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MATHEMATICAL TEXT-BOOKS
By G.

A.

WENTWORTH,

A.M.

Mental Arithmetic.

Elementary Arithmetic.
Practical Arithmetic.

Primary Arithmetic.

Grammar School

Arithmetic.

## High School Arithmetic.

High School Arithmetic (Abridged).
First Steps in Algebra.
School Algebra.
College Algebra.
Elements of Algebra.
Complete Algebra.
Shorter Course in Algebra.

Higher Algebra.
New Plane Geometry.
New Plane and Solid Geometry.
Syllabus of Geometry.
Geometrical Exercises.
Plane and Solid Geometry and Plane Trigonometry.
New Plane Trigonometry.
New Plane Trigonometry, with Tables.
New Plane and Spherical Trigonometry.
New Plane and Spherical Trig., with Tables.
New Plane and Spherical Trig., Surv., and Nav.
New Plane Trig, and Surv., with Tables.
New Plane and Spherical Trig., Surv., with Tables.
Analytic Geometry.

TEXT-BOOK
OF

GEOMETBY
REVISED EDITION.

BY
G. A.

WENTWORTH,

A.M.,

BOSTON,

U.S.A.:

G. A.

WENT WORTH,

TYPOGBAPHT BY

J. S.

GUSHING &

Co.,

Co.,

BOSTON, U.S.A.

BOSTON, U.B.A.

PREFACE.

***

of abstraction

requisite

and do not

for

in

## sented whether they pursue the study with

aversion, or with increasing interest

stantly

avoided

pre

and pleasure.

treatise, the

as

experience and

shown

more

is

view.

in
;

power

for

argument.
etry, it

## keeping in mind the successive steps of a continuous

Hence, with a very large proportion of beginners in Geom

and

tions,

possess,

to

to be

render

## magnitude, and direc

but it is helieved
tion, which every child derives from observation
that these notions have been limited and denned with mathematical
;

precision.

for

spicuity to

utility in

for operations,

giving

style

have

and per

## apology seems necessary for

their introduction.

## make the page attractive. The

and are placed in the middle of the
directly under the eye in immediate connec

figures are

large and

distinct,

## tion with the corresponding text.

full lines, the lines

dotted,

and the

employed

The given

327374

PREFACE.

iv

## In each proposition a concise statement of what

in one kind of type, of
in

stration

what

is

given

is

## required in another, and the

The reason

another.

still

is

for

each

demon

indicated in

is

step

printed

email type between that step and the one following, thus preventing
the necessity of interrupting the process of the argument
to a previous section.

is

The number

in the

construction of

referring

on which

The constituent

## are carefully marked.

parts of the propositions
assertion

by

## demonstration and each particular direction in the

no case is it
the
begins a new line; and in
figures,

a demonstration.
necessary to turn the page in reading
at once

what

is

is

to the figure

## at every step, becomes perfectly familiar with the language of

in simple
etry, acquires facility
to

reason,

and

lays

Geom

a foundation

for

completely

establishing

the

science.

## not so difficult as to discourage

Original exercises have been given,
the beginner, but well adapted to afford an effectual test of the degree
in

which he

exercises

is

may

in

the

reproduce them

in

work

commit

of these
in order

and

much

to the

mem

to

an examination

cations,

eo

## discover, at the outset, that to

and to
ory a number of theorems
is

Some

appli

is

to

## attainment oj information as to the discipline of the

mental faculties.
G. A.

EXETER, N.H.
1878.

WENTWORTH.

PEEFACE.

TO THE TEACHER.
WHEN

the pupil

well to let

guage

Book

is

in his

own

be

lan

that the

will

and

the

cultivate
will allow

After a

in this

be required to

draw the

line

He

should be

## encouraged, in reviewing each Book, to do the original exercises

state the converse of propositions
if

be true to demonstrate

it

which may

to questions

The Teacher

is

and

also

to

to

## arithmetically, the principles of limits.

stant base

b,

and a variable

altitude

x,

and

false,

if

the converse

many

propositions.

illustrate,

geometrically and

## Thus a rectangle with a con

will afford an obvious illus

variable

also a variable

is

of the variable.

If x

is

to

be.

to

## whether the converse be true or

possible,

He

figures free-hand.

the

indicate

on each step.

of neat

habit

and a

## and approaches the area of

however, x decreases and approaches

zero as

zero for

limit, the

a limit.

if,

An

arithmetical

may

be

## given by multiplying a constant into the approximate values of any

If, for example, we take the constant 60 and the repetend
repetend.
0.3333,

etc.,

PREFACE.

VI
3 3 3

To o

ff&amp;gt;

rVtiW

## an d these values multiplied by 60 give the series

19.998, etc., which evidently approaches 20 as a limit;

te-&amp;gt;

is

also 20.

Again,
series

^,

if

we multiply 60

yfo,

^uW

^inr.

etc.,

^,
7 etc.; and

as a limit,

we

In

this

way

the

pupil

## hension of the subject of

The Teacher

is

may

led

to

a complete compre

tions.

easily be

limits.

difficult,

and

sufficient time

should be

for

in this

if

book be allowed.
G. A.

EXETER, N.H.
1879.

W.

PKEFACE.

VI}

## NOTE TO REVISED EDITION.

THE first edition of this Geometry was issued about nine years ago.
The book was received with such general favor that it has been neces
sary to print very large editions every year since, so that the plates
are practically

worn

out.

plates, the

all

of the

for

new

former edition.

few

## changes in the order of the subject-matter have been made, some of

the demonstrations

## a more concise and simple

in

form than before, and the treatment of Limits and of Loci has been

as easy of

comprehension as possible.

edition.

struction,

to

beginners.

loci,

problems of con

and

specially

it

## provides exercises for independent investigation, which must be of such

a kind as to interest the student as soon as

## with the methods and the

he becomes acquainted

## spirit of geometrical reasoning.

The author

has observed with the greatest satisfaction the rapid growth of the

demand

for original

exercises,

and he

## the systematic and progressive series of exercises in this edition.

The part on Solid Geometry has been treated with much greater
freedom than before, and the formal statement of the reasons

for the

separate steps has b efen in general omitted, for the purpose of giving a

## more elegant form

A
and

tb the demonstrations.

brief treatise on
is

issued in

## Conic Sections (Book IX) has been

prepared,
pamphlet form, at a very low price. It will also be

erally desired.

if

that arrangement

is

found to be gen

PREFACE.

Vili

this

## ciation of the generous reception given to the

Geometry heretofore by

anticipates the

up

work

The author

is

indebted to

many

## and a special acknowledgment is due, for criticisms and

careful reading of proofs, to Messrs. C. H. Judson, of Greenville, S.C.

gestions

W. Le
Mo.;

J.

M. Taylor,

## Conte Stevens, of Brooklyn, N.Y.

J.

L. Patterson, of Lawrenceville,

bridge, Mass.
bridge, Mass.

New

T.

M.

De Long,

N.

G. A. Hill,

J.;

## Blakslee, of Des Moines, la.

Ira M.

of Hamilton, N.Y.

G.

of Boulder, Col.

W.

of

Cam

Sawin, of Cain-

and W.

J.

Lloyd, of

York, N.Y.

## Corrections or suggestions will be thankfully received.

G. A.

EXETER, N.H.,
1888.

WENTWORTH.

CONTENTS.
GEOMETRY.
PAGE

DEFINITIONS

STRAIGHT LINES

PLANE ANGLES

&quot;l

.-

MAGNITUDE or ANGLES

.10

ANGULAR UNITS

METHOD or SUPERPOSITION

11

.-

SYMMETRY

13

MATHEMATICAL TERMS

14

POSTULATES

AXIOMS

SYMBOLS

15

.16

16

PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK

I.

THE STRAIGHT

LINE.

17

PARALLEL LINES

22

## PERPENDICULAR AND OBLIQUE LINES

33

TRIANGLES

40

56

POLYGONS IN GENERAL

66

EXERCISES

72

CONTENTS.

BOOK

THE

II.

CIRCLE.
PAGE
75

DEFINITIONS

## AKCS AND CHORDS

77

TANGENTS

89

MEASUREMENT.

92

THEORY or LIMITS

94

.98

MEASURE or ANGLES
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION

106

EXERCISES

126

BOOK

III.

## PROPORTIONAL LINES AND SIMILAR POLYGONS.

THEORY OF PROPORTION

131

PROPORTIONAL LINES

138

SIMILAR TRIANGLES

145

SIMILAR POLYGONS

153

## NUMERICAL PROPERTIES OF FIGURES

156

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION

167

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION

173

EXERCISES

175

BOOK

IV.

AREAS OF POLYGONS.

AREAS OF POLYGONS

180

COMPARISON OF POLYGONS

188

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION

192

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION

204

EXERCISES

205

BOOK

V.

CIRCLES.

## REGULAR POLYGONS AND CIRCLES

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION

## MAXIMA AND MINIMA

EXERCISES

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES

209

...
.230
...

....
.

-.

222

240

237

GEOMETRY.
DEFINITIONS.
1,

wood

If a block of

sented in Fig.

Each

face

1, it

will

the

of

have

block

is

called

## a surface ; and if these faces are made

smooth by polishing, so that, when

## a straight-edge is applied to any one

of them, the straight edge in every
part will touch the surface, the faces
are called plane surfaces, or planes.
2,

The edge

## which any two

in

of these surfaces

meet

is

meet

is

called a line.
3,

The corner

## which any three of these

at

lines

called a point.
4,

For computing

principal directions

its

is

measured

in three

## From left to right,

From front to back,
From bottom to top,

A
A
A

to

B.

to C.

to

D.

block,

## and are named

(height or depth).

## length, breadth (or width), thickness

2, .

*;*:

;*

&amp;gt;;

:&quot;

solid, therefore,

.-..GEOMETRY.

## has three dimensions, length, breadth,

and

thickness.
It is
surface of a solid is no part of the solid.
there
solid.
the
of
or
limit
the
surface,
boundary
simply
fore, has only two dimensions, length
number of flat surfaces be put together, they will
if
5,

The

any

## coincide and form one surface.

6,

simply a boundary
has only one dimen
So that, if any number of straight lines be put
length.
line.
they will coincide and form one
line

is

no part of a surface.

sion,

It is

line, therefore,

together,
7,

point

the line.

is

no part of a

point,

therefore,

## It is simply the limit of

has no dimension, but denotes
any number of points be put

line.

So that, if
position simply.
coincide and form a single point.
together, they will

## in common language, is a limited portion of

with
matter; but in Geometry we have nothing
space filled
we study
to do with the matter of which a body is composed
a
its shape and size; that is, we regard a solid as
simply
limited portion of space which may be -occupied by a physical
8,

solid,

other way.
body, or marked out in some

A geometrical solid is
9,

It

points,
ideal,

Hence,

## at the outset that the

distinctly understood
of
solids
and
Geometry are purely
surfaces,

must be
lines,

## to the eye in only a

or on the
material way.
Lines, for example, drawn on paper
and
some
and
thickness,
width
blackboard, will have some
to
used
are
when
they
will so far fail of being true lines; yet,
it is assumed that they represent
help the mind in reasoning,
and without thickness.
without
perfect lines,

DEFINITIONS.

10,

letters,

as

BF;

by a

is

point

named by a

letter, as

(Fig. 2)

a line

fine dot,

and

named by two

is

## placed one at each end,

a surface is represented

## and named by the lines which

bound it, as BCDF; a solid is
represented

bound
11,

by the

faces

which
FlQ

it.

By

it

vanishes we may

## consider the vanishing point, a point in

space, independent of a line, having position but no extent.
12,
line.

If a point

and may
13,

moves continuously

## in space, its path is a

be
to
be of unlimited extent,
may
supposed
be considered independent of the idea of a surface.

This line

moving

surface

in space,

may
and

## be conceived as generated by a line

A surface can

as of unlimited extent.

14,

solid

may

solid.

motion.

right surface

ABCD

points A, B, C,
the lines AE,
respectively.

CD, and
faces

and

EFGH.

The

lines

AB, BC,

~&quot;~

D will generate

The

D
A

|A~&quot;~&quot;

~&quot;

&quot;

yF

## AF, BG, CH, and AH, respectively.

generate the solid AG.

The

surface

ABCD will
15,

Geometry

is

and magnitude.
16,

and

solids,

GEOMETRY.

17,

## same direction throughout its

whole extent, as the line AB.

18,

curved

19,

## a line which has the

line is a line

no part of which
as the line

is

is

straight,

CD.

broken line

is

a series

of different successive
straight
lines, as the line

ER

20,

lines, as

A
line,

mixed

line is

the line

straight line
a curve.

FlG

GH.
is

line,

and a curved

## A plane surface, or a plane, is a surface in which, if

two
any
points be taken, the straight line joining these points
21,

will lie

22,

curved surface

is

is

plane.

## Figure or form depends upon the relative position of

Thus, the figure or form of a line (straight or curved)
points.
depends upon the relative position of the points in that line
the figure or form of a surface
depends upon the relative
23,

24,

With

reference to

form

and

## solids are called

figures.

With

reference to extent,

lines,

surfaces,

and

solids

are

called magnitudes.
25,

A plane figure

is

same plane.
26,

## Plane figures formed by straight lines are called rec

those formed by curved lines are called
figures

tilinear

curvilinear figures
and those formed
lines are called mixtilinear figures.
;

DEFINITIONS.

## Figures which have the same shape are called similar

Figures which have the same size are called equiva
figures.
lent figures.
Figures which have the same shape and size are
27,

## called equal or congruent figures.

28, Geometry is divided into two parts, Plane Geometry
and Solid Geometry.
Plane Geometry treats of figures all

## the same plane.

Solid Geometry
which are not in the same plane.

in

## treats of figures all points of

STRAIGHT LINES.
29,

may
30,

Through a point an
be drawn.

## words, a straight line

points are

31,

lines

determined

of straight lines

if its

and a point
is

known

and one

direction

and form
one,

the

but one

same point

and only

32,

Two

one point
coincide

extent,

and form

in the

## one, straight line

in other words, a
straight line

whole

of

line.

is

determined

## two of the points are known. Hence,

Two straight lines which have two points in common

throughout their

in the

in other

Hence,

;

of the line

## which pass through

direction coincide,

can be drawn
if

is

known.

All straight

same

number

line are

its

indefinite

but one

coincide

line.

for if

and not

intersect.

## Of all lines joining two points the shortest is the

straight
and the length of the straight line is called the distance
between the two points.
33,

line,

GEOMETRY.

34,
straight line determined by
as prolonged indefinitely both ways.

## two points is considered

Such a line is called an

## indefinite straight line.

35,
is

Often only the part of the line between two fixed points
This part is then called a segment of the line.

considered.

## For brevity, we say &quot;the line

of a line limited by the points

AB&quot;

to designate a

segment

and B.

## 36, Sometimes, also, a line is considered as proceeding from

a fixed point and extending in only one direction. This fixed
line.
point is then called the origin of the

## 37, If any point C be taken in a given straight

two parts CA and GB arc
^
said to have opposite direcfa
FIG. 5.
tions from the point C.

38,

Every straight

is

39,

If the

&

## A B, may be considered as hav

is
namely, from A towards B, which

&quot;line

expressed by saying

AB, the

line, as

## ing opposite directions,

expressed by saying

line

AB&quot;;

&quot;line

and from

## B towards .4, which

BA&quot;

magnitude of a given

line is changed, it

longer or shorter.

## Thus (Fig. 5), by prolonging AC to

and AB = AC+ CB. By diminishing
CB.
CB from AB, and

becomes

B we add GB to AC,
AB to C, we subtract

AC=AB-

several times in

magnitude

is

multi-

it is

prolonged by

its

own

## and the resulting line

called a multiple of the given

plied,
is

Hence,

line.

Thus

(Fig.

6),

if

and

DEFINITIONS.
Lines of given length

may

also be multiplied

be

may

and

divided by a number.

PLANE ANGLES.
40, The opening between two straight lines which meet is
The two lines are called the sides, and
called a plane angle.
the point of meeting, the vertex, of the angle.

41.

## If there is but one angle at a

it is designated by a cap
placed at the vertex, and is
read by simply naming the letter
as,

given vertex,

ital letter

FIG.

7.

angle

(Fig. 7).

## But when two or more angles have

the same vertex, each angle is desig
nated by three letters, as shown in
Fig. 8, and is read by naming the
three letters, the one at the vertex be
tween the others. Thus, the angle
Q means the angle formed by the

DA

sides

FIG

## an angle by placing a small italic let

ter between the sides and near the
vertex, as in Fig. 9.
42,

Two

if

they

FIG.

## can be made to coincide.

43,

angle

If the line

BAG into

two equal

8)

is

parts,

drawn

so as to divide the

is

## called the bisector of the angle BAG.

In general, a line that
divides a geometrical magnitude into two equal parts is called

a bisector of

it.

GEOMETRY.
44.

Two

the same

## jacent when they have

vertex and a common

tween them

and

AOD

45,

as,

side be

the angles

BOD

(Fig. 10).

When

one

straight

line

FIG. 10.

## stands upon another straight line

equal, each of these
called a right angle.

equal

angles

DCA

angles is
Thus, the

DOB

and

## (Fig. 11) are each a right angle.

C
46,

When

FIG. 11.

the sides of an an

## gle extend in opposite directions,

so as to be in the same straight line, the angle is called a
Thus, the angle formed at C (Fig. 11) with
straight angle.

CA

sides

its

and

CB

a straight angle.

is

## extending in opposite directions from C,

Hence a right angle may be defined as

## half a straight angle.

47,

A perpendicular to

makes a
is

a right angle,

pendicular to

DC

is

## a straight line is a straight line that

Thus, if the angle
(Fig. 11)

DCA

it.

perpendicular to

AB, and

AB

is

per

DC.

## 48, The point (as C, Fig. 11) where a perpendicular meets

another line is called the foot of the perpendicular.

49.

gle

is

## Every angle less than a right an

called an acute angle; as, angle A.
FIG

## Every angle greater than a right

less than a straight angle is
and
angle
50,

as,

angle

C (Fig.

13).

DEFINITIONS.

## 51, Every angle greater than a straight angle and less

than two straight angles is called a reflex angle; as, angle

(Fig. 14).

FIG.

52,

FIG. 14.

13.

## Acute, obtuse, and reflex angles, in distinction from

and straight

and inter
angles, are called oblique angles
secting lines that are not perpendicular to each other are
called oblique lines.
right

53,

When

## of the one are prolongations of

the sides of the other, they are
called vertical angles.
Thus, a
b (Fig. 15) are vertical an

and

gles.
54,

Two

angles

are

called

FlQ

## complementary when their sum

equal to a right angle
of the other; as,
angles
is

and each

is

called the

## DOB and DOC (Fig.

complement

10).

55, Two
angles are called supplementary when their sum is
equal to a straight angle and each is called the supplement
of the other as,
and
angles
10).
;

DOB

DO A

(Fig.

MAGNITUDE OF ANGLES.
56,

The

of its sides,

## an angle depends upon the extent of opening

and not upon their length. Suppose the straight

size of

GEOMETRY.

10

## 00 to move in the plane of the paper from coincidence

as a pivot, to the position 0(7;
then the line 00 describes or generates

line

the angle

AOC depends

angle

OA

## to the position OC.

If the rotating line

OA

position
dicular to

angle

OA,

AOB

to the position

OB, perpen

## generates the right

moves to the position

it

if it

AOD

## if it moves to the posi

generates the obtuse angle
if it moves to
the
it
straight angle
generates
indicated
reflex angle
the
it
generates

OD,

it

tion

OA

AOA
AOB

OB

the position
by the dotted line
,

and

if it

continues

its

## OA, whence it started, it generates two straight angles.

Hence the whole angular magnitude about a point in a
or four right angles; and
plane is equal to two straight angles,

tion

## the angular magnitude about a point on one side of a straight

line drawn through that point is equal to one straight angle,

## two right angles.

and subtracted
Angles are magnitudes that can be added
a
and
divided
be
also
by number.
multiplied
they may

or

ANGULAR
57,

If

we suppose

00

(Fig.

from a position

OA

UNITS.
17) to
coinci

it makes a com
comes again into
and
plete revolution

dent with

until

coincidence with

OA,

it

will describe

0, while its end point O
will describe a curve called a circum
the

whole

the point

ference.

11

DEFINITIONS.
58, By adopting a suitable unit of angles
express the magnitudes of angles in numbers.

we

are able to

## If we suppose 00 (Fig. 17) to turn about

from coinci
dence with OA until it makes one three hundred and sixtieth

of a revolution,

it

## generates an angle at 0, which is taken

This unit is called a
angles.

degree.

## The degree is subdivided into sixty equal parts called

minutes, and the minute into sixty equal parts, called seconds.
Degrees, minutes, and seconds are denoted by symbols.
Thus, 5 degrees 13 minutes 12 seconds

## right angle is generated when

of a revolution and is an angle of

generated when
is

00

an angle of 180
is

generated when

has

is

00

written, 5

has

13

12&quot;.

one-fourth

a straight angle is
of
a revolution and
one-half

90;

## and the whole angular magnitude about

has made a complete revolution, and

00

contains 360.

is

But

## the adoption of this unit would require us to express the

values of all angles by fractions.
degree as the unit consists in its convenient size, and in the fact
that 360

is

divisible

by

so

many

METHOD OF

is

different integral

numbers.

SUPERPOSITION.

## 59, The test of the equality of two geometrical magnitudes

that they coincide throughout their whole extent.
Thus, two straight lines are equal, if they can be so placed

## that the points at their extremities coincide.

Two angles are
equal, if they can be so placed that they coincide.

## In applying this test of equality, we assume that a line may

be moved from one place to another without altering its length;
that an angle may be taken up, turned over, and put down,

its sides.

GEOMETEY.

12

## This method enables us to compare magnitudes of the same

and DEF. Let
Suppose we have two angles,

ABC

kind.

## so that the vertex E

EF falls on BO, the angle
DEF equals the angle ABC; the side EF falls between
EG and BA in the direction BG, the angle DEF less than
ABO; but the side EF falls in the direction BH, the angle
DEF greater than ABO.

the side

ED be placed
on

shall fall

B;

then,

on the side
if

BA,

the side

if

is

if

is

## This method enables us to add magnitudes of the same kind.

if we have two straight lines
and CD, by placing the point Q
on B, and keeping CD in the ^
same direction with AB, we shall
have one continuous straight line
and CD.
the lines

BC

Thus,

AB

D
#
FlQ 19
-

equal to the

sum

of

AB

C
/

B
FIG. 20.

Again

## the angles ABC and DEF, and place

B and the side ED in the direction of BC, the

we have

E
DEF will take the position CBH, and the angles DEF

the vertex

angle

if

FIG. 21.

on

## ABC will together equal the angle ABU.

side ED on J:L4, the
placed on B, and the
the angle FBC
and
the
ABF,
take
DEFwitt
position
angle
ABC and DEF,
will be the difference between the angles

and

If the vertex J

is

13

DEFINITIONS.

SYMMETRY.
60, Two points are said to be symmetrical with respect to a
third point, called the centre of sym\p
metry, if this third point bisects the
FlQ 22
straight line which joins them. Thus,
as a centre, if C
are symmetrical with respect to
and
p&amp;gt;

PP

1
.

## 61, Two points are said to be sym

metrical with respect to a straight
line, called the axis of symmetry, if

this

line

straight

bisects

at

right

them. Thus,
are symmet
and

rical
if

with respect to

XX

XX

62,

bisects

PP

as an axis,

at right angles.

said to be

sym

## metrical with respect to a centre or

an axis if every point of one has a

## corresponding symmetrical point in

the other.
Thus, if every point in
the figure
C* has a symmetrical

AB

point in

ABO,

with respect to

as

C is sym
metrical to
with respect to

ABO

as a centre.
If

63,

ABC
ABO,
axis,

with respect to

the figure

cal to

an

## every point in the figure

has a symmetrical point in

AB

axis.

A JB C

XX

is

an

as

symmetri

with respect to

XX

as

GEOMETRY.

14
64,

## figure is symmetrical with re

bisects
if the point

spect to a point,

## every straight line drawn through it

and terminated by the boundary of the
figure.
65,

## respect to a straight line, if the

divides it into two parts, which are

metrical with

to

respect

line

sym

this straight

line.

FIG. 27.

MATHEMATICAL TERMS.
66,

proof or demonstration

## which the truth or

falsity

of

is

a course of reasoning by

any statement

is

logically

established.
67,

68,

theorem

is

a statement to be proved.

## theorem consists of two parts: the hypothesis, or

and the conclusion, or that which is
is assumed

that which

69,

An

axiom

is

is

without proof.
70,

construction

is

## a graphical representation of a geo

metrical figure.
71,

A problem is

72,

The

a question to be solved.

## solution of a problem consists of four parts

the con
analysis, or course of thought by which
(1)
struction of the required figure is discovered
of the figure with the aid of ruler and
(2) The construction

The

compasses
(3)
tions;

figure satisfies

15

DEFINITIONS.

The

(4)

is

which often

exist,

possible.

## A postulate is a construction admitted to be possible.

A proposition is a general term for either a theorem or

73,
74,

a problem.

75,

sition to

corollary

which

76,

is

it is

scholium

attached.

## a remark upon some particular feature

is

of a proposition.

The

77,
its

converse of a

theorem

## hypothesis and conclusion.

is

formed by interchanging

Thus,

is

equal to B,

is

equal to D.

(Direct.)

If

is

equal to

is

equal to B.

(Converse.)

78,

The

If

negative of

A
If A
If

79,

D,

## formed by stating the

conclusion.
Thus,

opposite of a proposition is
its

hypothesis and

is

equal to

is

not equal to B,

B,

The converse

is

its

equal to D. (Direct.)
is not
equal to D. (Opposite.)

of a truth

is

## not necessarily true.

Thus,
a true proposition, but the

## Every horse is a quadruped is

converse, Every quadruped is a horse, is not true.
80, If a direct proposition and its converse are true, the
opposite proposition is true ; and if a direct proposition and its
opposite are true, the converse proposition is true.

POSTULATES.

81,

Let

be granted

That a straight
any other point.
2.
That a straight
1.

to

it

line

line

## can be drawn from any one point

can be produced to any distance,

or can be terminated at
3.

any point.
That a circumference may be described about any point

GEOMETRY.

16

AXIOMS.

82.

1.

to the

to

each other.
2.

If equals are

3.

If equals are

to equals the

## 4. If equals are added to unequals the sums are unequal,

and the greater sum is obtained from the greater magnitude.

If equals are

5.

## taken from unequals the remainders are

is obtained from the

## unequal, and the greater remainder

greater magnitude.

## Things which are double the same thing,

6.

each other.
things, are equal to
are
halves of the
which
7.
Things

same thing, or

or equal

of equal

to each other.
things, are equal
8.
9.

The whole
The whole

is

is

its parts.

taken together.

83,

increased by.

diminished by.

Def.

X multiplied by.

Ax.

... axiom.

-f-

divided by.
is

Cor.

=:=

is

is

Iden.

is

## (or are) less than.

&amp;lt;

.-.

Cons.

hypothesis.
corollary.

identical.

construction.

supplementary.

therefore.

Sup.

angle.

Ext. -int. exterior-interior.

Bangles.

_L perpendicular.

Alt.-int.

Jl perpendiculars.

Ex.

II

parallel.

lie

parallels.

A triangle.
A triangles.

definition.

Hyp.

=
&amp;gt;

circles.

circle.

parallelogram.

17 parallelograms.

alternate-interior.

...

rt

right.

st

Q.E.D.

Q.E.F.

exercise.

straight.
.

## quod erat demonstrandum,

which was to be proved.

## quod erat faciendum,

which was to be done.

PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK

I.

THE STRAIGHT
PROPOSITION
84i

I.

LINE.

THEOREM.

ABCA =

To prove
Proof,

C shall

Apply the
fall

to the Z.

## FED, so that the vertex

GB on the side EF.

Then
(because

Z ECA

FED.

GA

Therefore the

will coincide

Z EGA

is

with

ED,

equal to the

points common).

Z FED.

59
Q. E. D.

85,

COR.

1.

86,

COR.

2.

87,

COR.

3.

## The angular units have constant values.

The complements of equal angles are equal. Ax. 3.

COR.

4.

88,

## The supplements of equal angles are

At a given point
perpendicular, and only one, can
89,

COR.

HINT.

draw

Ax.

5.

in

a given

equal.

7.

Ax. 3.

be erected.

## Consider the given point as the vertex of a

straight angle, and

PLANE GEOMETRY.

18

PROPOSITION

II.

BOOK

I.

THEOREM.

## 90. If two adjacent angles have their exterior sides

in a straight line, these angles are supplements of
each other.

## Let the exterior sides OA and OB of the adjacent

A AOD and BOD be in the straight line A3.

To prove

AOB

Proof.

the

is

a straight

Z AOB

is

line.

st.

Hyp.
46

Z.

But
/.

the

Ax. 9

55
Q. E. D.

## 91. SCHOLIUM. Adjacent angles that are supplements of

each other are called supplementary-adjacent angles.
92.

COR.

## neither increased nor diminished by the

radiate from the point, it follows that,

The sum of
to

number

of lines

a point in a plane

is

is

which

equal

straight line

## the angles about a point on the same side of a

passing through the point is equal to a straight

PROPOSITION
93.

CONVERSELY

ments of each

same

19

THEOREM.

III.

straight line.

AC

To prove
Proof,

A C and CB in

Suppose

CF to

the

same

rt. A.

straight line.

Then

81

90

But
.

## Z OCA + Z OCB = 2 rt. A.

Z OCA + Z OCr= Z OCA -f Z

Z 0CF= Z

Then
.*.

94.

CB

and

A C and CB are

common

Ax. 1

Z OCA.

0C5.

Ax. 3

CF coincide.

in the

same straight

## their opposites are true

Hyp.

OCB.

II.

and

line.

III.

Q.E. D.

are true,

80
namely,
If the exterior sides of two adjacent angles are not in a
straight line, these angles are not supplements of each other.
If two adjacent angles are not supplements of each other,
;

same

straight line.

20

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION IV.

THEOREM.

I.

## If one straight line intersects another straight

line, the vertical angles are equal.
95,

## Let line OP cut AS at

To prove

C.

Z OCB = Z ACP.

Z OCA + Z OCB = 2

Proof,

rt.

90

A,

90

A)-

AACP=2rt.

A,

).

Ax.

## of these equals the

common

Z OCB -Z ACP.

Then

In like manner we

Z OCA.
Ax. 3

may prove
Q. E. D.

96.

COR.

the
If one of the four angles formed by

of two straight
right angles.

lines is

intersection

right angle,

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION V.
97.

From a

21

## pendicular, and only

can be drawn

one,

to this line.

JT

D\
\

V
Let P be the point and AB the line.
To prove that one perpendicular, and only
from Pto AB.

one,

can be drawn

AB

AB

## Turn the part of the plane above

as
it falls
upon the part below AB, and denote by

Proof,

an axis until

P takes.

## Turn the revolved plane about AB to its original

and draw the straight line PP cutting AB at C.

position,

## Take any other point

Since

D in

PDP

POP

is a straight line,
(Between two points only one straight

Z PCP is

Turn the

Then
.

PD and P D,

st.

figure

CP will

Z, and

POD

line

Z PDP

coincide with

is not a
straight line.
can be drawn.)

is

not a

st.

OP, and

P.

DP with DP.

## Z PCD = Z. POD, and Z PDO= Z PDC.

Z POZ), the half of st. Z PC/*, is a rt. Z and Z
half of Z
is not a rt. Z.

59

.-.

the

Z.

PZ&amp;gt;C,

PZ&amp;gt;^,

.*.

PC

is

one

_L,

to

^15, and

and only

PD

is

one, can be

not _L to

AB.

drawn from

P to

47

AB.
Q.E.D,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

22

BOOK!

I.

PARALLEL LINES.
98,

DEF.

## Parallel lines are lines which

lie in

the same

plane and do not meet however far they are prolonged in both
directions.
99,

lie in

## the same direction

when

they are on the same side of the straight line joining their ori
when they are on opposite sides
gins, and in opposite directions
of the straight line joining their origins.

