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GIFT OF

MATHEMATICAL TEXT-BOOKS
By G.

A.

WENTWORTH,

A.M.

Mental Arithmetic.

Elementary Arithmetic.
Practical Arithmetic.

Primary Arithmetic.

Grammar School

Arithmetic.

High School Arithmetic.


High School Arithmetic (Abridged).
First Steps in Algebra.
School Algebra.
College Algebra.
Elements of Algebra.
Complete Algebra.
Shorter Course in Algebra.

Higher Algebra.
New Plane Geometry.
New Plane and Solid Geometry.
Syllabus of Geometry.
Geometrical Exercises.
Plane and Solid Geometry and Plane Trigonometry.
New Plane Trigonometry.
New Plane Trigonometry, with Tables.
New Plane and Spherical Trigonometry.
New Plane and Spherical Trig., with Tables.
New Plane and Spherical Trig., Surv., and Nav.
New Plane Trig, and Surv., with Tables.
New Plane and Spherical Trig., Surv., with Tables.
Analytic Geometry.

TEXT-BOOK
OF

GEOMETBY
REVISED EDITION.

BY
G. A.

WENTWORTH,

A.M.,

AUTHOR OF A SERIES OF TEXT-BOOKS IN MATHEMATICS.

BOSTON,

U.S.A.:

PUBLISHED BY GINN & COMPANY.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1888, by

G. A.

WENT WORTH,

in the Office ot the Librarian of Congress, at Washington,

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

TYPOGBAPHT BY

J. S.

GUSHING &

PBESSWOBK BY GINN &

Co.,

Co.,

BOSTON, U.S.A.

BOSTON, U.B.A.

PREFACE.

~\ T~OST persons do not

***

of abstraction

requisite

and do not

for

depends mainly upon the form

in

which the subject

sented whether they pursue the study with


aversion, or with increasing interest

In compiling the present


stantly

avoided

pre

and pleasure.

treatise, the

author has kept this fact con

and such methods have been adopted

as

experience and

attentive observation, combined with repeated trials, have

shown

No attempt has been made

most readily comprehended.

more

is

indifference, not to say

All unnecessary discussions and scholia have been

view.

in
;

power

apprehending geometrical concep

for

argument.
etry, it

easily acquire, the

keeping in mind the successive steps of a continuous


Hence, with a very large proportion of beginners in Geom

and

tions,

possess,

intelligible the simple notions of position,

to

to be

render

magnitude, and direc

but it is helieved
tion, which every child derives from observation
that these notions have been limited and denned with mathematical
;

precision.

few symbols, which stand

for

words and not

been used, but these are of so great


spicuity to

utility in

the demonstrations that no

for operations,

giving

style

have

and per

apology seems necessary for

their introduction.

make the page attractive. The


and are placed in the middle of the
directly under the eye in immediate connec

Great pains have been taken to


figures are

large and

page, so that they fall

distinct,

tion with the corresponding text.


full lines, the lines

dotted,

and the

employed

The given

lines of the figures are

as aids in the demonstrations are short-

resulting lines are long-dotted.

327374

PREFACE.

iv

In each proposition a concise statement of what


in one kind of type, of
in

stration

what

is

given

is

required in another, and the

The reason

another.

still

is

for

each

demon

indicated in

is

step

printed

email type between that step and the one following, thus preventing
the necessity of interrupting the process of the argument
to a previous section.

the reason depends

is

The number

in the

construction of

referring

on which

The constituent

placed at the side of the page.

are carefully marked.


parts of the propositions
assertion

by

of the section, however,

Moreover, each distinct

demonstration and each particular direction in the


no case is it
the
begins a new line; and in
figures,

a demonstration.
necessary to turn the page in reading
This arrangement presents obvious advantages.
at once

what

is

given and what

is

The pupil perceives

to the figure
required, readily refers

at every step, becomes perfectly familiar with the language of


in simple
etry, acquires facility
to

reason,

and

lays

Geom

and accurate expression, rapidly learns

a foundation

for

completely

establishing

the

science.

not so difficult as to discourage


Original exercises have been given,
the beginner, but well adapted to afford an effectual test of the degree
in

which he

exercises

is

have been placed

that the student

may

in

the

reproduce them

in

work

commit

of these
in order

and

to acquire a readiness in

derive the full benefit of

much

to the

mem

to

an examination

a useless and pernicious labor; but to learn their uses and

cations,

eo

early part of the

discover, at the outset, that to

and to
ory a number of theorems
is

Some

mastering the subjects of his reading.

appli

exemplifying their utility

is

to

that mathematical training which looks not

attainment oj information as to the discipline of the

mental faculties.
G. A.

EXETER, N.H.
1878.

WENTWORTH.

PEEFACE.

TO THE TEACHER.
WHEN

the pupil

for the first time, it will

him write his proofs on the blackboard

well to let

guage

Book

reading each

is

care being taken that his language be

in his

own

be

lan

the simplest possible,

arrangement of work be vertical (without side work), and

that the

that the figures be accurately constructed.

This method will furnish a valuable exercise as a language lesson,


will

and

the

cultivate
will allow

After a

a brief interval for deliberating

Book has been read

the Book, and should

in this

be required to

should state and prove

way, the pupil should review

draw the

line

and angle named.

He

should be

encouraged, in reviewing each Book, to do the original exercises


state the converse of propositions
if

be true to demonstrate

it

which may

to questions

The Teacher

is

and

also

to

strongly advised

to

arithmetically, the principles of limits.

stant base

b,

and a variable

altitude

x,

and

false,

if

the converse

many

propositions.

illustrate,

geometrically and

Thus a rectangle with a con


will afford an obvious illus

tration of the axiomatic truth that the product of a constant

variable

also a variable

is

constant and a variable


of the variable.

If x

is

to

give well-considered answers

asked him on

be.

determine from the statement,

to

whether the converse be true or

possible,

He

figures free-hand.

propositions orally, using a pointer to

the

on the figure every

indicate

and orderly arrangement of work,


on each step.

of neat

habit

and that the

and a

limit of the product of a

the product of the

constant by the limit

increases and approaches the altitude a as a

and approaches the area of


however, x decreases and approaches

limit, the area of the rectangle increases

the rectangle ab as a limit;


zero as

zero for

limit, the

a limit.

if,

area of the rectangle decreases and approaches

An

arithmetical

illustration of this truth

may

be

given by multiplying a constant into the approximate values of any


If, for example, we take the constant 60 and the repetend
repetend.
0.3333,

etc.,

the approximate values of the repetend will be T3o, -f^,

PREFACE.

VI
3 3 3

To o

ff>

rVtiW

an d these values multiplied by 60 give the series


19.998, etc., which evidently approaches 20 as a limit;

te->

18, 19.8, 19.98,

but the product of 60 into

(the limit of the repetend 0.333, etc.)

is

also 20.

Again,
series

^,

if

we multiply 60

yfo,

^uW

^inr.

into the different values of the decreasing


etc.,

which approaches zero


^,
7 etc.; and

shall get the decreasing series 2,

as a limit,

we

this series evi

dently approaches zero as a limit.

In

this

way

the

pupil

hension of the subject of

The Teacher

is

may

led

to

a complete compre

likewise advised to give frequent written examina

These should not be too

tions.

easily be

limits.

difficult,

allowed for accurately constructing the

and

sufficient time

should be

figures, for choosing the best

language, and for determining the best arrangement.

The time necessary

for

the reading of examination-books will be

diminished by more than one-half,


in this

if

the use of the symbols employed

book be allowed.
G. A.

EXETER, N.H.
1879.

W.

PKEFACE.

VI}

NOTE TO REVISED EDITION.


THE first edition of this Geometry was issued about nine years ago.
The book was received with such general favor that it has been neces
sary to print very large editions every year since, so that the plates
are practically

worn

out.

Taking advantage of the necessity

author has re-written the whole work

plates, the

the distinguishing characteristics

all

of the

for

new

bat has retained

former edition.

few

changes in the order of the subject-matter have been made, some of


the demonstrations

have been given

a more concise and simple

in

form than before, and the treatment of Limits and of Loci has been

made

as easy of

comprehension as possible.

More than seven hundred

exercises have been introduced into this

edition.

These exercises consist of theorems,

struction,

and problems of computation,

adapted

to

No geometry can now

beginners.

loci,

problems of con

carefully graded

and

specially

receive favor unless

it

provides exercises for independent investigation, which must be of such


a kind as to interest the student as soon as

with the methods and the

he becomes acquainted

spirit of geometrical reasoning.

The author

has observed with the greatest satisfaction the rapid growth of the

demand

for original

exercises,

and he

invites particular attention to

the systematic and progressive series of exercises in this edition.

The part on Solid Geometry has been treated with much greater
freedom than before, and the formal statement of the reasons

for the

separate steps has b efen in general omitted, for the purpose of giving a

more elegant form

A
and

tb the demonstrations.

brief treatise on
is

issued in

Conic Sections (Book IX) has been


prepared,
pamphlet form, at a very low price. It will also be

bound with the Geometry


erally desired.

if

that arrangement

is

found to be gen

PREFACE.

Vili

The author takes

this

opportunity to express his grateful appre

ciation of the generous reception given to the

Geometry heretofore by

the great body of teachers throughout the country, and he confidently


anticipates the

up

same generous judgment of

to the standard required

his efforts to bring the

by the great advance of

work

late in the sci

ence and method of teaching.

The author

is

indebted to

many

correspondents for valuable sug

and a special acknowledgment is due, for criticisms and


careful reading of proofs, to Messrs. C. H. Judson, of Greenville, S.C.

gestions

Samuel Hart, of Hartford, Conn.

W. Le
Mo.;

J.

M. Taylor,

Conte Stevens, of Brooklyn, N.Y.

J.

L. Patterson, of Lawrenceville,

bridge, Mass.
bridge, Mass.

New

T.

M.

De Long,

E. R. Offutt, of St. Louis,

N.

G. A. Hill,

J.;

Blakslee, of Des Moines, la.

Ira M.

of Hamilton, N.Y.

G.

of Boulder, Col.

W.

of

Cam

Sawin, of Cain-

and W.

J.

Lloyd, of

York, N.Y.

Corrections or suggestions will be thankfully received.


G. A.

EXETER, N.H.,
1888.

WENTWORTH.

CONTENTS.
GEOMETRY.
PAGE

DEFINITIONS

STRAIGHT LINES

PLANE ANGLES

"l

.-

MAGNITUDE or ANGLES

.10

ANGULAR UNITS

METHOD or SUPERPOSITION

11

.-

SYMMETRY

13

MATHEMATICAL TERMS

14

POSTULATES

AXIOMS

SYMBOLS

15

.16

16

PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK

I.

THE STRAIGHT

LINE.

THE STRAIGHT LINE

17

PARALLEL LINES

22

PERPENDICULAR AND OBLIQUE LINES

33

TRIANGLES

40

QUADRILATERALS

56

POLYGONS IN GENERAL

66

EXERCISES

72

CONTENTS.

BOOK

THE

II.

CIRCLE.
PAGE
75

DEFINITIONS

AKCS AND CHORDS

77

TANGENTS

89

MEASUREMENT.

92

THEORY or LIMITS

94

.98

MEASURE or ANGLES
PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION

106

EXERCISES

126

BOOK

III.

PROPORTIONAL LINES AND SIMILAR POLYGONS.

THEORY OF PROPORTION

131

PROPORTIONAL LINES

138

SIMILAR TRIANGLES

145

SIMILAR POLYGONS

153

NUMERICAL PROPERTIES OF FIGURES

156

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION

167

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION

173

EXERCISES

175

BOOK

IV.

AREAS OF POLYGONS.

AREAS OF POLYGONS

180

COMPARISON OF POLYGONS

188

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION

192

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION

204

EXERCISES

205

BOOK

V.

REGULAR POLYGONS AND

CIRCLES.

REGULAR POLYGONS AND CIRCLES


PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION

MAXIMA AND MINIMA


EXERCISES

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES

209

...
.230
...

....
.

-.

222

240

237

GEOMETRY.
DEFINITIONS.
1,

wood

If a block of

sented in Fig.

Each

face

1, it

will

the

of

or stone be cut in the shape repre

have

block

six flat faces.


is

called

a surface ; and if these faces are made


smooth by polishing, so that, when

a straight-edge is applied to any one


of them, the straight edge in every
part will touch the surface, the faces
are called plane surfaces, or planes.
2,

The edge

which any two

in

of these surfaces

meet

is

meet

is

called a line.
3,

The corner

which any three of these

at

lines

called a point.
4,

For computing

principal directions

its

volume, the block

is

measured

in three

From left to right,


From front to back,
From bottom to top,

A
A
A

to

B.

to C.

to

D.

These three measurements are called the dimensions of the


block,

and are named

(height or depth).

length, breadth (or width), thickness

2, .

*;*:

;*

>;

:"

solid, therefore,

.-..GEOMETRY.

has three dimensions, length, breadth,

and

thickness.
It is
surface of a solid is no part of the solid.
there
solid.
the
of
or
limit
the
surface,
boundary
simply
and breadth. So that,
fore, has only two dimensions, length
number of flat surfaces be put together, they will
if
5,

The

any

coincide and form one surface.


6,

simply a boundary
has only one dimen
So that, if any number of straight lines be put
length.
line.
they will coincide and form one
line

is

no part of a surface.

or limit of the surface.


sion,

It is

line, therefore,

together,
7,

point

the line.

is

no part of a

point,

therefore,

It is simply the limit of


has no dimension, but denotes
any number of points be put

line.

So that, if
position simply.
coincide and form a single point.
together, they will

in common language, is a limited portion of


with
matter; but in Geometry we have nothing
space filled
we study
to do with the matter of which a body is composed
a
its shape and size; that is, we regard a solid as
simply
limited portion of space which may be -occupied by a physical
8,

solid,

other way.
body, or marked out in some

A geometrical solid is
9,

It

points,
ideal,

Hence,

a limited portion of space.

at the outset that the


distinctly understood
of
solids
and
Geometry are purely
surfaces,

must be
lines,

though they can be represented

to the eye in only a

or on the
material way.
Lines, for example, drawn on paper
and
some
and
thickness,
width
blackboard, will have some
to
used
are
when
they
will so far fail of being true lines; yet,
it is assumed that they represent
help the mind in reasoning,
and without thickness.
breadth
without
perfect lines,

DEFINITIONS.

10,

letters,

as

BF;

by a

represented to the eye

is

point

named by a

letter, as

(Fig. 2)

a line

fine dot,

and

named by two

is

placed one at each end,


a surface is represented

and named by the lines which


bound it, as BCDF; a solid is
represented

bound
11,

by the

faces

which
FlQ

it.

