25
feet.
What is
343. The base of a triangle is 32 feet, its altitude 20 feet.
the area of the triangle cut off by drawing a line parallel to the base
and at a distance of 15 feet from the base ?
344. The sides of two equilateral triangles are 3 feet and 4
the side of an equilateral triangle equivalent to their sum.
345.
another,
346.
the
The
al^K
angle^^ed by
the
first
trapejaoid,
one base
is
10
feet,
v Find
is
348.
and 21
feet.
Find
feet.
the altitude
347. In a
32 square
is
Find
feet.
is
feet,
the area
legs
PROBLEMS.
350.
to a given. length
to
I.
an equivalent right
351.
To transform a triangle
into
352.
To transform a triangle
353.
To transform a triangle
ABO
CD, and
to
a given length
I,
triangle.
into an equivalent
and one angle equal
triangle,
to angle
hav
BAG.
II
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
208
IV.
tri
357.
two given
358.
The
359.
To transform a given
difference of
triangles.
triangle.
To transform a parallelogram
360.
361.
362.
A
A
A
363.
An
364.
A
A
into
366.
y^
equilateral triangle.
&gt;867.
To transform a square
365.
into
to
To draw a
5* 369.
To divide a given triangle into two equivalent parts hy drawing
a line through a given point
in one of the sides.
370.
To
find
point to the vertices shall divide the triangle into three equivalent parts.
"""371.
To divide a given
triangle into
BOOK
V.
regular polygon
and equiangular
CIRCLES.
a polygon which
is
is
equilateral
and
the square.
PROPOSITION
396,
An
THEOREM.
I.
circle is
a regular polygon.
c
Let ABC
etc.,
a circle.
To prove
Proof,
t fie
polygon
The
arcs
(in the
Hence
and
ABC
etc.,
regular.
etc.,
are equal,
arcs
the
ABO, BCD,
A, B,
etc.,
230
arcs).
are equal,
Ax. 6
ABC,
etc., is
aE
Dt
210
PLANE GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION
397,
circle
V.
THEOREM.
and a
any regular polygon.
be circumscribed about,
may
circle
may
II.
BOOK
be inscribed in,
To prove
that
circle
may
be
circumscribed about
ABODE.
Proof,
A, B,
Let
a
OA, OB, 00, and OD.
Join
Since the polygon
is
A OBCis isosceles,
154
and
By
Z OB A = Z. OCD.
subtraction,
Hence
in the
A OB A and OCD
Z OB A = Z OCD,
radius OB = the radius
the
the
AB=OD.
OAB = A OCD,
and
..A
(having two sides
and
OC,
the included
included
,
395
to
two sides
.OA = OD.
D.
passes through
150
and the
C,
also
it
through
C,
may
and D,
II.
211
through
radius
CIRCLES.
OA,
as a centre,
and with a
To prove that a
may
circle
be inscribed in
ABODE.
Proof,
to a side of the
236
and with
as a centre,
The radius
398,
Q. E.D.
OA,
called
is
The radius
399,
of the
apothem
scribed circles
is
side, as
is
called the
of the circumscribed
and
in
401,
OF,
polyyon.
400,
any
angle
AOB,
is
radii
drawn
to the extremities of
polygon.
COR.
402,
equal
to
the polygon.
403,
polygon
404,
Con.
2.
bisects the
COR.
3.
to
any
vertex of
a regular
The
interior angle of
a regular polygon
is
the
For the
the
Hence
PLANE GEOMETRY.
212
PROPOSITION
BOOK
V.
THEOREM.
III.
405,
polygon,
division
F
Let the circumference be divided into equal
AJ3,
I.
arcs,
ABODE
Proof,
The
(in the
sides
same
etc.,
230
are equal,
is
396
regular,
O is regular).
II. To prove that the polygon FGIIIKis a regular
polygon.
Proof, In the A AFB, BGC, CUD, etc.
(an equilateral polygon inscribed in a
AB  BC= CD,
Also,
Z BAF= Z
395
269
etc.
etc.,
Hence
all
Z.F=/.G = Z.H,
etc.
Also,
is
395
Q. E. D.
406.
COR.
COR.
the tangents
2.