PROPOSITION VI.
100, Two straight lines in the same plane perpen
dicular to the same straight line are parallel.

-B

## Let AB and CD be perpendicular to AC.

AB and CD parallel.
To prove
If

Proof.

AB

and

CD

if

## have two perpendicular

sufficiently
lines from their point of meeting to the same straight line
prolonged, and we

shall

but this

is

97

impossible.

and only
(From a given point without a straight line, one perpendicular,
one, can be drawn to the straight line.}
.

Q.E.D.

AB

## and CD are not parallel leads

the supposition that
a given
to the conclusion that two perpendiculars can be drawn from
The conclusion is false, therefore the supposi
line.
point to a straight
and CD are not parallel, it is true
tion is false; but if it is false that
This method of proof is called the indirect
are parallel.
that

REMARK. Here

AB

they
method.
101,

to

a given straight

line,

line.

and only

23

PAEALLEL LINES.
THEOREM.

PROPOSITION VII.

## 102, If a straight line is perpendicular to one of

two parallel lines, it is perpendicular to the other.

H
M-

ar

ar

K
Let AB and EF be
perpendicular to

## two parallel lines, and let

AB, and cut EF at C.

HK\_EF.

To prove

MN \a\\toAB,

Proof,

Then

HK be

(7J_ to

HK.
100

## to a given line are parallel).

(two lines in the same plane _L

EFia

But
/.
(through the

that

EF,

to

AB.

line

EF.

101
\\

to

a given

line).

Q.E.D.

AB

## two straight lines

are cut by a third line

If

CD

Hyp.

MN,

can be drawn

.ffiTis J_ to

is,

103,

and

EF

\\

coincides with

called

transversal,

are
eight angles formed,
as follows

the

named

The angles
interior

b,

c,

g are called
h are called ex

a, d, f,
e,

terior angles.

## The angles d and /, or a and g, are called alt. -int. angles.

The angles b and h, or c and e, are called alt. -ext. angles.
The angles b and /, c and g, a and e, or d and h, are called
ext. -int.

angles.

24

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION VIII.

BOOK

I.

THEOREM.

## 104, If two parallel straight lines are cut by a third

straight line, the alternate-interior angles are equal.

Let EF and

GH

Z.B = /.Q.

To prove
Proof.

drawn J_
Then

Through
to

is

likewise _L to

that

is,

Apply

of

BC, suppose

GH.

## CD and BA are both JL

figure COD to figure BOA,

102

EF,

Us is _L to

to

the other),

so that

OD shall

fall

on OA.

00 will

Then
(since

and

95

on OB,

fall

/. COD = Z BOA,

being vertical

A)

## C will fall upon B,

00 = OB by construction).

the point
(since

Then

the J_

CD

.

/.

OCD

coincides with

Z OB A,

and

is

97

BA,

can be drawn}.

equal to

59

it.

Q. E. D.

Ex.
it is

Ex.
is

1.

its complement.

if it is

double

its

complement

if

one-fourth of
2.

one-third of

its

supplement.

if it is

double

its

supplement

if it

PAKALLEL

25

LINES./

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION IX.

When two

## straight lines are cut

an
by a third straight line, if the alternate-interior
gles are equal, the two straight lines are parallel.
105.

CONVERSELY

MA

\f/

## Let EF cut the straight lines AB and CD in the points

and K, and let the

AB

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

then

II

to

CD.

MN drawn through H
Z MHK= Z HKD,
(being

alt.-int.

of

II

II

to

CD

104

lines).

Z AHK= Z HKD.
/. Z MHK= Z AHK.

But

## /. the lines JIfJVand

MNis

But
.*.

AB, which

II

to

101

Hyp.
Ax.

AB coincide.
CD.

coincides with

JOT,

Cons.
is

II

to

QD.
Q.E. D.

Ex.

3.

How many

clock at 2 o clock

## degrees in the angle formed

3 o clock ? 4 o clock ? 6 o clock ?

by the hands of a

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

26

PROPOSITION X.
106,

line,

I.

THEOREM.

## // two parallel lines are cutlby a third straight

the exterior-interior angles are equal.

## Let AB and CD be two parallel lines cut

and K,
straight line EF, in the points

by the

Z EHB = Z HKD.
Z EHB = Z AHK,

To prove
Proof,

95

## (being vertical A).

.

Z AHK= Z HKD,

But

(being alt.-int.

Aof\\

104

lines).

Ax.
In like manner we

may

prove

Z EHA = Z HKC.
COR. The alternate-exterior angles

107,

and

also

Ex.

4.

Q. E. D.

EHB

and CKF,

If an angle

is

bisected,

and

if

a line

is

## to the bisector, this line forms equal angles

vertex perpendicular
the sides of the given angle.

with

## two adjacent angles are perpendicular to

are supplementary.
the
each other,
Ex.

5.

If the bisectors of

PARALLEL LINES.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XI.

CONVERSELY

27

When two

## straight lines are cut

the
exterior-interior an
line, if
are
these
two
gles
equal,
straight lines are parallel.
108,

ly a third straight

## Let EF cut the straight lines AB and CD in the points

and let the

H and K,

AB

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

CD.

to

\\

MN drawn through

5&quot;

II

to

CD.

Z EHN= Z HKD,

Then

(being ext.-int.

But
.

of

II

106

lines).

Z EHB = Z HKD.
Z EHB = Z EHN.

.the lines

JOT&quot;

MNia

But
.

.AB, which

and
II

to

101

Hyp.
Ax.

AB coincide.
CD.

coincides with

MN,

Cons.
is

II

to

CD.
Q. E. D.

Ex.

6.

The

bisector of one of

two

## Ex. 7. The bisectors of the two pairs of vertical angles formed by

two intersecting lines are perpendicular to each other.

28

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XII.

THEOREM.

I.

## If two parallel lines are cut by a third straight

line, the sum of the two interior angles on the same
side of the transversal is equal to two right angles.
109.

-B

## Let AB and CD be two parallel lines cut by the

EF in the points H and K.

straight line
To prove

Z BIIK+ Z HKD = 2

Proof,

Z EHB + Z EHK = 2

rt.

rt.

A
4

90

zt).

Z EHB = Z HKD,

But

(being ext.-int.

Substitute

Z HKD
Z

then

for

of

II

Z EHB in

106

lines).

the

BHK+ Z HKD - 2

first

rt.

equality

A.
Q. E. D.

AHE

## is an angle of 135, find the number of

Ex. 8. If the angle
other angles formed at the points -ffand K.
degrees in each of the

Ex.

9.

## Find the angle between the

tary angles.

complemen

PARALLEL LINES.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XIII.

CONVERSELY

110.

29

When two

## by a third straight line, if the two interior angles on

the same side of the transversal are together equal to
two right angles, then the two straight lines are
parallel.

## Let EF cut the straight lines AB and CD in the points

and K, and let the BHK+^HKD equal two right

angles.

AB

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

Then

to

II

CD.

MN drawn through H
NHK+ HKD = 2
Z.

to

\\

rt.

CD.
109

A,

## (being two interior Aof\\son the same side of the transversal}.

Z.BHK+HKL = 2rt.A.

But

Hyp.

.Z.NHK+Z.HKD = Z.BHK+Z.HKD.

then

Z.
.

NHK=

the lines

MNis

But
.

AB,

Z.

AB and
II

to

common

Z.

BHK.

MN

HKD

Ax. 3

coincide.

CD.

## which coincides with

Ax.

MN,

Cons.
is

II

to

CD.
Q.E.O.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

30

I.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XIV.

to
straight lines which are parallel
other.
each
to
are
line
parallel
straight
Ill,

Two

a third

K
Let AB and CD be parallel

AB

To prove
Proof,

Since
(if

a straight

Since

to EF.

CD.

to

II

Suppose

HK drawn _L

CD

EF are

and

to

line is

AB

and

EF are

II,

Ex

10.

It has

lines

AB

is

II

97

EF.
_L to

Us, it is J_ to

rt.

to

102

CD,

## the other also).

fflTis also _L to

(each being a
.-.

HKis

II,

one of two

to

AB.

Z).

108

CD,

if

102

two

cut
parallels are

Q.

by a

E D

trans*

## are equal, the exterior-interior angles

versal! the alternate-interior angles
on the same side of the transversal are
are equal the two interior angles
State the converse theo
State the opposite theorems.
Bupplementary.

rems.

PARALLEL

XV.

PKOPOSITION

31

LINES.

THEOREM.

## 112, Two angles whose sides are parallel, each to

each, are either equal or supplementary.

-fcr-

r
F

Let AB be parallel

and BC

to EF,

to

MN.

## Z ABO equal to Z EHN, and

supplementary to Z EHM and to Z NHF.
To prove

Proof,

sect at

Prolong

(if

necessary)

to

Z MHF,

BO and FE until

D.

they inter
81 (2)

Z B = Z EDO,
Z DHN= Z ^D(7.

Then
and

(being

ext.-int.

A of

II

and

106

106

ines),

## MHF (the vert. Z of DHN).

Now Z DHN the supplement of Z EHM and Z ^V^F.
Z.B = Z.

and

is

is

Z ^,

Z DJ77V,
of Z EHM and of Z NHF.

which

the supplement

is

equal to

Q. E. D.

REMARK. The

## angles are equal

when both

pairs

of parallel sides

## extend in the same direction, or in opposite directions, from their ver

tices
the angles are supplementary when two of the parallel sides extend
;

in the

same

vertices.

direction,

## and the other two

in opposite directions,

from their

32

113,

Two

PLANE GEOMETKY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XVI.

THEOREM.

I.

## angles whose sides are perpendicular, each

equal or supplementary.

## to each, are either

K
F

and AC

Let AB be perpendicular

to FD,

Z BAG

Z DFG,

To prove

equal

to

to GI.

and supplementary

to

/.DPI.
Proof,

Suppose

AKis

Then

AK drawn _L
to

\\

to

to

AC.
100

## (two lines J_ to the same line are parallel).

112
(two angles are equal. whose sides are

from

II

and extend

their vertices).

## Z BAK a right angle by construction.

Z BAH is the complement of Z KAH.
The Z CAJTis a right angle by construction.
Z HAHis the complement of Z BAG.

The
.

is

87
(complements of equal angles are equal).

. .

Z DFI,

the

.\/.DFG = ^BAO.
supplement of Z DFG, is also

Ax.

tf/.BAC.
REMARK. The
are supplementary

the supplement

or both obtuse
angles are equal if both are acute
if one is acute and the other obtuse.

Q.E.D.

they

33

## PERPENDICULAR AND OBLIQUE LINES.

PROPOSITION XVII.

The perpendicular

114,

be

to

THEOREM.

## the shortest Line that can

is

a straight

Line.

D\

i
Let AB be the given straight line, P the given point,
the perpendicular, and PD any other line drawn

PC

from

to

AB.
To prove

Produce

Proof,

On

AB

plane of

PC to P

PC

making

CP

&amp;lt;

PD.

CP = PC;

CPD

until

and draw

it

DP

D.

The
(since

line

CP will

Z PCD - Z

P will

The point

(since
.

P&amp;gt;CD t

line

each being a

fall

rt.

by hyp.).

PC= P Cby

CP

cons.).

PD = line P D,

PC +CP =2 PC.
PC + CP
+ DP
and

But

&amp;lt;PD

(a straight line
.

is

Cons.
1
,

## the shortest distance between two

points).

.2PC&amp;lt;2PD, or PC&amp;lt;PD.

Q.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

34
115,

BOOK

X,

## SCHOLIUM. The distance of a point from a line is under

mean the length of the perpendicular from the point

stood to

to the line.

PROPOSITION XVIII.

THEOREM.

drawn from a

point in a
cutting off equal dis
perpendicular
tances from the foot of the perpendicular, are equal.
116,

Two

oblique lines
to

a given

line,

## Let FC be the perpendicular, and CA and CO two

oblique lines cutting off equal distances from F.

CA =

To prove
Proof,

CO.

the plane of

CF&s

an

FA
(since

## will take the direction of

Z CFA = Z CFO,

Point

each being a

will fall

(since
.

COR.

pendicular

to

comes into

.line

C4

Two

oblique lines

a given

rt.

FO,
Z by hyp.).

upon point 0,

FA = FO

by hyp.).

= line

the
(their extremities being

117,

axis, until it

CFO.

CO,

same points).

drawn from a

Q. E. o.

point in a per

## line, cutting off equal distances from the

make equal angles with the given line,

## foot of the perpendicular,

and also with the perpendicular.

PROPOSITION XIX.

35

THEOREM.

## 118, The sum of two lines drawn from a point to

the extremities of a straight line is greater than the
sum of two other lines similarly drawn, but included

by them.
C

## Let CA and CB be two lines drawn from the point C

the extremities of the straight line AB. Let OA and
OB be two lines similarly drawn, but included by CA
and CB.
to

To prove
Proof.

CA+CB&amp;gt;OA

AO to

Produce

meet the

AC+ CE

Then

(a straight line

and

is

&amp;gt;

+ OB.
line

CB

at

E.

OA + OE,

BE+OE&amp;gt;BO.

## these inequalities, and

we have

CA+CE+BE+OE&amp;gt;OA +
Substitute for

We have

OE+ OB.

OE from

CA+CB&amp;gt;OA

OB.

Ax. 5

aEilx

36

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XX.

I.

THEOREM.

## 119, Of two oblique lines drawn from the same

point in a perpendicular, cutting off unequal dis
tances from the foot of the perpendicular, the more
remote is the greater.

b
Let OC be perpendicular to AB, OG and OE two oblique
lines to AB, and GE greater than CG.

OE

To prove

Take

Proof.

CF equal

to

OG.

&amp;gt;

## CG, and draw OF.

0F= OG,

Then
(two oblique lines

## drawn from a point

from the foot of the

in a
JL,

116
_L,

are equal).

OC to

D, making CD
Prolong
Draw
and FD.

=00.

ED

Since

AB

is

## OD at its middle point,

FO = FD, and EO = JED,

_L to

But

OE+ED&amp;gt;

116

OF+ FD,

118

sum

## of two oblique lines drawn from a point to the extremities of a

straight line is greater than the sum of two other lines similarly drawn,
but included by them).

(the

But

20E&amp;gt;20F, or

OF= OG.

OE&amp;gt;

Hence

OE

OF.
&amp;gt;

OG.

aE

## Only two equal straight lines can be drawn from

a straight line ; and of two unequal lines, the greater

120, COR.

a point

to

cuts off the greater distance from the foot of the perpendicular.

PROPOSITION XXI.

37

THEOREM.

## 121, Two equal oblique lines, drawn from, the same

point in a perpendicular, cut off equal distances from
tine foot of the perpendicular.

## Let CF be the perpendicular, and CE and CK be two

equal oblique lines drawn from the point C to AB.

FE=FK.

To prove

GFA

Fold over

Proof,

the plane of

on

OF as

an

CFB.

The
(since

line

Z CFE= Z. CFK,

each being a

E must

fall

rt.

by hyp).

K,

## Otherwise one of these oblique lines must be more remote

from the perpendicular, and therefore greater than the other
which is contrary to the hypothesis that they are equal.
119
;

Q. E. D.

Ex.

11.

Show

that

the bisectors

of two

Ex.

12.

Show

angles form one

straight line.

## Ex. 13. Find the complement of an angle containing 26

Find the supplement of the same angle.

52

37&quot;.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

38

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXII.

I.

THEOREM.

## 122, Every point in the perpendicular, erected at

the middle of a given straight line, is equidistant
from the extremities of the line, and every point not
in the perpendicular is unequally distant from the
extremities of the line.

## Let PR be a perpendicular erected at the middle of

the straight line AB,
any point in PR, and G any
point without PR.
Draw OA and OB, CA and CB.
To prove

OA

and

OB equal, CA

and

PA = PB.

Proof,

CB unequal.
Hyp.
116

## drawn from the same point in a _L, cutting

tances from the foot of the _L, are equal).
without the perpendicular, one of the

Since
or

is

off&quot;

equal dis

lines,

CA

CB,

Let

CA

Then

draw DB.

DB = DA,

## drawn from the same point in a

tances from the foot of the _L, are

But

116
_L,

equal).

CB&amp;lt;CD+DB,
(a straight line

is

## the shortest distance between two points).

DA for DB,
CB&amp;lt;CD + DA.

That

is,

CB&amp;lt;CA.

and we have

123,

line,

mine

39

middle of that

THE Locus OF A

line deter

line.

POINT.

## required to find a point which shall fulfil a

single geometric condition, the point will have an unlimited
number of positions, but will be confined to a particular line,
124,

If

it

is

or group of lines.

## Thus, if it is required to find a point equidistant from the

extremities of a given straight line, it is obvious from the last
proposition that any point in the perpendicular to the given
line at its middle point does fulfil the condition, and that no
other point does

## that is, the required point is confined to this

Again, if it is required to find a point at a
perpendicular.
given distance from a fixed straight line of indefinite length, it
;

is

so

drawn

## lie in one of two

straight lines,
as to be everywhere at the given distance from the
fixed line, one on one side of the fixed line, and the other on

## The locus of a point under a given condition is the line,

or group of lines, which contains all the points that fulfil the
given condition, and no other points.
SCHOLIUM. In order to prove completely that a certain
the locus of a point under a given condition, it is neces
sary to prove that every point in the line satisfies the given
condition; and secondly, that every point which satisfies the
125,

line

is

## given condition lies in the line (the converse proposition), or

that every point not in the line does not satisfy the given condi
tion (the opposite proposition).
126,
ities

Con.

The

## locus of a point equidistant from the extrem

is the perpendicular bisector
of that line.

of a straight line

122, 123

PLANE GEOMETEY.

40

BOOK

I.

TRIANGLES.
127.

The bounding

ABC.
lines are called the

and

their

sum

is

## perimeter ; the angles formed

the sides are called the angles of the

called

by

is

triangle

its

triangle,

FIG.

1.

128,

An

## an angle formed between a side and

the prolongation of another side as,

is

ACD.

The

interior

angle

ACE

is
&quot;

FIG. 2.
the
other two interior angles,
and B, are called opposite;

interior angles.

Scalene.

Isosceles.

Equilateral.

## called, with reference to its sides, a

triangle
scalene triangle when no two of its sides are equal an isos
an equilateral
celes triangle, when two of its sides are equal
129,

is

triangle,

when

its

## three sides are equal.

Obtuse.

Right.

130,

triangle,

triangle

when one

Acute.

with reference to

Equiangular.

angles, a right
an obtuse
of its angles is a right angle

is

called,

its

TEIANGLES.

41

when one
when all

## of its angles is an obtuse angle

an acute
three of its angles are acute angles
an
equiangular triangle, when its three angles are equal.
triangle,

triangle,

## 131, In a right triangle, the side opposite the

right angle is
called the hypotenuse, and the other two sides the
legs, of the

triangle.
132, The side on which a
triangle is supposed to stand is
called the base of the triangle.
Any one of the sides may be
In the isosceles triangle, the equal sides
taken as the base.

133,
vertical
134,

side,

the base.

## The angle opposite the base of a triangle is called the

angle, and its vertex the vertex of the triangle.
The

altitude of a triangle

is

as,

## 135, The three perpendiculars from the vertices of a tri

angle to the opposite sides (produced if necessary) are called
the altitudes; the three bisectors of the
angles are called tha
bisectors; and the three lines from the vertices to the middle
points of the opposite sides are called the medians of the

triangle.
136, If two
triangles have the angles of the one equal respec
tively to the angles of the other, the equal angles are called
homologous angles, and the sides opposite the
are

equal angles

## called homologous sides.

In general, points,

lines,

and

137,

THEOREM

side,

## The sum of two sides of a triangle is greater

and their difference is less than the third

side.

In the
is

A ABC(Yi%.

1),

AB +

BC&amp;gt;AC, for

points

## away BCiiQm both

sides, AB&amp;gt;AC-BC, or

a straight line

and by taking

AC-BC&amp;lt;AB.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXIII.

THEOREM.

42

I.

138,

equal

is

## two right angles.

to

A
Let ABC be a

triangle.

Z B + Z BOA + Z A = 2 rt. A.
to AB, and prolong A
Suppose CE drawn
Z ECF+ Z ECE + Z J5O4 = 2 rt. Z,

To prove
Proof,

Then

II

(/ie swra o/

a^

the

on the same

oin

=2

rt.

side of

to F.

92

straight line

A).

Z A - Z J57CF,

But

(Jetn^r ext.-int.

106

o/\\ lines).

w&/.B = Z.BCE,
(being

alt.-int.

Then
Con.

tracted

II

1.

If the

from two

sum

104

lines ).

## Z EOF and Z .SC^ the equal A A

Z ^. + Z B + Z .SO4 - 2 rt. Zs.

Substitute for

139,

A of

and 5.

## of two angles of a triangle

Q. E. D.

is

sub

the
right angles, the remainder is equal to

third angle.
2. If two triangles have two angles of the one
are equal.
two
angles of the other, the third angles
equal
141, COR. 3. If two right triangles have an acute angle of
the one equal to an acute angle of the other, the other acute
angles are equal.

COR.

140,

to

43

TRIANGLES.
COR.

142,

4.

In a

triangle there

COR.

143,

5.

In a

## complements of each other.

COR.

144,

6.

In an equiangular

PROPOSITION
145,

sum

XXIV.

THEOREM.

## The exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the

of the two opposite interior angles.

C*

-*i

Let

BCH

-*&quot;*

## be an exterior angle of the triangle ABC.

Z BCH Z A -f Z B.

To prove

Proof.

(the

sum

of the three

of a

rt.

## of these equals the

Z.BCH=Z.A +

then

A=2

A).

common

Z ACB

Ax. 3

B.

Q. E. D.

146,

COR.

The

exterior angle of

a triangle

is

greater than

44

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION

XXV.

BOOK

I.

THEOREM.

## 147, Two triangles are equal if a side and two ad

jacent angles of the one are equal respectively to a
side and two adjacent angles of the other.

CD

A
In the triangles
/LB = ^E.
To prove
Proof,

Apply

coincide with

ABC and

ff

AB = DE,

DEF, let

Z.A = Z.D,

A ABC= A DEF.
the A AB C to the A DEF so that AB shall

DE.
A C will

ZA = ZD,by hyp.)

(for

DF,

## AC will fall upon DF or DF produced.

EC will take the direction of EF,

the extremity

C of

(for

the extremity
.

ZB = ZE,by hyp.)

C of .#(7 will

fall

upon

EF

EF produced.
lines DF and EF,
or

## .the point C, falling upon both the

fall upon the point common to the two lines, namely, F.

must

/.the two

Q.E.D.

## 148, COR. 1. Two right triangles are equal if the hypotenuse

and an acute angle of the one are equal respectively to the hypote
nuse and an acute angle of the other.

149,
COR. 2. Two right triangles are equal if a side and an
acute angle of the one are equal respectively to a side and
homologous acute angle of the other,

45

TRIANGLES.

PROPOSITION

XXVI.

THEOREM.

## 150, Two triangles are equal if two sides and the

included angle of the one are equal respectively to
two sides and the included angle of the other.

In the triangles

E
let

AB = DE, AG-DF,

A = ^D.

AAC-=A DEF.

To prove
Proof,

Apply the

coincide with

Then

A ABC to

the

## A DEF so that AB shall

DE.
will take the direction of

= ZD,by hyp}
(for ZA
the point

C will
(for

fall

DF,

AC= DF,

by hyp.).

.the two

## A coincide, and are equal.

Q.E. D.

151,

COR.

equal, each

to

Two
each.

are
right triangles are equal if their legs

46

PLANE GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION XXVII.

BOOK

I.

THEOREM.

## 152, If two triangles have two sides of the one

equal
respectively to two sides of the other, but the included

## first greater than the included angle of

the second, then the third side of the first will be
greater than the third side of the second.

angle of the

-y

E
In the triangles ABC and ABE, let
but ZABC greater than /.ABE.

AC

To prove
Proof,

Place the

AB of the

&amp;gt;

AB = AB, BC=BE;

AE.

other.

Suppose

Draw EF.

In the

EB = J30,
BF=BF,
.*.

## (having two sides

Hyp.
Iden.

Z EBF= Z. CBF.
A EBF&K& CBFwQ

Cons.

the
equal,
and the included /. of one equal respectively
and the included Z. of the other).

150
to

two sides

.\EF=FC,
(being homologous sides of equal A).

AF+ FE

Now
(the

sum

of two sides of a
.

AE,
A is greater than

137

&amp;gt;

## the third side).

AF+FO AE-,
or,

AC&amp;gt;AE.

Q.E.D.

TRIANGLES.

PROPOSITION XXVIII.

47

THEOREM.

## CONVERSELY. If two sides of a triangle are equal

respectively to two sides of another, but the third side
of the first triangle is greater than the third side of
the second, then the angle opposite the third side of
the first triangle is greater than the angle opposite
the third side of the second.
153.

## In the triangles ABO and DEF, let AB = DE,

but let BG be greater than EF.
Z A greater than Z D.
To prove

Now Z A

Proof.

greater than

But

ZA

equal to

is

equal to

D,

or less than

And Z

is

D, or

D.

not equal to

D,

A ABC would

for then

A DEF,

than

is

AC = DF;

be

150

## of the one, respectively equal to two

the included /. of the other),

and

the included

sides

and

and

BG would be

D,

equal to
for

then

EF.

BC would

EF.

be less

152
/.

ZA

is

greater than

D.
Q.E.D.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION
154,

In an

XXIX.

I.

THEOREM.

B
Let ABO
AB and AC

equal.

Z B=Z

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

C.

= AC.
AJ3

(two

&

## are equal if two sides and the included Z

sides and the included Z
respectively to two

.\Z.B =
155,

COR.

An

Hyp.
Iden.
Cons.

150
of the one are equal
of the other).

C.

Q.E.D.

is equiangular,
equilateral triangle

and each

Ex.

14.

The

## bisector of the vertical angle of

to the base.
and is

an

isosceles triangle

perpendicular

## The perpendicular bisector of the base of an isosceles

and bisects the angle at the vertex.
passes through the vertex
Ex.

15.

triangle

49

TKIANGLES.

PEOPOSITION

XXX.

THEOREM.

## 156, If two angles of a triangle are equal, the sides

opposite the equal angles are equal, and the triangle

is isosceles.

= ZC.

## In the triangle ABC, let the Z

To prove
Proof,

In the

rt.

AB = AC.
Suppose AD drawn J_ to BO.
4.B = Z.Q.
.*. rt.

A ALB =

an

rt.

Iden.

Hyp.

149

homologous acute
of the other).

side

and

## (being homologous sides of equal &).

Q.E. D.

COR.

157,

Ex.

16.

triangle

is

An

equiangular triangle

is

## The perpendicular from the vertex

an axis of symmetry.

also equilateral.

to the base of

an

isosceles

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

50

PROPOSITION

XXXI.

X,

THEOREM.

## If two sides of a triangle are unequal, the an

are unequal, and the greater angle is
opposite
gles
158,

C
In the triangle

ACB

let

Z A CB

To prove

greater than

B.

AE equal to AQ.

Take

Proof.

AB

Draw EC.

AAEC=Z.ACE,
(being

Z AEG is

But
(an exterior

/.

of a

Substitute for

is

Much

## than either opposite interior Z).

greater than

Z ACE its

Z.ACB\*

then

146

greater than Z. B,

A is greater

Z A CB

and

154

equal

greater than

Z ACE.

Z ACB

Ax. 8

Z ^(7,

Z AEC.
Z. B.
greater than

^Cand

## ACB, at the base of an isosceles tri

If the angles
lines
the
BD, CD, show that
straight
angle, be bisected by
Ex.

be an

17.

isosceles triangle.

DBCmll

TKI ANGLES.

PROPOSITION XXXII.

51

THEOREM.

159, CONVERSELY
If two angles of a triangle are
unequal, the sides opposite are unequal, and the
greater side is opposite the greater angle.
:

In.

angle E.
To prove

AB

Now AB

Proof,

is

&amp;gt;

ACE

be greater than

AC.

than AC.

AB

But

is

equal to the

And

AB

than the

(if

is

not

B,

two sides of a

## than AC, for then the

less

A are unequal,

greater
.

be

154
(being

less

C would

B,

is

AB

Z.

the
opposite are unequal,
opposite the greater side).

is

greater than

would be
158
and

the

AC.
Q. E. D.

Ex. 18. ABC and ABD are two triangles on the same base AB, and
on the same side of it, the vertex of each
triangle being without the
other.
If AC equal AD, show that BC cannot
equal

BD.
sum of the lines which join a point
within a triangle to the three vertices is less than
the perimeter, but
greater than half the perimeter.
Ex.

19.

The

PLANE GEOMETRY.

52

BOOK:

I.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XXXIII.

## 160, Two triangles are equal if the three sides of

the one are equal respectively to the three sides of
the other.

## In the triangles ABC and A

BC=B

BC

let

AB = A B AC=A C

A ABC = A A B C

To prove

AB

AABC

in the position
Place
C, having its
in coincidence with its equal AC, and its
C
side
greatest
1
.
and draw
vertex at
opposite
Proof.

BB
Since AB = AB
Z ABB = Z AB B,
B

(in

an

isosceles

the

A opposite

Since

Hence,

Hyp.
154

## the equal sides are equal).

CB = CB\

ZCBB = ZCB R
^ ABC= Z AB C,
/. A ABG= A AB O= A A B C

Hyp.
154

Ax. 2
150

(two

&

## are equal if two sides and included Z of one are equal

sides and included Z of the other).

to

two

TRIANGLES.

PROPOSITION

53

XXXIV. THEOREM.

## 161. Two right triangles are

equal if a side and
the hypotenuse of the one are equal respectively to a
side and the hypotenuse of the other.

and

AC=A C

A AC= A A

To prove
Proof,

upon

Then

let

AB^A Bf,

## A ABC to the A A B C so that AE shall

A falling upon A E upon E\ and and
the same side of A -B
Apply the

coincide with

ABC and A B C

## BO will take the direction of B &,

Z ABC= Z A B C

(for

each being a

AC=A C

Since

the point
(two equal oblique lines

C will

from a point

.*.

the two

Z).

9
,

fall

upon

&amp;lt;7

in a _L cut

rt.

off&quot;

121

JL).

Q.E. 0.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

54

PROPOSITION

BOOK

XXXV.

I.

THEOREM.

## bisector of an angle is equi

the sides of the angle.

162,

distant

from

## Let AD be the bisector of the angle BAG, and let O

To prove that

is

Proof,

Draw O^and

In the

rt.

(two

rt.

AB and AC.
OG J_ to AB and A C respectively.

equidistant from

A ^O^Fand AOO
AO=AO,
JBAO =
CAO.

Iden.

.-.AAOF=AAOG,

148

Hyp.

## and an acute Z of the one are

hypotenuse and an acute Z of the other).

## are equal if the hypotenuse

respectively to the

equal

OF= OG,

.*.

is

equidistant from

AB and

AC.
Q. E. D.

What

is

Ex.

20.

At a given

Ex.

21.

22.

At a given

Ex.
length

Ex.
Ex.

\ 57.

119.

23.

## Equidistant from two given parallel lines

24.

of a
given line
Equidistant from the extremities

?
?

TRIANGLES.

PROPOSITION

XXXVI.

THEOREM.

163,

from

55

its sides, is

## in the bisector of the angle.

Let
be equidistant from the sides of the angle
BAG, and let AO join the vertex A and the point 0.
To prove that
Proof.

AO is

Suppose

the bisector of Z.

OF

and

OG

BAG.

drawn

J. to

AB

and AC,

respectively.

In the

rt.

A ^O^and AOG

.-.

(two

rt.

OF= OG,

Hyp.

AO^AO.

Iden.

AAOF=AAOG,

## hypotenuse and a side

hypotenuse and a side of the
/.

AO

other).

Z FAO = /. GAO,

(homologous
.*.

161
of the one are equal to the

is

of equal A).

the bisector of

Z BAG.
Q.E. D.

164.

distant from

its sides, is

## the bisector of the angle.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

56

BOOK

I.

165.
quadrilateral is a portion of a plane bounded by
four straight lines.
The bounding lines are the sides, the angles formed by these

sides are the angles, and the vertices of these angles are the
166.

is

trapezium,

parallel.
167.

trapezoid

is

sides,

and

## only two sides, parallel.

168.