By

supposing a solid to diminish gradually until

it

vanishes we may

consider the vanishing point, a point in


space, independent of a line, having position but no extent.
12,
line.

If a point

and may
13,

moves continuously

in space, its path is a


be
to
be of unlimited extent,
may
supposed
be considered independent of the idea of a surface.

This line

moving

surface

in space,

may
and

be conceived as generated by a line


A surface can

as of unlimited extent.

then be considered independent of the idea of a


14,

solid

may

solid.

be conceived as generated by a surface in

motion.

Thus, in the diagram, let the upmove to the


right surface

ABCD

right to the position

points A, B, C,
the lines AE,
respectively.

CD, and
faces

AD

and

EFGH.

The

lines

AB, BC,

~"~

D will generate

BF, CG, and DH,

The

D
A

|A~"~"

~"

"

yF

will generate the sur

AF, BG, CH, and AH, respectively.


generate the solid AG.

The

surface

ABCD will
15,

Geometry

is

the science which treats of position, form,

and magnitude.
16,

Points, lines, surfaces,

and

solids,

with their relations,

constitute the subject-matter of Geometry.

GEOMETRY.

17,

straight line, or right line,

same direction throughout its


whole extent, as the line AB.

18,

curved

19,

a line which has the

line is a line

no part of which
as the line

is

is

straight,

CD.

broken line

is

a series

of different successive
straight
lines, as the line

ER

20,

lines, as

A
line,

mixed

line is

the line

straight line
a curve.

FlG

a line composed of straight and curved

GH.
is

often called simply a

line,

and a curved

A plane surface, or a plane, is a surface in which, if


two
any
points be taken, the straight line joining these points
21,

will lie

wholly in the surface.

22,

curved surface

is

a surface no part of which

is

plane.

Figure or form depends upon the relative position of


Thus, the figure or form of a line (straight or curved)
points.
depends upon the relative position of the points in that line
the figure or form of a surface
depends upon the relative
23,

position of the points in that surface.


24,

With

reference to

form

or shape, lines, surfaces,

and

solids are called


figures.

With

reference to extent,

lines,

surfaces,

and

solids

are

called magnitudes.
25,

A plane figure

is

a figure all points of which are in the

same plane.
26,

Plane figures formed by straight lines are called rec


those formed by curved lines are called
figures

tilinear

curvilinear figures
and those formed
lines are called mixtilinear figures.
;

by straight and curved

DEFINITIONS.

Figures which have the same shape are called similar


Figures which have the same size are called equiva
figures.
lent figures.
Figures which have the same shape and size are
27,

called equal or congruent figures.


28, Geometry is divided into two parts, Plane Geometry
and Solid Geometry.
Plane Geometry treats of figures all

points of which are

the same plane.


Solid Geometry
which are not in the same plane.

in

treats of figures all points of

STRAIGHT LINES.
29,

may
30,

Through a point an
be drawn.

known, the position

words, a straight line


points are

31,

lines

determined

of straight lines

if its

and a point
is

known

and one

direction

and form
one,

the

but one

same point

and only

32,

Two

one point
coincide

extent,

and form

in the

one, straight line

in other words, a
straight line

whole

of

line.

is

determined

two of the points are known. Hence,


Two straight lines which have two points in common

throughout their

in the

in other

Hence,

Between two points


;

of the line

which pass through

direction coincide,

can be drawn
if

is

known.

All straight

same

number

If the direction of a straight line

line are

its

indefinite

These lines will have different directions.

but one

coincide

line.

straight lines can intersect (cut each other) in only


for if

and not

they had two points common, they would


intersect.

Of all lines joining two points the shortest is the


straight
and the length of the straight line is called the distance
between the two points.
33,

line,

GEOMETRY.

34,
straight line determined by
as prolonged indefinitely both ways.

two points is considered


Such a line is called an

indefinite straight line.


35,
is

Often only the part of the line between two fixed points
This part is then called a segment of the line.

considered.

For brevity, we say "the line


of a line limited by the points

AB"

to designate a

segment

and B.

36, Sometimes, also, a line is considered as proceeding from


a fixed point and extending in only one direction. This fixed
line.
point is then called the origin of the

37, If any point C be taken in a given straight


two parts CA and GB arc
^
said to have opposite direcfa
FIG. 5.
tions from the point C.

38,

Every straight

is

39,

If the

&

A B, may be considered as hav


is
namely, from A towards B, which

"line

expressed by saying

AB, the

line, as

ing opposite directions,

expressed by saying

line

AB";

"line

and from

B towards .4, which

BA"

magnitude of a given

line is changed, it

longer or shorter.

Thus (Fig. 5), by prolonging AC to


and AB = AC+ CB. By diminishing
CB.
CB from AB, and

becomes

B we add GB to AC,
AB to C, we subtract

AC=AB-

If a given line increases so that


several times in

magnitude

succession, the line

is

multi-

it is

prolonged by

its

own

and the resulting line


called a multiple of the given

plied,
is

Hence,

line.

Thus

(Fig.

6),

AC=2AB, AD = ZAB,

if

and

DEFINITIONS.
Lines of given length

may

also be multiplied

added and subtracted; they

be

may

and

divided by a number.

PLANE ANGLES.
40, The opening between two straight lines which meet is
The two lines are called the sides, and
called a plane angle.
the point of meeting, the vertex, of the angle.

41.

If there is but one angle at a

it is designated by a cap
placed at the vertex, and is
read by simply naming the letter
as,

given vertex,

ital letter

FIG.

7.

angle

(Fig. 7).

But when two or more angles have


the same vertex, each angle is desig
nated by three letters, as shown in
Fig. 8, and is read by naming the
three letters, the one at the vertex be
tween the others. Thus, the angle
Q means the angle formed by the

DA

sides

AD and AC.

FIG

It is often convenient to designate

an angle by placing a small italic let


ter between the sides and near the
vertex, as in Fig. 9.
42,

Two

angles are equal

if

they

FIG.

can be made to coincide.


43,

angle

If the line

BAG into

AD (Fig.
two equal

8)

is

parts,

drawn

BAD

so as to divide the

and CAD,

AD

is

called the bisector of the angle BAG.


In general, a line that
divides a geometrical magnitude into two equal parts is called

a bisector of

it.

GEOMETRY.
44.

Two

angles are called ad


the same

jacent when they have


vertex and a common

tween them

and

AOD

45,

as,

side be

the angles

BOD

(Fig. 10).

When

one

straight

line

FIG. 10.

stands upon another straight line


and makes the adjacent angles
equal, each of these
called a right angle.

equal

angles

DCA

angles is
Thus, the

DOB

and

(Fig. 11) are each a right angle.

C
46,

When

FIG. 11.

the sides of an an

gle extend in opposite directions,


so as to be in the same straight line, the angle is called a
Thus, the angle formed at C (Fig. 11) with
straight angle.

CA

sides

its

and

CB

a straight angle.

is

extending in opposite directions from C,


Hence a right angle may be defined as

half a straight angle.


47,

A perpendicular to

makes a
is

right angle with

a right angle,

pendicular to

DC

is

a straight line is a straight line that


Thus, if the angle
(Fig. 11)

DCA

it.

perpendicular to

AB, and

AB

is

per

DC.

48, The point (as C, Fig. 11) where a perpendicular meets


another line is called the foot of the perpendicular.

49.

gle

is

Every angle less than a right an


called an acute angle; as, angle A.
FIG

Every angle greater than a right


less than a straight angle is
and
angle
50,

as,

angle

C (Fig.

13).

called an obtuse angle;

DEFINITIONS.

51, Every angle greater than a straight angle and less


than two straight angles is called a reflex angle; as, angle

(Fig. 14).

FIG.

52,

FIG. 14.

13.

Acute, obtuse, and reflex angles, in distinction from

and straight

and inter
angles, are called oblique angles
secting lines that are not perpendicular to each other are
called oblique lines.
right

53,

When

two angles have the same vertex, and the sides

of the one are prolongations of


the sides of the other, they are
called vertical angles.
Thus, a
b (Fig. 15) are vertical an

and

gles.
54,

Two

angles

are

called

FlQ

complementary when their sum


equal to a right angle
of the other; as,
angles
is

and each

is

called the

DOB and DOC (Fig.

complement

10).

55, Two
angles are called supplementary when their sum is
equal to a straight angle and each is called the supplement
of the other as,
and
angles
10).
;

DOB

DO A

(Fig.

MAGNITUDE OF ANGLES.
56,

The

of its sides,

an angle depends upon the extent of opening


and not upon their length. Suppose the straight

size of

GEOMETRY.

10

00 to move in the plane of the paper from coincidence


as a pivot, to the position 0(7;
with OA, about the point
then the line 00 describes or generates

line

AOC, and the magnitude of the

the angle

AOC depends

angle

upon the amount

of rotation of the line

from the position

OA

to the position OC.


If the rotating line

OA

position
dicular to

angle

OA,

AOB

moves from the

to the position

OB, perpen

generates the right


moves to the position

it

if it

AOD

if it moves to the posi


generates the obtuse angle
if it moves to
the
it
straight angle
generates
indicated
reflex angle
the
it
generates

OD,

it

tion

OA

AOA
AOB

OB

the position
by the dotted line
,

and

if it

continues

its

rotation to the posi

OA, whence it started, it generates two straight angles.


Hence the whole angular magnitude about a point in a
or four right angles; and
plane is equal to two straight angles,

tion

the angular magnitude about a point on one side of a straight


line drawn through that point is equal to one straight angle,

two right angles.


and subtracted
Angles are magnitudes that can be added
a
and
divided
be
also
by number.
multiplied
they may

or

ANGULAR
57,

If

we suppose

00

(Fig.

from a position

turn about

OA

UNITS.
17) to
coinci

it makes a com
comes again into
and
plete revolution

dent with

until

coincidence with

OA,

it

will describe

angular magnitude about


0, while its end point O
will describe a curve called a circum
the

whole

the point

ference.

11

DEFINITIONS.
58, By adopting a suitable unit of angles
express the magnitudes of angles in numbers.

we

are able to

If we suppose 00 (Fig. 17) to turn about


from coinci
dence with OA until it makes one three hundred and sixtieth

of a revolution,

it

generates an angle at 0, which is taken


This unit is called a
angles.

as the unit for measuring


degree.

The degree is subdivided into sixty equal parts called


minutes, and the minute into sixty equal parts, called seconds.
Degrees, minutes, and seconds are denoted by symbols.
Thus, 5 degrees 13 minutes 12 seconds

right angle is generated when


of a revolution and is an angle of

generated when
is

00

an angle of 180
is

generated when

has

made

is

00

written, 5

has

made

13

12".

one-fourth

a straight angle is
of
a revolution and
one-half

90;

and the whole angular magnitude about


has made a complete revolution, and

00

contains 360.

The natural angular unit

is

one complete revolution.

But

the adoption of this unit would require us to express the


values of all angles by fractions.
The advantage of using the
degree as the unit consists in its convenient size, and in the fact
that 360

is

divisible

by

so

many

METHOD OF

is

different integral

numbers.

SUPERPOSITION.

59, The test of the equality of two geometrical magnitudes


that they coincide throughout their whole extent.
Thus, two straight lines are equal, if they can be so placed

that the points at their extremities coincide.


Two angles are
equal, if they can be so placed that they coincide.

In applying this test of equality, we assume that a line may


be moved from one place to another without altering its length;
that an angle may be taken up, turned over, and put down,

without altering the difference in direction of

its sides.

GEOMETEY.

12

This method enables us to compare magnitudes of the same


and DEF. Let
Suppose we have two angles,

ABC

kind.

so that the vertex E


EF falls on BO, the angle
DEF equals the angle ABC; the side EF falls between
EG and BA in the direction BG, the angle DEF less than
ABO; but the side EF falls in the direction BH, the angle
DEF greater than ABO.

the side

ED be placed
on

shall fall

B;

then,

on the side
if

BA,

the side

if

is

if

is

This method enables us to add magnitudes of the same kind.


if we have two straight lines
and CD, by placing the point Q
on B, and keeping CD in the ^
same direction with AB, we shall
have one continuous straight line
and CD.
the lines

BC

Thus,

AB

AD

D
#
FlQ 19
-

equal to the

sum

of

AB

C
/

B
FIG. 20.

Again

the angles ABC and DEF, and place


B and the side ED in the direction of BC, the

we have

E
DEF will take the position CBH, and the angles DEF

the vertex

angle

if

FIG. 21.

on

ABC will together equal the angle ABU.


side ED on J:L4, the
placed on B, and the
the angle FBC
and
the
ABF,
take
DEFwitt
position
angle
ABC and DEF,
will be the difference between the angles

and

If the vertex J

is

13

DEFINITIONS.

SYMMETRY.
60, Two points are said to be symmetrical with respect to a
third point, called the centre of sym\p
metry, if this third point bisects the
FlQ 22
straight line which joins them. Thus,
as a centre, if C
are symmetrical with respect to
and
p>

bisects the straight line

PP

1
.

61, Two points are said to be sym


metrical with respect to a straight
line, called the axis of symmetry, if

this

line

straight

bisects

at

right

angles the straight line which joins


them. Thus,
are symmet
and

rical
if

with respect to

XX

XX

62,

Two figures are

bisects

PP

as an axis,

at right angles.

said to be

sym

metrical with respect to a centre or


an axis if every point of one has a

corresponding symmetrical point in


the other.
Thus, if every point in
the figure
C* has a symmetrical

AB

point in

ABO,

with respect to

as

a centre, the figure A


C is sym
metrical to
with respect to

ABO

as a centre.
If

63,

ABC
ABO,
axis,

with respect to

the figure

cal to

an

every point in the figure


has a symmetrical point in

AB

axis.

A JB C

XX

is

an

as

symmetri

with respect to

XX

as

GEOMETRY.

14
64,

figure is symmetrical with re


bisects
if the point

spect to a point,

every straight line drawn through it


and terminated by the boundary of the
figure.
65,

A plane figure is symmetrical with

respect to a straight line, if the


divides it into two parts, which are

metrical with

to

respect

line

sym

this straight

line.

FIG. 27.

MATHEMATICAL TERMS.
66,

proof or demonstration

which the truth or

falsity

of

is

a course of reasoning by

any statement

is

logically

established.
67,

68,

theorem

is

a statement to be proved.

theorem consists of two parts: the hypothesis, or


and the conclusion, or that which is
is assumed

that which

asserted to follow from the hypothesis.


69,

An

axiom

is

a statement the truth of which

is

admitted

without proof.
70,

construction

is

a graphical representation of a geo

metrical figure.
71,

A problem is

72,

The

a question to be solved.

solution of a problem consists of four parts

the con
analysis, or course of thought by which
(1)
struction of the required figure is discovered
of the figure with the aid of ruler and
(2) The construction

The

compasses
(3)
tions;

The proof that the

all the given condi


figure satisfies

15

DEFINITIONS.