213
circle,
drawn
AB
responding
MB
are parallel,
NB
OM
COR.
3.
of
a regular
polygon
D K
cir
number of
sides
is
formed.
less
is
(
first
137).
gon FGJTI,
214
411,
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION IV.
THEOREM.
same number of
the
V.
n sides.
Q and Q
To prove
The sum
Proof,
similar polygons.
of the interior
A of each polygon
205
O2)2rt,Zs,
(the
sum
of the interior
times
Each angle
(
for the
to 2 rt.
of a polygon is equal
less 2 as the polygon has sides).
of either polygon
equal to
is
= (n
*
2) 2
taken as
rt.
R
S
many
is
nA
AJO
equal
AB = BO,
etc.,
AE\ A
Q and Q
and
AB =
C:
BC
their
395
etc.,
etc.
homologous sides
proportional.
319
412,
number
COR.
of sides are
homokgous.
sides.
to
a E. D.
the
same
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION V.
413,
215
CIECLES.
to
and
A M B
P P = OA
To prove
Proof,
draw OA, O
0,
OB, O
OA
and
= OM: O M
and
Ja
O&gt;
OM, O
the
411
333
In the
isosceles
A OAB and
and
.
OAB
OA OB = O A O B
the
AB A B = OM:
Also
(the
P:P =OA:
O
A have the same ratio
O A = OM: OM
326
319
328
as their bases).
.
Q. E. D.
and
376
216
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION VI.
THEOREM.
V.
The difference between the lengths of the perima regular inscribed polygon and of a similar
circumscribed polygon is indefinitely diminished as
415.
eters of
the
increased.
AB and A B two
To prove
indefinitely
Proof,
that,
number
as the
P
increased, f
is
is indefinitely
P:P=OA
P
Whence
OA(P
Now OA
is
:OA.
P P OA
Therefore
333
OA
P) = P(OA
OA.
301
 OA).
295
though an
Therefore
is
Pis
indefinitely diminished,
if
OA
OA
indefinitely diminished.
Draw
the radius
In the
A OA C,
Substituting
OA
00 to
OA
OA
AC.
00, we have
OC&lt;
OA&lt;A O.
A JB
137
217
CIRCLES.
AE
Therefore
OA
OA, which
P P
is
is less
than
C, is
indefinitely
diminished.
1
Therefore
The
COR.
416,
indefinitely diminished.
E D
areas of a regular
and
inscribed polygon
is
gons
increased.
is indefinitely
if
For,
and
S
By division, S
8= OZ OA = OA
 S: S= OA  00*
2
*
:
00\
414
00*.
S 8= 8x OA *IL OC = 8x 4
00
OO
Whence
Since
number
417,
the
number
we
small as
since
P
is
and
is
is
indefinitely increased.
can be made as
and
be made absolutely
made
zero,
as small as
and since
evident that
common
zero,
and
is
decreasing while
increasing, it is evident that
This common limit
tend towards a common limit.
limit
is
/S"
we
is
and
259
and
S can
be
tend towards a
common
limit.
This
218
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION VII.
THEOREM.
418.
the
V.
same
ratio as
their radii.
radii, of the
C\C = E\
To prove
Iff.
Inscribe in the
Proof,
denote their
PP = R:R
Then
P= R
X P.
413) that is, Iff X
Conceive the number of the sides of these similar regular
polygons to be indefinitely increased, the polygons continuing
to have an equal
RXP
Then
will
approach
(l
number
of sides.
Rx
R XC= RxC
/.
260)
that
C:
is,
=R
Iff.
Q. E. D.
419.
COR.
diameter
is
The
constant.
J3
By
we have
C:2R=C
alternation,
whose diameter
=2:2
C:C
is
2 J2
denoted by
IT,
so that for
R and circumference
 = or
SCHOLIUM. The
ratio
C,
any
circle
we have
C=2&gt;rrR.
ir,
420,
TT is
219
THEOREM.
PROPOSITION VIII.
421, The area of a regular polygon is equal to onehalf the product of its apothem by its perimeter.
8= % E X P.
To prove
Proof.
The polygon
The apothem
and the area
is
is
divided into as
the
common
many
A as
it
altitude of these
is
equal to
of all the
is
of each
etc.