A parallelogram is a

its

oppo

Trapezium.

169.

Trapezoid.

is

rectangle

Parallelogram.

its

its

angl&amp;lt;

right angles.
170.

rhomboid

is

angl&amp;lt;

oblique angles.
171,
172,

A
A

square

rhombus

Square.

173,

is

The

is

Rectangle.

side

its

Rhombus.

sides equal.
its

sides equal.

Rhomboid.

its lower and
upper bases.

57

174,

The

## parallel sides of a trapezoid are called its bases,

its legs, and the line joining the middle

## the other two sides

points of the legs
175,

is

is

trapezoid
legs are equal.

The

when

## altitude of a parallelogram or trapezoid

perpendicular distance between its bases.
176,

is

its

the

## 177, The diagonal of a quadrilateral is a

straight line joining two opposite vertices.

PROPOSITION
178,

XXXVII.

THEOREM.

## figure into two equal triangles.

A.

Let ABCE

&quot;be

a,

AC

its diagonal.

A ABC= A AEQ.

To prove
In the

parallelogram and

AC=AC,

Iden.

Z.ACB = CAE,
Z.CAB = Z.ACE,

and

(being alt.-int.

of

II

104

lines).

.-.AAC=AAEG,
(having a side

and two

147

of the other).

and

Q.E.D.

58

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

XXXVIII.

PROPOSITION

I.

THEOREM.

## In a parallelogram the opposite sides are equal,

the opposite angles are equal.

179,

and

## BC= AE, and AB = EC,

Z B = /. E, and Z BAE^Z. BCE.

To prove
also,

Draw AC.

Proof.

AABC^AAEC,
(the

diagonal of a
.-.

178

BC= AE,

and

AB= CE,

## (being homologous sides of equal A).

/.B = Z.E,mdL/.BAE=BCE,

Also,

II

and

112

their vertices).

180,

181.

## Parallel lines comprehended between parallel

COR.

2.

everywhere

-L.

Two parallel

lines

distant.

equally

C
D
DC are parallel,
distances
the
measure
in AB to DC,
dropped from any points

For
J

1.

are equal.

lines

are

Con.

Q. E. D.

if

AB

and

DO.

AB

equal,

by

180;

59

XXXIX.

PROPOSITION

THEOREM.

## If two sides of a quadrilateral are equal and

parallel, then the other two sides are equal and par
allel, and the figure is a parallelogram.
182,

## Let the figure ABCE be a quadrilateral, having the

AE equal and parallel to BO.

side

AB equal and

To prove

EC.

Draw AC.

Proof.

In the

to

II

## A ABC and AEC

BC= AE,

Hyp.

AC=AC,
BCA = Z.CAE,
(being alt.-int.

of

II

Iden.

104

lines).

150
(having two sides

and

## the included Z. of the one equal respectively to two

sides and the included
\
of the other).

AB = EC,

## (being homologous sides of equal A).

Z.BAC=/-ACE,

Also,

(being homologous

.-.AJBis
(when two straight

## lines are cut

II

of equal &).

105

to J^C;

by a third straight

.

the figure

ABCE

is

O,

168
Q. E.

60

183,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XL.

THEOREM.

I.

a parallelogram.

AE and AB =

BG =

EC.

To prove figure

ABCE a O.
Draw AC.

Proof.

In the

A AB

AEQ
0= AE,
AB=CE,
AC= AC.
.:AABC=AAEC,

and

Hyp.
Hyp.

Hen.
160

## to three sides of the other).

(having three sides of the one equal respectively

and
(being homologous

.-.BO is

AB

and
(when two straight

lines lying

.-.

is

of equal &).

II

ioAJE,

II

to

105

EC,

## in the same plane are cut by a third straight

are equal, the lines are parallel).

the figure

(having

its

ABCE

is

O,

168

Q.E. D.

61

PROPOSITION XLI.

THEOREM.

184,

bisect

each

other.

## Let the figure ABCE be a parallelogram, and let

the diagonals AC and BE cut each other at 0.

## A0= 00, and BO = OK

In the A AOE and BOO
To prove

AE=BC,

179

## (being opposite sides of a CJ).

ZOAE=ZOC,
OEA=QBC,

and

(being alt.-int.

of

II

104

lines).

.-.AAOE = AOC,
(having a

side

and two

of the one equal respectively to
of the other).

side

147
and

Q.E.

Ex.
is

25.

D.

a parallelogram.

Ex.

26.

Ex.

27.

is

equal.

a rectangle.

## Ex. 28. The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular

and bisect the angles of the rhombus.
Ex.

and

29.

The diagonals

to

each other,

62

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

XLIL

PROPOSITION

I.

THEOREM.

## 185. Two parallelograms, having two sides and the

included angle of the one equal respectively to two
sides and the included angle of the other, are equal.

CD

In the parallelograms

A B AD = A D and
,

Z.A

ADCD and A B C D

let

AB =

Z.A&amp;gt;.

## To prove that the UJ are equal.

ABCD to A C D so that
Apply
and coincide with A D
Then AB will fall on A B\
f

BO

Now,

and

through point
.

and

C falls

D
.-.

the point
/.

(7

must
.

fall
.

on

Z&amp;gt;(7and

by

hyp.).

to

II

## and are drawn

BO and B C* coincide,

the lines

In like manner,

.-.

B will fall on B\

=A B
(for AB
are
C
both

DC

or

101

produced.

coincide.

101

are

II

to

f
.

Z)(7and

DC

on

DC

falls

C falls

on both

D C produced.
and D C

or

BC

the two

UJ

coincide,

Q. E. O.

186,

COR.

Two

## rectangles having equal bases

and equal

63

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XLIII.

## 187. If three or more parallels intercept equal parts

on any transversal, they intercept equal parts on

every transversal.

## Let the parallels AH, BK, CM, DP intercept equal

parts HK, KM, MP on the transversal HP.

AB, EG, CD

transversal

From A, B, and

Proof,
II

to

on the

tf

suppose

HP.
Then

## AE = HK, BF= KM,

CO = MP,

are
(parallels comprehended between parallels
.

180

equal).

.AE=BF=CO.

Ax.

Z.A = AB = Z.C,

Also

(being ext.-int.

of

II

106

lines)

E=Z.F=/.O,

and
(having their sides
/.

II

and

directed the

A ABE= A BCF= A

## (each having a side

and two

/.

112
the vertices).

CDG,

respectively equal to
of the others).

a,

side

147
and two

AB mm BC= CD,

Q. E. o.

64

PLANE GEOMETRY.
COR.

188,

The

1.

BOOK

I.

of

triangle

and

DE be

For, let

BC and

to

II

Draw through

this line is

DE, by

to

II

a line

to

II

111.

bisect

AB.

BC. Then
The three

## by hypothesis intercept equal

parts on the transversal AB, and there
parallels

by

fore,

AC-, that

bisects AC.
is, the line

DE

COR.

189,

sides of

side.

AB,

## BC, passes through E, the middle point of

and j7 coincides
Therefore, the line joining

to

AB bisects AC,

it

is

190,

COR.

and

3.

to

II

bisects

DE=BF=\BG.
ezoid

which joins

## the middle points of two

parallel to the third side, and is equal to
For, a line drawn through D, the middle
line

to

II

188.

AC, by

is

triangle

point of

The

2.

is

BC.

BC, by

O by

188

## line which is parallel

one leg of the trap

any

## transversal, they intercept equal

187.
parts on every transversal by

COR.

trapezoid

is

For,

189,

and therefore

the bases of

rx;

a trap

?
x

JP\ \

j
/

the bases,

to

and

is

In the

EF

is

II

of
to

to F, the

sum

Then, by

EF drawn
BF= FG

is,

The median of a

parallel

of the bases.
join

4.

to

For

191,

that

construction,

The

bisects

if

Also, since

AB sui& = %AB.

In the

## Fto G, the middle point of BC. Then FG is to DC

and = \DG. AB and FG, being to DC, are to each other.
But only one line can be drawn through F to AB.
There

join

II

II

II

II

fore

FG

is

the prolongation of

## and DC, and

= * (AB + DC).

EF.

Hence

EFG

is

II

to

AB

65

EXERCISES.

EXERCISES.
30. The bisectors of the angles of a triangle meet in a point which
equidistant from the sides of the triangle.
and
HINT. Let the bisectors
intersect at 0.

BE

Then

being in

is

is
and AB. Hence
and therefore

is

AC and

equidistant from

BE

in

is

is

AB.

equidistant from

AC

equidistant from

(Why

BC

and BC,

?)

## The perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle meet

point which is equidistant from the vertices of the
31.

in a

triangle.

## HINT. Let the

Then

at 0.

and C. (Why ?)
from A and B.
is

_L bisectors

being in

And

FF

EEf and
is

being in

Hence

in the JL bisector
32.

EE/
is

DD /

intersect

is

equidistant

equidistant from

(Why?)
The perpendiculars from the

meet in a point.
HINT. Let the JL

DD

equidistant from

and

C,

and therefore

vertices of

a*

eides

be

## AH, BP, and CK.

Through A, B, C suppose B C A C
to BC, AC, AB, respectively.
drawn
f

II

AH

is

JL to

B C

f
,

AB
Then

## Now ABCB and

and AB = BC, and ACT

(Why ?)

^
ACBff are Hf (why?),
= BC. (Why ?) That is, A is the middle point of B &. In the same way,
B and C are the middle points of A C and A B respectively. There
fore, AH, BP, and C!2Tare the _L bisectors of the sides of the A A B C
,

## Hence they meet in a point. (Why ?)

33. The medians of a triangle meet

## in a point which is two-thirds of

the distance from each vertex to the middle of the opposite side.

## HINT. Let the two medians AD and CE meet in 0.

Take ,Fthe middle point of OA, and G of OC. Join
to AC
OF, FE, ED, and DO. In A AOC, OF i*
and equal to AC. (Why ?) DE is \\ioAC and equal
to %AC.
(Why ?) Hence DOPE is a O. (Why ?)
Hence AF= FO = OD, and
OE. (Why ?)
Hence, any median cuts off on any other median two-thirds of the
II

,}

CG=GO=

dis

## tance from the vertex to the middle of the opposite side.

Therefore the
median from B will cut off AO, two-thirds of AD; that is, will pass

through 0.

66

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

I.

POLYGONS IN GENERAL.

A polygon

192,

is

straight lines.

The bounding

## lines are the sides of the

polygon,
is the
perimeter of the

sum

and

their

polygon.

The angles which the adjacent sides make with each other
are the angles of the polygon, and their vertices are the ver
tices of the polygon.

## The number of sides

number of its angles.
193,

of

of a polygon

diagonal of a polygon

as

is

## a line joining the vertices

is

AC,

Fig. 1.

B
JO

D
E
Fio.

194,

FIG.

1.

An

FIG.

2.

3.

equilateral polygon

is

## a polygon which has

all its

equiangular polygon

is

## a polygon wh^ch has

all its

sides equal.
195,

An

angles equal.

196.
convex polygon is a polygon of which no side, when
produced, will enter the surface bounded by the perimeter.
197.

and

Each angle

is less

198.
sides,

concave polygon

when produced,

perimeter.
199,

of such a polygon
than a straight angle.
is

is

bounded by the

Fig. 3.

The angle

FDE

is

## greater than a straight angle.

If the term polygon is used, a convex
polygon

is

and

meant.

is

POLYGONS.
200.

Two

67

## polygons are equal when they can be divided by

number of triangles, equal each to

## for the polygons can be applied

each, and similarly placed
to each other, and the corresponding triangles will evidently
;

coincide.
201.

Two

## polygons are mutually equiangular,

if

the angles

of the one are equal to the angles of the other, each to each,
when taken in the same order. Figs. 1 and 2.
202, The equal angles in mutually equiangular polygons
are called homologous angles
and the sides which lie between
equal angles are called homologous sides.
;

203,

Two

## polygons are mutually equilateral,

if

the sides of

the one are equal to the sides of the other, each to each,
taken in the same order. Figs. 1 and 2.

FIG.

FIG.

4.

5.

FIG.

6.

FIG.

when

7.

## Two polygons may be mutually equiangular without being

mutually equilateral as, Figs. 4 and 5.
And, except in the case of triangles, two polygons may be
;

## mutually equilateral without being mutually equiangular

as,

Figs. 6 and 7.
If two polygons are mutually equilateral

## they are equal, for they

ao as to coincide.

may

and equiangular,
be applied the one to the other

204,
polygon of three sides is called a trigon or triangle;
one of four sides, a tetragon or quadrilateral ; one of five sides,

## a pentagon; one of six sides, a hexagon; one of seven sides, a

heptagon; one of eight sides, an octagon; one of ten sides, a

## decagon ; one of twelve

sides,

a dodecagon.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

68

BOOK

PROPOSITION XLIV.
205,

The

sum

I.

THEOREM.

many times less

## two right angles, taken as

equal
two as the figure has sides.
to

## Z.A+AB + AC, etc. = (w-2) 2 rt.A.

From the vertex A draw the diagonals

sides.

To prove
Proof,

and AE.

The sum

of the

polygon.

Now
and the sum

.-.

the

of the

sum

the polygon

of the

= (n

A = the

there are (n
of the

2) 2

of the
rt.

A.

2)

of each

A,

sum

that

of the

of the

A,

A = 2 rt. A.
is,

the

sum

of the

138

A of
a E. D.

## 206. COR. The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral equals

two right angles taken (4
2) times, i.e., equals 4 right angles;
and if the angles are all equal, each angle is a right angle. In
n sides is
general, each angle of an equiangular polygon of
o /~
2^

equal

to

right angles.

69

POLYGONS.

XLV.

PROPOSITION

THEOREM.

## 207, The exterior angles of a polygon, made by pro

ducing each of its sides in succession, are together
equal to four right angles.

\
Let the figure ABODE be a polygon, having its sides
produced in succession,
To prove the sum of the ext. A = 4 rt. A.
Proof,

and the

Denote the
ext.

A by

int.

a, b,

c,

A
d,

of the

polygon by A, B,

AA + Za = 2rt.A,
Z B -f Z b = 2

and

C,

D,

JS,

e.

rt.

90

A,

.

as

the

many

sum

of the interior

A=2

rt.

and exterior

A.

A=2

rt.

A taken

2 n

or,

But the

interior

A = 2 rt. A

## figure has sides less two,

2 n

or,
.*.

rt.

the

=
rt.

A.
taken as

(n

2)

rt.

rt.

many

times as the

A,

A.

exterior A = 4

rt.

A.
Q.E.D.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

70

PROPOSITION

XL VI.

I.

THEOREM.

the other two sides equal, is symmetrical
equal,
with respect to the diagonal joining the vertices of
the angles formed by the equal sides, and the diago
nals intersect at right angles.
208,

and

CB = CD, and having the diagonals AC and BD.
To prove that the diagonal
is

J_

to

the diagonal

In the

Proof,

AC is

AC=AO.

Z BAQ= Z DAO,
(homologous

upon

if

Hence

and

Hyp.

ABC is

of symmetry,

Hen.

## (having three sides of the one equal

Hence,

aoris

AB = AD, and B0= DC,

and

.-.

an

BD.

and

turned on

on CD, and

OB

160

to three sides

of the other).

Z EGA = /. DCA,

of equal A).

AC
on

as an axis,

AB will

fall

OD.

## Ada an axis of symmetry,

65,

and

is

J_ to

BD^

POLYGONS.

71

PROPOSITION XLVII.

THEOREM.

## // a figure is symmetrical with respect to two

axes perpendicular to each other, it is symmetrical
with respect to their intersection as a centre.
209,

r
D

## Let the figure ABCDEFGH be symmetrical with

respect to the two axes XX YY , which intersect at
right angles at 0.
,

To prove
the centre of symmetry of the figure.
Proof. Let
be any point in the perimeter of the

Draw

NMIL
Join

to

YY

and

IKL

to

61

## symmetrical with respect

to

XX

).

KI= OM,

But

comprehended between

(Us

KL = OM,

.-.

and

LO

In like manner

is

180
Us

are equal).

KLOMia a O,

182

and parallel).

we may prove

KM.

KI= KL,

Now

figure.

XX

KM.

179

## Hence the points L, 0, and JVare in the same straight line

drawn through the point
to KM; and LO=ON, since
II

each
.

is

equal to

any straight
.

is

KM.
line

0,

is

bisected at 0.

64
Q. E. D.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

72

BOOK

I.

EXERCISES.
34.

to the

is

35.

## State and prove the converse.

The bisector
by producing one of
36.

37.

State

## of an exterior angle of an isosceles triangle, formed

the legs through the vertex, is parallel to the base.

38.

The

39.

State

40.

41.

State

42.

The

43.

altitudes

upon the

legs of

an

to the legs of

an

(See Ex.

an

33.)

## and the opposite theorems.

44? The perpendiculars dropped from the middle point of the base of

an

isosceles triangle

45.

State

upon the

## /- 46. If one of the legs of an isosceles triangle is produced through the

vertex by its own length, the line joining the end of the leg produced to
the nearer end of the base is perpendicular to the base.

47.

Show

that the

sum

hexagon

is

equal to

48.

Show

is

f of a right

angle.
49.

## are together equal to seven right angles

How

is

50.
many sides has a polygon, the
sum of its exterior angles ?
to
the
equal

51.

How many

is

double that of

is

double that of

52.

exterior angles

its

How many

sum

sum

interior angles?

its

sum

73

EXERCISES.
53.

BAG is

54.

If from

AQ in

and meet

BD is equal to

D, show that

If

BD

## any point in the base of an isosceles triangle parallels to

show that a parallelogram is formed whose perimeter

is

constant,

and equal

to the

sum

## of the legs of the triangle.

55. The lines joining the middle points of the sides of a triangle divide
the triangle into four equal triangles.
56.

The

## in order, enclose a square.

57. The lines joining the middle points of the sides of a rectangle,
taken in order, enclose a rhombus.
58. The lines joining the middle points of the sides of a rhombus,
taken in order, enclose a rectangle.
59.

The

60.
lateral,

61.

The

rhombus

or a square.

of

## the two diagonals.

is

62. The line joining the middle points of the diagonals of a trapezoid
equal to half the difference of the bases.

HINT.
64.

Draw CE

\\

DB.

## 63. In an isosceles trapezoid each base makes

equal angles with the legs.

\
\

## In an isosceles trapezoid the opposite angles

are supplementary.
If the angles at the base of a trapezoid
angles are equal, and the trapezoid is isosceles.
65.

66.

The diagonals

67.

trapezoid

is

of

an

isosceles.

DF

## HINT. Draw CE and

_L to CD.
Show that &
and BCE are equal, that & COD and AOB are
isosceles, and that A AOC and BOD are equal.

other

PLANE GEOMETRY.

74

BOOK

I.

## 68. ABOD is a parallelogram, E and F the middle

BC respectively: show that BE sand DJ^will trisect the diagonal AC.
69. If from the diagonal BD of a square ABCD, BE
cut off equal
to BO, and EF is drawn perpendicular to BD to meet DC at F, show
is

that

DE

is

## of a triangle ABC, and the

70. The bisector of the vertical angle
bisectors of the exterior angles at the base formed by producing the sides
and AC, meet in a point which is equidistant from the base and the

AB

sides produced.
71. If the two angles at the base of a triangle are bisected, and
through the point of meeting of the bisectors a line is drawn parallel to
the base, the length of this parallel between the sides is equal to the sum

of the segments of the sides between the parallel and the base.
72.

## If one of the acute angles of a right triangle

is double the shortest side.

is

## double the other,

the hypotenuse

73. The sum of the perpendiculars dropped from any point in the
base of an isosceles triangle to the legs is constant,
and equal to the altitude upon one of the legs.

HINT. Let

PD

and

PE

the

## upon AC. Draw PG

PBQ and PBD equal.

altitude

to

BF

the

..

## The sum of the perpendiculars dropped from any point within an

equilateral triangle to the three sides is constant, and equal to the
74.

altitude.

75.

What

secting lines

is

II

to the base,

73.

## the locus of all points equidistant from a pair of inter

In the triangle CAB the bisector of the angle C makes with the
an angle equal to half the difference of the
perpendicular from C to
angles A and E.
76.

AB

77.
is

If one angle of

equilateral.

an

isosceles triangle

is

## equal to 60, the triangle

BOOK

II.

THE CIRCLE.
DEFINITIONS.
circle is a portion of a plane bounded by a curved
210,
dis
line called a circumference, all points of which are equally
within called the centre.
tant from a

point

211,

circumference

line

centre to the

## a straight line drawn through

extremities in the circumference.

and a diameter

## the centre, having its

By the definition of a

is

are equal.

212,

secant

is

two

All

its

as,

Fig.

1.

## line which touches the circum

tangent is a straight
it
intersect
as,
ference but does not
the
in
which
The
1.
0,
point

213,

Fig.

is
tangent touches the circumference
called the point of contact, or point of

tangency.

## Two circumferences are tangent

Fia l
other when they are both taneach
to
same point; and are tangent
gent to a straight line at the
one circumference lies
or
externally, according as
internally
other.
the
without
or
within
wholly
214,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

76

BOOK

II.

## An arc of a circle is any portion of the circumference.

arc equal to one-half the circumference is called a semi-

215,

An

circumference.
216,

chord

is

## a straight line having

its

extremities in the

circumference.

Every

cliord subtends

AB

spoken

of,

is

## two arcs whose sum

AB (Fig. 3)
BCDEA.

If a chord

meant unless

A segment of a circle
an
arc
and its chord.
by
217,

is

is

the circum

## subtends the smaller arc

it is

and

its

arc are

otherwise stated.

## A segment equal to one-half the circle is called a semicircle.

A sector of a circle is a portion of the circle bounded

218,

by two

intercept.

## A sector equal to one-fourth of the circle is called a quadrant.

219, A straight line is inscribed in a circle if it is a chord.
220, An angle is inscribed in a circle
circumference and its sides are chords.

if its

vertex

is

in the

## 221, An angle is inscribed in a segment if its vertex is on

the arc of the segment and its sides pass through the extrem
ities of the arc.
222, A polygon
chords of the circle.
223,

is

inscribed in

circle is inscribed in

circle

a polygon

if

if

its

sides

are

the circumference

touches the sides of the polygon but does not intersect them.

224,

is

polygon

77

## sides of the polygon are tangents to the circle.

225,
circle is circumscribed about a polygon

if

if all

the

the circum

## ference passes through all the vertices of the polygon.

for
226, Two circles are equal if they have equal radii
if
to
the
will
coincide
one
is
other; conversely,
they
applied
;

two equal

Two

are concentric if they have the same centre.

circles

circles

PROPOSITION
227,

The diameter of a

other chord;

and

THEOREM.

I.

than any
and the circum

circle is greater

## bisects the circle

ference.

p
Let AB be the diameter of the circle AMBP, and
AE any other chord.
To prove

AB

&amp;gt;

AE, and

AB

bisects

the circle

and

the

circumference.
Proof,

From

I.

C,

## the centre of the O,

draw

OR

CE^CB,
same

But
(the

falls

sum

of two sides of a
&amp;gt;

AE,

upon

APB,

## therefore the arc

because

all

A is

&amp;gt;

137
he third side).

Ax. 9
AB AE.
on AB as an axis until
59. The points A and B will remain fixed;
AMB will coincide with the arc APB

AC+ CB

Then
II.

circle).

AC+CE&amp;gt;AE,

points

or

&amp;gt;

A MB

in

each

are

equally distant

centre C.

it

from the
210

59

Q.E.O.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

78

PROPOSITION
228,

II.

BOOK

II.

THEOREM.

ference of

circle in

LetHKbe any
To prove that

points*

HK can

AMP.

points.
Proof,

If possible, let

From

HK intersect

## 0, the centre of the

Then

the circumference in

K,
O, draw OH, OP, and OK.

OJiTare equal,

circle).

is

OK

But

this

120

impossible,

Therefore,
points.

to

a straight

in only

line).

two

a E. a

PROPOSITION

79

THEOREM.

III.

v^

229,

In the same

circle, or

equal

circles,

equal an

## gles at the centre intercept equal arcs; CONVERSELY,

equal arcs subtend equal angles at the centre.

ABP and A B P

Proof,

Apply

so that Z.

B will fall
(for

OE = O R

Then

the arc

Z O -= Z V.

BS = arc IPS
O ABP to O A &P,

arc

To prove

let

upon

BS

and

08= O S

and

0*.

8 upon 8

226

).

## will coincide with the arc JR /S

since all points in the arcs are equidistant from the centre.

210
.

CONVERSELY

.arc

BS=&rc

Let arc RS

arc

B &.
RS

To prove
ZO = ZO
Proof, Apply O ABP to O A E F, so that arc BS shall fall
upon arc -R S B falling upon B S upon S and
upon
Then BO will coincide with B 0\ and SO with S O
.

,&amp;lt;0

and

coincide

and are

equal.

Q. e.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

80

II.

## PROPOSITION IV. THEOREM.

230. In the same circle, or equal circles, if two
chords are equal, the arcs which they subtend are
equal; CONVERSELY, if two arcs are equal, the chords
which subtend them are equal.

ABP and A B P

## the equal circles

chord R S
In.

let chord

RS =

To prove

Draw

Proof.

In the

arc

A OBS and

B8

arc

OB, OS,

O JZ

0&amp;gt;B

08= the

and

Hyp.

.AB08=AB

and

/S&quot;

B8=B 8
OR

O B and

O&amp;gt;8

226

160

(three sides of the one being equal to three sides of the other).

229
(in equal

CONVEESELY

equal

## at the centre intercept equal arcs).

RS= arc R S
chord S = chord B 8
Z =Z

Let arc

To prove
Proof.

1
.

229

subtend equal

and

OB

and
.

OS= O B

.AOBS=AO B 8

.

and

chord

to

each

and

at the centre),

226

respectively.

150

the included

B8 = chord B 8

equal).

aE

D.

PROPOSITION V.

81

THEOREM.

## 231, In the same circle, or equal circles, if two arcs

are unequal, and each is less than a sewii-circumfer
ence, the greater arc is subtended by the greater
chord; CONVERSELY, the greater chord subtends the

greater are.
JC.

## In the circle whose centime is

greater than the arc AMF.

0,

To prove

chord

Proof.

Draw

but

&

having two

CONVERSELY

OA

and

## OA and OB = the radii OA and

Z AOB is greater than Z AOF.

AB

/.

(the

be

## Since Fis between A and B, OF will fall between

OB, and Z AOB be greater than Z A OF.

Hence, in the

AMB

equal each

sides

&amp;gt;

OF,
152

AF,

to each,

unequal).

## Let AB be greater than AF.

arc AB greater than arc AF.

To prove
In the

## A AOB and AOF,

OA and OB= OA and OF respectively.

But

AB

is

greater than

Z AOB

/.

(the

is

AF.
greater than

.

arc

OB

AB

falls

is

to each,

Z AOF, ^-

Hyp153

without OF.

AF.

Q.E.D.

82

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION VI.

THEOREM.

232,

the chord

and

a chord

to

II.

bisects

it.

^_

pendicular to

AB

at M.

To prove
Proof,

Draw

In the

rt.

OA

and

OB

## from 0, the centre of the

circle.

A OA M and OB M

OA = the

OB,

and OM = OM.
.\AOAM=AOBM,
(having the hypotenuse

and a

## side of one equal to the hypotenuse

side of the other).

/.

(equal

233,

COR.

Hen.
161
and a

AM= BM,

229

.*,TGAS=&Tc8,

## at the centre intercept equal arcs on the circumference).

Q.E.D.
1.

The perpendicular

middle of a
For the centre is

erected at the

## chord passes through the centre of the circle.

from the extremities of a chord,

and is therefore in
equidistant
122
the perpendicular erected at the middle of the chord.
234,

chord
235,

COR.

2.

at the

middle of

COR.

The

3.

parallel chords

is

a system of

PROPOSITION VII.

83

THEOREM.

## 236, In the same circle, or equal circles, equal

chords are equally dislant from the centre ; AND

CONVERSELY.

## Let AB and OF be equal chords of the circle ABFC.

To prove A 13 and CF equidistant from the centre 0.
Proof,

Draw

## OP to AB, OH. to OF, and join OA and OC.

OP and OH bisect AB and CF,
232

Hence,

in the

rt.

_l_

to

a chord

bisects

AP=CH,
A OPA - A OHC,

.-.

(having a side

and hypotenuse
.

COJTVEBSELY

Proof,

In the

Let OP =

To prove
rt.

00.
161
and hypotenuse

OP = OH.
equidistant from 0.

OH.

AB = CF.
A OPA and OHO

OA = the
/.

Ax. 7

of the other).

AB and OF are

.*.

it).

OP= OH,

## A OPA and OJffC are equal.

AP= OH.

Hyp.
161

/.

CF.

Ax

C.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

84

BOOK

II.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION VIII.

## 237, In the same circle, or equal circles, if two

chords are unequal, they are unequally distant from
the. centre, and the greater is at the less distance.

## In the circle whose centre is 0, let the chords AB

and CD be unequal, and AB the greater; and let OE
and OF be perpendicular to AB and CD respectively.

OE

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

AO drawn

same

OF.

OR JL to

AG.

OH= OF,

Then
(in the

&amp;lt;

236

## two equal chords are equidistant from the

centre).

Join Elf.

OE and OH

AB and

bisect

a chord

AG,
bisects

232

respectively,
it).

AB

A G,

CD

or its equal
is
greater than
by hypothesis,
the half of AB, is greater than AH, the half of AG.

Since,

AE,

to

the

(the greater of

AHE

is

two sides of a

Z AEH,
Z

opposite to

158
it).

## Z ORE, the complement of the Z AHE,

Z OEH, the complement of the Z AEH.

Therefore, the
less

than the

.

of a

.OE&amp;lt;

OE
A

&amp;lt;

159

OH,

is

of

to it).

OH.
Q.E.Q

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION IX.
238,
cles,

CONVERSELY

In the same

85

circle, or

distance

is

equal cir

from the

less

the greater.

## In the circle whose centre is 0, let AB and CD be

unequally distant from 0; and let OE perpendicular
to AB be less than OF perpendicular to CD.

AB

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

AG drawn
Then

(in the

sameQ

OH= OF,
OE

Therefore, the

236

&amp;lt;

centre).

OH.

EH.

Join

A OEHfhe Z OHE

OH _L to AG.

Hence,

In the

CD.

&amp;gt;

is

less

than the

Z.

Z OEH,

opposite to

158

it).

## Z A HE, the complement of the Z OHE,

Z A EH, the complement of the Z OEH
.

of a

AE
A

&amp;gt;

AH,

is

159
to it).

## AE=\AB, and AH=%AQ.

CD, the equal of AG.
.\AB&amp;gt;AG; hence AB
But

&amp;gt;

Q. E. D.

86

BOOK

PROPOSITION X.

THEOREM.

II.

## straight line perpendicular to

is a tangent to the circle.

A.

239,

its

PLANE GEOMETRY.

extremity

M-

Let

MB

MB tangent

To prove
Proof,

From

to

A.

the circle.
line to

MB,

as

OCH.
114

OH&amp;gt;OA,
(a JL

is

a point

to

straight line).

MB

## Hence, every point, except A, of the line

is a
circle, and therefore
tangent to the

MB

is

without the

circle at

213

A.

Q. E. D.

COR.

240,

1.

drawn

tangent

to

circle is

## the point of contact.

to the circle at A, every point of

the circle.
is

to

Hence,

OA

is

perpendicular

For,

if

MB

is

to

the

tangent
without

MB, except A, is
to MB, and
the shortest line from

therefore perpendicular to

MB

114)

that

is,

MB

is

per

pendicular to OA.
241, COR. 2.

## perpendicular to a tangent at the point of

contact passes through the centre of the circle.
perpendicular to a tangent at the point of contact, and there
fore,

by

## 89, a perpendicular erected at the point of contact

and passes through the centre.

242,
circle

COR.

3.

perpendicular

upon a tangent

contact.

to

let

fall

from

the centre of

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XI.

Parallels

243,

87

a circum

ference.

F
FIG.

FIG.

1.