The

(4)

discussion of the limitations,

within which the solution

is

which often

exist,

possible.

A postulate is a construction admitted to be possible.


A proposition is a general term for either a theorem or

73,
74,

a problem.

75,

sition to

corollary

which

76,

is

it is

scholium

a truth easily deduced from the propo


attached.

a remark upon some particular feature

is

of a proposition.

The

77,
its

converse of a

theorem

hypothesis and conclusion.

is

formed by interchanging

Thus,

is

equal to B,

is

equal to D.

(Direct.)

If

is

equal to

is

equal to B.

(Converse.)

78,

The

If

negative of

A
If A
If

79,

D,

formed by stating the


conclusion.
Thus,

opposite of a proposition is
its

hypothesis and

is

equal to

is

not equal to B,

B,

The converse

is

its

equal to D. (Direct.)
is not
equal to D. (Opposite.)

of a truth

is

not necessarily true.


Thus,
a true proposition, but the

Every horse is a quadruped is


converse, Every quadruped is a horse, is not true.
80, If a direct proposition and its converse are true, the
opposite proposition is true ; and if a direct proposition and its
opposite are true, the converse proposition is true.

POSTULATES.

81,

Let

be granted

That a straight
any other point.
2.
That a straight
1.

to

it

line

line

can be drawn from any one point


can be produced to any distance,

or can be terminated at
3.

any point.
That a circumference may be described about any point

as a centre with a radius of given length,

GEOMETRY.

16

AXIOMS.

82.

Things which are equal

1.

same thing are equal

to the

to

each other.
2.

If equals are

3.

If equals are

added

to equals the

sums are equal.

taken from equals the remainders are equal.

4. If equals are added to unequals the sums are unequal,


and the greater sum is obtained from the greater magnitude.

If equals are

5.

taken from unequals the remainders are


is obtained from the

unequal, and the greater remainder


greater magnitude.

Things which are double the same thing,

6.

each other.
things, are equal to
are
halves of the
which
7.
Things

same thing, or

or equal

of equal

to each other.
things, are equal
8.
9.

The whole
The whole

is

greater than any of

is

equal to all its parts

its parts.

taken together.

SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS.

83,

increased by.

diminished by.

Def.

X multiplied by.

Ax.

... axiom.

-f-

divided by.
is

(or are) equal to.

Cor.

=:=

is

(or are) equivalent to.

is

(or are) greater than.

Adj.
Iden.

is

(or are) less than.

<

.-.

Cons.

hypothesis.
corollary.

adjacent.
identical.

construction.

supplementary.

therefore.

Sup.

angle.

Sup. -adj. supplementary.


Ext. -int. exterior-interior.

Bangles.

_L perpendicular.

Alt.-int.

Jl perpendiculars.

Ex.

II

parallel.

lie

parallels.

A triangle.
A triangles.

definition.

Hyp.

=
>

circles.

circle.

parallelogram.

17 parallelograms.

alternate-interior.

...

rt

right.

st

Q.E.D.

Q.E.F.

exercise.

straight.
.

quod erat demonstrandum,


which was to be proved.

quod erat faciendum,


which was to be done.

PLANE GEOMETRY.
BOOK

I.

THE STRAIGHT
PROPOSITION
84i

I.

LINE.

THEOREM.

All straight angles are equal.

Let Z.BCA and /.FED be any two straight angles.

ABCA =

To prove
Proof,

C shall

Apply the
fall

to the Z.

FED, so that the vertex


GB on the side EF.

on the vertex E, and the side

Then
(because

Z ECA

FED.

GA

BOA and FED

Therefore the

will coincide

are straight lines

Z EGA

is

with

ED,

and have two

equal to the

points common).

Z FED.

59
Q. E. D.

85,

COR.

1.

All right angles are equal.

86,

COR.

2.

87,

COR.

3.

The angular units have constant values.


The complements of equal angles are equal. Ax. 3.

COR.

4.

88,

The supplements of equal angles are

At a given point
perpendicular, and only one, can
89,

COR.

HINT.

draw

Ax.

5.

in

a given

equal.

7.

Ax. 3.

straight line one

be erected.

Consider the given point as the vertex of a


straight angle, and

the bisector of the angle.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

18

PROPOSITION

II.

BOOK

I.

THEOREM.

90. If two adjacent angles have their exterior sides


in a straight line, these angles are supplements of
each other.

Let the exterior sides OA and OB of the adjacent


A AOD and BOD be in the straight line A3.

A AOD and BOD supplementary.

To prove

AOB

Proof.

the

is

a straight

Z AOB

is

line.

st.

Hyp.
46

Z.

theZ^KXD + ZmD^thest. /.AOB.

But
/.

the

Ax. 9

A AOD and BOD are supplementary.

55
Q. E. D.

91. SCHOLIUM. Adjacent angles that are supplements of


each other are called supplementary-adjacent angles.
92.

COR.

Since the angular magnitude

neither increased nor diminished by the


radiate from the point, it follows that,

The sum of
to

all the angles about

about a point

number

of lines

a point in a plane

is

is

which

equal

two straight angles, or four right angles.

The sum of all


straight line

the angles about a point on the same side of a


passing through the point is equal to a straight

angle, or two right angles.

THE STRAIGHT LINE.

PROPOSITION
93.

CONVERSELY

ments of each

same

19

THEOREM.

III.

If two adjacent angles are supple

other, their exterior sides lie in the

straight line.

AC

Let the adjacent A OCA + OCB = 2


To prove
Proof,

A C and CB in

Suppose

CF to

the

same

rt. A.

straight line.

be in the same line with.-4Cl

Z OCA + Z OCF= 2 rt. A,

Then

81

90

(being sup.-adj. A).

But
.

Z OCA + Z OCB = 2 rt. A.


Z OCA + Z OCr= Z OCA -f Z

Take away from each

Z 0CF= Z

Then
.*.

94.

of these equals the

CB

and

A C and CB are

common

Ax. 1

Z OCA.

0C5.

Ax. 3

CF coincide.

in the

same straight

SCHOLIUM. Since Propositions

their opposites are true

Hyp.

OCB.

II.

and

line.

III.

Q.E. D.

are true,

80
namely,
If the exterior sides of two adjacent angles are not in a
straight line, these angles are not supplements of each other.
If two adjacent angles are not supplements of each other,
;

their exterior sides are not in the

same

straight line.

20

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION IV.

THEOREM.

I.

If one straight line intersects another straight


line, the vertical angles are equal.
95,

Let line OP cut AS at


To prove

C.

Z OCB = Z ACP.

Z OCA + Z OCB = 2

Proof,

(being sup.-adj.

rt.

90

A,

90

A)-

AACP=2rt.
(being sup.-adj.

A,

).

Ax.

Take away from each

of these equals the

common

Z OCB -Z ACP.

Then

In like manner we

Z OCA.
Ax. 3

may prove
Q. E. D.

96.

COR.

the
If one of the four angles formed by

of two straight
right angles.

lines is

intersection

the other three angles are


right angle,

THE STRAIGHT LINE.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION V.
97.

From a

21

point without a straight line one per

pendicular, and only

can be drawn

one,

to this line.

JT

D\
\

V
Let P be the point and AB the line.
To prove that one perpendicular, and only
from Pto AB.

one,

can be drawn

AB

AB

Turn the part of the plane above


about
as
it falls
upon the part below AB, and denote by

Proof,

an axis until

the position that

P takes.

Turn the revolved plane about AB to its original


and draw the straight line PP cutting AB at C.

position,

Take any other point


Since

D in

PDP

POP

is a straight line,
(Between two points only one straight

Z PCP is

Turn the

Then
.

PD and P D,

AB, and draw

st.

figure

CP will

Z, and

POD

line

Z PDP

about

coincide with

is not a
straight line.
can be drawn.)

is

not a

st.

OP, and

P.

DP with DP.

Z PCD = Z. POD, and Z PDO= Z PDC.


Z POZ), the half of st. Z PC/*, is a rt. Z and Z
half of Z
is not a rt. Z.

59

.-.

the

Z.

AB until P falls upon

PZ>C,

PZ>^,

.*.

PC

is

one

_L,

to

^15, and

and only

PD

is

one, can be

not _L to

AB.

drawn from

P to

47

AB.
Q.E.D,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

22

BOOK!

I.

PARALLEL LINES.
98,

DEF.

Parallel lines are lines which

lie in

the same

plane and do not meet however far they are prolonged in both
directions.
99,

Parallel lines are said to

lie in

the same direction

when

they are on the same side of the straight line joining their ori
when they are on opposite sides
gins, and in opposite directions
of the straight line joining their origins.

PROPOSITION VI.
100, Two straight lines in the same plane perpen
dicular to the same straight line are parallel.

-B

Let AB and CD be perpendicular to AC.


AB and CD parallel.
To prove
If

Proof.

AB

and

CD

are not parallel, they will meet

if

have two perpendicular


sufficiently
lines from their point of meeting to the same straight line
prolonged, and we

shall

but this

is

97

impossible.

and only
(From a given point without a straight line, one perpendicular,
one, can be drawn to the straight line.}
.

AB and CD are parallel.

Q.E.D.

AB

and CD are not parallel leads


the supposition that
a given
to the conclusion that two perpendiculars can be drawn from
The conclusion is false, therefore the supposi
line.
point to a straight
and CD are not parallel, it is true
tion is false; but if it is false that
This method of proof is called the indirect
are parallel.
that

REMARK. Here

AB

they
method.
101,

COR. Through a given point, one straight

(me, can be drawn parallel

to

a given straight

line,

line.

and only

23

PAEALLEL LINES.
THEOREM.

PROPOSITION VII.

102, If a straight line is perpendicular to one of


two parallel lines, it is perpendicular to the other.

H
M-

ar

ar

K
Let AB and EF be
perpendicular to

two parallel lines, and let


AB, and cut EF at C.

HK\_EF.

To prove

Suppose MN drawn through


MN \a\\toAB,

Proof,

Then

HK be

(7J_ to

HK.
100

to a given line are parallel).


(two lines in the same plane _L

EFia

But
/.
(through the

that

EF,

same point only one

to

AB.

line

EF.

101
\\

to

a given

line).

Q.E.D.

AB

two straight lines


are cut by a third line

If

CD

Hyp.

MN,

can be drawn

.ffiTis J_ to

is,

103,

and

EF

\\

coincides with

called

transversal,

are
eight angles formed,
as follows

the

named

The angles
interior

b,

c,

g are called
h are called ex

a, d, f,
e,

terior angles.

The angles d and /, or a and g, are called alt. -int. angles.


The angles b and h, or c and e, are called alt. -ext. angles.
The angles b and /, c and g, a and e, or d and h, are called
ext. -int.

angles.

24

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION VIII.

BOOK

I.

THEOREM.

104, If two parallel straight lines are cut by a third


straight line, the alternate-interior angles are equal.

Let EF and

GH

be two parallel straight lines cut by

the line BQ.

Z.B = /.Q.

To prove
Proof.

drawn J_
Then

Through
to

0, the middle point

AD

is

likewise _L to

(a straight line _L to one of two

that

is,

Apply

of

AD

BC, suppose

GH.

CD and BA are both JL


figure COD to figure BOA,

102

EF,

Us is _L to

to

the other),

AD.

so that

OD shall

fall

on OA.

00 will

Then
(since

and

95

on OB,

fall

/. COD = Z BOA,

being vertical

A)

C will fall upon B,


00 = OB by construction).

the point
(since

Then

the J_

CD

(from a point without a


.

/.

OCD

will coincide with the _L

coincides with

Z OB A,

and

is

97

BA,

straight line only one JL to that line

can be drawn}.

equal to

59

it.

Q. E. D.

Ex.
it is

Ex.
is

1.

Find the value of an angle


its complement.

if it is

double

its

complement

if

one-fourth of
2.

Find the value of an angle

one-third of

its

supplement.

if it is

double

its

supplement

if it

PAKALLEL

25

LINES./

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION IX.

When two

straight lines are cut


an
by a third straight line, if the alternate-interior
gles are equal, the two straight lines are parallel.
105.

CONVERSELY

MA

\f/

Let EF cut the straight lines AB and CD in the points


and K, and let the

AB

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

then

II

to

CD.

MN drawn through H
Z MHK= Z HKD,
(being

alt.-int.

of

II

II

to

CD

104

lines).

Z AHK= Z HKD.
/. Z MHK= Z AHK.

But

/. the lines JIfJVand

MNis

But
.*.

AB, which

II

to

101

Hyp.
Ax.

AB coincide.
CD.

coincides with

JOT,

Cons.
is

II

to

QD.
Q.E. D.

Ex.

3.

How many

clock at 2 o clock

degrees in the angle formed


3 o clock ? 4 o clock ? 6 o clock ?

by the hands of a

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

26

PROPOSITION X.
106,

line,

I.

THEOREM.

// two parallel lines are cutlby a third straight


the exterior-interior angles are equal.

Let AB and CD be two parallel lines cut


and K,
straight line EF, in the points

by the

Z EHB = Z HKD.
Z EHB = Z AHK,

To prove
Proof,

95

(being vertical A).


.

Z AHK= Z HKD,

But

(being alt.-int.

Aof\\

104

lines).

Ax.
In like manner we

may

prove

Z EHA = Z HKC.
COR. The alternate-exterior angles

107,

and

also

Ex.

4.

Q. E. D.

EHB

and CKF,

AHE and DKF, are equal.


If an angle

is

bisected,

and

if

a line

is

drawn through the

to the bisector, this line forms equal angles

vertex perpendicular
the sides of the given angle.

with

two adjacent angles are perpendicular to


are supplementary.
the
each other,
adjacent angles
Ex.

5.

If the bisectors of

PARALLEL LINES.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XI.

CONVERSELY

27

When two

straight lines are cut


the
exterior-interior an
line, if
are
these
two
gles
equal,
straight lines are parallel.
108,

ly a third straight

Let EF cut the straight lines AB and CD in the points


and let the

H and K,

AB

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

CD.

to

\\

MN drawn through

5"

II

to

CD.

Z EHN= Z HKD,

Then

(being ext.-int.

But
.

of

II

106

lines).

Z EHB = Z HKD.
Z EHB = Z EHN.

.the lines

JOT"

MNia

But
.

.AB, which

and
II

to

101

Hyp.
Ax.

AB coincide.
CD.

coincides with

MN,

Cons.
is

II

to

CD.
Q. E. D.

Ex.

6.

The

bisector of one of

two

vertical angles bisects the other.

Ex. 7. The bisectors of the two pairs of vertical angles formed by


two intersecting lines are perpendicular to each other.

28

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XII.

THEOREM.

I.