J
has
A,
R multiplied
base.
sum
sides.
by the
368
equal to ^ It multiplied by
is
of the polygon.
is
Therefore
S=
RX P.
Q. E. D.
422,
sectors,
and
220
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION IX.
THEOREM.
The area of a
423,
circle is
radius by
its
product of
V.
its
BMC
S=%RxC.
To prove
of this polygon
=EX
P,
circle,
421
number
Therefore
S  %R X &
260
Q. E. D.
COR.
424.
of
its
1.
radius by
425,
COR.
2.
of the circumference.
The area of a
of its radius.
For the area of the
circle equals
IT
O =  R X O= $ E X
426, COE. 3.
For,
are
circles
8 and S
if
221
CIRCLES.
to
Con.
427,
4.
circumferences, are
to
each other as
PROPOSITION X.
THEOREM.
^.4^
JL~
JB
P
ABP A B P = AC* A C
To prove
Proof.
The
A* C B are
centre, C and C
ACB and
sectors
*.
422
similar,
A at the
equal).
In the A ACBsuiAA C B
Z.0=/. C AC= CB, and A C = C B
Therefore the A ACB and A C B are similar.
Now sector ACB sector A C B = AC* A C
(having the
and
TT n
That
AACJ3:AA C B = AC: A^
sector ACS A AC3
_ AC*
~~
A
sector A C
ABP A B P = AC
1
is,
326
427
*,
375
qm
AW
Q.E.O.
222
PLANE GEOMETKY.
BOOK
V.
PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROBLEM.
PROPOSITION XI.
429.
Let
To
inscribe
a square in the
Draw
Construction,
circle.
circle.
circle.
AC
and
ED
J_ to
each other.
Join
AECD
The A ABC,
Then
Proof.
is
BCD,
etc.,
are
rt,
264
A,
and the
(in the
same
sides
AE, EC,
etc.,
230
are equal,
Hence the
figure
A BCD
is
5m
a square.
Q. E. F.
COR.
430.
polygon
By
of eight sides
may
AE, EC,
etc.,
a,
regular
etc.,
sides
may
be inscribed.
is
what
is
side of
an inscribed square
is
2 inches,
223
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROBLEM.
PROPOSITION XII.
431,
Let
From
Construction,
From
(7
circle
circle.
circle.
a regular hexagon.
draw any
radius, as OC.
CF is
The
Hence the
And
A OFC
is
Z FOO is
FO is
the arc
jt
equilateral
of 2
rt.
and equiangular.
A, or \ of 4
of the circumference
rt,
138
ABCF.
is
and the
figure
times as a chord,
COR.
CFD
is
etc.,
a regular hexagon.
By
1.
six
E F
.
an
is
433,
COR.
2.
By
AB, BO,
etc.,
a regular
224
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XIII.
434,
V.
PROBLEM.
circle.
B
Let
Draw
Construction,
and divide
be to OS. as
OS is
From C as
in
it
ratio, so that
00 shall
356
to SO.
and
draw EG.
Then BC\$ a
Draw
Proof,
BS and
BO.
OC:OS=OS: SO,
BC=OS.
construction
By
and
OC\BC=BC:SC.
Z 0GB = Z SCB.
0GB and BC8 are similar,
Moreover, the
Hence
(having an
the
But the
(its sides
.
A BCS,
is
and
A 0GB
00 and OB
which
an
of the other,
proportional).
to
is
and
Iden.
isosceles,
A OCB,
CB^BS^OS.
similar to the
326
circle).
is
isosceles,
225
PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
the
. .
But the
Hence
the
is isosceles,
and the
#&lt;?.(=
and
/.
Z = Z SBO.
145
ext. Z CSB = Z
+ Z 50 = 2 Z 0.
Z OS5)  2Z 0,
Z
154
154
Z OBC(= Z flCS) = 2 Z 0.
= 2 rt. A,
of the A of the A OCB = 5 Z
A SOB
sum
and
of 2
rt.
A, or
of 4
BG is fa of the
rt.
circumference,
435,
COR.
1.
By
inscribed decagon,
F.
a regular pentagon
is
inscribed.
= R \/3,
r =
R,
A = 60,
C= 120.