2.

## Let AB and CD be the two parallels.

CASE I. When AB is a tangent, and CD a
Suppose

arc

OF

FF

Suppose

AB at F

This J. to

.%
to

arc

a chord

DF.

arc

drawn

AB.

J_ to

CD.

CF= arc

bisects the

102

232

DF,

chord and

its

subtended arc).

## FCF = arc FDF

.a,Tc(FCF -FC) = a,rc(FDF
arc OF = arc DF
that
CASE II. When AB and CD are secants. Fig. 2.
Suppose JEF drawn to CD and tangent to the circle
Also, arc

241

is

It is also _L to

1.

Fig.

## AB touches the circle at F.

To prove
Proof.

secant.

227

82

-FI&amp;gt;),

is,

11

at

M.

arc AM = arc BM
Then
Case
arc CM = arc DMand
= arc BD.
/.by subtraction, arc AC
CASE III. When AB and CD are tangents. Fig. 3.
Suppose AB tangent at E, CD at F, and GH to AB.
Case
arc OE = arc EH
Then
arc OF = arc
and

I.

II

.-.

by

arc

EQF= arc

^.ZTF.

I.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

88

BOOK

II.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XII.

## Through three points not in a straight

and only one, can be drawn.

244,

line,

one circumference,

## Let A, B, C be three points not in a straight line.

To prove that a circumference can be drawn through A, B,
and

(7,

and only

one.

AB and BO.
At the middle points of AB and BC suppose
Join

Proof,

Since
sect in

BC

is

AB,

_I

erected.

## these J will inter

some point 0.

The point

0, being in the J_ to

AB

is

## equidistant from A and B\ and being in the J_ to J5(7at its

and C,
122
middle point, is equidistant from

## (every point in the perpendicular -bisector of a straight line is equidistant

from the extremities of the straight line).

Therefore

is

## equidistant from A, B, and C; and a cir

as a centre, with a radius OA,

## through the three given points.

circumference can be made to pass through
one
Only
For the centre of a circumference passing
these points.
through the three points must be in both perpendiculars, and
will pass

As two

## the centre of the only circumfer

the
three given points.
ence that can pass through
Q E D

is

245,
points.

COR.
For,

Two
if

## circumferences can intersect in only two

two circumferences have three points common,

## they coincide and form one circumference.

TANGENTS,

89

PROPOSITION XIII.
246,

The tangents

to

THEOREM.

circle

drawn from an

## rior point are equal, and make equal angles

the line joining the point to the centre.

exte

with

B.

c
Let AB and AC be tangents from A to the
whose centre is 0, and AO the line joining A to
To prove

AB = AC,
AB

(a tangent to

In the

rt.

is

Z BAO = Z
OB and 00.

and

Draw

Proof,

_L to

drawn

0.

CAO.

AC _L to

OB, and

circle is _L to the

circle

240

OC,

to the

point of contact).

OB=OC,

same

circle).

OA = OA.
.-.A OAB = A OAC

Iden.

(having a side

and hypotenuse

of thz other).

Z BAO = Z

and

CAO.

Q. E. D.

## 247, DEF. The line joining the centres of

called the line of centres.

248,

DEF.

common
tres,

common tangent

exterior tangent

and a common

centres.

when

it

161
and hypotenuse

to

two

two

-circles

circles is called

is

interior tangent

when

it

90

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIV.
249,

II.

THEOREM.

## If two circumferences intersect each other, the

perpendicular to their common

line of centres is

chord at

middle

its

point.

## Let C and C be the centres of two circumferences

which intersect at A and B. Let AB be their common
chord, and CC join their centres.

CO

To prove

_L to

AB at

its

middle point.

## drawn through the middle

passes through the centres C and (7
Proof.

_L

of the chord

AB
233

(a _L erected at the middle of a chord passes through the centre of the O).
/.

the line

(7(7

/.

Ex.
centres
(i.)

(ii.)

(iii.)

78.

CO

this _L,

it.

is

_L to

if

Q.E. D.

the line of

is

## greater than ^he

is

equal to the

is

(iv.) is

less

sum

sum

than the sum but greater than the difference of the radii

(v.) is less

by

a figure.

91

TANGENTS.

PROPOSITION XV.

THEOREM.

## 250, If two circumferences cure tangent to each other,

the line of centres passes through the point of contact.

## Let the two circumferences, whose centres are C

and C touch each other at 0, in the straight line AB,
and let CO be the straight line joining their centres.
,

To prove

is

CO

241
the
centres C and C
through
a
at
the
JL
to
contact
the
centre
(a
tangent
point of
passes through
Proof,

of the
.

the line

CO

Ex.

this _L

it.

is

.*.

chord

circle).

CO

1
.

Q. E. D.

## The line joining the centre of a circle to the middle of a

perpendicular to the chord.

79.
is

Ex.

80.

are parallel.

Ex.

81.

The perimeter

is

equal

Ex.
lateral

82.
is

The sum

of

equal to the

two opposite

sum

## sides of a circumscribed quadri

of the other

two

sides.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

92

BOOK

II.

MEASUREMENT.
To measure a quantity

251,

times

it

of

any kind

is

to find

how many

known

contains another

is

## quantity of the same kind.

to find how many times it con

## known line, called the linear unit.

The number which expresses how many times

tains another

a quantity
contains the unit-quantity, is called the numerical measure
of that quantity
as, 5 in 5 yards.
;

The magnitude

252,

of a quantity

magnitude

is

always

same

kind.

relative to the

No

quantity

## This relative magni

great or small except by comparison.
tude is called their ratio, and is expressed by the indicated
is

measure

The

when

applied to both.

is

ratio of

to b

written

is

-,

or

b.

Two

253,

common

## quantities that can be expressed in integers in

The
unit are said to be commensurable.

common

terms of a

unit

is

called a

common measure.

each quantity

## called a multiple of this

is

common measure

Thus, a
foot,

which

feet.

3|

foot,

3f

2J

feet

254,

is

Hence, 2^

and 3f feet is of a
and 22 times in
2-J- feet,

of 2J feet

contained 15 times in

-J-

## and 3f feet are multiples of of a

by taking % of a foot 15 times, and
a foot 22 times.

feet

-J-

by taking %

of

When two

have no common

## quantities are incommensurable, that is,

unit in terms of which both quantities can be

expressed in integers,

it

is

## impossible to find a fraction that

will indicate the exact value of the ratio of the given quanti
ties.

It is possible,

## however, by taking the unit sufficiently

from the true value

of the ratio

by

as little as

we

93

RATIO.

lines,

V5= 1.41421356

Now
but

such that

.....

.-

than 1.414214.

less

If,

of the ratio

lies

and there-

and

between

## from either of these fractions by less than

carrying the decimal farther, a fraction may be found

fore differs

By

that will differ from the true value of the ratio by less than a
billionth, a trillionth, or any other assigned value whatever.

and

is

(ri)

of equal parts,

## one of these parts is contained in a more than

less than
-f 1 times, then
if

m times,

but

n
that

is,

the value of %

lies

between

The
-

error, therefore, in

is less

than

-.

to

and

## taking either of these values for

But by increasing n

decrease indefinitely,

and

to

indefinitely.

become

absolutely equal

w+

it

- can be

than any
less

to zero.

## Hence, the ratio of two incommensurable quantities cannot

be expressed exactly by figures, but it may be expressed ap
proximately within any assigned measure of precision.
255,

The

ratio of

an incommensurable
its

## two incommensurable quantities is called

ratio ; and is a fixed value toward which

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

94

## THEOKEM. Two incommensurable

256.

when

measure

the unit of

is indefinitely

II.

ratios are

equal

if,

diminished, their ap

## proximate values constantly remain equal.

Let a b and a

values

when

b be

two incommensurable

lie

is

much

as

thev cannot

Now
and a

differ so

is

if

is

d has any

n

a b
:

=a

1
:

by hypoth-

less

## d cannot have any value;

is,
no difference between the ratios a b and a
that

Therefore

fore

n
Then

indefinitely diminished.

d&amp;lt;-.

can be indefinitely

there

and

a
(if any) between the fixed values
a fixed value. Let d denote this difference.

Then

esis

whose true

the difference
:

But

ratios

than

d
:

0,

d.

and

there

1
.

THE THEORY OF

LIMITS.

## 257, When a quantity is regarded as having a/zec? value

but
throughout the same discussion, it is called a constant;
conditions
under
the
when it is regarded,
imposed upon it, as

having

it is called a variable.
different successive values,
it can be shown that the value of a variable, measured

When

## by continuing the series

a given constant by less than any
however small, but cannot be made abso

## at a series of definite intervals, can

be

to differ from

assigned quantity,
is called the limit
lutely equal to the constant, that constant
of the variable, and the variable is said to approach indefi
nitely to its limit.

limit

if

THEORY OF

LIMITS.

## Suppose a point to move from

ditions that the first

second

it

shall

95

M?

tr

move

to

B, that

is,

to

M;

the next

## second, one-half the remaining distance, that is, to

next second, one-half the remaining distance, that is, to

the

M&quot;

and so on indefinitely.
Then it is evident that the moving point may approach as
near to
as we please, but will never arrive at B.
For, how
ever near

may

it

be to

at

any

## instant, the next second

it

it must,
will pass over one-half the interval still remaining
therefore, approach nearer to B, since half the interval still
;

remaining

is

B, since half

## remaining is not the whole distance.

Hence, the distance from A to the moving point

the interval

still

is

an in

## creasing variable, which indefinitely approaches the constant

as its limit ; and the distance from the moving point to
is a
decreasing variable, which indefinitely approaches the

AB
B

constant zero as

its limit.

If the length of

denoted by
limit,

by v

x,

AB

and the

is

and

after

two seconds,

= 1,
=1+
= 1 -f

x
a?

=1
v = ^\
^ = ^
v = %\
v

-J,

a?

## after four seconds,

#=l-}-^-f-^-|--J-,

and

is

its

-J-

-f

-J-,

so on indefinitely.

+ + +

Now

## the sum of the series 1

etc., is less than
J
but by taking a great number of terms, the sum can be
made to differ from 2 by as little as we please. Hence 2 is

-j-,

sum

of the series,

when

## increased indefinitely and

ference between this variable sum and

terms

is

is

2.

the

number

of the

96

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

TG + dhr

II.

## which may be written

+ nflnr + ydhnr +

## However great the number of terms of this series we take,

sum of these terms will be less than
but the more
terms we take the nearer does the sum
Hence
approach
the sum of the series, as the number of terms is increased,
the

as a limit.

## In the right triangle ACE, if the vertex

the base BO, the angle

258.

indefinitely

diminishes,
nitely

if

and

zero

approaches

the vertex

A approaches

indefi

increases

## and approaches a right angle indefinitely

but
cannot become zero or a right angle,
;

so long as

comes

A OB is

a triangle

for if

be

BC

## becomes the straight line

and if
becomes a right angle, the triangle becomes two parallel
zero, the triangle

## AC&ud AB perpendicular to BO.

B must lie between and 90 as limits.

lines

of

## BOD inscribed in a circle,

Again, suppose a square
the middle points of the arcs subtended by
the sides of the square.
If we draw
259.

and E, F, H,

## the straight lines AE, EB, BF, etc.,

we shall have an inscribed polygon of

K[

square.

The length
polygon,
lines,

is

represented

by the dotted

greater than

that

of

the

## square, since two sides replace each

side of the square and form with it a triangle, and two sides
of a triangle are together greater than the third side; but less

it

is

of

THEORY OF
which

## straight lines, each one of

circumference between

its

97

LIMITS.
is

less

extremities.

## By continually repeating the process of doubling the num

ber of sides of each resulting inscribed figure, the length of
the perimeter will increase with the increase of the number
but it cannot become equal to the length of the cir
cumference, for the perimeter will continue to be made up of
straight lines, each one of which is less than the part of the
of sides

circumference between

The length

its

extremities.

of the circumference

is

## length of the perimeter as the number of sides of the inscribed

figure is indefinitely increased.
260,

## THEOREM. If two variables are constantly equal

limit, their limits are equal.

A:

________^^

N ~~
~C

Let

AM

and

AN

## stantly equal and which approach indefinitely

and AC respectively as limits.

AB = AC.
If possible, suppose AB
AC,

AB

To prove

Then the variable AMm&y assume values between AD and

Proof,

AB,
But

while

&amp;gt;

t*he

variable

always be

less

than

continue equal.
.*.

.

AN must

and take

it

AB cannot be

&amp;gt;

AC.

## than the other.

Hence

AC cannot be

neither of which

AB = AC.

is

&amp;gt;AB.

greater

PLANE GEOMETRY.

98

BOOK

II.

MEASURE OF ANGLES.
PROPOSITION XVI.

THEOREM.

## 261. In the same circle, or equal circles, two angles

at the centre have the same ratio as their intercepted

arcs.

CASE

I.

When

## In the circles whose centres are G and D, let ACB and

EDF be the angles, AB and EF the intercepted arcs.

Z AOB =
~ arc AB
Z.EDF arc EF

To prove

## m be a common measure of AB and EF.

Suppose m to be contained in AB seven times,
and in EF four times.
arc AB __1
Then
(1)
4
arc EF
At the several points of division on AB and EF draw radii.

Proof.

Let

.

(in the

From

same O, or equal

(1)

and

&amp;lt;D,

/.

ACB

into

229

## equal each to each,

equal arcs subtend equal

EDF

EDF

arc

at the centre).

(2)

(2),

EF

MEASURE OF ANGLES.
CASE

II.

When

99

## In the equal circles ABP and A B P* let the angles

intercept the incommensurable arcs

ACB and A C S
AB and A B

Z ACB
AB
______

arc

To prove

AB

## into any number of equal parts, and

Divide
as many
these
one
of
parts as a unit of measure to A
apply
times as it will be contained in A
Proof,

Since

AB and AB

DB

## are incommensurable, a certain number

to some point, as D, leav

ing a remainder

less

Draw C D.
Since

Z ACB arc AB
A C D arc A D

Case

I.

## If the unit of measure is indefinitely diminished, these ratios

continue equal, and approach indefinitely the limiting ratios

Z AGE
ACB

Z.

and

arc

arc

AB
AB

^,-^fr

1260
.

(If two variables are constantly equal, and each approaches a limit, their
limits are equal.)
Q.I.Q.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

100

II.

## like the angular magnitude about

into
360
divided
a point,
equal parts, called degrees. The
is subdivided into 60 equal parts, called minutes ;
arc-degree
and the minute into 60 equal parts, called seconds.

262,

The circumference,
is

Since an angle at the centre has the same number of anglethe intercepted arc has of arcdegrees, minutes, and seconds as

## and seconds, we say

degrees, minutes,

An

## measured by its intercepted arc ; meaning, An angle at the

centre is such a part of the whole angular magnitude about

is

the centre as

its

intercepted arc

is

## of the whole circumference.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XVII.

## An inscribed angle is measured by one-half

arc
the
intercepted between its sides.
263,

## CASE I. When one side of the angle is a diameter.

In the circle PAB (Fig. 1), let the centre C be in
one of the sides of the inscribed angle B.
To prove

/.

Draw CA.

Proof.

.\Z.B =

CB.
154

A,

PCA = Z

But
(the exterior

Z of a A

Z PCA

But
(the

is

at the centre
.

./.

to the

equal

is

sum

CAB).

+ Z.A,

measured by PA,

is

.145

measured by

measured by

## the intercepted arc).

PA.

262

MEASURE OF
CASE

When

II.

To prove

&amp;gt;,

\i

J.Q1

\&amp;gt;&amp;gt;\

## In the circle BAE (Fig.

within the angle EBA.

Z EBA

Proof,

AJKiLIJSI

2),

fall

EA.

is

measured by

-J

Draw

the diameter

EGP.

arc

## Z PEA is measured by \ arc PA,

Z PBE is measured by arc PE,
/. Z PEA + Z PEE is measured by \ (arc PA + arc
or Z EBA is measured by
arc -ZL4.

Case

I.

Case

I.

PE),

-|

CASE

When

III.

## In the circle BFP (Fig. 3), let the centre C fall

without the angle ABF.
To prove Z
is measured by -J arc AF.

ABF

Draw

Proof,

the diameter

BOP.

## Z PEF is measured by \ arc PF,

Z PEA is measured by \ arc PA.
./. PEF-/. PEA is measured
by
(arc PF~ arc
or Z AEF is measured by
arc AF.
-J-

Case

I.

Case

I.

P^4),
Q.E.D.

FIG.

264,

1.

FIG.

2.

FIG.

3.

An

COR.

1.

For

it is

## angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right

measured by one-half a semi-circumference.
COR. 2. An angle inscribed in a
segment greater than a
semicircle is an acute angle. For it is measured
by an arc less
angle.
265,

266,

COR.

semicircle is

3.

an

An

as,

obtuse angle.

For

it

267,

equal.

Fig. 2.

## angle inscribed in a segment

is
;

less than a
measured by an arc

as,

Z GBD.

Fig. 2.

## All angles inscribed in the sam.e

segment are
For they are measured by half the same arc.
Fig. 3.

COR.

4.

*LANE GfEQMETRY.

102

PROPOSITION XVIII.

BOOK

II.

THEOREM.

## 268, An angle formed ~by two chords intersecting

within the circumference is measured by one-half
the sum of the intercepted arcs.

and CD.

To prove

Proof,

(the exterior

of a

## Z.COA = /.D + ^A,

A is equal to the sum of the two

145
opposite interior A}.

## Z D is measured by % arc AC,

Z A is measured by % arc BD,

But
and

(an inscribed

,-.Z

COA

Z. is

is

measured by %

measured by \

263

(AC+ BD).
Q.E.D.

Ex.

83.

of

## plements of each other.

Ex. 84. If through a point within a circle two perpendicular chords
are drawn, the sum of the opposite arcs which they intercept is equal to
a semi-circumference.

Ex.

85.

The

upon the

## of the rt. Z, bisects the right angle.

hypotenuse of a rt. A, to the vertex
HINT. Describe a circle upon the hypotenuse as diameter.

MEASURE OF ANGLES.

PROPOSITION XIX.

103

THEOREM.

## 269, An angle formed by a tangent and a chord

measured by one-half the intercepted arc.

is

ill-

MAH

fee

MO

To prove

Draw

Proof.

the diameter

ACF.

Z MAFiszrt.

MAF being

ference

240

Z,

## a tangent at the point of contact

Z,

rt.

is

measured by

is JL to it).

the semi-circum

AEF.

Z HAF is

But

(an inscribed
.%

to

-is

measured by J arc

or

MAH

is

by

measured by

263

HF,
arc).

(AEF- HF)

A EH.
Q. E. D.

Ex.

86.

If

two

circles

## touch each other and two secants are drawn

through the point of contact, the chords joining their extremities are
HINT. Draw the common tangent.
parallel.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

104

PROPOSITION

BOOK

XX.

II.

THEOREM.

## An angle formed by two secants, two tangents,

a tangent and a secant, intersecting without the
circumference, is measured by one-half the difference
270,

or

FIG.

CASE

I.

1.

cants OA and OB.

To prove

(Fig. 1)

secants.

measured by

is

AB

EC).

Draw CB.

Proof,

(the exterior

By

taking

of a

A is

away

equal

ZB

Z AGE

But

(an inscribed
.-.

Z. is

is

sum

from both

is

Z B is

and

to the

145

## of the two opposite interior A).

sides,

measured by \

AB,

measured by \ OE,

measured by \$

measured by

## the intercepted arc).

%(AB

CE\

263

MEASURE OF ANGLES.
CASE

II.

gents OA and OB.
To prove

tangents.

(Fig. 2) be

measured by

is

105

-|

(AMJ3

ASH).

Draw AB.

Proof.

OAB,
Z

(the exterior

By

of a

A is

sum

equal to the

of the

taking away

145

sides,

## Z ABO is measured by AMB,

Z OAB is measured by % ASB,

But

269

-J-

and

.

CASE

measured by 1 (A

is

ASB).

III.

OA.

measured by %

is

secant.

(Fig. 3) be

To prove

MB

Draw

Proof.

CES).

OS.

ZACS=ZO + ZCSO,
(the exterior

By

Z of a A is

taking

away

equal

to the

sum

## Z GSO from both

Z ACS is measured

But

(being

Z CSO is

and

(being
.

an

sides,

by |

263

inscribed Z),

measured by

\$CES,

is

145

## of the two opposite interior A}.

measured by

269

chord).

CES).
Q.E.D.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

106

BOOK

II.

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

XXL

PROPOSITION

At a given point in a

271.

perpendicular to that

PROBLEM.
straight line, to erect a

line.

HOB
FIG.
I.

Let

To

erect

FIG.

1.

## be the given point in AC. (Fig.

a A.

to the line

From

Construction,

AC at the point

2.

1).

0.

as a centre, with

AC

## describe an arc intersecting

in two points 77 and B.
From .ZTand
as centres, with equal radii greater than

OB,

describe

Then the

## two arcs intersecting

OR is the _L

line

R.

and
are two points
Since
and B, they determine the position

Proof.
7?&quot;

at

the line

HE at

its

## at equal distances from

of a perpendicular to

middle point 0.

123

II.
When the given point is at the end of the
Let B be the given point. (Fig. 2).

To

erect

a J_

Construction,

to

the line

without

AB

and from

AB at E.
it

to

## meet the arc again at D.

BD the J_ required.
The Z. B inscribed in a semicircle, and

BD, and

Proof.

O
CB

Join

line.

AB at B.

## as a centre, with the distance

intersecting

OR.

Join

required.

is

is

is

therefore

264

a right angle.

Hence

BD

is

_L to

AB.

o. E F
.

PROBLEMS.

107

PKOPOSITION XXII.

PROBLEM.

## From a point without a straight

a perpendicular upon that line.

272,

fail

line, to let

--.

,.,

## Let AB be the given straight line, and C the given

point without the line.
To

let fall

_L to the line

From C

Construction,

## great, describe an arc cutting

From .ZTand

Q.

AB in two points,

.5&quot;

and K.

\HK,

Draw CO,
and produce

CM
Proof, Since

C and

is

it

to

meet

AB

at

the _L required.

## are two points equidistant from

at its middle point.

K) they determine a _L to

HK

______
NOTE.

long-dotted,

and auxiliary

M.

full lines,

J?&quot;and

123
Q. E.

F.

## resulting lines are

108

273,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXIII.

PROBLEM.

To

Construction,

greater than

line.

line.

AB.

From

AB,

II.

and

## describe arcs intersecting at

C and

E.

Join GE.

Then the

line

GE bisects AB.

Proof, G and
are two points equidistant from A and B.
Hence they determine a J_ to the middle point of AB.
123
Q.E.

## Ex. 87. To find in a given line a point

tant from two given points.

F.

## which shall be equidistant from two

To find a point
from a third given point.
distance
and
at
a
given
given points
Ex.

88.

## Ex. 89. To find a point

two given points.
Ex.

90.

To

given points.

find a point

X which
X

PKOBLEMS.

PROPOSITION

XXIV. PROBLEM.

a given

arc.

arc.

274,

To

To

bisect

bisect the

arc

ACB.
Draw

Construction,

From

AB,

and

109

AB.

the chord

D and E,

Draw DE.

Proof,

Since

## DE bisects the arc ACB.

D and E are two points equidistant from A

AB.

123

## And a _L erected at the middle of a chord passes through

the centre of the O, and bisects the arc of the chord.
234
Q.E.F.

Ex.

91.

To construct a

circle

## To construct a circle having

passing through two given points.
Ex.

92.

its

PLANE GEOMETRY.

110

To

275,

PKOPOSITION

XXV.

a given

angle.

bisect

BOOK

II.

PROBLEM.

To Used Z AEB.

E as

From

Construction.

From

and

E at A and

EA,

B.

## as centres, with equal radii greater than

to B, describe two arcs inter

secting at C.

## Join EC, AC, and EG.

Proof,

and

In

EC bisects the Z E.
the A AEC an& BEG
AE = BE, and AG= BC,
EC = EC.
.-.A AEC^&BEC,
(having three sides equal each
.-.

Cons.

Men.
160

to each).

Q. E.

Ex.

93.

To divide a

Ex.

94.

To construct an

Ex.

95.

To

F.

find a point

PROBLEMS.

PROPOSITION

Ill

XXVI.

PROBLEM.

## At a given point in a given straight

an angle equal to a given angle.

276,

line, to

construct

## Let C be the given point in the given line CM, and

A the given angle.
To construct an
Construction,

/. at

From

equal

to the Z.

as a centre, with

From O as a

at
and F.

HCm

/.

(in equal

arc

(in equal

triangle.

Hm are equal.

Cons.

Hm,

230

.ZC=ZA,

229

## equal arcs subtend equal

draw
in

DB + EC.
If an interior point
C, the angle

and

EF= arc

## Ex. 96. In a triangle ABC,

ting the sides of the triangle
97.

EF,

HG at m.

.

is

Proof,

Ex.

AE,

AE,

CM at H.

tices

ZA

From

A.

BOG

Q. E.

F.

## DE parallel to the base BC, cut

and E so that DE shall equal
t

of a triangle
is

at the centre}.

ABC

is
joined to the ver
of the
greater than the angle

BAG

PLANE GEOMETRY.

112

XXVII.

PROPOSITION

Two angles of a

277,

BOOK

II.

PROBLEM.

## Let A and B be the two given angles of a

To find the third
Construction,

triangle.

of the A.

line,

as JEF,

and at any

point, as If,

construct

and

Then
Proof.

Z a equal

Zb

sum

since

the third

two

A of

of the

the

Z A,

276

Z B.

Z required.

of the three

and

equal to

Z. c is the

Since the

to

A a,

b,

of a

and

A = 2 rt. A,
2

c,

rt.

138
92

A\

A a and b,

c.

Ax.

3.

Q. E.

Ex.
to 37

F.

## In a triangle ABC, given angles A and B, equal respectively

13 32&quot; and 41 17 56&quot;. Find the value of angle C.
98.

H3

PROBLEMS.

## Through a given point, to draw a straight

a given straight line.

278,

line

parallel to

D
Let AB be the given

line,

## To draw through the point

the point

Then

C construct

Z.

FCHis

the line

\\

the

to

.\HFia
(when two straight

lines,

II

to

AB.

Z EDB.

ECF= Z EDB.

276

AB.

Z ECF= Z EDB.

Proof.

point.

Construction,

At

A3,

Cons.

108

## lying in the same plane, are cut by a third straight

are equal, the lines are parallel).

Q.E.F.

Ex.

99.

To

also equidistant

find a point

X equidistant

lines.

## Ex. 100. To find a point

equidistant from two given intersecting
and also equidistant from two given parallels.

lines

PLANE GEOMETRY.

114

BOOK

II.

XXIX. PROBLEM.

PROPOSITION

279,

parts.

-0

To divide

A

From

Construction,

## Take any convenient

times as the line

From

II

line.

AB

is

draw the

length,

and apply

or
(if three

more

A C is
\\s

to

it

AO

as

many

AO,

as

(7,

draw CB.

AO

draw

lines

## AB into equal parts.

divided into equal parts, AB
also,

187

## Through the several points

CB, and these lines divide

Proof. Since

AO.

to

line

of division on

is

## intercept equal parts on any transversal, they intercept

equal parts on every transversal).
Q. E.

Ex.

101.

To divide a

line

by two

F.

different

methods.

Ex. 102. To

find a point

two

sides.

## Ex. 103. Through a given point to draw a line which shall

equal angles with the two aides of a given angle.

make

115

PROBLEMS.

XXX.

PROPOSITION
280,

Two

and

sides

PROBLEM.

D
7)

## Let the two sides of the triangle be

included angle A.
To construct a
tively,

and

Construction,

At A,
given

the included Z.

Take

to

and

= /. A.

the extremity of

AB,

c,

and

and the

c respec

c.

## construct an angle equal to the

276

A.

On^Dtake A C equal

to b.

Draw CB.
Then

A AGE is the A

required.
Q. E.

F.

## Ex. 104. To construct an angle of 45.

Ex. 105. To

find a point
which shall be equidistant from two
given intersecting lines and at a given distance from a given point.

## Ex. 106. To draw through two

given length.

a triangle a line
to the
between the sides shall have a

sides of

## third side so that the part intercepted

||

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

XXXI.

PROPOSITION

PROBLEM.

281,
side and two angles of
given, to construct the triangle.

Let

To construct the
Construction,

[I.

A and B

a triangle being

triangle.

Take

EC equal

to

c.

At

the point

At

the point

C construct

## Let the sides

EH and

A COE

Then

the /.

is

the

276

EQK equal to Z B.
GK intersect at 0.

required.
Q. E. F.

REMARK.

## one of the given angles is opposite to the

given
find the third angle by g 277, and proceed as above.
If

side,

## Discussion, The problem is impossible when the two

given
angles are together equal to or greater than two right angles.

## Ex. 107. To construct an angle of 150.

Ex.

108.
straight railway passes two miles from a town.
place
four miles from the town and one mile from the
railway. To find by
construction how many places answer this description.
is

Ex. 109. If in a circle two equal chords intersect, the segments of one
chord are equal to the segments of the other, each to each.

Ex. 110.

AB is any chord

and

## AC tangent to a circle at A, CDE a

D and E and parallel to AB; show
is

## are mutually equiangular.

PROBLEMS.

117

PROPOSITION XXXII.

The three

282,

sides of

PROBLEM.

a triangle being

given&amp;gt;

to

7
A*-A

^BB
and

o.

AB equal to

o.

To construct the
Construction.

From
arc

?i,

triangle.

Draw

and from

B as a centre,

C.

A GAB is the A

Then

required.
Q.E.F.

Discussion,

to or greater

## The problem is impossible when one side

than the sum of the other two.

is

equal

Ex. 111. The base, the altitude, and an angle at the base, of a tri
angle being given, to construct the triangle.
Ex. 112. Show that the bisectors of the angles contained by the oppo
(produced) of an inscribed quadrilateral intersect at right angles.
Ex. 113. Given two perpendiculars, AB and CD, intersecting in 0, and
a straight line intersecting these perpendiculars in
and F\ to construct
a square, one of whose angles shall coincide with one of the right angles

site sides

at O,

## and the vertex of the opposite angle of the square

(Two

solutions.)

shall lie in

EF.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

118

PROPOSITION XXXIII.

II.

PROBLEM.

## Two sides of a triangle and the angle opposite

one of them being given, to construct the triangle.
283,

CASE

I.

is

than the

less

Let

be greater than

a,

angle.

Construction.

Construct

276

b.

From

B as a centre,

BO and

Draw
Then both the

## the conditions, and hence

This
have two constructions.
fulfil

called the

ambiguous

Discussion,

to the JL

BH,

,D
.-

JD /

is

is

and there

^L.

x --...

a
--

will be
tri-

,D

ABH.

angle
If the given side a is less than the
JL from B, the arc described from

B^-

/^/

is

## hence the problem

Cand C

we

equal
the arc described from

a,

case.

If the side

## B will touch AE,

AE at

AE, and

impossible,

-.

\a
i--

THE CIKCLE.

119

ZA

If the
is right or obtuse, the
problem is impossible for the
side opposite a right or obtuse angle is the greatest side.
159

CASE

If a

II.

If the Z.

is

is

to b.

equal

acute,

cut the line
at the points
and O.

AE

There

is

isosceles

therefore

## but one solution

B ,P
Vx

the
J[

If the

Discussion,

ZA

is

is

impossible
opposite them, and a
obtuse A.

III.

If a

is

greater than

b.

ED

from

the acute Z. A.
solution

If the

from

There

namely, the

ZA

is

is

y^

A ABC.

If the /.

from

sides of

A ABC

ED

/?\

^
C

~~-rA

ED

A, at the points

C and

&amp;lt;?

\B

The

;

^\
*

## is obtuse, the arc described

cuts the line
on opposite

&amp;lt;j/

v
^_
c
but the AA.BC does not, for it does

tion

the line

sides of

## does not contain

on opposite
A, and we have two equal right
which fulfil the required conditions.
cuts

B will cut
A ABO

The

## answers the required conditions, but the

it

~^c~

A have equal
cannot have two right
or two

## does not, for

right or obtuse,
for equal sides of a

If the given Z.
is acute, the arc described
on opposite sides of A, at
the line
and

A ABC*

i&amp;gt;/

AEG.

the problem

CASE

B as

namely, the

A.