If two parallel lines are cut by a third straight


line, the sum of the two interior angles on the same
side of the transversal is equal to two right angles.
109.

-B

Let AB and CD be two parallel lines cut by the


EF in the points H and K.

straight line
To prove

Z BIIK+ Z HKD = 2

Proof,

Z EHB + Z EHK = 2
(being sup.-adj.

rt.

rt.

A
4

90

zt).

Z EHB = Z HKD,

But

(being ext.-int.

Substitute

Z HKD
Z

then

for

of

II

Z EHB in

106

lines).

the

BHK+ Z HKD - 2

first

rt.

equality

A.
Q. E. D.

AHE

is an angle of 135, find the number of


Ex. 8. If the angle
other angles formed at the points -ffand K.
degrees in each of the

Ex.

9.

Find the angle between the

tary angles.

bisectors of adjacent

complemen

PARALLEL LINES.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XIII.

CONVERSELY

110.

29

When two

straight lines are cut

by a third straight line, if the two interior angles on


the same side of the transversal are together equal to
two right angles, then the two straight lines are
parallel.

Let EF cut the straight lines AB and CD in the points


and K, and let the BHK+^HKD equal two right

angles.

AB

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

Then

to

II

CD.

MN drawn through H
NHK+ HKD = 2
Z.

to

\\

rt.

CD.
109

A,

(being two interior Aof\\son the same side of the transversal}.

Z.BHK+HKL = 2rt.A.

But

Hyp.

.Z.NHK+Z.HKD = Z.BHK+Z.HKD.

Take away from each


then

Z.
.

of these equals the

NHK=

the lines

MNis

But
.

AB,

Z.

AB and
II

to

common

Z.

BHK.

MN

HKD

Ax. 3

coincide.

CD.

which coincides with

Ax.

MN,

Cons.
is

II

to

CD.
Q.E.O.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

30

I.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XIV.

to
straight lines which are parallel
other.
each
to
are
line
parallel
straight
Ill,

Two

a third

K
Let AB and CD be parallel

AB

To prove
Proof,

Since
(if

a straight

Since

to EF.

CD.

to

II

Suppose

HK drawn _L

CD

EF are

and

to

line is

AB

and

EF are

II,

(when two straight

Ex

10.

It has

lines

AB

is

II

97

EF.
_L to

Us, it is J_ to

rt.

to

102

CD,

the other also).

fflTis also _L to

(each being a
.-.

HKis

II,

one of two

to

AB.

Z).

108

CD,

are cut by a third straight

line, if the ext.-int.

are equal, the two lines are parallel).

been shown that

if

102

two

cut
parallels are

Q.

by a

E D

trans*

are equal, the exterior-interior angles


versal! the alternate-interior angles
on the same side of the transversal are
are equal the two interior angles
State the converse theo
State the opposite theorems.
Bupplementary.

rems.

PARALLEL

XV.

PKOPOSITION

31

LINES.

THEOREM.

112, Two angles whose sides are parallel, each to


each, are either equal or supplementary.

-fcr-

r
F

Let AB be parallel

and BC

to EF,

to

MN.

Z ABO equal to Z EHN, and


supplementary to Z EHM and to Z NHF.
To prove

Proof,

sect at

Prolong

(if

necessary)

to

Z MHF,

BO and FE until

D.

they inter
81 (2)

Z B = Z EDO,
Z DHN= Z ^D(7.

Then
and

(being

ext.-int.

A of

II

and

106

106

ines),

MHF (the vert. Z of DHN).


Now Z DHN the supplement of Z EHM and Z ^V^F.
Z.B = Z.

and

is

is

Z ^,

Z DJ77V,
of Z EHM and of Z NHF.

which

the supplement

is

equal to

Q. E. D.

REMARK. The

angles are equal

when both

pairs

of parallel sides

extend in the same direction, or in opposite directions, from their ver


tices
the angles are supplementary when two of the parallel sides extend
;

in the

same

vertices.

direction,

and the other two

in opposite directions,

from their

32

113,

Two

PLANE GEOMETKY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XVI.

THEOREM.

I.

angles whose sides are perpendicular, each


equal or supplementary.

to each, are either

K
F

and AC

Let AB be perpendicular

to FD,

Z BAG

Z DFG,

To prove

equal

to

to GI.

and supplementary

to

/.DPI.
Proof,

Suppose

AKis

Then

AB, and AH AFD, arid AJI to IG,

AK drawn _L
to

\\

to

to

AC.
100

(two lines J_ to the same line are parallel).

112
(two angles are equal. whose sides are

from

II

and extend

in the same direction

their vertices).

Z BAK a right angle by construction.


Z BAH is the complement of Z KAH.
The Z CAJTis a right angle by construction.
Z HAHis the complement of Z BAG.

The
.

is

87
(complements of equal angles are equal).

. .

Z DFI,

the

.\/.DFG = ^BAO.
supplement of Z DFG, is also

Ax.

tf/.BAC.
REMARK. The
are supplementary

the supplement

or both obtuse
angles are equal if both are acute
if one is acute and the other obtuse.

Q.E.D.

they

PEKPENDICULAR AND OBLIQUE LINES.

33

PERPENDICULAR AND OBLIQUE LINES.


PROPOSITION XVII.

The perpendicular

114,

drawn from a point

be

to

THEOREM.

the shortest Line that can

is

a straight

Line.

D\

i
Let AB be the given straight line, P the given point,
the perpendicular, and PD any other line drawn

PC

from

to

AB.
To prove

Produce

Proof,

On

AB

plane of

PC to P

PC

making

as an axis, fold over

CP

<

PD.

CP = PC;

CPD

until

and draw

it

DP

conies into the

D.

The
(since

line

CP will

Z PCD - Z

P will

The point

(since
.

take the direction of

P>CD t

line

each being a

fall

rt.

by hyp.).

upon the point

PC= P Cby

CP

cons.).

PD = line P D,

PC +CP =2 PC.
PC + CP
+ DP
and

But

<PD

(a straight line
.

is

Cons.
1
,

the shortest distance between two


points).

.2PC<2PD, or PC<PD.

Q.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

34
115,

BOOK

X,

SCHOLIUM. The distance of a point from a line is under


mean the length of the perpendicular from the point

stood to

to the line.

PROPOSITION XVIII.

THEOREM.

drawn from a

point in a
cutting off equal dis
perpendicular
tances from the foot of the perpendicular, are equal.
116,

Two

oblique lines
to

a given

line,

Let FC be the perpendicular, and CA and CO two


oblique lines cutting off equal distances from F.

CA =

To prove
Proof,

CO.

Fold over CFA, on

the plane of

CF&s

an

FA
(since

will take the direction of

Z CFA = Z CFO,

Point

each being a

will fall

(since
.

COR.

pendicular

to

comes into

.line

C4

Two

oblique lines

a given

rt.

FO,
Z by hyp.).

upon point 0,

FA = FO

by hyp.).

= line

the
(their extremities being

117,

axis, until it

CFO.

CO,

same points).

drawn from a

Q. E. o.

point in a per

line, cutting off equal distances from the


make equal angles with the given line,

foot of the perpendicular,


and also with the perpendicular.

PEEPENDICULAE AND OBLIQUE LINES.

PROPOSITION XIX.

35

THEOREM.

118, The sum of two lines drawn from a point to


the extremities of a straight line is greater than the
sum of two other lines similarly drawn, but included

by them.
C

Let CA and CB be two lines drawn from the point C


the extremities of the straight line AB. Let OA and
OB be two lines similarly drawn, but included by CA
and CB.
to

To prove
Proof.

CA+CB>OA

AO to

Produce

meet the

AC+ CE

Then

(a straight line

and

is

>

+ OB.
line

CB

at

E.

OA + OE,

the shortest distance between two points),

BE+OE>BO.

Add

these inequalities, and

we have

CA+CE+BE+OE>OA +
Substitute for

and take away

We have

OE+ OB.

CE+ BE its equal CB,

OE from

each side of the inequality.

CA+CB>OA

OB.

Ax. 5

aEilx

36

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XX.

I.

THEOREM.

119, Of two oblique lines drawn from the same


point in a perpendicular, cutting off unequal dis
tances from the foot of the perpendicular, the more
remote is the greater.

b
Let OC be perpendicular to AB, OG and OE two oblique
lines to AB, and GE greater than CG.

OE

To prove

Take

Proof.

CF equal

to

OG.

>

CG, and draw OF.

0F= OG,

Then
(two oblique lines

drawn from a point


from the foot of the

in a
JL,

116
_L,

cutting off equal distances

are equal).

OC to

D, making CD
Prolong
Draw
and FD.

=00.

ED

Since

AB

is

OD at its middle point,


FO = FD, and EO = JED,

_L to

But

OE+ED>

116

OF+ FD,

118

sum

of two oblique lines drawn from a point to the extremities of a


straight line is greater than the sum of two other lines similarly drawn,
but included by them).

(the

But

20E>20F, or

OF= OG.

OE>

Hence

OE

OF.
>

OG.

aE

Only two equal straight lines can be drawn from


a straight line ; and of two unequal lines, the greater

120, COR.

a point

to

cuts off the greater distance from the foot of the perpendicular.

PEKPENDICULAE, AND OBLIQUE LINES.

PROPOSITION XXI.

37

THEOREM.

121, Two equal oblique lines, drawn from, the same


point in a perpendicular, cut off equal distances from
tine foot of the perpendicular.

Let CF be the perpendicular, and CE and CK be two


equal oblique lines drawn from the point C to AB.

FE=FK.

To prove

GFA

Fold over

Proof,

the plane of

on

OF as

an

axis, until it conies into

CFB.

The
(since

line

FE will take the direction FK,

Z CFE= Z. CFK,

Then the point

each being a

E must

fall

rt.

by hyp).

upon the point

K,

Otherwise one of these oblique lines must be more remote


from the perpendicular, and therefore greater than the other
which is contrary to the hypothesis that they are equal.
119
;

Q. E. D.

Ex.

11.

Show

that

the bisectors

of two
supplementary-adjacent

angles are perpendicular to each other.

Ex.

12.

Show

that the bisectors of two vertical


angles form one

straight line.

Ex. 13. Find the complement of an angle containing 26


Find the supplement of the same angle.

52

37".

PLANE GEOMETRY.

38

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXII.

I.

THEOREM.

122, Every point in the perpendicular, erected at


the middle of a given straight line, is equidistant
from the extremities of the line, and every point not
in the perpendicular is unequally distant from the
extremities of the line.

Let PR be a perpendicular erected at the middle of


the straight line AB,
any point in PR, and G any
point without PR.
Draw OA and OB, CA and CB.
To prove

OA

and

OB equal, CA

and

PA = PB.

Proof,

CB unequal.
Hyp.
116

drawn from the same point in a _L, cutting


tances from the foot of the _L, are equal).
without the perpendicular, one of the

(two oblique lines

Since
or

is

off"

equal dis

lines,

CA

will cut the perpendicular.

CB,

Let

CA

cut the J_ at D, and

Then

draw DB.

DB = DA,

drawn from the same point in a


tances from the foot of the _L, are

(two oblique lines

But

116
_L,

cutting off equal dis

equal).

CB<CD+DB,
(a straight line

is

the shortest distance between two points).

DA for DB,
CB<CD + DA.

Substitute in this inequality

That

is,

CB<CA.

and we have

PERPENDICULAR AND OBLIQUE LINES.


123,

Since two points determine the position of a straight

two points equidistant from the extremities of a

line,

mine

39

the perpendicular at the

middle of that

THE Locus OF A

line deter

line.

POINT.

required to find a point which shall fulfil a


single geometric condition, the point will have an unlimited
number of positions, but will be confined to a particular line,
124,

If

it

is

or group of lines.

Thus, if it is required to find a point equidistant from the


extremities of a given straight line, it is obvious from the last
proposition that any point in the perpendicular to the given
line at its middle point does fulfil the condition, and that no
other point does

that is, the required point is confined to this


Again, if it is required to find a point at a
perpendicular.
given distance from a fixed straight line of indefinite length, it
;

is

evident that the point must

so

drawn

lie in one of two


straight lines,
as to be everywhere at the given distance from the
fixed line, one on one side of the fixed line, and the other on

the other side.

The locus of a point under a given condition is the line,


or group of lines, which contains all the points that fulfil the
given condition, and no other points.
SCHOLIUM. In order to prove completely that a certain
the locus of a point under a given condition, it is neces
sary to prove that every point in the line satisfies the given
condition; and secondly, that every point which satisfies the
125,

line

is

given condition lies in the line (the converse proposition), or


that every point not in the line does not satisfy the given condi
tion (the opposite proposition).
126,
ities

Con.

The

locus of a point equidistant from the extrem


is the perpendicular bisector
of that line.

of a straight line

122, 123

PLANE GEOMETEY.

40

BOOK

I.

TRIANGLES.
127.

The bounding

ABC.
lines are called the

sides of the triangle,

and

their

sum

is

perimeter ; the angles formed


the sides are called the angles of the

called

by

a portion of a plane bounded by three

is

triangle

straight lines; as,

its

triangle,

and the vertices of these an

FIG.

1.

gles, the vertices of the triangle.

128,

An

exterior angle of a triangle

an angle formed between a side and


the prolongation of another side as,

is

ACD.

The

interior

angle

ACE

is
"

FIG. 2.
the
adjacent to the exterior angle
other two interior angles,
and B, are called opposite;

interior angles.

Scalene.

Isosceles.

Equilateral.

called, with reference to its sides, a


triangle
scalene triangle when no two of its sides are equal an isos
an equilateral
celes triangle, when two of its sides are equal
129,

is

triangle,

when

its

three sides are equal.

Obtuse.

Right.

130,

triangle,

triangle

when one

Acute.

with reference to

Equiangular.

angles, a right
an obtuse
of its angles is a right angle

is

called,

its

TEIANGLES.

41

when one
when all

of its angles is an obtuse angle


an acute
three of its angles are acute angles
an
equiangular triangle, when its three angles are equal.
triangle,

triangle,

131, In a right triangle, the side opposite the


right angle is
called the hypotenuse, and the other two sides the
legs, of the

triangle.
132, The side on which a
triangle is supposed to stand is
called the base of the triangle.
Any one of the sides may be
In the isosceles triangle, the equal sides
taken as the base.

are generally called the legs,


133,
vertical
134,

and the other

side,

the base.

The angle opposite the base of a triangle is called the


angle, and its vertex the vertex of the triangle.
The

altitude of a triangle

is

the perpendicular distance

from the vertex to the base, or to the base produced

as,

AD.