Ex.379. In an inscribed square a
= R V2,
= %ftV2,
= %R V3, A = 120,
^1
0=60.
Ex. 381. In a regular inscribed decagon
,
A=
144,
(7=36.
= 90,
226
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XIV.
PROBLEM.
V.
E
Let Q be the given
To inscribe in
Construction,
F
circle.
a regular pentedecagon.
Draw
hexagon,
and
Then
434
FH.
Proof,
arc
EH\&
Hence the
arc
EF
FJIis
is
J
is
of the circumference,
^
of the circumference.
y^, or
j^,
of the circumference,
decagon.
By
applying
FH
fifteen times as a
chord,
we have
the
polygon required.
438,
COR.
By
may
FH, HA,
etc.,
a regular
hundred twenty,
etc.&gt;
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION
XV.
227
PROBLEM.
circle
to
ABCD,
etc.
Construction,
From
draw
From
OD
and 00.
draw
aO
making
the
and
Then C
is
CDE
will
have as many
rt. A.
contained times in 4
gon
Each polygon
Proof,
(= Z
=Z 0.
Draw C
OD
DE
etc., is
411
etc.,
similar).
228
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XVI.
PROBLEM.
V.
the
number of sides.
From
its
Inthert.A(L4&lt;?,
That
339
OC=
is,
hence
Therefore,
In the
rt.
00=
A DAH,
264
334
= 20A(OAOC),
AD = V2 OA (OA00).
and
If
for
we denote
Vj?
00, then
AD =Q.E.F.
229
PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.
PROPOSITION XVII.
441,
PROBLEM.
circle to its
the radius.
419
Therefore
We
when
E = I,
ir
= %C.
make
R=
AB = 1
No.
Form
Bides.
of Computation.
Length of Side.
Length of Perimeter.
=2V4
0.51763809,
6.21165708
ca
=V2V4(0.5176380l^
0.26105238
6.26525722
48
c,
= V2  V4~ (0261052^7
0.13080626
6.27870041
96
=24
0.06543817
6.28206396
12
24
0.03272346
6.28290510
c6
= V2 V4^(0706543817f
= V2  V4  (0.03272346)
0.01636228
6.28311544
cT
=V2Vi (0.016362217
0.00818121
6.28316941
192
Cft
384
768
Therefore
442,
whose radius
TT
unity.
SCHOLIUM. In
&lt;*
is
practice,
= 3.1416,
we
generally take
1 = 0.31831.
7T
aE
F.
BOOK
PLANE GEOMETRY.
230
Among
is
greatest
the
of a circle
is
the
maximum among
all
444,
SUPPLEMENTARY.
minimum.
Thus the diameter
among
V.
figures
perimeters.
PROPOSITION XVIII.
THEOREM.
maximum.
ABC
angle
be a right angle.
To prove
Proof,
A ABC
From
E let
&gt;
fall
A EEC.
the L
ED.
A ABC
Now
By
AB
EB ED.
EB = AB.
AB ED.
114
&gt;
hypothesis,
..
&gt;
Q.E.O
PROPOSITION XTX.
231
THEOREM.
&ACB
To prove
Proof,
circle
A A CB A ADB.
AC to H, making CH= AC, and join HB.
&gt;
Produce
ABH\&
ADB have
be isosceles.
whose centre
is C,
it
Rut
AD +
Z&gt;P&gt;AP,
Therefore
But
KB = HB
i
Hence
By
180,
KB = CE
and
hence
HB
and
&gt;
AH&gt;
AP.
BP.
120
MB =IBP.
121
JT.&gt;Jf..
MB = DF,
ABC&gt;
A ADB.
370
Q. E. D.
232
Of
447,
the
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XX.
THEOREM.
V.
one,
"but
maximum
which
diameter.
its
The
From any
vertex, as C,
A AGE must
be the
draw
CA
maximum
and CE.
of all
having the
given sides
CA
increase the
But
the
maximum
Hence the
maximum.
polygon.
Therefore the
(the
maximum
of A
C lies
CE
a right angle,
Therefore
Hence
Z ACE is
and
polygon
is
is
the
445
on the semicircumference.