A A BO.

There

is

-&quot;

&quot;~

.....

^
v&amp;lt;1

&quot;

Q.E.

F.

120

PLANE GEOMETEY.

PROPOSITION

Two

284,

sides

BOOK

II.

XXXIV. PROBLEM.

to construct the

parallelogram.

/
/
/
/

Let m and

## be the two sides, and C the included

angle.

To construct a parallelogram.

AB equal to

Draw

Construction,

At

construct the Z.

and take

From

o.

equal to

(7,

276

AH equal to m-

From

to

o,

describe an arc.

EH and EB.

Draw
Proof.

/.

ABEH\\$&amp;gt;

required.

AB = HE,

Cons.

^#= 5^7.

Cons.

the figure

(having

the

its

ABEHis a O,

183

Q. E.

F.

PEOBLEMS.

PROPOSITION

XXXV.

PROBLEM.

285,

angle.

tri

## Let ABC be the given

.

121

To circumscribe a

circle

Construction,

Since

BO is

tersect at

From

Bisect

At

triangle.

ABC,

AB and

some point

The point

AB,

271

Js.

these J

will in

0.

A B C is

and

273

## 0, with a radius equal to

Proof.

BO.

is

the

OB,

describe a circle.

required.

equidistant from

also is equidistant

from

and B,

B and

122

(7,

## (every point in the _L erected at the middle of a, straight line is equidistant

from the extremities of that line).
.

and a

OB,

the point

is

O,

described from

will pass

## as a centre, with a radius

equal to
through the vertices A, B, and C.
ae&amp;lt;F .

## 286, SCHOLIUM. The same construction serves to describe a

circumference which shall pass through the three points not
in the same
also to find the centre of a
straight line
given
;

circle or of a

given arc.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

122

XXXVI.

PROPOSITION

Through a given

287,

point, to

II.

PROBLEM.

draw a tangent

to

circle.

given

&amp;gt;iJ

CASE

I.

When

## the given point is

Let C be the

To draw a tangent

to

From

Construction,

CASE

II.

the centre

AM

Proof,

circle.

the circle at C.

Through
Then
gent to the

on the

straight line

C draw

AM

to

271

00.

is
_!_

239

circle.

When

## be the centre of the given circle, E the given

point without the circle.
To draw a tangent to the given circle from the point E.

Let

Join

Construction,

On

OE.

OE as

## a diameter, describe a circumference intersecting

and H.
the given circumference at the points

Draw
Then

EM

is

OM and EM.
the tangent required.

Z OME is

Proof,

264

a right angle,

## (being inscribed in a semicircle).

.

EM

is

In like manner, we

may

prove

M.

239

O.

Q. E.

F.

123

PROBLEMS.

PROPOSITION

To inscribe a

288,

From E, with
The
Since

(7,

it is

EH

EH,

describe the

O KHMis the O
is

AB and AC;

and

an

centre,

O KMH.
A,
is

it is

BC,

## SCHOLIUM. The intersec

formed byangles of a triangle,
the sides of the tri
producing
are the centres of three
angle,

## each of which will touch

one side of the triangle, and the
two other sides produced. These

circles,

162

## with a radius equal to

A and be inscribed in

equidis

in the bisector

AC and

equidistant from

/. is

E as

circles.

since

the sides
equidistant from

described from

272

required.

## in the bisector of the

in the bisector of
(every point
.-.

275

C.

draw

triangle.

A ABC.
Bisect A A and

From E,

of the

triangle.

circle in the

Construction,

Proof,

a given

circle in

To inscribe a

PROBLEM.

XXXVII.

it.

124

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PKOPOSITION

BOOK

XXXVIII.

II.

PROBLEM.

## 290, Upon a given

straight line, to describe a seg
ment of a circle which shall contain a given angle.

line,

and

M the given

angle.

## AB which shall contain Z M.

Construction, Con struct Z ABE
276
equal to Z.M.
Bisect the line AB by the _L FO.
273
From the point B draw BO
to EB.
271
To describe a segment upon

_i_

FO

From

## and BO, as a cen

0, the point of intersection of
tre, with a radius equal to OB, describe a circumference.

Proof,

The segment

AKB

The point

is

(every point in

and B,
122
equidistant from
middle of a straight line is equidistant

line).

## the circumference will pass

through A.

But

BE -L to OB.
BE tangent to the O,
is

/.

/.

Z ABE is

(being

t *.

its

extremity

measured by

is

239

tangent

arc

inscribed

Cons.

is

to

(a straight line

An Z

## the segment required.

JL erected at the

from
.

is

in

the

segment

segment

AKB

AB,

to the

O).

269

chord).
is

AKB contains Z M.

measured by
263
Ax. 1
0. E.

F.

125

PROBLEMS.

PROPOSITION

XXXIX.

PROBLEM.

291,

lines.

F
Let AB and CD

&quot;be

two straight

lines.

## To find the ratio of AB and CD.

Apply CD to AB as many timesjas possible.

## Suppose twice, with a remainder

Then apply

EB to CD as many

EB.

times as possible.

Then apply

FD to EB as many

## Suppose once, with a remainder

Then apply

FD.

times as possible.

HB.

KD.

## KD to HB as many times as possible.

KD
contained just twice in HB.
Suppose
measure of each
referred to KD as a unit, will

Then apply

is

The

line,

then be as follows

HB = 2KD-,
EB = FD+HB = 5KDCD = 3 EB -f FD = 18 KD
AB = 2 CD + EB = 41

CD

18

/.the ratio

CD

18

Q.E.F.

126

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

II.

THEOREMS.
114.

The shortest

line

line

## a given exterior point to a given circumference pass through the centre.

115. If through a point within a circle a diameter and a chord _L to
the diameter are drawn, the chord is the shortest cord that can be drawn
through the given point.

116.

In the same

or in equal

circle,

circles,

if

less

## chord, and conversely.

117.

If

in the arc

ABC

is

BC, then

On PA

HINT.

an inscribed equilateral

PA = PB + PC.

take

PIT equal

to

triangle,

PB, and

join

BM.

circle

&quot;118.

119.

## and Pis any point

be inscribed?

an equilateral triangle

circle inscribed in

is

120.
121.

A
A

circle

circle

## can be circumscribed about an

isosceles trapezoid.

## -- 122. The tangents drawn through the vertices of an inscribed rec

tangle enclose a rhombus.
-f^ 123.

## The diameter of the

circle inscribed in

rt.

A is

equal to the

## between the sum of the legs and the hypotenuse.

124. From a point A without a circle, a
straight line AOB is drawn
through the centre, and also a secant ACD, so that the part A C without
difference

the circle

the

is

Prove that

DAB

Z.

equals one-third

Z DOB.

125.

## are equal, and are bisected at the points of contact.

126.

If

two

circles intersect,

and a secant

is

## drawn through each

point of intersection, the chords which join the extremities of the secants
are parallel.
HINT. By drawing the common chord, two inscribed
127.

If

an equilateral triangle

is

128.

is

is

drawn.

## intersection of two circles a

Prove that the straight line joining

the ends of the diameters passes through the other point of intersection.

EXERCISES.

## A circle touches two sides of an angle BAG at B, C\

the arc BC a tangent is drawn, meeting AB

129.

point
at F.

127

D in

Prove

(i.)

all positions of

through any

J^and

at

AQ

## that the perimeter of the triangle ^.EFis constant for

in BC\ (ii.) that the angle EOF\& also constant.

Loci.
130.

131.

## Find the locus of a point at three inches from a given point.

Find the locus of a point at a given distance from a given

circumference.
132.

## given hypotenuse as base,

hypotenuse as diameter.
r

is

triangle,

## the circumference described

upon

having a
the given

133. Prove that the locus of the vertex of a triangle, having a given
base and a given angle at the vertex, is the arc which forms with the
base a segment capable of containing the given angle.

134.

135.

## drawn through a given point

jv
t&amp;gt;e

136.

137.

chords of a given

all

## chords that can be

in a given circumference.

drawn from

all

circle.

## all straight lines

that ca.n

to a given circumference.

A straight line

and touches

at one

## moves so that it remains parallel to a given line,

end a given circumference. Find the locus of the

other end.

138.
1
fi&ed rods

139.

straight rod

which are

In a given

moves

_L to

## so that its ends constantly touch two

each other. Find the locus of its middle point.

circle let

## the perpendicular from

locus of the point J/as

AOB

be a diameter,

00 any

## C to AB. Upon 00 take OM=CD.

CD

Find the

CONSTRUCTION OF POLYGONS.
To construct an
140.

142.

To construct an
144.

equilateral A,

The perimeter.
The altitude.

The angle

141.

having given

143.

isosceles triangle,

at the vertex

having given:

and the

circle.

base.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

128
145.

146.

BOOK

II.

altitude.

147.

148.

## The perimeter and the

circle.

alti

tude.

ABC be the A re
EF the given perimeter.

Let

HINTS.

quired, and
The altitude

## CD passes through the

middle of EF, and the A AJSG,
FO&Te

,.
.-

isosceles.

To construct a

150.

## The hypotenuse and one

The hypotenuse and the

151.

One

153.

and one

154.

155.

An
An

149.

leg.

altitude

## upon the hypotenuse.

the
the
altitude
and
upon
hypotenuse as base.
leg
%152. The median and the altitude drawn from the vertex of the

l||

156.

sum

of the legs.

To construct a

triangle,

having given

V157. The

at the vertex.

**

158.

The

159.

and the

at the vertex.

160.

## The perimeter and the angles. vQ

One side, an adjacent Z, and the sum of

161.

One

162.

163.

One

164.

## The angles and the radius of the circumscribed O.

The angles and the radius of the inscribed O.

165.

rt. Z..

leg.

side,

side,

sides

and the

angles.

166.

An

167.

Two

168.

sides

## To construct a square, having given:

169. The diagonal.
170^The sum

of the diagonal

and one

side.

129

EXERCISES.
To construct a

173.

## Z formed by the diagonals.

The perimeter and the diagonal.
The perimeter and the Z
the diagonals.

174.

The

171.
172.

One

side

and the

&quot;of

difference of the

sides

and the

of the

diagonals.

## To construct a rhombus, having given

175. The two diagonals.

...

176.

One

177.

## One angle and the radius

One angle and one of the

178.

To

side

circle.

diagonals.

179.

One

side

## The diagonals and the Z formed by them.

181. One side, one Z, and one diagonal.
180.

182.

## The base, the

To construct an

altitude,

and one

isosceles trapezoid,

angle.

having given:
The bases and the

183.

185.

186.

## The bases and th radius of the circumscribed

To construct a
187.

184.

angle.

altitude.

the diagonal.
circle.

having given
The two bases and the two diagonals.
The bases, one diagonal, and the Z formed by the
diagonals.

The four

trapezoid,

sides.

188.

CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCLES.
Find the locus of the centre of a
190.

191.

circle

## Which has a given radius r and passes through a given

point P.
Which has a given radius r and touches a given straight line AE.

P and

192.

Which

193.

## Which touches a given straight line AB at a given point P.

Which touches each of two given parallels.
Which touches each of two given intersecting lines.

194.

195.

Q.

130

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

To construct a

circle

II.

and which

AB and

also

CD.

196.

197.

198.

199.

## Passes through a given point

To construct a

circle

AB and

which

shall

lines

a given circle K.

P and

AB.

## Touch two given parallels and pass through a given point

201. Touch three given lines two of which are parallel.
200.

202.
203.
204.

205.
206.

207.

Touch a given
Touch a given

line

P.

## A B at P and pass through a given point

P and pass through a given point Q.

Touch two given lines and touch one of them at a given point
Touch a given line and touch a given circle at a point P.
Touch a given line AB at P and also touch a given
To inscribe a circle in a given sector.

## 208. To construct within a given circle three equal

each shall touch the other two and also the given circle.
*

X209. To describe

Q.

circle at

circles

P.

circle.

circles, so

that

two

others.

210.

211.

## To draw a common tangent to two given circles.

To bisect the angle formed by two lines, without producing the

## 212. To draw a line through a given point, so that

j
the sides of a given angle an isosceles triangle.

213.

through

it shall

form with

## P between the sides of an angle BAC. To draw

terminated by the sides of the angle and bisected at P.

Given a point

P a line

Given two points P, Q, and a line AB; .to draw lines from P
^214.
and Q which shall meet on AB and make equal angles with AB.
HINT. Make use of the point which forms with P a pair of points
symmetrical with respect to AB.

215.
,

216.

To find the shortest path from Pto Q which shall touch a line AB.
To draw a tangent to a given circle, so that it shall be parallel

BOOK

III.

## PROPORTIONAL LINES AND SIMILAR

POLYGONS,
THE THEORY OF PROPORTION.

292,
proportion
equal ratios.

proportion
ing forms

is

may

-=-;
b
d
and

&quot;

is

the ratio of

::c:d;

d&quot;

## The terms of a proportion are the four quantities com

pared the first and third terms are called the antecedents, the
second and fourth terms, the consequents ; the first and fourth
terms are called the extremes, the second and third terms, the
293,

means.
294,

In the proportion a b
:

tional to a, b,

and

In the proportion

a and

=c

d,

is

a fourth propor

c.

a:b

= b:c,

c is a third proportional to

a:b

= b :c,

b.

In the proportion
between a and c,

is

mean

proportional

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

132

PROPOSITION

III.

I.

## In every proportion the product of the extremes

equal to the product of the means.
Let a:b = c-.d.

295,
is

To prove

be.

a=C

AT

Now

7
b

-y

## whence, by multiplying both sides by bd,

be.

PROPOSITION

o. E. D.

II.

two

A mean

quantities
-proportional between
their
root
product.
is equal to the square
of
296,

In the proportion a

=b

c,

V = ac,

the extremes
(the product of

is

equal

1)

295

to the

## product of the means).

root,

a E. D.

Va&amp;lt;?.

PROPOSITION

III.

is equal to the
// the product of two quantities
product of two others, either
in which the other two are
a
extremes
297,

proportion
of
the -means.

To prove

a:b

= c:d.

bd.
Divide both members of the given equation by

Then

=c
Q.E.D.

THEORY OF PROPORTION.

133

PROPOSITION IV.
298,

## portion, they will be in proportion by alternation ;

that is, the first term will be to the third as the sec

ond

to the fourth.

Let a:b =

= b:d.

a:c

To prove

c:d.

f-j
Multiply each

member

of the equation

by

-.

=*

Then

a:c = b:d.

or,

Q.E.D.

PROPOSITION V.
299, If four quantities are in proportion, they will
be in proportion by inversion ; that is, the second term
will be to the first as the fourth to the third.

## Let a:b = c:d.

b:a = d:c.

To prove

Now
Divide each

bo

member

295

of the equation

by

ac.

*=

Then

a
or,

a=d

c.

at.*

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

134

III.

PROPOSITION VI.
300, If four quantities are in proportion, they will
be in proportion by composition ; that is, the sum of
the first two terms will be to the second term as the

sum

term.
of the last two terms to the fourth
Let a:b = c:d.

a + b :b

To prove

Now

T
b

1 to

each member

-f-

In like manner,

f
a+

is,

or,

~y

of the equation.

+lr= | +1
d
b _c

Then
that

= c + d:d.

~~d~
=c+d

d.
+b b
d:c.
b
:a=c
+
+
:

^^

PROPOSITION VII.
will
// four quantities are in proportion, they
the
that
division
is,
difference
;
be in proportion by
be to the second term as
of the first two terms will
the difference of the last two terms to the fourth
301,

term.
To prove

Let a:b =
a b:b = c
h~&quot;f7

## Subtract 1 from each

member

of the equation.

- 1=1-1;

Then

a-b__c-d
7

is,

In like manner,

d:d.

a_c

Now

that

c:d.

-5

a=c

d .c.

135

THEORY OF PROPORTION.
PROPOSITION VIII.

302,

## by composition and division ; that is, the sum of the

as the sum of
ftrst two terms is to their difference
their
to
two
terms
the last
difference.
Let a-.b = c: d.
Then, by

And, by

v
By

,.

300,

301,

cd

c-}-d: c

division,

a-\-b

or.

d.
Q.E. D.

PEOPOSITION IX.

In a

series of
tecedents is to the
303.

antecedent

is to its

## equal ratios, the sum of the an

sum of the consequents as any

consequent.

To prove

a+ c+ e+g

Denote each

ratio

by

Then

Whence,

br,

b.

= ? = = i = f.
c

= dr,

=fr,

g=

hr.

these equations.

Then

a+c+e+g

Divide by

Then

h.

r.

a=

+ d+f+h = a

(b

= (b + d+f+ h)r.

+ d+f+h).

or,
Q. E. D.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

136

BOOK

III.

PROPOSITION X.

304,

## Leta:b = c:d, e:f=g:h,

To prove

aek

= cgm

bfl

a c e
T =T 7
b
d f

vr

NOW

= m-.n.

dhn.

=m
--

Ic

hi

k:l

Whence, by multiplication,

_ cgm

aek ~~

dhn

bfl

aek bfl

or,

= cgm

dhn.
Q.E.D.

PROPOSITION XI.

305,

of the terms of

roots,

Let
n

I
n

and

Q&amp;gt;

NT

NOW
By

^-=~
n
b
dn
By

= c:d.

= cn :d n
I
1
i
b = C* d*.
a=c
7
-y

a :b

To prove

a-.b
n

or

## extracting the nth root,

or,

,1
:

= ci

,1

Q.E.O.

the products ob
Equimultiples of two quantities are
same number.
the
them
tained by multiplying each of
by
306,

Thus,

ma and mb

are equimultiples of

a and

b.

THEORY OF PROPORTION.

137

PROPOSITION XII.

307,

same
Let

a

and

To prove

ma :mb

a:b.

by m.

ma- = a-

mi

Then

mo

ma :mb = a:b.

or,

Q.E.D.

## SCHOLIUM. In the treatment of proportion it is as

may be found which will represent the
It is evident that the ratio of two quantities may be
ratios.
represented by a fraction when the two quantities compared
can be expressed in integers in terms of a common unit. But
when there is no unit in terms of which both quantities can be

sumed

that fractions

## expressed in integers, it is possible to find a fraction that will

represent the ratio to any required degree of accuracy.
(See

251-256.)
Hence, in speaking of the product of two quantities, as for
instance, the product of two lines, we mean simply the product
of the numbers which represent them when referred to a com

mon

unit.

An
of

## interpretation of this kind must be given to the product

any two quantities throughout the Geometry.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

138

BOOK

III.

PROPORTIONAL LINES.
PROPOSITION

If a line

309,

angle

is

I.

THEOREM.

sides of

tri

proportio nally.

FIG.

1.

In the triangle

FIG.

ABC

let

EF

2.

## be drawn parallel to BC.

EB = FC
Toprove
ZS Zp
CASE
When AE and EB (Fig. 1) are commensumble.
Find a common measure of AE and EB, as BM.
Suppose BMiQ be contained in BE three times,
and in AE four times.
I.

Then

At

AE

(1)

straight lines

II

to

draw

AC mto seven

FC will

BE and AE

BC.
ill

187
contain four,

## equal parts on any transversal, they intercept equal

parts on every transversal).

FC

AF
Compare

(1)

and

(2)

(2),

AE

Ax.

1.

139

PROPORTIONAL LINES.
CASE

When

II.

Divide

AE

## AE and EB (Fig. 2) are incommensurable.

any number of equal
measure to

into

parts,

## and apply one

EB as many times as it

## of these parts as a unit of

will be contained in EB.

## AE and EB are incommensurable, a certain number

E
K, leaving a
KB

Since

to a point
of these parts will extend from
less than the unit of measure.
remainder

Draw

KH

II

to

BO.

the
Suppose the unit of measure indefinitely diminished,
ra tios =?==

AE

AJb
Tt

Therefore

T-?

- and

Jf

COR.

1.

by a straight

One

indefi-

310,

and approach

side of

-,

respectively.

26

a triangle

is to either

part cut

off

## line parallel to the base as the other side is to the

corresponding part.

For

## EB AE= FC: AF, by the theorem.

EB + AE .AE=FC+AF:AF,
AB:AE=AO:AF.
:

300

/.

or

COR.

311.

2.

If two

Let the

Draw
and N.

lines

AN

II

be
to

AB and CD.
CD, cutting the

Us at

By

L,

M,

Then
187

the theorem,

## AIT: AM= AF:AL = FIT: LM= HB MN.

AF:CG= FH: GK= HB KD.
That
If the two lines AB and CD were parallel, the correspond
:

is,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

140

PROPOSITION

BOOK

III.

THEOREM

II.

&amp;gt;

## // a straight line divides two sides of a

312,

angle proportionally,

In the triangle

ABC

tri

it is

EF be drawn
AB = AC
AE AF

let

so that

Proof,

EF \\toBG.
From E draw EH

Then

AB AE-= AC:

To prove

to

II

A is

(one side of a

to either

part cut

off

BO.

AH,

by a line

II

310

to the base,

as the other

AB AE = AC

But
The
each to

AF.

Hyp.

## two proportions have the first three terms equal,

each therefore the fourth terms are equal that is,

last

AF=AH.
.*.

.KFand

EH\s

But
/.

EF, which

EH coincide.
II

to

BC.

coincides with

EH,

Cons.
is

||

to

BC.
Q.E.Q.

141

PROPORTIONAL LINES.

PROPOSITION

III.

THEOREM.

## 313, The bisector of an angle of a triangle divides

the opposite side into segments proportional to
other two sides.

A
Let

CM

## the angle C of the triangle GAB.

&quot;bisect

MA MB = CA CB.
Proof, Draw AE
to MC to meet BC produced at E.
to AE of the A BAE, we have
Since MC
To prove

II

is

II

MA:MB=CE:CB.
Since

MC

is

II

(1)

AE,

to

ZACM=ZCAE,
(being alt.-int.

of\\ lines)

Z BCM= Z

and

(being

But

ext.-int.

104
;

CEA,
of

II

A CM= Z BCM.
the Z CAE = Z CEA.

.-.

/.

Putting

two

CA

of a

for

A are

CE in

CE=

106

lines).

the Z.

(if

309

Hyp.
Ax.

156

CA,

(1),

we have

MA:MB=CA:

CB.
Q.E.D.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

142

III.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION IV.

## 314, The bisector of an exterior angle of a triangle

meets the opposite side produced at a point the dis

tances of which

## from the extremities of this side are

proportional to the other two sides.

A
ACE

## CM bisect the exterior angle

angle CAB, and meet BA produced at
Let

M A M B = CA

To prove

Draw

Proof,

Since

AFis

Since

AF

is

II

of the tri

f
.

OB.

BC&t F.
AF to CM
to OH of the A BOM we have
WA\WB=CF\CB.
to

II

meet

II

to

(being ext.-int.

the

CM

bisects the

:.

the

Putting

II

of

I!

Z AFC = Z

A of a A are
CA for CF in

two

of

lines)

106

CAF,

104

lines).

Z ECA,

/.
(if

Z M CA = Z

(being alt.-int,

Since

(1)

CM\

theZM CE = ZAFC,
and

309

CAF.

CA = CF,

Ax.

156

are equal).
equal, the opposite sides
(1),

we have

WA M B = CA
:

CB.
Q.E.D.

PROPORTIONAL LINES.
SCHOLIUM.

315,

If a given line

AB

143

is

and B, it
and
divided internally into the segments
divided at

MA

MB

MA

be

said to

is

## a point in the prolongation of AB,

and
to be divided externally into the segments
is

M,

divided at

## point between the extremities

and

if it

it is

said

M B.
f

In either case the segments are the distances from the point
If the line is divided

## of division to the extremities of the line.

to the line
and
internally, the sum of the segments is equal
if the line is divided externally, the difference of the segments
;

is

equal to the

line.

## required to divide the given

Suppose
and
externally in the same ratio; as,
nally
ratio of the two numbers 3 and 5.
it is

cc.

___

We

AB

divide

parts from

into 5

inter

.i.i......
A
B
M

AB

line

y;

+ 3,

we then have

## or 8, equal parts, and take 8

the point J/j such that

MA: MB = 3: 5.
Secondly, we divide

AB

into

two equal

## on the prolongation of AB, to the

equal parts we then have the point
;

(1)

left of

f
,

M A M B -3:5.
:

Comparing

(1)

and

parts,

and lay

off

A, three of these

such that
(2)

(2),

## 316, If a given straight line is divided internally and

the line is
externally into segments having the same ratio,
said to be divided harmonically.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

144
COR.

317.

1.

The

bisectors of

BOOK

an

III.

and an

interior angle

a triangle
divide the opposite side harmoni
313 and 314, each
cally. For, by

exte

\o

## bisector divides the opposite side

into segments proportional to the

318.

COR.

2.

If

the points

monically.
For,

by

M and M
and

The

M and M
M and M

from

from
1

AB
har

298

## four points A, B, M, and

points, and the two pairs, A, B, and

MM

M B,
M

is,

MA MB = M A
MA M A = MB

if

alternation,

That

is

M,

M\

## jugate harmonic points.

SIMILAR POLYGONS.
Similar polygons are polygons that have their homol

319.

ED
Thus,

if

the

## ABODE and A B C D E are similar

C etc.
etc., are equal to A A

the polygons

A A,

B,

C,

CD

and
320.

A JB

etc.

## In two similar polygons, the ratio of any two homol

is called the ratio of similitude of the polygons.

ogous sides

145

SIMILAR TRIANGLES.

SIMILAR TRIANGLES.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION V.
321,

## Two mutually equiangular

ilar.

triangles are

sim

In the triangles*
equal to angles A

ABC and A B C
B C

Apply the

Proof,

so that

AABC
Z

Now

similar.

C* to the

A AEG,
Z

AEJI(ssime
:.

as

Elf is

Z B)=Z

A.

A AEH.

B.

108

ioBC,

II

## lying in the same plane, are cut by a third straight

are equal the lines are parallel).
if the ext.-int.

Line,

AAB

ZA

G be

respectively.

A ABC and A B C

To prove

Then the

let angles A, B,

lines,

AB:A B = AC:A C

/.

310

or

AABC

## In like manner, by applying

shall coincide with Z B, we

ZB

may

the two

Therefore

A ABC,

so that

prove that

AB A B = BC: J3
:

to

&amp;lt;7

A are similar.

319
Q. E. D.

322,

COR.

1.

Two

## triangles are similar if two angles of the

to two angles of the other.

## one are equal respectively

2.
Two right triangles are similar if an acute
one
the
is
equal to an acute angle of the other.
angle of

323,

COR.

146

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION VI.

THEOREM.

III.

## If two triangles have their sides respectively

proportional, they are similar.
324,

In the triangles

To prove
Proof,

AB = AC = BC
AB A C B C
f

C&amp;gt;

## A ABC and A B C similar.

Take AE= A B and AH= A O

Draw EH.
Then from the given

proportion,

AB = AC

AE AH

:.
(if

line divide

Hence

Effis

two sides of a

in the

II

to

312

BC,

A proportionally,

it is

II

to the

third

side).

A ABC&nd. AEH
106

and
(being ext.-int.
.-.

of

II

lines).

## A of one are equal respectively

(two A are similar if two
other).

.:AB\
that

AE=

AB A B =
1

is,

322

are similar,
to

two

of the

SIMILAR TRIANGLES.

147

But by hypothesis,

The

last

each to each

Hence

first

that is,

## therefore the fourth terms are equal

in the

AE=A B

160
(having three sides of the one equal respectively

But
.-.

to three sides

## A AEH is similar to A ABC.

A A 3 is similar to A ABO.

of the other).

aE

## SCHOLIUM. The primary idea of similarity is likeness

and the two conditions necessary to similarity are
ofform
I.
For every angle in one of the figures there must be an
325,

II.

The homologous

sides

must be

in proportion.

## In the case of triangles, either condition involves the other,

it does not follow that if one

## Thus in the quadrilaterals Q and Q the homologous sides

are proportional, but the homologous angles are not
equal.
and It 1 the homologous
are
1

angles

PLANE GEOMETKY.

148

PROPOSITION VII.

BOOK

III.

THEOREM.

## If two triangles have an angle of the one equal

the other, and the including sides pro
portional, they are similar.
326,

to

an angle of

In the triangles

ABC and A B C
AB ~
= AC
AB

Proof,

Apply

the

AB

so that

A AEH.

AC
AC

AB__

AC^

EH divides the

sides

AB

and

A C pro

toC,
(if a

ZA

AE AH

is,

portionally

A ABC,

to the

AB

Now

similar.

A.

AABC

Then the

That

AABC

let

AC

A ABC and A B C

To prove

line divide

Hence the
and similar.

## A ABC and AEH are

.-.

AABC

312

A proportionally,

two sides of a

is

similar to

it is

\\

to the

third side}.

mutually equiangular

A ABO.
Q. E. D.

149

SIMILAR TRIANGLES.

PROPOSITION VIII.

THEOREM.

## // two triangles have their sides respectively

parallel, or respectively perpendicular, they are sim
327,

ilar.

be
In the triangles A B C and ABC let A B A C B
respectively parallel, or respectively perpendicular,
to AB, AC, BC.
,

AABC

To prove
Proof,

and

The corresponding

ABC similar.

jf
or supplements
112, 113

of each other,
(if

two

&amp;lt;y

II,

or

_L,

## Hence we may make three suppositions

A + A = 2rt.A, B + B = 2rt.A
B + B = 2rt.A
A=A
2d.
C= C
B= B\
A-A
3d.
Since the sum of the A of the two A cannot
1st.

. .

the two

is

A ABC and A B C

&

140

exceed four

138

are similar,

321

are similar).

150

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION IX.

THEOREM.

III.

## 328, The homologous altitudes of two similar tri

angles have the same ratio as any two homologous

sides.

A o

A
ABC and A B C

## In the two similar triangles

altitudes be CO and C O

let the

CO
CO

To prove
In the

Proof,

rt.

AC

AB

AC

AB

CO A and C O A

ZA=Z A
(being homologous

.-.

(two

rt.

&

A CO A

of the similar

and

having an acute Z

319

COA

323

are similar,

## of the one equal to

an acute

}.

of the other

are similar).

AC
AC

CO
CO
In the similar

A AB C and A B C
AC
AC

Therefore,

CO

_
~=

319

AB
AB

AC = _.
AB
=_
Q. E. O.

151

SIMILAR TRIANGLES.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION X.

drawn through

Straight lines

329,

the

same point

## intercept proportional segments upon two parallels.

/B

ABC

E
A E cut the straight

## Let the two parallels AE and

lines OA, OB, OC, ODt and OE.

_ = ---_=
AE

Toprove
Proof,

\E

\D

/C&quot;

Since

OA B OBC
,

is

to

II

OB C

and

similar,

BO

DE

CD

A OAB

AE,

etc.,

the pairs of
are mutually equiangular

and
and

AS
&quot;

OB

ff

sides of similar

(homologous

&

are proportional).

Ax
In a similar way

BC
BO

it

may

be shown that

_ CD
CD

DE

CD

D
Q. E. D.

REMARK.

AB

\OB

_^
B C \00

=
J

is

==== D E^
^

\OD

## where a parenthesis about a ratio signifies that this ratio is used to

and following it.
prove the equality of the ratios immediately preceding

152

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PBOPOSITION XI.

THEOREM.

III.

more non-parallel
straight lines intercept proportional segments upon
two parallels, they pass through a wmrrwn, point.
If three or

CONVERSELY:

AC

AC BD=CE
:

To prove that
Proof,

AB, CD,

that

Prolong

## AB and CD until they meet in

Join

we

If

BF so

DF.

designate by
shall have by
329,

F the

0.

OE,
point where

AC:BD=CE:DF

OE

cuts

BF, we

But by hypothesis

AC:BD = CE.DF.

## These proportions have the first three terms equal, each to

therefore the fourth terms are equal that is,

each

..

.-.

F coincides with F.

.EF prolonged

O.
passes through

## EF prolonged meet in the point

0.

153

SIMILAR POLYGONS.

SIMILAR POLYGONS.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XII.