135, The three perpendiculars from the vertices of a tri


angle to the opposite sides (produced if necessary) are called
the altitudes; the three bisectors of the
angles are called tha
bisectors; and the three lines from the vertices to the middle
points of the opposite sides are called the medians of the

triangle.
136, If two
triangles have the angles of the one equal respec
tively to the angles of the other, the equal angles are called
homologous angles, and the sides opposite the
are

equal angles

called homologous sides.

In general, points,

lines,

and

angles, similarly situated in

equal or similar figures, are called homologous.


137,

THEOREM

than the third

side,

The sum of two sides of a triangle is greater


and their difference is less than the third

side.

In the
is

A ABC(Yi%.

1),

AB +

BC>AC, for

the shortest distance between two


points

away BCiiQm both

sides, AB>AC-BC, or

a straight line

and by taking

AC-BC<AB.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXIII.

THEOREM.

42

I.

The sum of the three angles of a triangle

138,

equal

is

two right angles.

to

A
Let ABC be a

triangle.

Z B + Z BOA + Z A = 2 rt. A.
to AB, and prolong A
Suppose CE drawn
Z ECF+ Z ECE + Z J5O4 = 2 rt. Z,

To prove
Proof,

Then

II

(/ie swra o/

a^

the

about a

on the same

oin

=2

rt.

side of

to F.

92

straight line

A).

Z A - Z J57CF,

But

(Jetn^r ext.-int.

106

o/\\ lines).

w&/.B = Z.BCE,
(being

alt.-int.

Then
Con.

tracted

II

1.

If the

from two

sum

104

lines ).

Z EOF and Z .SC^ the equal A A


Z ^. + Z B + Z .SO4 - 2 rt. Zs.

Substitute for

139,

A of

and 5.

of two angles of a triangle

Q. E. D.

is

sub

the
right angles, the remainder is equal to

third angle.
2. If two triangles have two angles of the one
are equal.
two
angles of the other, the third angles
equal
141, COR. 3. If two right triangles have an acute angle of
the one equal to an acute angle of the other, the other acute
angles are equal.

COR.

140,

to

43

TRIANGLES.
COR.

142,

4.

In a

can be but one right angle,

triangle there

or one obtuse angle.

COR.

143,

5.

In a

right triangle the two acute angles are

complements of each other.


COR.

144,

6.

In an equiangular

triangle, each angle is one-

third of two right angles, or two-thirds of one right angle.

PROPOSITION
145,

sum

XXIV.

THEOREM.

The exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the


of the two opposite interior angles.

C*

-*i

Let

BCH

-*"*

be an exterior angle of the triangle ABC.

Z BCH Z A -f Z B.

To prove

Z B CH+ ^ACB = 2rt.A

Proof.

(being sup.-adj. A},

(the

sum

of the three

Take away from each

of a

rt.

of these equals the

Z.BCH=Z.A +

then

A=2

A).

common

Z ACB

Ax. 3

B.

Q. E. D.

146,

COR.

The

exterior angle of

either of the opposite interior angles.

a triangle

is

greater than

44

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION

XXV.

BOOK

I.

THEOREM.

147, Two triangles are equal if a side and two ad


jacent angles of the one are equal respectively to a
side and two adjacent angles of the other.

CD

A
In the triangles
/LB = ^E.
To prove
Proof,

Apply

coincide with

ABC and

ff

AB = DE,

DEF, let

Z.A = Z.D,

A ABC= A DEF.
the A AB C to the A DEF so that AB shall

DE.
A C will

take the direction of

ZA = ZD,by hyp.)

(for

DF,

AC will fall upon DF or DF produced.


EC will take the direction of EF,

the extremity

C of

(for

the extremity
.

ZB = ZE,by hyp.)

C of .#(7 will

fall

upon

EF

EF produced.
lines DF and EF,
or

.the point C, falling upon both the


fall upon the point common to the two lines, namely, F.

must

/.the two

A coincide, and are equal.

Q.E.D.

148, COR. 1. Two right triangles are equal if the hypotenuse


and an acute angle of the one are equal respectively to the hypote
nuse and an acute angle of the other.

149,
COR. 2. Two right triangles are equal if a side and an
acute angle of the one are equal respectively to a side and
homologous acute angle of the other,

45

TRIANGLES.

PROPOSITION

XXVI.

THEOREM.

150, Two triangles are equal if two sides and the


included angle of the one are equal respectively to
two sides and the included angle of the other.

ABC and DEF,

In the triangles

E
let

AB = DE, AG-DF,

A = ^D.

AAC-=A DEF.

To prove
Proof,

Apply the

coincide with

Then

A ABC to

the

A DEF so that AB shall

DE.
will take the direction of

= ZD,by hyp}
(for ZA
the point

C will
(for

fall

DF,

upon the point F,

AC= DF,

by hyp.).

(thdr extremities being the same points).

.the two

A coincide, and are equal.


Q.E. D.

151,

COR.

equal, each

to

Two
each.

are
right triangles are equal if their legs

46

PLANE GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION XXVII.

BOOK

I.

THEOREM.

152, If two triangles have two sides of the one


equal
respectively to two sides of the other, but the included

first greater than the included angle of


the second, then the third side of the first will be
greater than the third side of the second.

angle of the

-y

E
In the triangles ABC and ABE, let
but ZABC greater than /.ABE.

AC

To prove
Proof,

Place the

AB of the

>

AB = AB, BC=BE;

AE.

A so that AB of the one shall coincide with

other.

Suppose

BF drawn so as to bisect Z EBG.


Draw EF.

In the

A EBF and CBF


EB = J30,
BF=BF,
.*.

(having two sides

Hyp.
Iden.

Z EBF= Z. CBF.
A EBF&K& CBFwQ

Cons.

the
equal,
and the included /. of one equal respectively
and the included Z. of the other).

150
to

two sides

.\EF=FC,
(being homologous sides of equal A).

AF+ FE

Now
(the

sum

of two sides of a
.

AE,
A is greater than

137

>

the third side).

AF+FO AE-,
or,

AC>AE.

Q.E.D.

TRIANGLES.

PROPOSITION XXVIII.

47

THEOREM.

CONVERSELY. If two sides of a triangle are equal


respectively to two sides of another, but the third side
of the first triangle is greater than the third side of
the second, then the angle opposite the third side of
the first triangle is greater than the angle opposite
the third side of the second.
153.

In the triangles ABO and DEF, let AB = DE,


but let BG be greater than EF.
Z A greater than Z D.
To prove

Now Z A

Proof.

greater than

But

ZA

equal to

is

equal to

D,

or less than

And Z

is

D, or

D.

not equal to

D,

A ABC would

for then

A DEF,

(having two sides

than

is

AC = DF;

be

150

of the one, respectively equal to two


the included /. of the other),

and

the included

sides

and

and

BG would be

not less than

D,

equal to
for

then

EF.

BC would

EF.

be less

152
/.

ZA

is

greater than

D.
Q.E.D.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION
154,

In an

XXIX.

I.

THEOREM.

isosceles triangle the angles opposite the

equal sides are equal.

B
Let ABO
AB and AC

be an isosceles triangle, having the sides


equal.

Z B=Z

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

C.

AD drawn so as to bisect the /.BAG.


In the A ADB and ADC,
= AC.
AD = AD,
Z. BAD = Z. CAD.
.AAD = &ADC,
AJ3

(two

&

are equal if two sides and the included Z


sides and the included Z
respectively to two

.\Z.B =
155,

COR.

An

Hyp.
Iden.
Cons.

150
of the one are equal
of the other).

C.

Q.E.D.

is equiangular,
equilateral triangle

and each

angle contains 60.


Ex.

14.

The

bisects the base,

bisector of the vertical angle of


to the base.
and is

an

isosceles triangle

perpendicular

The perpendicular bisector of the base of an isosceles


and bisects the angle at the vertex.
passes through the vertex
Ex.

15.

triangle

49

TKIANGLES.

PEOPOSITION

XXX.

THEOREM.

156, If two angles of a triangle are equal, the sides


opposite the equal angles are equal, and the triangle

is isosceles.

= ZC.

In the triangle ABC, let the Z


To prove
Proof,

In the

rt.

AB = AC.
Suppose AD drawn J_ to BO.
A ALB and ADC,
AD = AD,
4.B = Z.Q.
.*. rt.

A ALB =

(having a side and an acute

an

rt.

Iden.

Hyp.

A ADC,

149

of the one equal respectively to


homologous acute
of the other).

side

and

(being homologous sides of equal &).


Q.E. D.

COR.

157,

Ex.

16.

triangle

is

An

equiangular triangle

is

The perpendicular from the vertex


an axis of symmetry.

also equilateral.

to the base of

an

isosceles

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

50

PROPOSITION

XXXI.

X,

THEOREM.

If two sides of a triangle are unequal, the an


are unequal, and the greater angle is
opposite
gles
158,

opposite the greater side.

C
In the triangle

ACB

let

Z A CB

To prove

be greater than AC.

greater than

B.

AE equal to AQ.

Take

Proof.

AB

Draw EC.

AAEC=Z.ACE,
(being

opposite equal sides).

Z AEG is

But
(an exterior

/.

of a

Substitute for

is

Much

than either opposite interior Z).

greater than

Z ACE its

Z.ACB\*

then

146

greater than Z. B,

A is greater

Z A CB

and

154

equal

greater than

more, then, is the

Z ACE.

Z ACB

Ax. 8

Z ^(7,

Z AEC.
Z. B.
greater than

^Cand

ACB, at the base of an isosceles tri


If the angles
lines
the
BD, CD, show that
straight
angle, be bisected by
Ex.

be an

17.

isosceles triangle.

DBCmll

TKI ANGLES.

PROPOSITION XXXII.

51

THEOREM.

159, CONVERSELY
If two angles of a triangle are
unequal, the sides opposite are unequal, and the
greater side is opposite the greater angle.
:

In.

the triangle AGE, let angle

angle E.
To prove

AB

Now AB

Proof,

is

>

ACE

be greater than

AC.

equal to AC, or less than AC, or greater

than AC.

AB

But

is

equal to the

not equal to AC, for then the /.

And

AB

than the

(if

is

not

B,

two sides of a

opposite equal sides ).

than AC, for then the

less

A are unequal,

greater
.

be

154
(being

less

C would

B,

is

AB

Z.

the
opposite are unequal,
opposite the greater side).

is

greater than

would be
158
and

the

AC.
Q. E. D.

Ex. 18. ABC and ABD are two triangles on the same base AB, and
on the same side of it, the vertex of each
triangle being without the
other.
If AC equal AD, show that BC cannot
equal

BD.
sum of the lines which join a point
within a triangle to the three vertices is less than
the perimeter, but
greater than half the perimeter.
Ex.

19.

The

PLANE GEOMETRY.

52

BOOK:

I.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XXXIII.

160, Two triangles are equal if the three sides of


the one are equal respectively to the three sides of
the other.

In the triangles ABC and A

BC=B

BC

let

AB = A B AC=A C

A ABC = A A B C

To prove

AB

AABC

in the position
Place
C, having its
in coincidence with its equal AC, and its
C
side
greatest
1
.
and draw
vertex at
opposite
Proof.

BB
Since AB = AB
Z ABB = Z AB B,
B

(in

an

isosceles

the

A opposite

Since

Hence,

Hyp.
154

the equal sides are equal).

CB = CB\

ZCBB = ZCB R
^ ABC= Z AB C,
/. A ABG= A AB O= A A B C

Hyp.
154

Ax. 2
150

(two

&

are equal if two sides and included Z of one are equal


sides and included Z of the other).

to

two

TRIANGLES.

PROPOSITION

53

XXXIV. THEOREM.

161. Two right triangles are


equal if a side and
the hypotenuse of the one are equal respectively to a
side and the hypotenuse of the other.

In the right triangles

and

AC=A C

A AC= A A

To prove
Proof,

upon

Then

let

AB^A Bf,

A ABC to the A A B C so that AE shall


A falling upon A E upon E\ and and
the same side of A -B
Apply the

coincide with

ABC and A B C

BO will take the direction of B &,


Z ABC= Z A B C

(for

each being a

AC=A C

Since

the point
(two equal oblique lines

C will

from a point

.*.

the two

Z).

9
,

fall

upon

<7

in a _L cut

the foot of the

rt.

off"

121

equal distances from

JL).

A coincide, and are equal.


Q.E. 0.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

54

PROPOSITION

BOOK

XXXV.

I.

THEOREM.

bisector of an angle is equi


the sides of the angle.

Every point in the

162,

distant

from

Let AD be the bisector of the angle BAG, and let O


be any point in AD.
To prove that

is

Proof,

Draw O^and

In the

rt.

(two

rt.

AB and AC.
OG J_ to AB and A C respectively.

equidistant from

A ^O^Fand AOO
AO=AO,
JBAO =
CAO.

Iden.

.-.AAOF=AAOG,

148

Hyp.

and an acute Z of the one are


hypotenuse and an acute Z of the other).

are equal if the hypotenuse

respectively to the

equal

OF= OG,

(homologous sides of equal &).


.*.

is

equidistant from

AB and

AC.
Q. E. D.

What

is

the locus of a point

Ex.

20.

At a given

Ex.

21.

Equidistant from two fixed points?

22.

At a given

Ex.
length

Ex.
Ex.

distance from a fixed point

\ 57.

119.

distance from a fixed straight line of indefinite

23.

Equidistant from two given parallel lines

24.

of a
given line
Equidistant from the extremities

?
?

TRIANGLES.

PROPOSITION

XXXVI.

THEOREM.

Every point within an angle, and equidistant

163,

from

55

its sides, is

in the bisector of the angle.

Let
be equidistant from the sides of the angle
BAG, and let AO join the vertex A and the point 0.
To prove that
Proof.

AO is

Suppose

the bisector of Z.

OF

and

OG

BAG.

drawn

J. to

AB

and AC,

respectively.

In the

rt.

A ^O^and AOG

.-.

(two

rt.

OF= OG,

Hyp.

AO^AO.

Iden.

AAOF=AAOG,

& are equalif the

hypotenuse and a side


hypotenuse and a side of the
/.

AO

other).

Z FAO = /. GAO,

(homologous
.*.

161
of the one are equal to the

is

of equal A).

the bisector of

Z BAG.
Q.E. D.

164.

COR. The locus of a point within an angle, and equi

distant from

its sides, is

the bisector of the angle.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

56

BOOK

I.

QUADRILATERALS.

165.
quadrilateral is a portion of a plane bounded by
four straight lines.
The bounding lines are the sides, the angles formed by these

sides are the angles, and the vertices of these angles are the
vertices, of the quadrilateral.
166.

is

trapezium,

a quadrilateral which has no two sides

parallel.
167.

trapezoid

a quadrilateral which has two

is

sides,

and

only two sides, parallel.


168.

A parallelogram is a

quadrilateral which has

its

oppo

site sides parallel.

Trapezium.

169.