264
maximum polygon
undetermined side
for a diameter.
o. E. D.
PROPOSITION XXI.
448,
Of
233
THEOREM.
which
can be inscribed in a
AB CDE
To prove
Draw
Proof,
the diameter
Join
Upon O
(= CD)
OS"
and
construct the
and draw
Now
ABCH&gt;
and
(of all
AH.
DIL
AB CH
AEDH&gt;A
= A CHD,
C IT D
447
E D IF,
polygons with sides all given but one, the maximum can be inscribed
in a semicircle having the undetermined side for its diameter).
Add
these
two
ABCHDE&gt;
Then
inequalities, then
A B C IT D E
A CHD and C H D
ABCDE
Q E D
ABCDE
&gt;
234
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
PROPOSITION XXII.
449,
V.
THEOREM.
of sides, the
maximum
is equilateral.
formed upon
AC with
A AKC
Otherwise,
ABC, without changing the perimeter of the polygon.
But this is inconsistent with the hypothesis that the poly
gon
ABCD
(of all
etc., is
the
maximum
/.
the
A AEG
In like manner
450,
The
COR.
same number
it
may
of sides
maximum
maximum).
be proved that
maximum
is
446
isosceles
EG= CD,
etc.
is
the
E D
.
a regular polygon.
449
equilateral,
sides is
number
the
same
of
polygons
of
of isoperimetric
For,
(the
polygon.
is isosceles,
it is
equilateral).
448
circle,
maximum of all polygons formed of given sides can be inscribed in a O).
That is, it is equilateral and equiangular,
395
and therefore regular.
.
Also
(the
it
can be inscribed in a
Q. E. D.
PROPOSITION XXIII.
Of isoperimetric regular
451,
235
THEOREM.
polygons, that which
is the maximum.
To prove
greater than Q.
CD from
A CD A and
Draw
Proof,
Invert the
D fall at
C"to
any point
place
it
in
AB.
in the position
DCE
let
D, and A at E.
The polygon DBCE is an irregular polygon of four sides,
which by construction has the same perimeter as Q and the
same area as Q.
Then the irregular polygon DBCE of four sides is less than
450
the regular isoperimetric polygon Q of four sides.
In like manner it may be shown that Q is less than a regular
Q E Dp
isoperimetric polygon of five sides, and so on.
ting
C,
C at
452,
any polygon
circle is greater
of equal perimeter.
"
383.
Of
all
perimeter.
384. Of all triangles upon the same base,
tude, the isosceles has the least perimeter.
385.
To divide a
shall be a
maximum.
alti
their product
PLANE GEOMETRY.
236
XXIV.
PROPOSITION
BOOK
V.
THEOREM.
perimeter.
area,
eter as
Q greater
perim
&gt;
451
Q",
But
.:
But
&gt;
Q = the perimeter of
the perimeter of
the perimeter of
&gt;
that of
The circumference of a
perimeter of any
oj
Q".
&gt;
number
the perimeter of
COR.
To
Q= Q
Q
the perimeter of
/.
386.
Then
454,
circle
Q
is
Q".
Q".
Cons.
a E. D.
less
than the
its
237
EXERCISES.
THEOREMS.
388. The side of a circumscribed equilateral triangle is equal to twice
the side of the similar inscribed triangle. Find the ratio of their areas.
The apothem
389.
is
equal to half
is
equal to half
hexagon
is
equal to three
cumscribed squares.
394. The area of an inscribed regular dodecagon
times the square of the radius.
^ 395.
lar
Every
equal to three
if it
is
is
regu
regular
397.
is
sides.
if it
circle
is
regular.
398. Upon the six sides of a regular hexagon squares are constructed
outwardly. Prove that the exterior vertices of these squares are the ver
tices of
a regular dodecagon.
lines.
400.
The radius
between
tional
its
regular polygon.
401.
The area
diameter
402.
to the
is
of a circular ring
sum
circle
is
and a tangent
238
If
PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK
V.
403.
In a regular pentagon, a
~ VlO
=R
404.
In a regular octagon,
405.
In a regular dodecagon, a
2\/5.
NUMERICAL EXERCISES.
407.
The radius
of a circle
408.