## If two polygons cure composed of the same num

ber of triangles, similar each to each, and- similarly
placed, the polygons are similar*
331,

## In the two polygons ABODE and A B C D E let the

triangles AEB, BEG, CED be similar respectively to
the triangles A E B B E C C E D*.
,

ABODE similar to A B C D E
ZA=ZA

To prove

319

(being homologous

Also,

of similar A).

Z ABE = Z A B E
Z EEC = Z E B C
Z ABC = Z A B C
we may prove Z BCD = Z B C D

319

and

By

Proof,

In like manner

etc.

Now

AE = AB ^( EB\

AE

AB

(the

BO ^( EC\
B
C \E &)
\E &)

homologous

sides of similar

## Hence the homologous

(having their

CD = ED
C

ED

A are proportional).

## Therefore the polygons are similar,

319
homologous A equal, and their homologous sides proportional).
Q. E. D,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

154

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIII.
332,

of the

If two polygons

cure

III.

THEOREM.

to each,

and similarly

B
Let the

placed.

B
DE
B
ABODE
A
C
and
polygons
C

## From two homologous

vertices, as

E and E

1
,

be similar.
draw diagonals

EB EC
A EAB, EEC, ECD
To prove
A EAB EB C E CD
similar respectively
Proof, In the A EAB and E A B
EB, EC, and

to

Z.A=/.A
(being homologous

and

319

of similar polygons)

AE

AB

AE

AB

319

.

(having an

A EAB and E A B

are similar,

and

## of the one equal to an /. of the other,

proportional).

ZABC=ZA B C

Also,

(being homologous

And

## Subtract (2) from

(1)

of similar polygons).

ABE= Z A B E

(being homologous

326

## the including sides

of similar A).

/.

EBC

(2)

(1),
1
.

Ax. 3

SIMILAR POLYGONS.

155

EB _ AB

Now

BO = AB
BC A^

And

Av
XIA.

(having an

-r~ttT~\i

*~T\I

A EBCw& E B C

we may prove

326

are similar,

of the other,
proportional).

In like manner

1
JL

~7f&quot;

and

A ECD and E C D

similar.
Q. E. D.

PROPOSITION XIV.

## The perimeters of two similar polygons have

ratio as any two homologous sides.

333,

the

THEOREM.

same

## Let the two similar polygons be ABODE and A B C D E

and let P and P represent their perimeters.

P P = AB A B
= CD
AB A B = EG:

To prove

(the
.-.

(in

homologous

AB+BC,etc.

AB

CD

319

etc.,

+B C

etc.

=AB: A B

303

## equal ratios the sum of the antecedents is to the sum of the

n
conse
equents as any antecedent is to its consequent).

series of
&quot;

That

P:f = AB:A B
t

is,

sides of similar

PLANE GEOMETRY.

156

BOOK

III.

PROPOSITION XV.

THEOREM.

## If in a right triangle a perpendicular is drawn

vertex of the right angle to the hypotenuse :
the
from
The perpendicular is a mean proportional be
I.
tween the segments of the hypotenuse.
334,

## leg of the right triangle is a mean pro

between
portional
segment.
II.

Each

F
In the right triangle ABC, let BF be drawn from the
vertex of the right angle B, perpendicular to AC.
I.

A BAFwd BAC

To prove
In the

Proof,

rt.

the acute /.

is

common.

A are similar.

In the

rt.

the acute /.

Hence the

Now

as the

rt.

(7 is

II.

and

AF,
BF,
BF,

CBF,

the

FO, the

To prove

323

A

common.

A are similar.

ABFsiul
In the similar

323

Hence the
OF and BCA

medium
medium

AC AB = AB
:

AF,

In the similar

157

AB,
AB,

## longest side of the one,

the longest side of the other,
the shortest side of the one,

A F,

AC, the
:

Also

in the similar

A AfiCand FBC,

## AC, the longest side of the one,

BC, the longest side of the other,
EC, the medium side of the one,
FCj the medium side of the other.

Q E
.

o.

The squares of

## the two legs of a right triangle

are proportional to the adjacent segments of the hypotenuse.

COR.

335,

1.

The proportions

in II. give,

AB* = ACxAF,
By

by
and

295,

BC* = ACxCF.

we have

AGx CF
COR.

336,

2.

are proportional

The squares of
to

l^
COR.

337,

angle

3.

264).

## the hypotenuse and either

leg

the hypotenuse
-^L

-r^

OF

An

_/lL/ /\ ^J_

I77&amp;gt;o4&amp;gt;

_/T_

ZF

is

a right

Therefore,

## The perpendicular from any point in

the circumference to the diameter of a circle
I.

is

the segments ^_

of the diameter.
II.

&

_^

## The chord drawn from the point to either extremity of the

is a mean proportional between the diameter and the

diameter

REMARK. The pairs of corresponding sides in similar triangles may be
called longest, shortest, medium, to enable the beginner to see quickly
these pairs but he must not forget that two sides are homologous, not
;

they

lie

sides,

but because

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

158

III.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XVI.

338,

triangle

is

to the

equal

legs of a right

Let ABC

fee

= AC*AB* +

B&

To prove

BF to AC.
=
A& ACxAF

Draw

Proof,

Then

= ACX OF
= AC(AF+
BC*

and

339,
to

334

COR.

The square

of either leg

CF)

= AC\

340,

The
is

square
ber V2.

ABCD,

For

if

AC

## ratio of the diagonal of a

the incommensurable num

SCHOLIUM.
to the side

is

a E. D.

is equal
of a right triangle

then

Divide by AJ3\

we have

AC = 2
2

or

AC*
~

= 2,

or

AC
-^-g

=--

V2.

## Since the square root of 2 is incommensurable, the diagonal

and side of a square are two incommensurable lines.
341.

The projection of a

line

CD

upon a straight

AB

## that part of the line

comprised
and
between the perpendiculars
let fall from the extremities of

CP

DR

PR

CD.

Thus,

CD

upon AB.

is

the projection of

A~

line

AB

is

## NUMERICAL PROPERTIES OF FIGURES.

PROPOSITION XVII.

159

THEOREM.

## 342, In any triangle, the square of the side opposite

an acute angle is equal to the sum of the squares of

## the other two sides diminished Ijy twice the product

of one of those sides and the projection of the other
upon that side.

## Let G be an acute angle of the triangle ABC, and

the projection of AC upon BC.

DC

To prove
Proof,

If

fall

(Fig. 1),

DB = BC- DCIf

DB = DC- BC.

2),

In either case,

JOB*

## to both sides of this equality,

DC.

and we have

But
338
and
A is equal to the square
(the sum of the squares of the two legs of a
2

rt.

of the hypotenuse}.

Put

## BC* -}- AC*-

2BCx

above equality,

DC.
Q. E. D.

160

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XVIII.

THEOREM.

III.

## triangle, the square of the side

obtuse
the
angle is equal to the sum of the
opposite
squares of the other two sides increased by twice the
product of one of those sides and the projection of
the other upon that side.
343,

In any obtuse

## Let C be the obtuse angle of the triangle ABC, and

projection of AC upon BC produced.

CD be the
To prove

+ Iff + 2Cx
DB = BC+DC.

A3* =

Proof,

Squaring,

DB* =

C*

to both sides,

+ DO* + 2Cx

DO.

DO.

and we have

i

## AD* + ~DS = AB\

But

338

and
(the

sum

Put

a rt.
of the squares of the two legs of
of the hypotenuse).

A is equal to

the square

## AS and AC? for their equals in the above equality,

AW = C + AC* + 2Cx DC.
2

Q.E.O.

## NOTE. The last three theorems enable us to compute the lengths of

if the lengths of the three sides of a triangle are known.

the altitudes

PROPOSITION XIX.

161

THEOREM.

## The sum of the squares of two sides of a tri

angle
equal to twice the square of half the third
side increased ~by twice the square of the median upon
344,

I.

is

that side.
II.

## triangle is equal to twice the product of the third

side by the projection of the median upon that side.

## the triangle ABC let AM

the median, and
the projection of AM upon the side BO. Also let
be greater than AC.
In.

&quot;be

I.

Toprove

II.

Since

Proof,

the

## A& + AC* = 2 3M* + 2 AM\

A?-A(T = 2CxMD.
AB&amp;gt;AC,

AME

will be obtuse,

=M + AM + 2JBMx MD,

and
152
343

any obtuse A the square of the side opposite the obtuse /. is equal to the
sum of the squares of the other two sides increased by twice the product
of one of those sides

and
(in

the

Then
(in

MD
AS

and

## the projection of the other

on that

side)

AC = MC + AM-2MCx MD,

342

## the square of the side opposite an acute

is equal to the sum
of
the squares of the other two sides diminished by twice the product
of one
of those sides and the projection of the other upon that side).

any

Then

i

## Subtract the second equality from the

Then

BM=- MC.

AS + AC = 2 BM + 2AM\
2

first.

## Z&-AO* = 23Cx MD.

aE D
NOTE. This theorem enables us to compute the lengths of the medians

if

known.

162

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION XX.

BOOK

III.

THEOREM.

## 345, If any chord is drawn through a fixed

point
within a circle, the product of its segments is constant in whatever direction the chord is drawn.

OAxOB=ODx

To prove

Draw

Proof.

In the

0.

00.

A O and ED.

^C=Z.B,

263

Z A - Z D,

263

A are similar,

(two

&

are similar

Whence
:

/. the
when two A of

322

of the other).

## the longest side of the one,

the longest side of the other,
00, the shortest side of the one,

OA,
OD,

OB,
.-.

OAxOB = ODxOO.

295
Q.E. D.

346,

SCHOLIUM.

This proportion

OA = 00

OD

OB

OA

may

be written

OD~OB
00

## is, the ratio of two corresponding segments is equal to

the reciprocal of the ratio of the other two corresponding

that

segments.

proportional.

163

XXL

PROPOSITION

THEOREM.

## If from a fixed point without a circle a secant

drawn, the product of the secant and its external
segment is constant in whatever direction the secant
is drawn.
347,

is

## Let OA and OB be two secants drawn from point

OA X 00= OB X OD.
To prove

0.

OBC

Draw

Proof.

In the

is

common,

A = Z.B,

263

.

(two

the two

Whence
:

two

A are similar,

322

of the other).

## OA, the longest side of the one,

OB, the longest side of the other,
OD, the shortest side of the one,
0(7,
/.

## the shortest side of the other.

OA x 00= OB x OD.

295
Q. E. D.

until

B and D approach

it is

true

continues true

if

the secant

when

and

D coincide

at

OA x 00= OH\
This truth

is

## demonstrated directly in the next theorem.

OB

turns

by
Whence,

Therefore,

H.

164

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXII.

THEOREM.

III.

## 348, If from a point without a circle a secant and

a tangent are drawn, the tangent is a mean propor

and

the external

segment*

Let OB

## a tangent and OG a secant drawn from

the circle MBC.

&quot;be

the point

to

OG OB = OB

To prove

Draw

Proof.

In the

M.

EM and BO.

A OB M and OBO
/.

OEM

Z.

(being

an

Z.

is

is

common.

measured by % arc

Z C is

measured by

(being

an

-J-

263

O.

322

of the other).

OB,
OB,

## the longest side of the one,

the longest side of the other,
the shortest side of the one,

OM,

OC,
:

B M,

(having two

Whence

arc

269

chord).

inscribed Z).

.\/.OBM=Z.
.-.

MB,

Q. E. D.

165

## NUMERICAL PROPERTIES OF FIGURES.

PROPOSITION XXIII.

THEOREM.

bisector of an angle of a
product of the sides of this
angle diminished by the product of the segments
determined by the bisector upon the third side of the

349,

triangle

is

equal

to the

triangle.

Let

To prove
Proof,

BAG

ABxAC~DBx DC.

Circumscribe the

## AD to meet the circumference in

Then in the A ABD and AEC,
Produce

ABO.

Z.B =

285

Hyp.
263

E,

.-.

(two

Whence
:

But

322

the other).

AB,
AE,

## the longest side of the one,

the longest side of the other,
the shortest side of the one,

A 0,

.-.

(the

of

295

345

## product of the segments of a chord drawn through a fixed point in

Q is

constant).

AD* = AB X AC DB x DC.
i

Whence

## NOTE. This theorem enables us

of the angles of a triangle

if

E D
.

## compute the lengths of the bisectors

the lengths of the sides are known.
to

PLANE GEOMETRY.

166

PROPOSITION
350,

BOOK

XXIV.

III.

THEOREM.

sides is

## product of the diameter of the circum

equal
scribed circle by the altitude upon the third side.
to the

## Let ABC be a triangle, AD the altitude, and

the circle circumscribed about the triangle ABC.
Draw the diameter AE, and draw EG.

In the A ABD and A EC,
Z BDA a Z,

ABO

To prove
Proof,

is

Z EGA

is

(being inscribed in

and
.-.

(two

rt.

&

rt.

Z B-Z

264

Z,

semicircle),

263

E.

having cm acute

Whence

Cons.

rt.

/.

are similar).

an acute

AB,
AE,

## the longest side of the one,

the longest side of the other,

AC,

.:.

323
Z.

of the other

295
Q.E. D.

## NOTE. This theorem enables us to compute the length of the radius of

a circle circumscribed about a triangle, if the lengths of the three sides
of the triangle are

known.

167

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION

XXV.

PROBLEM.

## To divide a given straight line into parts pro

portional to any number of given lines.
351,

7?

Let AB,

m,

To divide

n,

Construction,

On

AX take AC=m,

lines.

m,

n,

and p.

acute

with

to

AB.

CE=n, EX^p.

Draw EX.
From

E and
JTand

(a line

draw
.5&quot;

UK and GH

to

II

BX.

sides of

II

to the

## third side divides those

sides proportionally).

/.

AH UK KB = AC
:

Substitute m, n, and

Then

AIT

CE EX.
:

HK KB - m
:

## AC, CE, and EX.

n p.
:

Q. E.

F.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

168

PROPOSITION

BOOK

XXVI.

PROBLEM.

a fourth proportional

352, To find
straight lines.

m,

n,

m,

n,

Draw Ax and Ay
Construction,

III.

On Ax

to

to three

given

andp.

andp.

## containing any acute angle.

take

On Ay

AB equal to m, BQn.
take

Draw BD.
From C draw

DF

is

\\

to

BD,

to

meet

Ay

at F.

Proof,
(a line

CF

AB

sides of

II

309

DF,

to the

## third side divides those

sides proportionally}.

Substitute m, n,

Then

and^&amp;gt;

## for their equals

=p

AB,

JBC,

and

DF.
Q. E. F.

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

XXVH.

PROPOSITION

To

353,

PROBLEM.

a third proportional

-find

169

to

two given

straight lines.

Let m and

n be the

Construction,

and take
Produce

AB

AB to D,

D draw DE

making

CE is the
(a line

A E ED = A C
:

## drawn through two

sides of

=--

AC.

EC.

third proportional to

Proof,

ED

0to meet

to

II

AC=n.

m,

Join

Through

lines.

m and n.

to

II

AC produced
AB and AC.

CE.

to the

at

E.

309

## third side divides those

sides proportionally}.

## AC for its equal ED.

Then AB AC = AC CE.
That
m:n= n CE.

:

is,

Q.E.

## Ex. 217. Construct

x, if (1)

=
,

(2)

Special Cases

2,

(4)

(1)

2,

3, c

= 3,
;

(5)

= 4;
a = 2c.
c

F.

c
(2)

= 3,

7,

c=ll;(3)

PLANE GEOMETRY.

170

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXVIII.

To find a

354,

mean

III.

PROBLEM.

straight lines.

H
m
A~--

ra

-^

-TT

## Let the two given lines be m and

To find a mean proportional between

On

Construction,

AC= m,

take

and

n.

m and n.

AE

OB = n.

## AB as a diameter describe a semi-circumference.

At erect the _L CH to meet the circumference at H.

On

CHis
Proof,

.-.

AC CH = CH

337

CB,

to the

diameter of a

the diameter).

## (the _L let fall

is

n.
proportional between in and

mean

Substitute for

A O and OB

their equals

m CH = CH

Then

circle

m and n.

n.
Q. E.

355,

mean

straight line

ratio,

when

Ex.

21 8.

(1)

is

to the greater

and

segment as

to the less.

is

Construct x
:

## the greater segment

Special Cases

is

if

a;

=
= 3; (2)a=l,

2, 6

= 5-

(3)a

F.

3,

7.

171

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION

XXIX.

PROBLEM.

## To divide a given line in extreme and mean

356,

ratio.
&quot;

X.

.--

.%&quot;&quot;&quot;

A
Let AB be the given

line.

## AB in extreme and mean ratio.

At B erect a J_ BE equal to one-half of AB.
Construction,

To divide

## From E as a centre, with a radius equal to EB, describe

Draw AE, meeting the circumference in .Fand G.
On AB take A C = AF.
= AG.
BA
On
produced take AC

a 0.

Then

AB

is

divided internally at

in

AG AB - AB

Proof,

and externally

at

ratio.
:

348

AF,

## from a point without a O a secant and a tangent are drawn,

gent is a mean proportional between the whole secant and the

(if

the tan

external

segment).

Then by

301 and

300,

AG-AB:AB = AB-AF

AF,

## AG + AB: AG=AB+AF AB.

construction
FG = 2 EB == AB.
By
AG-AB = AG-FG--=AF=AC.
:

(1)

(2)

.-.

Hence
or,

by

(1)

becomes

inversion,

Again, since
(2)

becomes

AC AB = BC AC;
AB AC= AC BC.
C A = AG = AB + AF,
C B C A == C A AB.
:

299

Q.E.F.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

172

XXX.

PROPOSITION

Upon a given

357,

BOOK

line

III.

PROBLEM.
to

homologous

a given side

## of a given polygon, to construct a polygon similar to

the given polygon.

## Let A E be the given line homologous to AE of the

given polygon ABODE.
To construct on A
a polygon similar to the given polygon.

E
Construction, From E draw the
diagonals EE and EC.
From E draw E B E C and E D\
making AA E B B E C and C E D equal respectively to
1

A AEB,

## BEG, and OED.

draw A
A B =^EAB,
making Z
and meeting
B at Bf
From Bf draw
B C = Z EBC,
making Z
and meeting
C at C
= ZECD,
From C draw C
C
making Z
and meeting
at D
Then A B C
is the
required polygon.

From

E D

j5&quot;Z&amp;gt;

DE

The corresponding

Proof,

E B C ECD and
,

(two

^&quot;(7

,

322

Z) are similar,

## are similar if they have two

of the one equal respectively
of the other}.

to

two

## Then the two polygons

are similar,

similar
(two polygons. composed of the same number of
similarly placed, are similar).

to

331
each other and

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.

173

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.
219.

To compute the

its sides.

At

least

## one of the angles

A or B is acute.

Suppose

it is

the angle B.

4 c2

-6 )(2ac-a -c
2

4c3
2 2
2
= {(a + c) b } {b* -(a- c) }

4c2

_ (a

c)

(a

5) (6

+a

c) (6

+ c)

4c2
c = 2s.
b = 2(sc

Let

a-f6 +

Then

-f

a +

Hence

2s

2 (s

a)

2(s

2(s

6),

a).

- 6) x

2(s

-c)

4c2

By

simplifying,

220.

root,

r

By?

344,

Whence

## -Y+ 6 = 2m2 -h2/

-h2-4 m2 = 2 (a 2 + 6 2 - c2
2

(Fig. 2)
.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

174

To compute the

221.

By

I 349,

By

313,

P - ab

III.

*

^1=^ =
be
,

J?Z&amp;gt;

a+b

a+b

BD =

and

a + b
abc2

Whence

(a

6)
c2

/!_

ab (a

c)

(a

(a

c)

2
Z&amp;gt;)

a5x2sx2(s-c)
(a

+ by

Whence
222.

circle

tri

## sides of the triangle.

angle in terms of the

By

350,

be

But

(s-a)(s-b}(s-c).
abc

Whence
223.

or obtuse
right, acute,

and

5, is

7, 9,

and

12, is the

## 12 right, acute, or obtuse ?

225. If the sides of a triangle are

7, 9,

and

11,

224.

is

angle opposite

## the angle opposite

The legs of a right triangle are 8 inches and 12 inches find the
the projections of these legs upon the hypotenuse, and the dis
of
lengths
tance of the vertex of the right angle from the hypotenuse.
226.

227.

bisec
(3) of the

## find the lengths (1) of the altitudes

(2) of the medians
of the radius of the circumscribed circle.
tors
;

(4)

175

EXERCISES.

THEOREMS.
Any two

228.

Two

229.

ing one

circles

circle in

## Through P three lines are drawn, meet

and the other in A B / C respectively. Prove

touch at P.

A, B,

C,

ABC,

chord

AB

is

are similar.

## intersect at M, and A is the middle point of

remains the same if the
Prove that the product AB X

## ^230. Two chords AB, CD

the arc CD.

AB C

AM

HINT. Draw the diameter AE, join BE/qpd. compare the triangles
thus formed.

## The sum of the squares of the segments

231.

chords

is

HINT.

AC

233.

234.

that

AC = ED.
ABCD,

In a parallelogram

diagonal
Prove that

in their

two perpendiculai

CD

232.

of

## equal to the square of the diameter of the circle.

are the chords, draw the diameter
If AB,

in F, the side

a line

in G,

DE

and the

BE,

join

AC,

338.
is

## drawn, meeting the

AB produced in E.

side

The tangents

common chord

## intersecting circles drawn from

produced, are equal, (g 348.)

to

two

bisect their

BO

Apply

common

of

tangents.

two intersecting

circles, if

any point

produced, will

(\$ 348.)

## two circles touch each other, their common tangent is a mean

proportional between their diameters.
HINT. Let AB be the common tangent. Draw the diameters AC, BD.
Join the point of contact P to A, B, C, and D. Show that APD and BPC
are straight lines _L to each other, and compare A ABC, ABD.
235.

&quot;&quot;

If

## flhrough the same point.

HINT. Let two of the chords

AB and CD

## meet at 0. Join the point of intersection

to 0, and suppose that EO produced meets
the same two circles at two different points P

and

Q.

## Then prove that OP- OQ; hence,

P and Q coincide,

common

chords

all

pass

PLANE GEOMETRY.

176
If

two

BOOK

TTI.

## tangent internally, all chords of the greater

the point of contact are divided proportionally by the
circumference of the smaller circle.
237.

circle

circles are

drawn from

HINT. Draw any two of the chords, join the points where they meet
A thus formed are similar.

238.

equal to

th.e

sum

is

similar.

Also the

The sum

## of the squares of the four sides of

is
equal to the sum of the squares
of the diagonals, increased by four-iimes the square
of the line joining the middle points of the diagonals.
239.

## HINT. Join the middle points F, E, of the diag

Draw EB and ED. Apply \ 344 to the

onals.

A ABC

BE

1
by applying 343 to the A BDE.

DE

## 240. The square of the bisector ofan exterior angle of a triangle

equal to the product of the external segments deter

mined by the bisector upon one of the sides.diminished by the product of the other two sides.
HINT. Let

CD

## bisect the exterior

BCH

is

II

of

A ABC. Circumscribe a about the A, produce DC to meet the circumference in F, and draw
BCF similar. Apply 347.
the

&amp;lt;

241.

If a point

BF.

Prove

## joined to the vertices of a triangle

is

&ACD,

ABC, and

AB is drawn, meeting OB
/through any point A in OA a line parallel to
at B
and then through B f a line parallel to BC, meeting OC at C
and C/ is joined to A the triangle A B C will be similar to the tri
/

angle

ABC.

242.

## two circles meets the circumferences at

D, and meets the common exterior tangent at P, then

## If the line of centres of

the
t
points A, B,

C,

PAxPD = PBxPC.
243. The line of centres of two circles meets the common exterior
from P, cutting the circles at the
tangent at P, and a secant is drawn
= PFx PQ.
that
H.
Prove
consecutive points E, F, G,

PExPH

EXERCISES.

177

NUMERICAL EXERCISES.

A line is drawn
AC in D, BC in

*P 244.

Cutting
id

DE.

(g

h.

legs

-.

tree casts a

313.)

247.

## AB of a triangle ABC, and

3, and AB= 20 inches,

## bisecting the angles,

i-.2246.

E.

The

245.

parallel to a side

when

feet long,

How

high

is

the tree

## and the altitude

Find the altitudes of the two triangles formed by producing the

till

\248.

are represented

by

a, b,

they meet.

The

homologous

to 8

is

equal to 40.

7, 8.

## Find the other two

sides.

249. The perimeters of two similar polygons are 200 feet and 300 feet.
-j
If a side of the first polygon is 24 feet, find the
side of the

homologous

second polygon.
**/

^,

## How long must a ladder be to reach a window 24 feet high,

lower end of the ladder is 10 feet from the side of the house ?

250.

line

an equilateral triangle

251.

If the side of

252.

## If the altitude of an equilateral triangle

a, find

if

the altitude.

h, find

the side.

Find the lengths of the longest and the shortest chord that can
bo drawn through a point 6 inches from the centre of a circle whose
?

253.

7

/
is

254.

equal to 10 inches.

is

## The distance from the centre of a

12 inches.
255.

a chord 10 inches
long
chord 24 inches long.

to a

is 5 inches.
Through a point 3 inches from
drawn, and also a chord perpendicular to the
Find the length of this chord, and the distance from one end

diameter.

circle to

circle

is

## of the chord to the ends of the diameter.

256. The radius of a circle is 6 inches.
Through a point 10 inches
from the centre tangents are drawn. Find the
lengths of the tangents,
and also of the chord joining the points of contact.

V 257.

## If a chord 8 inches long is 3 inches distant from the centre of

the circle, find the radius and the distances from the end of the chord
to
the ends of the diameter which bisects the chord.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

178

258.

be

drawn through

From

259.

circle

any chord
?

is

13 inches.

drawn.

is

What

is

the point

BOOK

What

is

ITI.

## Through a point 5 inches

the product of the two seg

## the end of a tangent 20 inches

long a secant is drawn
circle.
If the exterior segment of this secant

is

## The radius of a circle is 9 inches the length of a tangent is 12

Find the length of a secant drawn from the extremity of the

^ 260.

inches.

The

261.

two

mon

circle.

15 inches.

is

tangents.

and mean ratio.
-

## and 3 inches, and the dis

Find the lengths of their com

^262.

The

263.

right, or obtuse

PROBLEMS.
To divide one

264.

265.

To produce a

266.

To

(

313.)

line

-.

5.

## find in one side of a given triangle a point whose distances

to each other in a given ratio.

267.

to

draw a

line

## obtuse angle to the opposite side which shall be a

between the segments of that side.

268.

ABso

that

269.

P within

PAB so
271.

PAB so
272.

that

PA:

AB.

AB = 4: 3.

## To draw through a point

3
that ZB = PA X PB.
To

proportional

AP:5P=2:3.

270.

mean

find a point

P in

AB

so

EXEECISES.

179

## 273. To draw through one of the points of intersection of two circles

a secant so that the two chords that are formed shall be to each other

in the ratio of 3

5.

To divide a

274.

## 275. Having given the greater segment of a

and mean ratio, to construct the line.
276. To construct a circle which
and touch a given straight line.
277.

To construct a

circle

lines.

278.

To

279.

To

## inscribe a square in a given triangle.

HINT. Suppose the problem solved, and DEFQ the inscribed square.
to AB, and let
produced meet

AF
CM
CM in M. Draw Gffand MN to AB, and
produce AB to meet MN at N. The & ACM,
AOF are similar; also the A AMN, AFE
Draw

II

are similar.

the figure

By

these

CMNH

triangles

show that

a square. By construct
can be found.
ing this square, the point
is

280.

To

A.

DH E B

## inscribe in a given triangle a

rectangle similar to a given

rectangle.
281.

To

given triangle.

282.

To

given

rectangle.
283.

circle

triangle.

284.
285.

To construct the

expression, x

= ^^

that

~x

is

de

lines,

their ratio.

286.

and

To construct two

## straight lines, having given their difference

their ratio.

287.

and
Having given two circles, with cef*W6s
draw through the point A a straight
B and C, so that AB AC= 1 2.

in their plane, to
circumferences at

making

2.

Join

DC;

and a point

line,

meeting the

OA

and produce

## & OA 5, ADC are

similar.

it

to D,

BOOK

IV.

AREAS OF POLYGONS.
The area

358,

of a surface

is

## surface referred to the unit of surface.

The unit of surface is a square whose side

is

a unit of length ;

359,

PKOPOSITION

THEOREM.

I.

## 360, The areas of two rectangles having equal alti

tudes are to each other as their bases.

same

B
be AC and

E
AF, having the

^t^=4|lect.AF AE

Toprme

## AB and AE are commensurable.

Suppose AB and AE have a common measure, as AO,
contained in AB seven times and in AE four times.
which
AB ^7
Then
CASE

Proof,

I.

When

is

Apply

this

measure

The
and the

AE
to AB

(1)

and

AE, and

at the several

Js.

rect.

A C will

rect.

## be divided into seven rectangles,

AREAS OF POLYGONS.
These rectangles are

181

all equal.

186

Hence

From

(1)

CASE

II.

and

(2)

When

Ax

AE

Dl

F
B

## AB into any number of equal parts, and apply one

AE as often as will be contained in AE.
Since AB and AE are incommensurable, a certain number
Divide

of

them

to

it

remainder

Draw
Since

from

to a point

KH

II

to

K, leaving a

EF.

Case

## These ratios continue equal, as the unit of measure

nitely diminished,

rect.AF

and

and approach

AE respectively.
..

-_

(if

indefi

AB

is

I.

rect.

AF AE

## two variables are constantly

equal, and each approaches a
limits are
equal).

limit, the

Q E D
COB. The areas of two
bases
are
rectangles having equal
to each other as their altitudes.
For
and
be
con
may
sidered as the altitudes,
and
as the bases.
361,

AB

NOTE.
&quot;

In propositions
relating
etc., are often used for

triangle,&quot;
angle,&quot;

etc.

to
&quot;

areas,

area of

AE

the

words

&quot;rectangle,&quot;
&quot;

rectangle,&quot;

area of

tri

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

182

PROPOSITION

IV.

THEOREM.

II.

## 362, The areas of two rectangles are to each other

as the products of their bases l)y their altitudes.

## Let R and E be two rectangles, having for their

bases b and b and for their altitudes a and a
.

m
To

E = aXb-E a Xb

prove

## Construct the rectangle S, with its base the same as

that of E, and its altitude the same as that of
Proof,

Then

a
a

361
1

Sb

and

360

By

## multiplying these two equalities,

E
E
Ex. 288.

Find the

aXb
a

ratio of a rectangular
by 14 inches.

Q. E. O.

## Ex. 289. Find the ratio of a rectangular courtyard 18 yards by 15

yards to a flagstone 31 inches by 18 inches.
Ex. 290. A square and a rectangle have the same perimeter, 100 yards.

The length of the rectangle is 4 times its breadth. Compare their areas.
Ex. 291. On a certain map the linear scale is 1 inch to 5 miles. How
many acres are represented on this map by a square the perimeter of
which is 1 inch ?

AREAS OF POLYGONS.

PROPOSITION
363,

of

its

THEOREM.

III.

base

and

183

is

altitude.

## Let E be the rectangle, b the base, and a the alti

tude; and let U be a square whose side is equal to
the linear unit.

R=aX
a X o=
aXb,

the area of

To prove

Jii,

b.
c

IXl

## (two rectangles are to each other as the product of their bases

But
..

364.

SCHOLIUM.

= the area of R.
the area of R = a X
When

and

altitudes).

358
b.

Q. E. D.

## the linear unit an integral number of times, this proposition is

rendered evident by dividing the figure into squares, each

linear units,

Thus,

if

may

be divided

## into twenty-eight squares, each equal to the unit of measure

units of surface.
and the area of the figure equals

7x4

184

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION IV.

THEOREM.

365,

product of

its

IV.

is

equal to the

and altitude.
C F

base

BE

its base,

and CD

its altitude.

## H AEFD = ADx CD.

AB to DC to meet FE produced.
ABCD will be a rectangle, with the same

From

Proof,

Then the

figure

draw

II

In the

rt.

AEFD.

## A ABE and DCF

AB = CD and A E = DF,
(being opposite sides of a

179

ZZ7).