Trapezoid.

is

rectangle

Parallelogram.

a parallelogram which has

its

a parallelogram which has

its

angl<

right angles.
170.

rhomboid

is

angl<

oblique angles.
171,
172,

A
A

square

rhombus

Square.

173,

is

The

a rectangle which has


is

a rhomboid which has

Rectangle.

side

its

Rhombus.

sides equal.
its

sides equal.

Rhomboid.

upon which a parallelogram stands, and the


its lower and
upper bases.

opposite side, are called

57

QUADETLATEEALS.
174,

The

parallel sides of a trapezoid are called its bases,


its legs, and the line joining the middle

the other two sides


points of the legs
175,

called the median.

is

is

trapezoid
legs are equal.

called an isosceles trapezoid

The

when

altitude of a parallelogram or trapezoid


perpendicular distance between its bases.
176,

is

its

the

177, The diagonal of a quadrilateral is a


straight line joining two opposite vertices.

PROPOSITION
178,

XXXVII.

THEOREM.

The diagonal of a parallelogram divides the

figure into two equal triangles.

A.

Let ABCE

"be

a,

AC

its diagonal.

A ABC= A AEQ.

To prove
In the

parallelogram and

A ABC and AEQ,


AC=AC,

Iden.

Z.ACB = CAE,
Z.CAB = Z.ACE,

and

(being alt.-int.

of

II

104

lines).

.-.AAC=AAEG,
(having a side

and two

147

of the one equal respectively to a side


two adj.
of the other).

adj.

and

Q.E.D.

58

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

XXXVIII.

PROPOSITION

I.

THEOREM.

In a parallelogram the opposite sides are equal,


the opposite angles are equal.

179,

and

Let the figure ABCE be a parallelogram.

BC= AE, and AB = EC,


Z B = /. E, and Z BAE^Z. BCE.

To prove
also,

Draw AC.

Proof.

AABC^AAEC,
(the

diagonal of a
.-.

178

divides the figure into two equal &).

BC= AE,

and

AB= CE,

(being homologous sides of equal A).

/.B = Z.E,mdL/.BAE=BCE,

Also,

(having their sides

II

and

112

extending in opposite directions from

their vertices).

180,

181.

Parallel lines comprehended between parallel

COR.

2.

everywhere

-L.

Two parallel

lines

distant.

equally

C
D
DC are parallel,
distances
the
measure
in AB to DC,
dropped from any points

For
J

1.

are equal.

lines

are

Con.

Q. E. D.

if

AB

and

of these points from

hence, all points in

DO.

AB

But these J are

equal,

are equidistant from DO.

by

180;

59

QUADRILATERALS.

XXXIX.

PROPOSITION

THEOREM.

If two sides of a quadrilateral are equal and


parallel, then the other two sides are equal and par
allel, and the figure is a parallelogram.
182,

Let the figure ABCE be a quadrilateral, having the


AE equal and parallel to BO.

side

AB equal and

To prove

EC.

Draw AC.

Proof.

In the

to

II

A ABC and AEC


BC= AE,

Hyp.

AC=AC,
BCA = Z.CAE,
(being alt.-int.

of

II

Iden.

104

lines).

150
(having two sides

and

the included Z. of the one equal respectively to two


sides and the included
\
of the other).

AB = EC,

(being homologous sides of equal A).

Z.BAC=/-ACE,

Also,

(being homologous

.-.AJBis
(when two straight

lines are cut

II

of equal &).

105

to J^C;

by a third straight

line, if the alt.-int.

are equal, the lines are parallel).


.

the figure

ABCE

is

O,

(the opposite sides being parallel).

168
Q. E.

60

183,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XL.

THEOREM.

I.

If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are

equal, the figure is

a parallelogram.

Let the figure ABCE be a quadrilateral having

AE and AB =

BG =

EC.

To prove figure

ABCE a O.
Draw AC.

Proof.

In the

A AB

AEQ
0= AE,
AB=CE,
AC= AC.
.:AABC=AAEC,

and

Hyp.
Hyp.

Hen.
160

to three sides of the other).


(having three sides of the one equal respectively

and
(being homologous

.-.BO is

AB

and
(when two straight

lines lying

line, if the alt.-int.


.-.

is

of equal &).

II

ioAJE,

II

to

105

EC,

in the same plane are cut by a third straight


are equal, the lines are parallel).

the figure

(having

its

ABCE

is

O,

168

opposite sides parallel).


Q.E. D.

61

QUADRILATERALS.

PROPOSITION XLI.

THEOREM.

The diagonals of a parallelogram

184,

bisect

each

other.

Let the figure ABCE be a parallelogram, and let


the diagonals AC and BE cut each other at 0.

A0= 00, and BO = OK


In the A AOE and BOO
To prove

AE=BC,

179

(being opposite sides of a CJ).

ZOAE=ZOC,
OEA=QBC,

and

(being alt.-int.

of

II

104

lines).

.-.AAOE = AOC,
(having a

side

and two

adj.
of the one equal respectively to
two adj.
of the other).

side

147
and

(being homologous sides of equal A).


Q.E.

Ex.
is

25.

D.

If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, the figure

a parallelogram.

Ex.

26.

The diagonals of a rectangle are

Ex.

27.

If the diagonals of a parallelogram are

equal, the figure

is

equal.

a rectangle.

Ex. 28. The diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular


and bisect the angles of the rhombus.
Ex.

and

29.

The diagonals

to

each other,

of a square are perpendicular to each other,

bisect the angles of the square.

62

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

XLIL

PROPOSITION

I.

THEOREM.

185. Two parallelograms, having two sides and the


included angle of the one equal respectively to two
sides and the included angle of the other, are equal.

CD

In the parallelograms

A B AD = A D and
,

Z.A

ADCD and A B C D

let

AB =

Z.A>.

To prove that the UJ are equal.

ABCD to A C D so that
Apply
and coincide with A D
Then AB will fall on A B\
f

AD will fall on

and the point

BO

Now,

and

through point
.

and

C falls

D
.-.

the point
/.

(7

must
.

fall
.

on

Z>(7and

through the point

by

hyp.).

to

II

AD

and are drawn

BO and B C* coincide,

the lines

In like manner,

.-.

B will fall on B\

=A B
(for AB
are
C
both

DC

or

101

produced.

and are drawn

coincide.

101

are

II

to

f
.

Z)(7and

DC

on

DC

falls

C falls

on both

D C produced.
and D C

or

BC

on the point common to both, namely,

the two

UJ

coincide,

and are equal.


Q. E. O.

186,

COR.

Two

altitudes are equal.

rectangles having equal bases

and equal

63

QUADRILATERALS.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XLIII.

187. If three or more parallels intercept equal parts


on any transversal, they intercept equal parts on

every transversal.

Let the parallels AH, BK, CM, DP intercept equal


parts HK, KM, MP on the transversal HP.

AB, EG, CD

To prove that they intercept equal parts


transversal

From A, B, and

Proof,
II

to

on the

AD.
tf

suppose

AE, BF, and CO drawn

HP.
Then

AE = HK, BF= KM,

CO = MP,

are
(parallels comprehended between parallels
.

180

equal).

.AE=BF=CO.

Ax.

Z.A = AB = Z.C,

Also

(being ext.-int.

of

II

106

lines)

E=Z.F=/.O,

and
(having their sides
/.

II

and

directed the

same way from

A ABE= A BCF= A

(each having a side

and two
adj.

/.

112
the vertices).

CDG,

respectively equal to
of the others).

adj.

a,

side

147
and two

AB mm BC= CD,

(homologous sides of equal &).

Q. E. o.

64

PLANE GEOMETRY.
COR.

188,

The

1.

BOOK

I.

line parallel to the base


of

triangle

and

bisecting one side bisects the other side also.

DE be

For, let

BC and

to

II

Draw through

this line is

DE, by

to

II

a line

to

II

111.

bisect

AB.

BC. Then
The three

by hypothesis intercept equal


parts on the transversal AB, and there
parallels

by

fore,

AC-, that

187, they intercept equal parts on the transversal


bisects AC.
is, the line

DE

COR.

189,

sides of

side.

AB,

BC, passes through E, the middle point of


and j7 coincides
Therefore, the line joining

with this parallel and


to

AB bisects AC,

it

is

190,

COR.

and

3.

to

II

bisects

= \BG. But BDEF


DE=BF=\BG.
ezoid

which joins

the middle points of two


parallel to the third side, and is equal to
For, a line drawn through D, the middle
line

to

II

188.

AC, by

is

triangle

half the third


point of

The

2.

is

BC.

BC, by

O by

188

line which is parallel


one leg of the trap

any

transversal, they intercept equal


187.
parts on every transversal by

COR.

trapezoid

is

For,

189,

and therefore

the bases of

rx;

a trap

?
x

JP\ \

j
/

the bases,

to

and

is

equal to half the


In the

EF

is

II

of
to

AD,

to F, the

sum

A ADB

draw the diagonal DB.

E, the middle point

Then, by

EF drawn
BF= FG

is,

The median of a

parallel

of the bases.
join

4.

to

For

parallels intercept equal parts on

191,

that

construction,

The

bisects

ezoid bisects the other leg also.


if

Also, since

middle point of DB.

AB sui& = %AB.

In the

ADBC

Fto G, the middle point of BC. Then FG is to DC


and = \DG. AB and FG, being to DC, are to each other.
But only one line can be drawn through F to AB.
There

join

II

II

II

II

fore

FG

is

the prolongation of

and DC, and

= * (AB + DC).

EF.

Hence

EFG

is

II

to

AB

65

EXERCISES.

EXERCISES.
30. The bisectors of the angles of a triangle meet in a point which
equidistant from the sides of the triangle.
and
HINT. Let the bisectors
intersect at 0.

BE

AD

Then

being in

AD

is

(Why ?) And being


is
and AB. Hence
and therefore

is

AC and

equidistant from

BE

in

is

is

AB.

equidistant from

AC

equidistant from

in the bisector CF.

(Why

BC

and BC,

?)

The perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle meet


point which is equidistant from the vertices of the
31.

in a

triangle.

HINT. Let the

Then

at 0.

and C. (Why ?)
from A and B.
is

_L bisectors

being in

And

FF

EEf and
is

being in

Hence

in the JL bisector
32.

EE/
is

DD /

intersect

is

equidistant

equidistant from

(Why?)
The perpendiculars from the

meet in a point.
HINT. Let the JL

DD

equidistant from

and

C,

and therefore

vertices of

a*

triangle to the opposite

eides

be

AH, BP, and CK.

Through A, B, C suppose B C A C
to BC, AC, AB, respectively.
drawn
f

II

AH

is

JL to

B C

f
,

AB
Then

Now ABCB and


and AB = BC, and ACT

(Why ?)

^
ACBff are Hf (why?),
= BC. (Why ?) That is, A is the middle point of B &. In the same way,
B and C are the middle points of A C and A B respectively. There
fore, AH, BP, and C!2Tare the _L bisectors of the sides of the A A B C
,

Hence they meet in a point. (Why ?)


33. The medians of a triangle meet

in a point which is two-thirds of


the distance from each vertex to the middle of the opposite side.

HINT. Let the two medians AD and CE meet in 0.


Take ,Fthe middle point of OA, and G of OC. Join
to AC
OF, FE, ED, and DO. In A AOC, OF i*
and equal to AC. (Why ?) DE is \\ioAC and equal
to %AC.
(Why ?) Hence DOPE is a O. (Why ?)
Hence AF= FO = OD, and
OE. (Why ?)
Hence, any median cuts off on any other median two-thirds of the
II

,}

CG=GO=

dis

tance from the vertex to the middle of the opposite side.


Therefore the
median from B will cut off AO, two-thirds of AD; that is, will pass

through 0.

66

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

I.

POLYGONS IN GENERAL.

A polygon

192,

is

a plane figure bounded by


straight lines.

The bounding

lines are the sides of the


polygon,
is the
perimeter of the

sum

and

their

polygon.

The angles which the adjacent sides make with each other
are the angles of the polygon, and their vertices are the ver
tices of the polygon.

The number of sides


number of its angles.
193,

of

of a polygon

diagonal of a polygon

two angles not adjacent

as

is

evidently equal to the

a line joining the vertices

is

AC,

Fig. 1.

B
JO

D
E
Fio.

194,

FIG.

1.

An

FIG.

2.

3.

equilateral polygon

is

a polygon which has

all its

equiangular polygon

is

a polygon wh^ch has

all its

sides equal.
195,

An

angles equal.

196.
convex polygon is a polygon of which no side, when
produced, will enter the surface bounded by the perimeter.
197.

and

Each angle

is less

198.
sides,

concave polygon

when produced,

perimeter.
199,

of such a polygon
than a straight angle.
is

is

called a salient angle,

a polygon of which two or more


bounded by the

will enter the surface

Fig. 3.

The angle

FDE

is

called a re-entrant angle,

greater than a straight angle.


If the term polygon is used, a convex
polygon

is

and

meant.

is

POLYGONS.
200.

Two

67

polygons are equal when they can be divided by


number of triangles, equal each to

diagonals into the same

for the polygons can be applied


each, and similarly placed
to each other, and the corresponding triangles will evidently
;

coincide.
201.

Two

polygons are mutually equiangular,

if

the angles

of the one are equal to the angles of the other, each to each,
when taken in the same order. Figs. 1 and 2.
202, The equal angles in mutually equiangular polygons
are called homologous angles
and the sides which lie between
equal angles are called homologous sides.
;

203,

Two

polygons are mutually equilateral,

if

the sides of

the one are equal to the sides of the other, each to each,
taken in the same order. Figs. 1 and 2.

FIG.

FIG.

4.

5.

FIG.

6.

FIG.

when

7.

Two polygons may be mutually equiangular without being


mutually equilateral as, Figs. 4 and 5.
And, except in the case of triangles, two polygons may be
;

mutually equilateral without being mutually equiangular

as,

Figs. 6 and 7.
If two polygons are mutually equilateral

they are equal, for they


ao as to coincide.

may

and equiangular,
be applied the one to the other

204,
polygon of three sides is called a trigon or triangle;
one of four sides, a tetragon or quadrilateral ; one of five sides,

a pentagon; one of six sides, a hexagon; one of seven sides, a


heptagon; one of eight sides, an octagon; one of ten sides, a

decagon ; one of twelve

sides,

a dodecagon.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

68

BOOK

PROPOSITION XLIV.
205,

The

sum

I.

THEOREM.

of the interior angles of a polygon is


many times less

two right angles, taken as


equal
two as the figure has sides.
to

Let the figure ABCDEF be a polygon having n

Z.A+AB + AC, etc. = (w-2) 2 rt.A.


From the vertex A draw the diagonals

sides.

To prove
Proof,

AC, AD,

and AE.

The sum

of the

polygon.