The radius of a
= r.
circle
polygon
is
polygon
is
a,
Find one
Find one
^Vv^
regular hexagon.
409.
= r.
^ y5
equilateral triangle.
is r,
and the
side of
an inscribed regular
2ar
equal to
V4r a2
= r\ Prove
410.
The radius
regular octagon
411.
The
is
of a circle
2
equal to 2r \/2.L
and 5
feet,
What
412.
ferences
414.
whose length
415.
is
8 feet 2 inches.
What
is
is
circle
by an
arc
circle.
dodecagon inscribed
416.
56
feet.
Find the
whose radius
is
239
EXERCISES.
Find the area of a
417.
circle inscribed in
feet.
square
418.
The diameter of a
is
28
feet.
419.
Find the
cular piece of
420.
The radius
times as large
421.
wood whose
?
of a circle
^ as large
The radius of a
is
What
3 feet.
^ as large
circle is 9 feet.
is
What
parts?
22.
feet.
423.
inches.
feet,
if
circle is
of the arc
28
is
is
feet,
Three equal
common
radius
PROBLEMS.
To circumscribe about a given
427.
An
428..
equilateral triangle.
circle
429.
430.
square.
A
A
regular hexagon.
regular octagon.
shall divide
of
two given
(^jumferences.
sum
433.
To construct a
circle
equivalent to the
434.
To construct a
circle
435.
To construct a
circle
of
two given
a given
circles.
circle.
circle.
436.
parts,
PLANE GEOMETRY.
240
BOOK
V.
MISCELLANEOUS EXEKCISES.
THEOREMS.
The
438.
439.
If
a,
exterior angle
440.
The sum
pointed star)
(five
441.
The
442.
The
altitudes
of the triangle
D,
is
triangle
DEF.
E and
443.
the portions
of
any
AB
of the
444. Two circles are tangent internally at P, and a chord
Prove that PC bisects the
larger circle touches the smaller circle at C.
angle
APB.
Draw
HINT.
common tangent
at P,
If through a point
P in
of a circumference
upon a
is
it
450.
eter
of
its
perim
241
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES.
The perimeter of a triangle
451.
The sum
452.
is
is
equilateral polygon
453.
diameter of a circle
is
into
divided.
is
If
455.
any secant
two
is
drawn
BD,
limited
456.
CAD
A A BB CC f
,
drawn from
ABC
OB
BE
OA
AA
the vertices
common
PC = l
CC*
Two diagonals of a
point
common
!?
Loci.
458.
points
459.
OP
is
any straight
cumference of a fixed
is
constant.
circle
line
in
(ra
ri).
drawn from a
OP
a,
point
is
to the cir
fixed point
OQ:
OP
Q.
AB
is
a straight line
460. From a fixed point
in a given straight line CD, and then divided at
(m n). Find the locus of the point P.
drawn
in
to
any point
a given ratio
461.
Find the locus of a point whose distances from two given straight
(The locus consists of two straight lines.)
462.
Find the locus of a point the sum of whose distances from two
is
k.
PLANE GEOMETRY.
242
BOOK
Y.
PROBLEMS.
463. Given the perimeters of a regular inscribed and a similar circum
scribed polygon, to compute the perimeters of the regular inscribed and
circumscribed polygons of double the number of sides.
464. To draw a tangent to a given circle such that the segment inter
cepted between the point of contact and a given straight line shall have
a given length.
465.
To draw a
466.
To
467. To draw through a given point a straight line so that its dis
tances from two other given points shall be in a given ratio (ra n).
HINT. Divide the line joining the two other points in the given ratio.
:
468.
sum
of a given triangle
471.
To
find a point
shall be as the
472.
numbers
Given two
a secant
B AC such
that
AB shall be
to
AC in
To construct a
straight lines
A.
To draw through
a given ratio
(ra
n).
ratio.
and
its
area.
into
line
drawn
Psuch
that
AP,
477.
sides,
478.
To divide a given
circle into
its
concentric circumferences.
479. In a given equilateral triangle, to inscribe three equal
sides of the triangle.
tangent to each other and to the
circles
14
DAY USE
on the date
Renewed books
LD
last
to
2150m6, 60
(B1321slO)476
General Library
University of California
Berkeley
YB 72971
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