(two

rt.

respectively to

Take away the
.-.

## A DCF, and we have left the rect. ABCD.

A ABE, and we have left the O AEFD.
rect.

.-.

161

## hypotenuse and a side of the one are equal

the hypotenuse and a side of the other).
tlic,

ABCD
of the

=c=

O AEFD.

O AEFD = axb.

Ax. 3

363
Ax.

Q. E. D.

366,

COR.

1.

367,

COR.

2.

are
to

to

to

each

## parallelograms having equal altitudes

each other as their bases ; any two parallelograms are

## each other as the products of their bases by their altitudes.

185

AREAS OF POLYGONS.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION V.
368,

## The area of a triangle

is

equal to one-half

Let ABC be a

AB

triangle,

its base,

and DC

its

altitude.

Proof,

CH

AH

From
The

&ABC=%ABx DC.

From C draw

figure
(hawing

and

draw

ABCHis
its

II

to

BA.

II

to

BO.
168

a parallelogram,

## opposite sides parallel),

AC

is its

diagonal.

178
(the

The area
base,

diagonal of a CU divides

of the

O ABCH

is

it

its altitude.

by

the

A ABC,

is

its

365

O,

that

the area of

is,

by

its

altitude.

Hence,

## the area of the

A ABC= %AB X

369, COR. 1
Triangles having equal bases
tudes are equivalent.
.

370,

COR.

2.

DC.
Q. E. D.

and equal

## Triangles having equal bases are

to

alti

each other

;
triangles having equal altitudes are fo each
other as their bases ; any two triangles are to each other as the

as their altitudes

their altitudes.
products of their bases by

186

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION VI.

THEOREM.

IV.

## 371, The area of a trapezoid is equal to one-half

the sum of the parallel sides multiplied by the alti
tude.
TT
EJ)

.A
F
B
b
Let ABCH be a trapezoid, and EF the altitude,

To prove

area of

ABCH =

Draw

Proof,

(J3~C+

the diagonal

AB) EF

AC.

## ABC= % (AB X EF),

AHC= \ (HUX EF).
area of ABCH= \ (AB + HO) EF.

## Then the area of the A

and
the area of the A

By

372,

## median by the altitude.

l(HG+AB)\ and hence
of the

the area of
373,

SCHOLIUM.

For,

is

by

equal
191,

to

368

E D
.

the product

OP is equal

to

ABCH= OP X EF.

The area

of an irregular polygon

may

be

gon into

triangles,

and by

## finding the area of each of

these triangles separately.
But the method generally

employed in practice is to
draw the longest diagonal,
and to let fall perpendiculars upon

## this diagonal from the

other angular points of the polygon.
The polygon is thus divided into right triangles and trapezoids the sum of the areas of these figures will be the area
;

of the polygon.

AEEAS OF POLYGONS.

PROPOSITION VII.

187

THEOREM.

## The areas of two triangles which have an angle

one equal to an angle of the other are to each
the
of
other as the products of the sides including the equal
374,

angles.

angle A.

A ABC ABxAC

To prove

Draw BE.

Proof,

A ABC AC
A ABE ~AE
A ABE AB

Now

and
(& having

By

the

same

370

## multiplying these equalities,

AABC_^ABxAO
Q. E. D.

Ex. 292. The areas of two triangles which have an angle of the one
to an angle of the other are to each other as the products

supplementary

## of the sides including the supplementary angles.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

188

BOOK

IV.

COMPARISON OF POLYGONS.
PROPOSITION VIII.

THEOREM.

## 375, The areas of two similar triangles are to each

other as the squares of any two homologous sides.

A o

## Let the two triangles be ACB and A O B

A ACB
AA CB

To prove

Draw
T

the perpendiculars

A ACB

(fo;o

are

to

AB

CO and C O

ABx

A^L^ -^

CO

1
.

AB

XW = :Z^ X W
CO

o 7n

But
(the

gous bases).

## Substitute, in the above equality, for

then

A ACB

AB

AA C B

AB

AB

CO

its

their

equal

homolo

Al?

AB
Q. E. O.

189

COMPARISON OF POLYGONS.
THEOREM.

PROPOSITION IX.

## 376, The areas of two similar polygons are to each

other as the squares of any two homologous sides.

## Let S and 8 denote the areas of the two similar

polygons ABC etc., and A B C etc.

To prove
Proof,

vertices

/S&quot;

= A\$

1*1?.

## the diagonals from the homologous

By drawing
and
the two similar polygons are divided into
all

E\

triangles similar

AB*

332

A ABE

ABOE
AJJ C E

fBE*\

AA J?
A CPE
A CDE
(similar

& are

to

A ABE
AA B E*

ABCE
AB O E

E +B CE +CDE
(in

375
1

_~

A ODE
A ODE

A ABE = AB
AA B E ^ B
1

## equal ratios the sum of the antecedents is to the

consequents as any antecedent is to its consequent).

series of

.:

8:8 = 13*: AW

sides).

*
1

sum

of the

## 377. COR. 1. The areas of two similar polygons are

other as the squares of any two homologous lines.

to

E D
.

each

## 378, Con. 2. The homologous sides of two similar polygons

have the same ratio as the square roots of their areas.

190

379.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION X.

THEOREM.

IV.

## right triangle is equivalent to the

on the other two sides.

sum

of the squares

## Let BE, CH, AF, be squares on the three sides of the

right triangle ABC.
To prove

C*

=c=

Proof,
Through
CE, and draw

AS -f AC*.
A

draw AL\\io

A BAG, BAG,

Since
are

rt.

A,

GAG

and

CAH

and

BAH

are

straight lines.

BD =

Since
BG, being sides of
the same square, and
BF,
for the same reason, and since

BA =

Z ABD = Z FBC,
sum

of a

rt. Z.

## each being the

and the

Z.

ABC,

A ABD = A FBC.
double the A ABD,
rectangle BL
the

Now

the

150

is

BD, and
Us

the

AL

same

and

D),

and

## the square-4-Fis double the

FBC,
(having the same base FB, and the same altitude, the distance between the
\\s FB and
OG).
Hence the rectangle
is
equivalent to the square AF.

BL

AE and BK,

it

may

be proved

## that the rectangle CL is equivalent to the

square CH.
Therefore the square BE, which is the sum of the rectangles

BL
^

and CL,

380,

is

equivalent to the

sum

of the squares

CH and

equivalent

to

squares

is

## on the hypotenuse and

191

COMPAEISON OF POLYGONS.

Ex. 293. The square constructed upon the sum of two straight lines
these two lines,
equivalent to the sum of the squares constructed upon
increased by twice the rectangle of these lines.
their sum.
Con
and BC be the two straight lines, and
Let

is

AC

AB

## struct the squares

ACGK

AB

Prolong

respectively.

meet

KG

square

CG

and

EFGH,

Then
respectively.
with sides each equal to

ACGK

the square

## ABED upon AC and

BE and DE until they

and

is

the

sum

BC.

DEHK and

EFGH,

to

the

Hence,

of the squares

## and the rectangles

the dimensions of which are equal

and

we have

AB and

ABED

I)

BCFE,
**

BC.

Ex. 294. The square constructed upon the difference of two straight
these two
is
equivalent to the sum of the squares constructed upon

lines

lines,

## diminished by twice the rectangle of these lines.

AB and A C be the two straight lines, and BC their difference.

Let

ABFG

the square

shown

Prolong

in the figure).

BEDC upon BC (as

ED until

it

meets

H K

AG

in L.

## The dimensions of the rectangles

AB and AC, and the square
the difference between the whole
are

## LEFG and HKDL

BODE is evidently

## figure and the sum

F
G
that
the square constructed
the
sum
of
the
to
constructed
AB
BC
squares
equivalent
upon
upon
and AC diminished by twice the rectangle of AB and AC.
of these rectangles

is,

is

Ex. 295. The difference between the squares constructed upon two
is
equivalent to the rectangle of the sum and difference of

straight lines
these lines.

Let

## ABDE and BCGF be the squares constructed

AB and BC. The difference between

straight lines
these squares

ACGFDE,

which poly
to
is seen to be
CG
H,
by
prolonging
composed of
gon,
and
the rectangles ACHE and GFDH. Prolong
is

the polygon

## upon the two

_,

K
H

AE

CHto Jand

^&quot;respectively,

making Eland

HK each

## The rectangles GFDH

The difference between the

## EHKI are equal.

squares ABDE and BCGF
and

rectangle

ACKI, which

AB- BC.

is then
equivalent to the
has for dimensions AI

AB + BC,

C
and

EH

PLANE GEOMETRY.

192

BOOK

IV.

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION

XL

PROBLEM.

two
given squares.
of
381,

sum

to the

## Let R and R be two given squares.

To construct a square equivalent
Construction,

Construct the

Take

AB equal

AC equal

to

rt.

It

-f-

to a side of

to a side of

1
,

S is

R.

A.

its

sides equal to

Proof,

## on the hypotenuse of a rt. A

squares on the two

(the square

BC.

379
equivalent to the

sum

s).

:.& +

of the

Q.E.F.

is

72

feet,

is

&quot;

## to twice the width, find the area.

tiles 9 inches long and 4 inches wide will be
8
feet wide surrounding a rectangular court 120
a
pave path
feet long and 36 feet wide ?

How many

Ex. 297.

required to

Ex.
is

298.

equal to

## The bases of a trapezoid are 16 feet and 10

Find the area of the trapezoid.

feet.

feet;

each leg

193

PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROBLEM.

PROPOSITION XII.

## 382, To construct a square equivalent to the differ

ence of two given squares.

s
i

-J-

._

%/_

&quot;&quot;&quot;

1

## To construct a square equivalent

Construct the

Construction,

Take

From

to

rt.

JR.

A.

AB equal to a side

of

R.

(the square

on

AX

&\&amp;gt;

its sides

R\

O.

A 0.

equal to

AC

Proof.

larger.

is

~?7*,~~~-A

=0=

W - A3

380

## either leg of a rt.

is equivalent to the difference of the
squares on the hypotenuse and the other leg).

==

R - R.
1

Q. E.

## Ex. 299. Construct a square equivalent

whose sides are 3 inches and 4 inches.

to the

sum

## Ex. 300. Construct a square equivalent to the

whose sides are 2 inches and 2 inches.

of

two squares

difference of

## Ex. 301. Find the side of a square equivalent to the

squares whose sides are 24 feet and 32 feet.

F.

sum

of

two
two

Ex. 302. Find the side of a square equivalent to the difference of two
squares whose sides are 24 feet and 40 feet.

Ex. 303.
diagonal

is

A
10

## rhombus contains 100 square feet, and the length of one

Find the length of the other diagonal.

feet.

194

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIII.

TV.

PROBLEM.

## To construct a square equivalent

any number of given squares.

383,

of

Let

m,

n, o, p,

sum

to the

## be sides of the given squares.

To construct a square

=c=

-f n* -f o -f

-f r

2
.

Take AB = m.
Draw AC = n and _L to AB at A, and draw BG.
Draw GE = o and J_ to BG at O, and draw BE.
Draw EF =p and _L to BE at E, and draw BF.

Construction,

Draw

FH= r

and

J_ to

BF at ^,

BH\s

and draw

BH.

Proof,

^ FIT + EF +

^F + EF* + ^C
2

=0=

* FH* + EO
(the

sum

That

of the squares

is,

-^r

EF + CA* + AB\

## on the two leas of a rt. A

on the hypotenuse).

BH*

=c=

m + n*

-f-

o -f

is

379

## equivalent to the square

+ r.
Q.E.F,

195

PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION XIV.

PROBLEM.

## 384, To construct a polygon similar to two given

similar polygons and equivalent to their sum.

&quot;

A!

B&quot;

.......
&quot;Li

## Let E and R be two similar polygons, and AB and

A B two homologous sides.
To construct a similar polygon equivalent
Construct the

Construction.

Take

PH= A

Upon
Then
Proof,

A&quot;H&quot;,

J?&quot;

is

homologous to

and

AB,

IV.

Z P.
PO = AB.

rt.

take

to JR-\-

A&quot;&quot;

OH.

construct

It&quot;

similar to

E.

PO*

\r

fr=^

and

&&quot;

:**

By

^^ = ^ + ^ =1
to

B76

A&quot;&quot;*

-B&quot;

A&quot;&quot;

.Sf-o-K +

Sf.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

19G

PROPOSITION XV.

IV.

PROBLEM.

## 385, To construct a polygon similar to two given

similar polygons and equivalent to their difference.

/*

A!

13

A&quot;

## Let R and R be two similar

A B two homologous sides.
f

polygons,

and take

H.

R*

rt. Z P,
PO = AB.

Take

to

and AS and

Construct the

Construction,

From

B&quot;

A&quot;&quot;

= PIT,

and on

construct

Then

R&quot;

PX at IT,

is

P&quot;

A B\

homologous
similar to R.
A&quot;J3&quot;,

to

AB,

## the polygon required.

Proof,

E
other as the squares of their homologous sides).
(similar polygons are to each

By

subtraction,

72

E F
.

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION XVI.

197

PROBLEM.

386,

polygon.

to

a given

## Let ABGDHE be the given polygon.

To construct a triangle equivalent
Construction,

to the

given polygon.

## From D draw DE,

and from J7draw EF to DE.
II

## HF at F, and draw DF.

AEto

meet
Again, draw CF, and draw
duced at K, and draw CK.
Produce

DK

CF

to

II

to

meet

AF pro

we obtain the
CIK.

Proof,

polygon

The polygon

ABGDHE,

ABCDF

and the A
(for the base

DE

is

ABODE

ABCK

II

their vertices
to the
base}.

common,

and

369

H are in

the line

polygon

## but the two are equivalent.

ABCF common,
CFK^ A CFD,
369
base CF
K and D are in the
common, and their
KD
the
In like manner the A CIK^= ABCK.
For the part
and the A

(for the

is

DEF^ A DEE,

common, and

FH

The polygon

ABCDF,

## but the two are equivalent.

is

is

vertices

II

to

line

base}.

Q. E.

F,

198

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XVII.

PROBLEM.

IV.

a given square.

387,

ratio to

/ /
m

IB

&quot;V..

R be the given

square, and

___^

## the given ratio.

R as n

to

is to

AB

Take
equal to a side of R, and
AB.
with
acute
angle
making any
Construction,

On Ay

take

AE=m, EF

n,

and join

m.

draw Ay,

EB.

FG to EB to meet AB produced at C.
On A C as a diameter describe a semicircle.

Draw
At

B erect

\\

the J.

BD,

## a side of the square required.

Then BD
and BD by x.
Denote AB by a, BO by
is

Proof.

b,

Now

a x
:

that

Therefore

(a straight line

2
:

is,

= ab.

ratio to x*

= a ab = a
:b = m:n,
2

x2

and

337
to ab.

b.

309

## sides of a A, parallel to the third side,

divides those sides proportionally).

2
Therefore a

By

inversion, x*

n has to m.

BD will

= m n.
a = n m.

x2

## have the same ratio to

R as
Q. E.

F.

PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROBLEM.

PROPOSITION XVIII.
388,

## gon and having a given

199

ratio to

a given poly

to

it.

^x

\
_ ./

V.

A
Let R he the given polygon and
n

m.

to

## the given ratio.

H, which shall be

R as

to

is to

Construction,

structed upon
as n is to m.

Upon
gon

AB

S similar

Find a
it

line

AB

upon

AB
387

as a side
to

homologous to

AB,

R.

Then

## S is the polygon required.

S R = A B AB\
2

Proof,

376

(similar polygons are to each other as the squares of their homologous sides).

AB =n:m.
S R = n m.

AB

But
Therefore

Cons.

Q. E. F.

## Ex. 304. Find the area of a right triangle

is 17 feet, and the length of one
leg is 8

nuse

if

feet.

## Ex. 305. Compare the altitudes of two equivalent

base of one

is

triangles, if the

## three times that of the other.

Ex. 306. The bases of a trapezoid are 8 feet and 10 feet, and the alti
Find the base of an equivalent rectangle having an equal
is 6 feet.

tude

altitude.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

200

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIX.

IV.

PROBLEM.

389.

a given

to

^parallelogram.

f)

b its

altitude.

Construction,

Upon

and

a its

O ABCD.

to the

base,

MN=

a,

and

N0 = b.

## MO as a diameter, describe a semicircle.

At N erect NP -L to MO, to meet the circumference at P.
Upon

## Then the square R, constructed upon a

is

equivalent to the

O ABCD.

MN NP = NP

Proof,

(a JL let fall

line equal to

337

NO,

## from any point of a circumference

to the

NP,

diameter

is

a mean

the diameter).
proportional between the segments of

That
390,

ABCD.

is,

COR.

1.

square

may

be constructed equivalent to a
side a mean proportional be-

its
given triangle, by taking for
tween the base and one-half the altitude of the triangle.

## square may be constructed equivalent

the polygon to an equivalent
polygon, by first reducing
to the
then
constructing a square equivalent
triangle, and
391,

i&amp;gt;m

&amp;lt;7z

triangle

COR. 2

to

201

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION XX.

PROBLEM.

## To construct a parallelogram equivalent to a

given square, and, having the sum of its base and
altitude equal to a given line.
392,

J JV

## Let R be the given, square, and let the sum of the

base and altitude of the required parallelogram be
equal to the given line MN.

To construct a

and

equivalent

Construction,

At

Upon

erect a J_

Draw

PQ

II

MN&s

MP,

to

having
equivalent to R.

the

sum

of

t

CM for

its

to

at 8.

MN.

altitude

and

ON for

its

80= PM.

Proof,

MC:SC=SC:

But

ON.

may

be stated

is

337

ON,

## any point in the circumference lo the diameter

proportional between ilic, segments of the diameter).

Then

base

100, 180

the

base

its

## a diameter, describe a semicircle.

Draw SO A.

Any.O

R, with

to

MN.

altitude equal to

is

a mean

Q. E. F.

lines

PLANE GEOMETKY.

202

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXI.

IV.

PROBLEM.

## To construct a parallelogram equivalent to a

given square, and having the difference of its base
and altitude equal to a given line.
393,

s
\

Afp-

JN

## Let R be the given, square, and let the difference of

the base and altitude of the required parallelogram
be equal to the given line MN.
To construct a
base

and

Construction.

equivalent

Upon

to

## with the difference of the

MN.

altitude equal to

## the given line

JOTas

a diameter, describe

circle.

From

M draw

MS, tangent

to the

R.

## Through the centre of the O draw SB intersecting the cir

(7 and B.
Then any O, as R having SB for its base and SC for its

cumference at

R.

altitude, is equivalent to

SB

Proof,
(if from

a point without

SM= SM

348

SO,

and

the

is

SM - SB X SC,
1

Then
and the

-difference

O, that

MN.

NOTE.

is,

between

SB

and

SO

is

Q.E.F.

## To construct two straight

This problem may be stated
and product of which are known.

the difference

lines

PKOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION XXII.

203

PROBLEM.

## 394, To construct a polygon similar to a given poly

gon P, and equivalent to a given polygon Q.

fr

m-

W
Let

P and

## Q be two polygons, and AB a side of P.

to P and
equivalent to Q.
Find squares equivalent to P and Q,
391

## To construct a polygon similar

Construction,

and

let

AB
Upon A B
Find

m and n respectively

homologous

Then
Proof.
.

But

P
m
m
1

,2

is

n
^2

AB,

to

construct

AB.

P similar

351
to

P.

## the polygon required.

= AB A B\
:

Cons.

P=c=m

P: Q=--m

and

Cons.

:tf--=

But

376

(similar polygons are to each other as the squares of their homologous sides).

:.P:Q=P:P.
/.

is

equivalent to Q, and

is

similar to

Ax.

P by construction.
Q. E.

F.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

204

BOOK

IV.

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.
Ex. 307. To find the area of an equilateral triangle in terms of

its

side.

a,

the altitude

by

h,

S.

O ~2

_5&amp;gt;

Then

axh

But

\/3~

By Ex.

219,

= f V7(s -

-X-

Hence,

a)

(s

## in terms of its sides.

- b) (s -

Vs(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)

Vs (s

a)

(s

b) (s

c).

circumscribing
Tf

c).

circle.

R denote

of the triangle,

we

A
Multiply by

But

a,

and we have

2 S.

abc

## NOTE. The radius of the circumscribing

circle is

equal to

48

EXERCISES.

205

THEOREMS.
310. In a right triangle the product of the legs is equal to the product
of the hypotenuse and the perpendicular drawn to the hypotenuse from
the vertex of the right angle.

311.

If

BD a line

ABC

a right triangle, C
of the right angle,
the_vertex_
~
rr
D, then BD* + AC* = AB* +

is

cutting

AC in

## 312. Upon the sides of a right triangle as homologous sides three

similar polygons are constructed.
Prove that the polygon upon the
hypotenuse is equivalent to the sum of the polygons upon the legs.

Two

313.

of

its

altitude of one

is

each

314.

.&amp;gt;\

## isosceles triangles are

equivalent if their legs are equal

and the

to each,

is

circle.

## 315. Two parallelograms are equa^it-jfa^ adjacent sides of the one

are equal respectively to two adjacent sidjfcf the other, and the included
^**^^m\$\
angles are supplementary.
316.

divides

Every
it

317.

into

straight line

two equal

## If the middle points of

318. If

sum

\\
the, centre of a parallelogram

parts.

## joined, a triangle is formed

entire parallelogram.

the

^&quot;^

Hf~

drawn through

which

is

## sides of a parallelogram are

equivalent to one-eighth of the

## any point within a parallelogram is joined to the four vertices,

having parallel bases is equivalent to

## of either pair of triangles

one-half the parallelogram.

## 319. The line which joins the middle

points of the bases of a trapezoid divides the trapezoid into two equivalent
parts.
320. The area of a trapezoid is equal to the
product of one of the
and the distance from this leg to the middle point of the other leg.
-

321.

The

lent parts.
\,

322.

The

figure

legs

two equiva

whose

is

## vertices are the middle points of the sides of

equivalent to one-half of the quadrilateral.

## 323. ABC is a triangle, M the middle point of AB, P any point in

AB between A and M. If MD drawn parallel to PC, and meeting
BC at D, the triangle BPD is equivalent to one-half the triangle ABC.
is

206

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

IV.

NUMERICAL EXERCISES.
324. Find the area of a rhombus,
4,
and their ratio is 3 5.

## Find the area of an

325.
is

20 feet

sum

is

13

and 35

A house

its

feet

feet,

is

40

feet long,

30

feet,

is

feet.

if

one side

if

the

= b, and leg = c.
= 8. /(rU
altitude = h.

feet

to the eaves,

25

feet wide,

high

The

12

hypotenuse

one leg

Y&amp;gt;

in f

^S

331.

is

## Find the area of an equilateral triangle

329. Find the area of an equilateral triangle

328.

330.

diagonals

327.

its

326.

of

the

if

^fl^T

Find the area.
is 12 feet.

5.

the hypotenuse

332.

the hypotenuse

upon

*&quot;^

## Find the area of a triangle

111 feet, and 175 feet.

333.
feet,

feet respectively.

335.
feet,

ABCD

336.

What

is

is

is

&quot;/

and the

altitude

V-.

^i=S7

## AC=* 200 feet.

feet,

Find the

BC= 119

feet,

feet

CD = 41

area.

is 400 feet?
feet, if the perimeter of the quadrilateral

25

same circle ?

the area of a

## 337. The base of a triangle

the perimeter of an equivalent

338.

if

= a,

is 700
square feet. The bases are 30
Find the distance between the bases.

a trapezium;

is

DA = 169 feet,

What

one leg

334.

and 40

if

h.

Upon

is

15

feet,

rhombus

and
if

its

altitude

the altitude

is

is

8 feet.
feet.

Find
c

## the diagonal of a rectangle 24 feet by 10 feet a triangle

What is its altitude?
is constructed.

339.

## Find the side of a square equivalent to a trapezoid whose bases

and 44 feet, and each leg is 10 feet.
\$

are 56 feet

a line is
Through a point Pin the side AB of a triangle ABC,
drawn parallel to BC, and so as to divide the triangle into two equiva
Find the value of AP in terms of AB.
lent parts.
340.

207

EXERCISES.
341.

What

## cut off by a line

part of a parallelogram is the triangle
to the middle point of one of the opposite sides ?

342.

25

feet.

## In two similar polygons, two homologous sides are 15 feet and

The area of the first polygon is 450 square feet. Find the area

## of the other polygon.

What is
343. The base of a triangle is 32 feet, its altitude 20 feet.
the area of the triangle cut off by drawing a line parallel to the base
and at a distance of 15 feet from the base ?
344. The sides of two equilateral triangles are 3 feet and 4
the side of an equilateral triangle equivalent to their sum.

345.

another,
346.

the

## If the side of one equilateral triangle

what is the ratio of their areas ?

The

al^K

angle^^ed by

two sides.

the

first

trapejaoid,

one base

is

10

feet,

v Find

is

348.

and 21

feet.

Find

feet.

the altitude

## the length of a line

and distant 1 foot from it.
parallel to the base
is

347. In a
32 square

is

Find

feet.

is

feet,

the area

legs

## If the altitude A of a triangle is increased by a length m, how

the base a in order that the area may remain

the same

## Find the area of a right triangle, having given the segments p,

into which the hypotenuse is divided by a perpendicular drawn to the
q,
hypotenuse from the vertex of the right angle.
349.

PROBLEMS.
350.

## having one side equal

to a given. length

to

## a given triangle, and

I.

an equivalent right

351.

To transform a triangle

into

352.

To transform a triangle

## into an equivalent isosceles triangle.

353.

To transform a triangle

ABO

## ing one side equal

HINTS. Upon

CD, and

to

a given length

I,

triangle.

into an equivalent
and one angle equal

triangle,
to angle

hav

BAG.

## AB (produced if necessary), take AD = draw BE to

meeting AC (produced if necessary) at E\ A BED^&BEC.
I,

II

## To transform a given triangle into an equivalent right triangle,

one
leg equal to a given length.
having
354.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

208

IV.

## To transform a given triangle into an equivalent right triangle,

the
hypotenuse equal to a given length.
having
355.

## 356. To transform a given triangle into an equivalent isosceles

angle, having the base equal to a given length.

tri

## To construct a triangle equivalent to

The sum of two given triangles.

357.

two given

358.

The

359.

To transform a given

difference of

triangles.

## triangle into an equivalent equilateral

triangle.

To transform a parallelogram
360.
361.

362.

A
A
A

363.

An

364.

A
A

into

366.

y^

equilateral triangle.

&amp;gt;867.

## rectangle having a given altitude.

To transform a square

365.

into

## parallelogram having one side equal to a given length.

parallelogram having one angle equal to a given angle.

to

## Five-eighths of a given square.

Three-fifths of a given pentagon.

To draw a

## line through the vertex of a given triangle so. as to

divide the triangle into two triangles which shall be to each other as 2:3.
&quot;&quot;368.

5* 369.
To divide a given triangle into two equivalent parts hy drawing
a line through a given point
in one of the sides.

370.

To

find

## a point within a triangle, such that the lines joining this

point to the vertices shall divide the triangle into three equivalent parts.
&quot;&quot;&quot;371.

To divide a given

triangle into

## a line parallel to one of the sides.

372. To divide a given triangle into two equivalent parts by drawing
a line perpendicular to one of the sides.

## To divide a given parallelogram into two equivalent parts by

drawing a line through a given point in one of the sides.
374. To divide a given trapezoid into two equivalent parts by draw
^&amp;gt;373.

## ing a line parallel to the bases.

&quot;^375.
To divide a given tranezoid into two equivalent parts by draw
ing a line through a given point iu one of the bases.

BOOK

V.

395,

regular polygon

and equiangular

CIRCLES.

a polygon which

is

is

equilateral

and

the square.

PROPOSITION
396,

An

THEOREM.

I.

## equilateral polygon inscribed in

circle is

a regular polygon.
c

Let ABC

etc.,

a circle.
To prove
Proof,

t fie

polygon

The

arcs

(in the

Hence
and

ABC

etc.,

regular.

etc.,

are equal,

arcs

the

ABO, BCD,

A, B,

etc.,

230

arcs).

are equal,

Ax. 6

ABC,

etc., is

## a regular polygon, being

aE

Dt

210

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION
397,

circle

V.

THEOREM.

and a
any regular polygon.

may

circle

may

II.

BOOK

be inscribed in,

I.

To prove

that

circle

may

be

ABODE.
Proof,

A, B,

## be the centre of the circle passing through

Let

a
OA, OB, 00, and OD.

Join
Since the polygon

is

## equiangular, and the

A OBCis isosceles,
154

and

By

Z OB A = Z. OCD.

subtraction,

Hence

in the

A OB A and OCD
Z OB A = Z OCD,

the

the

AB=OD.
OAB = A OCD,

and
.-.A
(having two sides

and

OC,

the included

included
,

Z of the other).

395
to

two sides

.OA = OD.

D.
passes through

150
and the

C,

also

In like manner

it

through

C,

E\ and so on

may

and D,

II.

211

## also passes through

all the vertices in succession.

through

CIRCLES.

OA,

as a centre,

and with a

To prove that a

may

circle

be inscribed in

ABODE.

Proof,

## regular polygon are equal

chords of the circumscribed circle, they are equally distant

## from the centre.

Therefore a circle described from
the distance from

to a side of the

236
and with

as a centre,

398,

Q. E.D.

OA,

called

is

## the radius of the polygon.

399,

of the

apothem

scribed circles

is

side, as

is

called the

of the circumscribed

and

in

401,

OF,

polyyon.

400,

any

## of the inscribed circle,

angle

AOB,

is

drawn

to the extremities of

polygon.

## By joining the centre to the vertices of a regular polygon,

the polygon can be decomposed into as many equal isosceles
Therefore,
triangles as it has sides.
1.
The angle at the centre of a regular polygon is
four right angles divided by the number of sides of

COR.

402,

equal

to

the polygon.
403,

polygon
404,

Con.

2.

bisects the

COR.

3.

to

any

vertex of

a regular

## angle at the vertex.

The

interior angle of

a regular polygon

is

the

## Z ABC = 2 Z ABO = Z ABO + /.BAO.

Z ABC is the supplement of the Z AOB.

For the
the

Hence

PLANE GEOMETRY.

212

PROPOSITION

BOOK

V.

THEOREM.

III.

## If the circumference of a circle is divided into

parts, the chords joining the

405,

## form a regular inscribed

and the tangents drawn at the points of
form a regular circumscribed polygon.
H
I
D

## successive points of division

polygon,
division

F
Let the circumference be divided into equal
AJ3,
I.

arcs,

To prove that
is a regular
polygon.

ABODE

Proof,

The

(in the

sides

same

etc.,

230

are equal,

## Therefore the polygon

is

396

regular,

O is regular).
II. To prove that the polygon FGIIIKis a regular
polygon.
Proof, In the A AFB, BGC, CUD, etc.
(an equilateral polygon inscribed in a

AB - BC= CD,

Also,

Z BAF= Z

395
269

etc.

etc.,

Hence

all

Z.F=/.G = Z.H,

etc.

## FB = BG=GC = CH, etc.

Therefore FG = GH, etc.
a regular polygon.
/. FGH1K

Also,

is

395
Q. E. D.

## 1. Tangents to a circumference at the vertices of a

inscribed
regular
polygon form a regular circumscribed poly
gon of the same number oj

406.

COR.

407,

COR.

the tangents

2.

213

## If a regular polygon is inscribed in a

at the middle points

circle,

drawn

## polygon form a circumscribed regular

polygon, whose sides are parallel to the
polygon and whose
the inscribed polygon. For any two cor
sides of the inscribed
vertices lie

AB

## and A B perpendicular to OM,

and the tangents
and
intersecting at a
from
&nd
0_ZV( 246), intersect upon the
point equidistant
bisector of the Z. MON( 163)
that is, upon the radius OB.
sides, as

responding

MB

are parallel,

NB

OM

## If the vertices of a regular inscribed

are joined to the middle points of the arcs sub
tended by the sides of the polygon, the joining
408,

COR.

3.

## lines form a regular inscribed polygon

double the number of sides.

of

## 409, COR. 4. If tangents are drawn at the

middle points of the arcs between adjacent

a regular

polygon

D K

cir

number of

sides

is

formed.