Now
and the sum

.-.

the

of the

sum

the polygon

of the

= (n

A = the

there are (n
of the

2) 2

of the
rt.

A.

2)

of each

A,

sum

that

of the

of the

A,

A = 2 rt. A.
is,

the

sum

of the

138

A of
a E. D.

206. COR. The sum of the angles of a quadrilateral equals


two right angles taken (4
2) times, i.e., equals 4 right angles;
and if the angles are all equal, each angle is a right angle. In
n sides is
general, each angle of an equiangular polygon of
o /~
2^

equal

to

right angles.

69

POLYGONS.

XLV.

PROPOSITION

THEOREM.

207, The exterior angles of a polygon, made by pro


ducing each of its sides in succession, are together
equal to four right angles.

\
Let the figure ABODE be a polygon, having its sides
produced in succession,
To prove the sum of the ext. A = 4 rt. A.
Proof,

and the

Denote the
ext.

A by

int.

a, b,

c,

A
d,

of the

polygon by A, B,

AA + Za = 2rt.A,
Z B -f Z b = 2

and

C,

D,

JS,

e.

rt.

90

A,

(being sup.-adj. A).

In like manner each pair of


.

as

the

many

sum

of the interior

adj.

A=2

rt.

and exterior

A.

A=2

rt.

A taken

times as the figure has sides,

2 n

or,

But the

interior

A = 2 rt. A

figure has sides less two,

2 n

or,
.*.

rt.

the

=
rt.

A.
taken as

(n

2)

rt.

rt.

many

times as the

A,

A.

exterior A = 4

rt.

A.
Q.E.D.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

70

PROPOSITION

XL VI.

I.

THEOREM.

quadrilateral which has two adjacent sides


the other two sides equal, is symmetrical
equal,
with respect to the diagonal joining the vertices of
the angles formed by the equal sides, and the diago
nals intersect at right angles.
208,

and

Let ABCD be a quadrilateral, having AB = AD, and


CB = CD, and having the diagonals AC and BD.
To prove that the diagonal
is

J_

to

the diagonal

In the

Proof,

AC is

AC=AO.

.AABC^AADC,

Z BAQ= Z DAO,
(homologous

upon

if

Hence

and

Hyp.

ABC is

AD, CB

of symmetry,

Hen.

(having three sides of the one equal

Hence,

aoris

A ABC ^d, ADC


AB = AD, and B0= DC,

and

.-.

an

BD.

and

turned on

on CD, and

OB

160

to three sides

of the other).

Z EGA = /. DCA,

of equal A).

AC
on

as an axis,

AB will

fall

OD.

Ada an axis of symmetry,

65,

and

is

J_ to

BD^

POLYGONS.

71

PROPOSITION XLVII.

THEOREM.

// a figure is symmetrical with respect to two


axes perpendicular to each other, it is symmetrical
with respect to their intersection as a centre.
209,

r
D

Let the figure ABCDEFGH be symmetrical with


respect to the two axes XX YY , which intersect at
right angles at 0.
,

To prove
the centre of symmetry of the figure.
Proof. Let
be any point in the perimeter of the

Draw

NMIL
Join

to

YY

and

IKL

LO, ON, and

to

(the figure being

61

symmetrical with respect

to

XX

).

KI= OM,

But

comprehended between

(Us

KL = OM,

.-.

and

LO

In like manner

is

180
Us

are equal).

KLOMia a O,

(having two sides equal

182

and parallel).

equal a,nd parallel to

we may prove

KM.

KI= KL,

Now

figure.

XX

KM.

179

ON equal and parallel to KM.

Hence the points L, 0, and JVare in the same straight line


drawn through the point
to KM; and LO=ON, since
II

each
.

is

equal to

any straight
.

is

KM.
line

LON, drawn through

0,

is

bisected at 0.

the centre of symmetry of the figure.

64
Q. E. D.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

72

BOOK

I.

EXERCISES.
34.

The median from the vertex

to the

base of an isosceles triangle

is

perpendicular to the base, and bisects the vertical angle.


35.

State and prove the converse.

The bisector
by producing one of
36.

37.

State

of an exterior angle of an isosceles triangle, formed


the legs through the vertex, is parallel to the base.

and prove the converse.

38.

The

39.

State

40.

The medians drawn

41.

State

42.

The

43.

State the converse

altitudes

upon the

legs of

an

isosceles triangle are equal.

and prove the converse.


to the legs of

and prove the converse.

an

isosceles triangle are equal.

(See Ex.

bisectors of the base angles of

an

33.)

isosceles triangle are equal.

and the opposite theorems.

44? The perpendiculars dropped from the middle point of the base of

an

isosceles triangle

45.

State

upon the

legs are equal.

and prove the converse.

/- 46. If one of the legs of an isosceles triangle is produced through the


vertex by its own length, the line joining the end of the leg produced to
the nearer end of the base is perpendicular to the base.

47.

Show

that the

sum

of the interior angles of a

hexagon

is

equal to

eight right angles.


48.

Show

that each angle of an equiangular pentagon

is

f of a right

angle.
49.

How many sides has an equiangular polygon, four of whose angles

are together equal to seven right angles

How

is

50.
many sides has a polygon, the
sum of its exterior angles ?
to
the
equal

51.

How many

is

double that of

is

double that of

52.

sides has a polygon, the

exterior angles

its

How many

of whose interior angles

sum

of whose interior angles

sum

of whose exterior angles

sides has a polygon, the


interior angles?

its

sum

73

EXERCISES.
53.

BAG is

a triangle having the angle

bisect the angle


54.

If from

AQ in

and meet

B double the angle A.


BD is equal to

D, show that

If

BD

AD.

any point in the base of an isosceles triangle parallels to


show that a parallelogram is formed whose perimeter

the legs are drawn,


is

constant,

and equal

to the

sum

of the legs of the triangle.

55. The lines joining the middle points of the sides of a triangle divide
the triangle into four equal triangles.
56.

The

lines joining the

middle points of the side of a square, taken

in order, enclose a square.


57. The lines joining the middle points of the sides of a rectangle,
taken in order, enclose a rhombus.
58. The lines joining the middle points of the sides of a rhombus,
taken in order, enclose a rectangle.
59.

The

lines joining the

middle points of the sides of an isosceles

trapezoid, taken in order, enclose a


60.
lateral,

61.

The

lines joining the

rhombus

or a square.

middle points of the sides of any quadri

taken in order, enclose a parallelogram.

The median of a trapezoid passes through the middle points

of

the two diagonals.

is

62. The line joining the middle points of the diagonals of a trapezoid
equal to half the difference of the bases.

HINT.
64.

Draw CE

\\

DB.

63. In an isosceles trapezoid each base makes


equal angles with the legs.

\
\

In an isosceles trapezoid the opposite angles

are supplementary.
If the angles at the base of a trapezoid
angles are equal, and the trapezoid is isosceles.
65.

are equal, the

66.

The diagonals

67.

If the diagonals of a trapezoid are equal, the

trapezoid

is

of

an

isosceles trapezoid are equal.

isosceles.

DF

HINT. Draw CE and


_L to CD.
Show that &
and BCE are equal, that & COD and AOB are
isosceles, and that A AOC and BOD are equal.

ADF

other

PLANE GEOMETRY.

74

BOOK

I.

68. ABOD is a parallelogram, E and F the middle


points of AD and
BC respectively: show that BE sand DJ^will trisect the diagonal AC.
69. If from the diagonal BD of a square ABCD, BE
cut off equal
to BO, and EF is drawn perpendicular to BD to meet DC at F, show
is

that

DE

is

equal to EF, and also to FC.

of a triangle ABC, and the


70. The bisector of the vertical angle
bisectors of the exterior angles at the base formed by producing the sides
and AC, meet in a point which is equidistant from the base and the

AB

sides produced.
71. If the two angles at the base of a triangle are bisected, and
through the point of meeting of the bisectors a line is drawn parallel to
the base, the length of this parallel between the sides is equal to the sum

of the segments of the sides between the parallel and the base.
72.

If one of the acute angles of a right triangle


is double the shortest side.

is

double the other,

the hypotenuse

73. The sum of the perpendiculars dropped from any point in the
base of an isosceles triangle to the legs is constant,
and equal to the altitude upon one of the legs.

HINT. Let

PD

and

PE

the

be the two Js,

upon AC. Draw PG


PBQ and PBD equal.

altitude

to

BF

the

BF, and prove


..

The sum of the perpendiculars dropped from any point within an


equilateral triangle to the three sides is constant, and equal to the
74.

altitude.

HINT. Draw through the point a line


75.

What

secting lines

is

II

to the base,

and apply Ex.

73.

the locus of all points equidistant from a pair of inter

In the triangle CAB the bisector of the angle C makes with the
an angle equal to half the difference of the
perpendicular from C to
angles A and E.
76.

AB

77.
is

If one angle of

equilateral.

an

isosceles triangle

is

equal to 60, the triangle

BOOK

II.

THE CIRCLE.
DEFINITIONS.
circle is a portion of a plane bounded by a curved
210,
dis
line called a circumference, all points of which are equally
within called the centre.
tant from a

point

211,

A radius is a straight

circumference

line

drawn from the

centre to the

a straight line drawn through


extremities in the circumference.

and a diameter

the centre, having its


By the definition of a

is

circle, all its radii

are equal.

diameters are equal, since the diameter is equal to


212,

secant

is

two

All

its

radii.

a straight line which intersects the circum

ference in two points

as,

AD,

Fig.

1.

line which touches the circum


tangent is a straight
it
intersect
as,
ference but does not
the
in
which
The
1.
0,
point

213,

Fig.

is
tangent touches the circumference
called the point of contact, or point of

tangency.

Two circumferences are tangent


Fia l
other when they are both taneach
to
same point; and are tangent
gent to a straight line at the
one circumference lies
or
externally, according as
internally
other.
the
without
or
within
wholly
214,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

76

BOOK

II.

An arc of a circle is any portion of the circumference.


arc equal to one-half the circumference is called a semi-

215,

An

circumference.
216,

chord

is

a straight line having

its

extremities in the

circumference.

Every

cliord subtends

ference; thus, the chord

AB

and the larger arc

spoken

of,

the less arc

is

two arcs whose sum

AB (Fig. 3)
BCDEA.

If a chord

meant unless

A segment of a circle
an
arc
and its chord.
by
217,

is

is

the circum

subtends the smaller arc

it is

and

its

arc are

otherwise stated.

a portion of a circle bounded

A segment equal to one-half the circle is called a semicircle.


A sector of a circle is a portion of the circle bounded

218,

by two

radii

and the arc which they

intercept.

A sector equal to one-fourth of the circle is called a quadrant.


219, A straight line is inscribed in a circle if it is a chord.
220, An angle is inscribed in a circle
circumference and its sides are chords.

if its

vertex

is

in the

221, An angle is inscribed in a segment if its vertex is on


the arc of the segment and its sides pass through the extrem
ities of the arc.
222, A polygon
chords of the circle.
223,

is

inscribed in

circle is inscribed in

circle

a polygon

if

if

its

sides

are

the circumference

touches the sides of the polygon but does not intersect them.

ARCS AND CHORDS.

224,

circumscribed about a circle

is

polygon

77

sides of the polygon are tangents to the circle.


225,
circle is circumscribed about a polygon

if

if all

the

the circum

ference passes through all the vertices of the polygon.


for
226, Two circles are equal if they have equal radii
if
to
the
will
coincide
one
is
other; conversely,
they
applied
;

two equal

Two

have equal radii.


are concentric if they have the same centre.

circles

circles

PROPOSITION
227,

The diameter of a

other chord;

and

THEOREM.

I.

than any
and the circum

circle is greater

bisects the circle

ference.

p
Let AB be the diameter of the circle AMBP, and
AE any other chord.
To prove

AB

>

AE, and

AB

bisects

the circle

and

the

circumference.
Proof,

From

I.

C,

the centre of the O,

draw

OR

CE^CB,
same

(being radii of the

But
(the

falls

sum

of two sides of a
>

AE,

Fold over the segment

upon

APB,

therefore the arc

because

all

A is

>

137
he third side).

Ax. 9
AB AE.
on AB as an axis until
59. The points A and B will remain fixed;
AMB will coincide with the arc APB

AC+ CB

Then
II.

circle).

AC+CE>AE,

points

or

>

A MB

in

each

are

equally distant

centre C.

Hence the two

it

figures coincide throughout

from the
210

and are equal.

59

Q.E.O.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

78

PROPOSITION
228,

II.

BOOK

II.

THEOREM.

straight line cannot intersect the circum

ference of

circle in

LetHKbe any
To prove that

more than two

points*

line cutting the circumference

HK can

AMP.

intersect the circumference in only two

points.
Proof,

If possible, let

three points If, P, and

From

HK intersect

0, the centre of the

Then

the circumference in

K,
O, draw OH, OP, and OK.

OH, OP, and

OJiTare equal,

(being radii of the same

circle).

Hence, we have three equal straight lines

drawn from the same point


is

OH, OP, and

OK

But

this

to a given straight line.

120

impossible,

(only two equal straight lines can be

Therefore,
points.

drawn from a point

to

a straight

HK can intersect the circumference

in only

line).

two

a E. a

ARCS AND CHORDS.

PROPOSITION

79

THEOREM.

III.

v^

229,

In the same

circle, or

equal

circles,

equal an

gles at the centre intercept equal arcs; CONVERSELY,


equal arcs subtend equal angles at the centre.

ABP and A B P

In the equal circles

Proof,

Apply

shall coincide with

so that Z.

B will fall
(for

OE = O R

Then

the arc

Z O -= Z V.

BS = arc IPS
O ABP to O A &P,

arc

To prove

let

upon

BS

and

08= O S

and

0*.

8 upon 8

226

being radii of equal

).

will coincide with the arc JR /S

since all points in the arcs are equidistant from the centre.

210
.

CONVERSELY

.arc

BS=&rc

Let arc RS

arc

B &.
RS

To prove
ZO = ZO
Proof, Apply O ABP to O A E F, so that arc BS shall fall
upon arc -R S B falling upon B S upon S and
upon
Then BO will coincide with B 0\ and SO with S O
.

,<0

and

coincide

and are

equal.

Q. e.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

80

II.

PROPOSITION IV. THEOREM.


230. In the same circle, or equal circles, if two
chords are equal, the arcs which they subtend are
equal; CONVERSELY, if two arcs are equal, the chords
which subtend them are equal.

ABP and A B P

the equal circles


chord R S
In.

let chord

RS =

To prove

Draw

Proof.

In the

arc
the radii

A OBS and

B8

arc

OB, OS,

O JZ

0>B

08= the

and

Hyp.

radii

.AB08=AB

and

/S"

B8=B 8
OR

the radii

O B and

O>8

226

160

(three sides of the one being equal to three sides of the other).