## SCHOLIUM. The perimeter of an inscribed polygon is

than the perimeter of the inscribed polygon of double the
number of sides; for each pair of sides of the second polygon
410,

less

is
(

first

137).

## The perimeter of a circumscribed polygon is greater than

the perimeter of the circumscribed polygon of double the num
ber of sides for every alternate side FG, HI, etc., of the
poly
;

gon FGJTI,

## etc., replaces portions of two sides of the circum

scribed polygon ABCD, and forms with them a
triangle, and
one side of a triangle is less than the sum of the other two sides.

214

411,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION IV.

THEOREM.

same number of

the

V.

## Let Q and Q be two regular polygons, each having

1

n sides.

Q and Q

To prove

The sum

Proof,

similar polygons.

of the interior

A of each polygon

205

O-2)2rt,Zs,
(the

sum

of the interior
times

Each angle
(

for the

to 2 rt.
of a polygon is equal
less 2 as the polygon has sides).

of either polygon

equal to

is

= (n
*

2) 2

taken as

rt.

R
S

## all equal and hence each

of a regular polygon are
divided by their number).
to the sum of the

many

is

nA
AJO
equal

Since

AB = BO,

etc.,

AE\ A

Q and Q
and

AB =
C:

BC

their

395

etc.,

etc.

homologous sides

proportional.

319

412,

number

COR.

of sides are

homokgous.

sides.

to

a E. D.
the

same

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION V.
413,

215

CIECLES.

to

## of their circumscribed circles,

of their inscribed circles.

and

A M B

## Let P and P denote the perimeters,

centres, of the two regular polygons.
From

P P = OA

To prove
Proof,

draw OA, O

0,

OB, O

OA

and

= OM: O M

and
Ja

O&amp;gt;

OM, O

the

411

333
In the

isosceles

A OAB and

and
.

OAB

OA OB = O A O B

.:A:A =OA:0 A

the

AB A B = OM:

Also
(the

## homologous altitudes of similar

/.

P:P =OA:

O
A have the same ratio
O A = OM: OM

326
319

328

as their bases).
.

Q. E. D.

## COR. The areas of two regular polygons of the same

number of sides are to each other as the squares of the radii
414,

and

## also as the squares of the

376

216

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION VI.

THEOREM.

V.

The difference between the lengths of the perima regular inscribed polygon and of a similar
circumscribed polygon is indefinitely diminished as
415.

eters of

the

increased.

## Let P and P denote the lengths of the perimeters,

corresponding sides, OA and OA the
r

AB and A B two

To prove
indefinitely
Proof,

that,

number

as the

P
increased, f

diminished.

is

is indefinitely

P:P=OA
P

Whence

OA(P

Now OA

is

:OA.

P P OA

Therefore

333

OA

P) = P(OA

OA.

301

- OA).

295

though an

## increasing variable, always remains less than the circumference

of the circle.

Therefore
is

Pis

indefinitely diminished,

if

OA

OA

indefinitely diminished.

Draw

In the

A OA C,

Substituting

OA

00 to
OA

OA

AC.
00, we have

OC&amp;lt;

OA&amp;lt;A O.

A JB

137

217

CIRCLES.

## But as the number of sides of the polygon is indefinitely

increased, the length of each side is indefinitely diminished
and consequently
that is,
C, is indefinitely diminished.
;

AE

Therefore

OA

OA, which

P P

is

is less

than

C, is

indefinitely

diminished.
1

Therefore

The

COR.

416,

indefinitely diminished.

E D

areas of a regular

## difference between the

and

inscribed polygon

is

## the number of the sides of the poly

indefinitely diminished as

gons

increased.

is indefinitely

if

For,

and

S
By division, S

## denote the areas of the polygons,

8= OZ OA = OA
- S: S= OA - 00*
2

*
:

00\

414

00*.

S -8= 8x OA *IL OC = 8x 4
00
OO

Whence

## C can be indefinitely diminished by increasing the

of the sides, /S
can be indefinitely diminished.

Since

number

## SCHOLIUM. The perimeter P is constantly greater

and the area S is constantly greater than 8\ for the
than
radius OA is constantly greater than OA. But
constantly
decreases and
constantly increases ( 410), and the area S
constantly decreases, and the area S constantly increases, as
1

417,

the

number

## Since the difference between

we

small as
since

P
is

and

is

is

indefinitely increased.

and

## the length of the circumference.

Also, since the difference between the areas

zero,

as small as

and since

evident that

common

zero,

and

is
decreasing while
increasing, it is evident that
This common limit
tend towards a common limit.

limit

is

/S&quot;

we
is

and

259

and

S can

be

decreasing, while S is increasing, it is

tend towards a

common

limit.

This

218

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION VII.

THEOREM.

418.

the

V.

same

ratio as

## Let C and C be the circumferences, R and R the

two circles Q and Q

C\C = E\

To prove

Iff.

## two similar regular polygons, and

and P.
perimeters by

Inscribe in the

Proof,

denote their

P-P = R:R

Then

P= R

X P.
413) that is, Iff X
Conceive the number of the sides of these similar regular
polygons to be indefinitely increased, the polygons continuing
to have an equal

RXP

Then
will

approach

(l

number

of sides.

Rx

## will continue equal to

and
P, and
and C 1 as their respective limits.
indefinitely

R XC= RxC

/.

260)

that

C:

is,

=R

Iff.
Q. E. D.

419.

COR.

diameter

is

The

## ratio of the circumference of a circle to its

For, in the above proportion, by doubling

constant.

J3

By

## This constant ratio

is

we have

C:2R=C

alternation,

whose diameter

=2:2

C:C

is

2 J2

denoted by

IT,

so that for

R and circumference
-- = or

SCHOLIUM. The

ratio

C,

any

circle

we have

C=2&amp;gt;rrR.

ir,

420,

TT is

## REGULAR POLYGONS AND CIRCLES.

219

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION VIII.

421, The area of a regular polygon is equal to onehalf the product of its apothem by its perimeter.

## Let P represent the perimeter, R the apothem, and

8 the area of the regular polygon ABC etc.

8= % E X P.

To prove

## Draw OA, OB, OC,

Proof.

The polygon

The apothem
and the area

is
is

divided into as
the

common

many

A as

it

altitude of these

is

equal to

of all the

is

of each

etc.

-J

has

A,

R multiplied

base.

## Hence the area

the

sum

sides.

by the
368

equal to ^ It multiplied by

is

of the polygon.

is

Therefore

S=

RX P.
Q. E. D.

422,

sectors,

and

the centre.

220

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION IX.

THEOREM.

The area of a

423,

circumference.

circle is

its

product of

V.

its

BMC

## Let E represent the radius, C the circumference,

and S the area, of the circle.

S=%RxC.

To prove

## Circumscribe any regular polygon about the

and denote its perimeter by P.
Proof,

of this polygon

=|EX

P,

circle,

421

## Conceive the number of sides of the polygon to be indefi

then the perimeter of the polygon approaches
nitely increased
the circumference of the circle as its limit, and the area of the
;

## polygon approaches the circle as its limit.

But the area of the polygon continues to be equal to onehalf the product of the radius by the perimeter, however great
the

number

Therefore

S - %R X &

260
Q. E. D.

COR.

424.

of

its

1.

425,

COR.

2.

## The area of a sector equals one-half the product

For the sector is such a part of the
its arc.
is

of the circumference.

The area of a

For the area of the

circle equals

IT

O = | R X O= \$ E X

The areas of two

426, COE. 3.

For,

are

circles

8 and S

if

221

CIRCLES.

to

Con.

427,

4.

## Similar arcs, being like parts of their respective

to each other as their radii ; similar sectors,

circumferences, are

to

each other as

PROPOSITION X.

THEOREM.

## 428. The areas of two similar segments are to each

other as the squares of their radii.

^.4^

JL~

JB
P

## Let AC and A C be the radii of the two similar seg

ments ABP and A B P
1

ABP A B P = AC* A C

To prove
Proof.

The

A* C B are
centre, C and C

ACB and

sectors

*.

422

similar,

A at the
equal).
In the A ACBsuiAA C B
Z.0=/. C AC= CB, and A C = C B
Therefore the A ACB and A C B are similar.
Now sector ACB sector A C B = AC* A C
(having the

and
TT n

That

AACJ3:AA C B = AC: A^
sector ACS- A AC3
_ AC*
~~
-A
sector A C

ABP A B P = AC
1

is,

326
427

*,

375

qm

AW
Q.E.O.

222

PLANE GEOMETKY.

BOOK

V.

PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROBLEM.

PROPOSITION XI.

429.

Let
To

inscribe

a square in the

Draw

Construction,

circle.

circle.

circle.

AC

and

ED

J_ to

each other.
Join

AECD
The A ABC,

Then
Proof.

is

BCD,

etc.,

are

rt,

264

A,

and the
(in the

same

sides

AE, EC,

etc.,

230

are equal,

Hence the

figure

A BCD

is

5m

a square.

Q. E. F.

COR.

430.

polygon

By

of eight sides

may

AE, EC,

etc.,

a,

regular

sixty-four,

etc.,

sides

may

be inscribed.

is

## Ex. 377. If the length of the

what

is

side of

an inscribed square

## the length of the circumscribed square

is

2 inches,

223

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROBLEM.

PROPOSITION XII.
431,

Let

## To inscribe in the given

From

Construction,

From

(7

circle

circle.

circle.

a regular hexagon.

draw any

Then
Proof,

CF is

The

Hence the

And

## a side of the regular hexagon required.

A OFC

is

Z FOO is
FO is

the arc

-jt

equilateral
of 2

rt.

and equiangular.

A, or \ of 4

of the circumference

rt,

138

ABCF.

## Therefore the chord FC, which subtends the arc FC,

side of a regular hexagon

is

and the

figure

times as a chord,

COR.

CFD
is

etc.,

## formed by applying the radius

a regular hexagon.

By

## joining the alternate vertices A, O, D,

inscribed in the circle.
equilateral triangle
432,

1.

six
E F
.

an

is

433,

COR.

2.

By

AB, BO,

etc.,

a regular

## polygon of twelve sides may be inscribed in the circle ; and, by

continuing the process, regular polygons of twenty-four, fortybe inscribed.
eight, etc., sides may

224

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIII.
434,

V.

PROBLEM.

circle.

B
Let

## be the centre of the given circle.

To inscribe a regular decagon in the
given circle.

Draw

Construction,

and divide
be to OS. as

OS is

From C as

in

it

ratio, so that

00 shall
356

to SO.

and

draw EG.

Then BC\\$ a

## side of the regular decagon required.

Draw

Proof,

BS and

BO.

OC:OS=OS: SO,
BC=OS.

construction

By
and

OC\BC--=BC:SC.

Z 0GB = Z SCB.
0GB and BC8 are similar,

Moreover, the

Hence
(having an

the

But the
(its sides
.

A BCS,

is

and

A 0GB

00 and OB

which

an

of the other,
proportional).
to

is

and

Iden.

isosceles,

A OCB,
CB^BS^OS.

similar to the

326

## the including sides

circle).

is

isosceles,

225

PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
the

. .

But the

Hence

the

is isosceles,

and the

#&amp;lt;?.(=

and
/.

Z = Z SBO.
145
ext. Z CSB = Z
+ Z 50 = 2 Z 0.
Z OS5) - 2Z 0,
Z
154
154
Z OBC(= Z flCS) = 2 Z 0.
= 2 rt. A,
of the A of the A OCB = 5 Z

A SOB

sum

and

of 2

rt.

A, or

of 4

BG is -fa of the

rt.

circumference,

## Hence, to inscribe a regular decagon, divide the radius in

extreme and mean ratio, and apply the greater segment ten
times as a chord.
Q.E.

435,

COR.

1.

By

inscribed decagon,

F.

## joining the alternate vertices of a regular

a regular pentagon

is

inscribed.

## 436, COR. 2. By bisecting the arcs BG, OF, etc., a regular

polygon of twenty sides may be inscribed; and, by continuing
the process, regular polygons offorty, eighty, etc., sides may be
inscribed.

## Let R denote the radius of a regular inscribed polygon, r the apothem,

the angle at the centre show that
a one side, A an interior angle, and
;

## Ex. 378. In a regular inscribed triangle a

= R \/3,

r =

R,

A = 60,

C= 120.
Ex.379. In an inscribed square a

= R V2,

## Ex. 380. In a regular inscribed hexagon a =

= %ftV2,

= %R V3, A = 120,

^1

0=60.
Ex. 381. In a regular inscribed decagon
,

A=

144,

(7=36.

= 90,

226

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIV.

PROBLEM.

V.

## To inscribe in a given circle a regular pentedecagon, or polygon of fifteen sides.

437,

E
Let Q be the given

To inscribe in
Construction,

F
circle.

a regular pentedecagon.

Draw

431

hexagon,

and

Join

Then

434

FH.

The

Proof,

arc

EH\&

Hence the

arc

EF

FJIis

## and the chord FIT

is

J-

is

of the circumference-,

-^

of the circumference.

y^, or

-j^,

of the circumference,

## a side of a regular inscribed pente

decagon.

By

applying

FH

fifteen times as a

chord,

we have

the

polygon required.
438,

COR.

By

may

FH, HA,

etc.,

a regular

## the process, regular polygons of sixty, one

sides, may be inscribed.

hundred twenty,

etc.&amp;gt;

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION

XV.

227

PROBLEM.

## To inscribe in a given circle a regular polygon

similar to a given regular polygon.
439,

## Let ABCD etc., be the given regular polygon, and

C D E the given circle.
To inscribe in the

circle

to

ABCD,

etc.

Construction,

From

draw

From

OD

and 00.

## the centre of the given circle,

draw

aO

making

the

and

Then C

is

CDE

will

have as many
rt. A.

contained times in 4

gon

Each polygon

Proof,

(= Z

=Z 0.

Draw C

OD

DE

etc., is

411

etc.,

similar).

228

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XVI.

PROBLEM.

V.

## 440, Given the radius and the side of a regular

inscribed polygon, to find the side of the regular
inscribed polygon of double the number of sides.

## LetAB be a side of the regular inscribed polygon.

To find the value of AD, a side of a regular inscribed poly
gon of double

the

number of sides.

## D draw DH through the centre 0, and draw OA, AH.

DITis _L to AB at
middle point C.
123

From

its

Inthert.A(L4&amp;lt;?,

That

339

OC=

is,

hence
Therefore,

In the

rt.

00=
A DAH,

264
334

= 20A(OA-OC),

and
If
for

we denote

## the radius by R, and substitute

Vj?

00, then

229

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.
PROPOSITION XVII.
441,

PROBLEM.

## To compute the ratio of the circumference of a

diameter approximately.

circle to its

419
Therefore

We

when

E = I,

ir

= %C.

make

## the following computations by the use of the

formula obtained in the last proposition, when
1, and

R=

AB = 1

## (a side of a regular hexagon).

No.

Form

Bides.

of Computation.

Length of Side.

Length of Perimeter.

=2-V4-

0.51763809,

6.21165708

ca

=V2-V4-(0.5176380l^

0.26105238

6.26525722

48

c,

= V2 - V4~- (0261052^7

0.13080626

6.27870041

96

=2-4-

0.06543817

6.28206396

12

24

0.03272346

6.28290510

c6

= V2- V4^(0706543817f
= V2 - V4 - (0.03272346)

0.01636228

6.28311544

cT

=V2-Vi- (0.016362217

0.00818121

6.28316941

192

Cft

384
768

cumference of a

Therefore
442,

TT

unity.

SCHOLIUM. In
&amp;lt;*

is

practice,

= 3.1416,

we

generally take

1 = 0.31831.
7T

aE

F.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

230

443,

Among
is

greatest

the

of a circle

is

the

maximum among

all

## and a perpendicular is the minimum

drawn from a point to a given line.

444,

SUPPLEMENTARY.

## magnitudes of the same kind, that which is

maximum, and that which is smallest is the

minimum.
Thus the diameter

among

V.

figures

## which have equal

perimeters.

PROPOSITION XVIII.

THEOREM.

## 445, Of all triangles having two given sides, that

in which these sides include a right angle is the

maximum.

## Let the triangles ABC and EEC have the sides AB

and EG equal respectively to EB and EC ; and let the

ABC

angle

be a right angle.

To prove
Proof,

A ABC
From

E let

&amp;gt;

fall

A EEC.
the -L

ED.

A ABC

## and EEC, having the same base BO, are to

The
370
and ED.
each other as their altitudes

Now
By

AB
EB ED.
EB = AB.
AB ED.

114

&amp;gt;

hypothesis,
.-.

&amp;gt;

Q.E.O

PROPOSITION XTX.

231

THEOREM.

## 446, Of all triangles having the same base and equal

perimeters, the isosceles triangle is the maximum.

let the

&ACB

To prove
Proof,

circle

## equal perimeters, and

AC to H, making CH= AC, and join HB.
&amp;gt;

Produce

ABH\&

be isosceles.

whose centre

is C,

it

## HB, and take DP= DB.

Draw CK and DM\\ to AB, and join AP.
Produce

Rut

Z&amp;gt;P&amp;gt;AP,

Therefore

But

KB = HB
i

Hence

By

180,

KB = CE

and

hence

HB
and

&amp;gt;

AH&amp;gt;

AP.

BP.

120

MB =IBP.

121

JT.&amp;gt;Jf..

MB = DF,

Therefore

ABC&amp;gt;

370
Q. E. D.

232

Of

447,

the

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XX.

THEOREM.

V.

## all polygons with sides all .given

can be inscribed in a semicircle

one,

&quot;but

maximum

which

diameter.

its

## Let ABODE be the maximum of polygons with sides

AB, BC, CD, DE, and the extremities A and E on the
straight line MN.
To prove
Proof,

The

From any

vertex, as C,

A AGE must

be the

draw

CA

maximum

and CE.

of all

having the

given sides

CA

increase the

## and CE; otherwise, by increasing or diminish

the
Z
ACE,
keeping the sides CA and CE unchanged, but
ing
A and along the line MN, we can
the
extremities
sliding

But
the

maximum

Hence the
maximum.

polygon.

Therefore the
(the

maximum

of A

C lies

CE

a right angle,

## having two given sides is the

including a rt. Z).

Therefore

Hence

Z ACE is

and

polygon
is

is

the

445

## A with the two given sides

on the semi-circumference.

264

## that is, the

every vertex lies on the circumference
can be inscribed in a semicircle having the
;

maximum polygon
undetermined side

for a diameter.

o. E. D.

PROPOSITION XXI.
448,

Of

233

THEOREM.

## all polygons ivith given sides, that

circle is the maximum.

which

can be inscribed in a

## Let ABODE be a polygon inscribed in a circle, and

be a polygon, equilateral with respect to
which
cannot be inscribed in a circle.
ABCDE,

AB CDE

## ABCDE greater than A B

To prove

Draw

Proof,

the diameter

Join

Upon O

(= CD)

OS&quot;

and

construct the

and draw

Now

ABCH&amp;gt;

and
(of all

AH.

DIL

AB CH

AEDH&amp;gt;A

= A CHD,

C IT D

447

E D IF,

polygons with sides all given but one, the maximum can be inscribed
in a semicircle having the undetermined side for its diameter).

these

two

ABCHDE&amp;gt;

## Take away from the two

Then

inequalities, then

A B C IT D E

A CHD and C H D
ABCDE
Q E D

## figures the equal

ABCDE

&amp;gt;

234

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXII.
449,

V.

THEOREM.

of sides, the

maximum

is equilateral.

## Let ABCD etc., be the maximum of isoperimetric

polygons of any given number of sides.
To prove
AB, EC, CD, etc., equal.
Draw^(7.
Proof,
The A ABC must be the maximum of all the
which are

formed upon

AC with

## a perimeter equal to that of

AEG.
a greater
could be substituted for

A AKC

Otherwise,
ABC, without changing the perimeter of the polygon.
But this is inconsistent with the hypothesis that the poly

gon

ABCD

(of all

etc., is

the

maximum

/.

the

A AEG

In like manner
450,

The

COR.

same number

it

may

of sides

maximum

maximum).
be proved that

maximum
is

446
isosceles

EG= CD,

etc.

is

the

E D
.

## of isoperimetric polygons of the

a regular polygon.

449
equilateral,
sides is
number
the
same
of
polygons
of
of isoperimetric
For,

(the

polygon.

is isosceles,

it is

equilateral).

448
circle,
maximum of all polygons formed of given sides can be inscribed in a O).
That is, it is equilateral and equiangular,
395
and therefore regular.
.
Also

(the

it

can be inscribed in a

Q. E. D.

## MAXIMA AND MINIMA.

PROPOSITION XXIII.

Of isoperimetric regular

451,

235

THEOREM.
polygons, that which
is the maximum.

o

## Let Q be a regular polygon of three sides, and Q

a regular polygon of four sides, and let the two polygons have equal perimeters,
f

To prove

greater than Q.

CD from
A CD A and

Draw

Proof,

Invert the

D fall at

C&quot;to

any point

place

it

in

AB.

in the position

DCE

let

D, and A at E.
The polygon DBCE is an irregular polygon of four sides,
which by construction has the same perimeter as Q and the
same area as Q.
Then the irregular polygon DBCE of four sides is less than
450
the regular isoperimetric polygon Q of four sides.
In like manner it may be shown that Q is less than a regular
Q E- Dp
isoperimetric polygon of five sides, and so on.

ting

C,

C at

452,

## Con. The area of a

any polygon

circle is greater

## than the area of

of equal perimeter.

## 382. Of all equivalent parallelograms having equal bases, the rec

tangle has the least perimeter.

-&quot;

383.

Of

all

## rectangles of a given area, the square has the least

perimeter.
384. Of all triangles upon the same base,
tude, the isosceles has the least perimeter.
385.

To divide a

shall be a

maximum.

alti

their product

PLANE GEOMETRY.

236

XXIV.

PROPOSITION

BOOK

V.

THEOREM.

## 453, Of regular polygons having a given area, that

which has the greatest number of sides has the least

perimeter.

## Let Q and Q be regular polygons having the same

and let Q have the greater number of sides.
1

area,

Proof,

eter as

Q greater

## Let Q be a regular polygon having the same

Q and the same number of sides as Q.

perim

&amp;gt;

451

Q&quot;,

## which has the greatest

(of isoperimetric regular polygons, that
sides is the maximum).

But
.:

But

&amp;gt;

Q = the perimeter of

the perimeter of

the perimeter of

&amp;gt;

that of

The circumference of a

perimeter of any

oj

Q&quot;.

&amp;gt;

number

the perimeter of

COR.

To

Q= Q
Q

the perimeter of

/.

386.

Then

454,

circle

Q
is

Q&quot;.

Q&quot;.

Cons.

a E. D.
less

than the

maximum area.

## 387. To find a point in a semi-circumference such that the sum of

distances from the extremities of the diameter shall be a maximum.

its

237

EXERCISES.

THEOREMS.
388. The side of a circumscribed equilateral triangle is equal to twice
the side of the similar inscribed triangle. Find the ratio of their areas.

The apothem

389.

is

equal to half

is

equal to half

## the radius of the circle.

390. The apothem of an inscribed regular
the side of the inscribed equilateral triangle.

hexagon

## 391. The area of an inscribed regular hexagon

fourths that of the circumscribed regular hexagon.

is

equal to three-

## 392. The area of an inscribed regular hexagon is a mean proportional

between the areas of the inscribed and the circumscribed equilateral
triangles.

## The area of an inscribed regular octagon is equal to that of a

rectangle whose sides are equal to the sides of the inscribed and the cir
393.

cumscribed squares.
394. The area of an inscribed regular dodecagon
times the square of the radius.

^ 395.
lar

Every

equal to three

if it

is

## 396. Every equiangular polygon inscribed in a circle

has an odd number of sides.

is

regu

regular

## Every equiangular polygon circumscribed about a

397.

is

sides.
if it

circle

is

regular.
398. Upon the six sides of a regular hexagon squares are constructed
outwardly. Prove that the exterior vertices of these squares are the ver
tices of

a regular dodecagon.

## The alternate vertices of a regular hexagon are joined by straight

Prove that another regular hexagon is thereby formed. Find the
ratio of the areas of the two hexagons.
399.

lines.

400.

between

tional

its

## of an inscribed regular polygon is the mean propor

apothem and the radius of the similar circumscribed

regular polygon.
401.

The area

diameter
402.
to the

is

of a circular ring

sum

circle

is

## equal to that of a circle whose

to the inner circle.

and a tangent

## side of an inscribed regular

pentagon is equal
of the squares of the radius of the circle and the side of the

238
If

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

V.

## polygon, show that

403.

In a regular pentagon, a

~ VlO
=R

404.

In a regular octagon,

405.

In a regular dodecagon, a

2\/5.

## 406. If on the legs of a right triangle, as diameters, semicircles are

described external to the triangle, and from the whole figure a semicircle
on the hypotenuse is subtracted, the remainder is equivalent to the given
triangle.

NUMERICAL EXERCISES.
407.

of a circle

408.

= r.

circle

polygon

is

polygon

is

a,

Find one

Find one

## side of the circumscribed

^Vv^

regular hexagon.
409.

= r.

-^ y-5

equilateral triangle.

## show that the

is r,

and the

side of

an inscribed regular

2ar

equal to

V4r -a2
= r\ Prove

410.

regular octagon
411.

The

is

of a circle

## that the area of the inscribed

2
equal to 2r \/2.L-

and 5

feet,

## Find the side of a regular octagon equal in area to the

respectively.
sum of the areas of the three given octagons.

What

## is the width of the

ring between two concentric circum
whose lengths are 440 feet and 330 feet?
413. Find the angle subtended at the centre by an arc 6 feet 5 inches

412.

ferences

414.

whose length
415.

is

8 feet 2 inches.

What

is

is

circle

by an

arc

circle.

## the length of the arc subtended by one side of a regular

in a circle whose radius is 14 feet?

dodecagon inscribed
416.

56

feet.

Find the

## side of a square equivalent to a circle

is

239

EXERCISES.
Find the area of a

417.

## a square containing 196

circle inscribed in

feet.

square
418.

The diameter of a

is

28

feet.

419.

Find the

cular piece of
420.

times as large
421.

## side of the largest square that can be cut out of a cir

radius is 1 foot 8 inches.

wood whose
?

of a circle

^ as large

is

What

3 feet.

-^ as large

circle is 9 feet.

is

What

equivalent

parts?

22.
feet.

423.
inches.

## The chord of half an arc is 12

Find the height of the arc.

feet,

## The chord of an arc is 24 inches, and the height

Find the diameter of the circle.

## 424. Find the area of a sector,

and the angle at the centre 22J.
425. The radius of a circle = r.

if

circle is

of the arc

28

is

is

feet,

426.
If the

Three equal

common

is r,

## each touching the other two.

between the circles.

## find the area contained

PROBLEMS.
427.

An

428..

equilateral triangle.

circle

429.

430.

square.

A
A

regular hexagon.
regular octagon.

## To draw through a given point a line so that it

given circumference into two parts having the ratio 3 7.
132. To construct a circumference
equal to the sum
431.

shall divide

of

two given

(^jumferences.

sum

433.

To construct a

circle

equivalent to the

434.

To construct a

circle

435.

To construct a

circle

of

two given
a given

circles.

circle.

## To divide a given circle by a concentric circumference

Into two equivalent parts.
437. Into five equivalent

circle.

436.

parts,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

240

BOOK

V.

MISCELLANEOUS EXEKCISES.
THEOREMS.
The

## line joining the feet of the perpendiculars dropped from the

extremities of the base of an isosceles triangle to the opposite sides is

438.

439.

## AD bisect the angle A of triangle ABC, and BD bisect the

CBF, then angle ADB equals one-half angle ACB.

If

a,

exterior angle
440.

The sum

pointed star)

(five-

441.

The

442.

The

altitudes

of the triangle

D,

## of the acute angles at the vertices of a pentagram

equal to two right angles.

is

triangle

DEF.

## HINT. Circles with AB, BO, AC as diameters will pass through

D and F, respectively.
an^

E and

443.

the portions

of

any

## straight line intercepted between the cir

circles are equal.

AB

of the
444. Two circles are tangent internally at P, and a chord
Prove that PC bisects the
larger circle touches the smaller circle at C.

angle

APB.
Draw

HINT.

common tangent

at P,

## 445. The diagonals of a trapezoid divide each other into segments

which are proportional.
446. The perpendiculars from two vertices of a triangle upon the

## opposite sides divide each other into segments reciprocally proportional.

447.

If through a point

P in

## are drawn, the chords and the segments between

to the tangent at Pare reciprocally proportional.
448.

## and a chord parallel

of a circumference

upon a

## mean proportional between the perpendiculars from the same

point upon the tangents drawn at the extremities of the chord.
449. In an isosceles right triangle either leg is a mean proportional
chord

is

it

## The area of a triangle is equal to half the product

by the radius of the inscribed circle.

450.
eter

of

its

perim

241

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES.
The perimeter of a triangle

451.

The sum

452.

is

is

## of the perpendiculars from any point within a convex

upon the sides is constant.

equilateral polygon

453.

diameter of a circle

is

## these parts as diameters semi-circumferences are described on opposite

sides of the given diameter. Prove that the sum of their lengths is equal

## and that they divide the

two parts whose areas have the same ratio as the two parts

circle into

into

divided.

is

## Lines drawn from one vertex of a parallelogram to the middle

points of the opposite sides trisect one of the diagonals.
454.

If

455.

any secant

two

is

drawn

BD,

limited

456.

## A and B, and through A

by the circumferences at C and D, the

A A BB CC f
,

drawn from

ABC

## to the opposite sides, pass through a

of a triangle
within the triangle, then

OB
BE

OA

AA

the vertices

common

PC = l
CC*

Two diagonals of a

## regular pentagon, not drawn from a

vertex, divide each other in extreme and mean ratio.
457.

point

common

!?

Loci.
458.

points
459.

## Find the locus of a point

and B are in a given ratio

OP

is

any straight

cumference of a fixed
is

constant.

circle

line

in

(ra

ri).

drawn from a

OP

a,

point

is

to the cir

fixed point

## taken such that

OQ:

OP

Q.

AB

is
a straight line
460. From a fixed point
in a given straight line CD, and then divided at
(m n). Find the locus of the point P.

drawn

in

to

any point

a given ratio

461.

Find the locus of a point whose distances from two given straight
(The locus consists of two straight lines.)

## lines are in a given ratio.

462.

Find the locus of a point the sum of whose distances from two

is

k.

## (See Ex. 73.)

PLANE GEOMETRY.

242

BOOK

Y.

PROBLEMS.
463. Given the perimeters of a regular inscribed and a similar circum
scribed polygon, to compute the perimeters of the regular inscribed and
circumscribed polygons of double the number of sides.
464. To draw a tangent to a given circle such that the segment inter
cepted between the point of contact and a given straight line shall have

a given length.
465.

To draw a

466.

To

(See Ex. 137.)

## circumferences and parallel to a given straight line.

467. To draw through a given point a straight line so that its dis
tances from two other given points shall be in a given ratio (ra n).
HINT. Divide the line joining the two other points in the given ratio.
:

468.

## Construct a square equivalent to the

sum

of a given triangle

469.

## Construct a rectangle having the difference of its base and

and its area equivalent to the sum of a

470.

471.

To

find a point

shall be as the

472.

numbers

Given two

a secant

ra, n, and p.
(See Ex. 461.)

B AC such

that

AB shall be

to

AC in

473.

To construct a

straight lines

A.

To draw through

a given ratio

(ra

n).

ratio.

and

its

area.

475.

into

line

drawn

## 7 476. Given three points A, B, C. To find a fourth point

the areas of the triangles
APC, PC, shall be equal.

Psuch

that

AP,

## To construct a triangle, given

and the angle included by them.

477.
sides,

478.

To divide a given

circle into

its

## any number of equivalent parts by

concentric circumferences.
479. In a given equilateral triangle, to inscribe three equal
sides of the triangle.
tangent to each other and to the

circles

14

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## RN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED

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on the date

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which renewed.

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## are subject to immediate recall.

21-50m-6, 60

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General Library
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