229
(in equal

CONVEESELY

equal

at the centre intercept equal arcs).

RS= arc R S
chord S = chord B 8
Z =Z

Let arc

To prove
Proof.

1
.

229

subtend equal

(equal arcs in equal

and

OB

and
.

OS= O B

.AOBS=AO B 8

(having two sidos equal each


.

and

chord

to

each

and

at the centre),

226

respectively.

150

the included

B8 = chord B 8

equal).

aE

D.

ARCS AND CHORDS.

PROPOSITION V.

81

THEOREM.

231, In the same circle, or equal circles, if two arcs


are unequal, and each is less than a sewii-circumfer
ence, the greater arc is subtended by the greater
chord; CONVERSELY, the greater chord subtends the

greater are.
JC.

In the circle whose centime is


greater than the arc AMF.

0,

let the arc

To prove

chord

AB greater than chord AF.

Proof.

Draw

the radii

the radii

but

&

having two

CONVERSELY

OA

and

A AOB and AOF,

OA and OB = the radii OA and


Z AOB is greater than Z AOF.

AB

/.

(the

be

OA, OF, and OB.

Since Fis between A and B, OF will fall between


OB, and Z AOB be greater than Z A OF.

Hence, in the

AMB

equal each

sides

>

OF,
152

AF,

to each,

but the included

unequal).

Let AB be greater than AF.


arc AB greater than arc AF.

To prove
In the

A AOB and AOF,


OA and OB= OA and OF respectively.

But

AB

is

greater than

Z AOB

/.

(the

is

AF.
greater than

having two sides equal each


.

arc

OB

AB

falls

is

to each,

Z AOF, ^-

Hyp153

but the third sides unequal}.

without OF.

greater than arc

AF.

Q.E.D.

82

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION VI.

THEOREM.

The radius perpendicular

232,

the chord

and

a chord

to

the arc subtended by

II.

bisects

it.

^_

Let AB be the chord, and let the radius OS be per


pendicular to

AB

at M.

AM= BM, and arc AS = arc BS.

To prove
Proof,

Draw

In the

rt.

OA

and

OB

from 0, the centre of the

circle.

A OA M and OB M
the radius

OA = the

radius

OB,

and OM = OM.
.\AOAM=AOBM,
(having the hypotenuse

and a

side of one equal to the hypotenuse


side of the other).

/.

(equal

233,

COR.

Hen.
161
and a

AM= BM,

229

.*,TGAS=&Tc8,

at the centre intercept equal arcs on the circumference).


Q.E.D.
1.

The perpendicular

middle of a
For the centre is

erected at the

chord passes through the centre of the circle.


from the extremities of a chord,

and is therefore in
equidistant
122
the perpendicular erected at the middle of the chord.
234,

chord
235,

COR.

The perpendicular erected

2.

at the

middle of

bisects the arcs of the chord.

COR.

The

3.

parallel chords

is

locus of the middle points of

a system of

the diameter perpendicular to them.

ARCS AND CHORDS.

PROPOSITION VII.

83

THEOREM.

236, In the same circle, or equal circles, equal


chords are equally dislant from the centre ; AND

CONVERSELY.

Let AB and OF be equal chords of the circle ABFC.


To prove A 13 and CF equidistant from the centre 0.
Proof,

Draw

OP to AB, OH. to OF, and join OA and OC.


OP and OH bisect AB and CF,
232
(a radius

Hence,

in the

rt.

_l_

to

a chord

bisects

AP=CH,
OA = the radius
A OPA - A OHC,

the radius
.-.

(having a side

and hypotenuse
.

COJTVEBSELY

Proof,

In the

the radius

Let OP =

To prove
rt.

00.
161
and hypotenuse

OP = OH.
equidistant from 0.

OH.

AB = CF.
A OPA and OHO

OA = the
/.

Ax. 7

of the one equal to a side


of the other).

AB and OF are

.*.

it).

A OPA and OHO

radius 0(7, and

OP= OH,

A OPA and OJffC are equal.


AP= OH.

Hyp.
161

/.

CF.

Ax

C.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

84

BOOK

II.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION VIII.

237, In the same circle, or equal circles, if two


chords are unequal, they are unequally distant from
the. centre, and the greater is at the less distance.

In the circle whose centre is 0, let the chords AB


and CD be unequal, and AB the greater; and let OE
and OF be perpendicular to AB and CD respectively.

OE

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

AO drawn

same

OF.

equal to CD, and

OR JL to

AG.

OH= OF,

Then
(in the

<

236

two equal chords are equidistant from the

centre).

Join Elf.

OE and OH

AB and

bisect

(a radius A.

a chord

AG,
bisects

232

respectively,
it).

AB

A G,

CD

or its equal
is
greater than
by hypothesis,
the half of AB, is greater than AH, the half of AG.

Since,

AE,

to

the

(the greater of

AHE

is

greater than the

two sides of a

has the greater

Z AEH,
Z

opposite to

158
it).

Z ORE, the complement of the Z AHE,


Z OEH, the complement of the Z AEH.

Therefore, the
less

than the

(the greater of two


.

of a

.OE<

OE
A

<

159

OH,

has the greater side opposite

OF, the equal

is

of

to it).

OH.
Q.E.Q

ARCS AND CHORDS.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION IX.
238,
cles,

CONVERSELY

In the same

85

circle, or

if two chords are unequally distant

centre, they are

distance

is

equal cir

from the

unequal, and the chord at the

less

the greater.

In the circle whose centre is 0, let AB and CD be


unequally distant from 0; and let OE perpendicular
to AB be less than OF perpendicular to CD.

AB

To prove
Proof,

Suppose

AG drawn
Then

(in the

sameQ

equal to CD, and

OH= OF,
OE

(the greater of two sides of a

Therefore, the

236

<

centre).

OH.

EH.

Join

A OEHfhe Z OHE

greater than the

OH _L to AG.

two equal chords are equidistant from the

Hence,

In the

CD.

>

is

less

than the

has the greater

Z.

Z OEH,

opposite to

158

it).

Z A HE, the complement of the Z OHE,


Z A EH, the complement of the Z OEH
.

(the greater of two

of a

AE
A

>

AH,

has the greater side opposite

is

159
to it).

AE=\AB, and AH=%AQ.


CD, the equal of AG.
.\AB>AG; hence AB
But

>

Q. E. D.

86

BOOK

PROPOSITION X.

THEOREM.

II.

a radius at

straight line perpendicular to


is a tangent to the circle.

A.

239,

its

PLANE GEOMETRY.

extremity

M-

Let

MB

MB tangent

To prove
Proof,

be perpendicular to the radius OA at

From

to

draw any other

A.

the circle.
line to

MB,

as

OCH.
114

OH>OA,
(a JL

the shortest line from

is

a point

to

straight line).

the point ZTis without the circle.

MB

Hence, every point, except A, of the line


is a
circle, and therefore
tangent to the

MB

is

without the

circle at

213

A.

Q. E. D.

COR.

240,

radius

1.

drawn

tangent

to

circle is

the point of contact.


to the circle at A, every point of

the circle.
is

to

Hence,

OA

is

perpendicular

For,

if

MB

is

to

the

tangent
without

MB, except A, is
to MB, and
the shortest line from

therefore perpendicular to

MB

114)

that

is,

MB

is

per

pendicular to OA.
241, COR. 2.

perpendicular to a tangent at the point of


For a radius is
contact passes through the centre of the circle.
perpendicular to a tangent at the point of contact, and there
fore,

by

89, a perpendicular erected at the point of contact


and passes through the centre.

coincides with this radius


242,
circle

COR.

3.

perpendicular

upon a tangent

contact.

to

let

fall

from

the centre of

the circle passes through the point of

ARCS AND CHORDS.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XI.

Parallels

243,

87

intercept equal arcs on

a circum

ference.

F
FIG.

FIG.

1.

2.

Let AB and CD be the two parallels.


CASE I. When AB is a tangent, and CD a
Suppose

arc

OF

FF

Suppose

AB at F

This J. to

.%
to

arc

a chord

DF.

arc

drawn

AB.

J_ to

CD.

CF= arc

bisects the

102

232

DF,

chord and

its

subtended arc).

FCF = arc FDF


.a,Tc(FCF -FC) = a,rc(FDF
arc OF = arc DF
that
CASE II. When AB and CD are secants. Fig. 2.
Suppose JEF drawn to CD and tangent to the circle
Also, arc

241

a diameter of the circle.

is

It is also _L to

(a radius A.

1.

Fig.

AB touches the circle at F.

To prove
Proof.

secant.

227

82

-FI>),

is,

11

at

M.

arc AM = arc BM
Then
Case
arc CM = arc DMand
= arc BD.
/.by subtraction, arc AC
CASE III. When AB and CD are tangents. Fig. 3.
Suppose AB tangent at E, CD at F, and GH to AB.
Case
arc OE = arc EH
Then
arc OF = arc
and

I.

II

.-.

by

addition,

arc

EQF= arc

^.ZTF.

I.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

88

BOOK

II.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XII.

Through three points not in a straight


and only one, can be drawn.

244,

line,

one circumference,

Let A, B, C be three points not in a straight line.


To prove that a circumference can be drawn through A, B,
and

(7,

and only

one.

AB and BO.
At the middle points of AB and BC suppose
Join

Proof,

Since
sect in

BC

is

not the prolongation of

AB,

_I

erected.

these J will inter

some point 0.

The point

0, being in the J_ to

AB

at its middle point,

is

equidistant from A and B\ and being in the J_ to J5(7at its


and C,
122
middle point, is equidistant from

(every point in the perpendicular -bisector of a straight line is equidistant


from the extremities of the straight line).

Therefore

is

equidistant from A, B, and C; and a cir


as a centre, with a radius OA,

cumference described from

through the three given points.


circumference can be made to pass through
one
Only
For the centre of a circumference passing
these points.
through the three points must be in both perpendiculars, and
will pass

As two

hence at their intersection.

straight lines can inter

the centre of the only circumfer


the
three given points.
ence that can pass through
Q E D

sect in only one point,

is

245,
points.

COR.
For,

Two
if

circumferences can intersect in only two


two circumferences have three points common,

they coincide and form one circumference.

TANGENTS,

89

PROPOSITION XIII.
246,

The tangents

to

THEOREM.

circle

drawn from an

rior point are equal, and make equal angles


the line joining the point to the centre.

exte

with

B.

c
Let AB and AC be tangents from A to the
whose centre is 0, and AO the line joining A to
To prove

AB = AC,
AB

(a tangent to

In the

rt.

is

Z BAO = Z
OB and 00.

and

Draw

Proof,

_L to

radius

drawn

0.

CAO.

AC _L to

OB, and

circle is _L to the

circle

240

OC,

to the

point of contact).

A OAB and OAC


OB=OC,
(radii of the

same

circle).

OA = OA.
.-.A OAB = A OAC

Iden.

(having a side

and hypotenuse

of the one equal to a side


of thz other).

Z BAO = Z

and

CAO.

Q. E. D.

247, DEF. The line joining the centres of


called the line of centres.

248,

DEF.

common
tres,

common tangent

exterior tangent

and a common

centres.

when

it

161
and hypotenuse

to

two

two

-circles

circles is called

is

does not cut the line of cen

interior tangent

when

it

cuts the line of

90

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIV.
249,

II.

THEOREM.

If two circumferences intersect each other, the


perpendicular to their common

line of centres is

chord at

middle

its

point.

Let C and C be the centres of two circumferences


which intersect at A and B. Let AB be their common
chord, and CC join their centres.

CO

To prove

_L to

AB at

its

middle point.

drawn through the middle


passes through the centres C and (7
Proof.

_L

of the chord

AB
233

(a _L erected at the middle of a chord passes through the centre of the O).
/.

the line

(7(7

having two points in common with

must coincide with


/.

Ex.
centres
(i.)

(ii.)

(iii.)

78.

CO

this _L,

it.

is

_L to

AB at its middle point.

Describe the relative position of two circles

if

Q.E. D.

the line of

is

greater than ^he

is

equal to the

is

(iv.) is

less

sum

sum

of the radii

of the radii

than the sum but greater than the difference of the radii

equal to the difference of the radii

(v.) is less

than the difference of the

Illustrate each case

by

a figure.

radii.

91

TANGENTS.

PROPOSITION XV.

THEOREM.

250, If two circumferences cure tangent to each other,


the line of centres passes through the point of contact.

Let the two circumferences, whose centres are C


and C touch each other at 0, in the straight line AB,
and let CO be the straight line joining their centres.
,

To prove

in the straight line

is

CO

_L to AB, drawn through the point 0, passes


241
the
centres C and C
through
a
at
the
JL
to
contact
the
centre
(a
tangent
point of
passes through
Proof,

of the
.

the line

CO

must coincide with

having two points in common with

Ex.

this _L

it.

is

.*.

chord

circle).

in the straight line

CO

1
.

Q. E. D.

The line joining the centre of a circle to the middle of a


perpendicular to the chord.

79.
is

Ex.

80.

The tangents drawn through the extremities of a diameter

are parallel.

Ex.

81.

The perimeter

of an inscribed equilateral triangle

is

equal

to half the perimeter of the circumscribed equilateral triangle.

Ex.
lateral

82.
is

The sum

of

equal to the

two opposite

sum

sides of a circumscribed quadri

of the other

two

sides.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

92

BOOK

II.

MEASUREMENT.
To measure a quantity

251,

times

it

of

any kind

is

to find

how many

known

contains another

Thus, to measure a line

is

quantity of the same kind.


to find how many times it con

known line, called the linear unit.


The number which expresses how many times

tains another

a quantity
contains the unit-quantity, is called the numerical measure
of that quantity
as, 5 in 5 yards.
;

The magnitude

252,

of a quantity

magnitude

of another quantity of the

is

always

same

kind.

relative to the

No

quantity

This relative magni


great or small except by comparison.
tude is called their ratio, and is expressed by the indicated
is

quotient of their numerical measures

measure

The

when

the same unit of

applied to both.

is

ratio of

to b

written

is

-,

or

b.

Two

253,

common

quantities that can be expressed in integers in


The
unit are said to be commensurable.

common

terms of a

unit

is

called a

common measure, and


common measure.

each quantity

called a multiple of this

is

common measure

Thus, a
foot,

which

feet.

3|

foot,

3f

2J

feet

254,

is

Hence, 2^

and 3f feet is of a
and 22 times in
2-J- feet,

of 2J feet

contained 15 times in

-J-

and 3f feet are multiples of of a


by taking % of a foot 15 times, and
a foot 22 times.

feet

-J-

feet being obtained

by taking %

of

When two

have no common

quantities are incommensurable, that is,


unit in terms of which both quantities can be

expressed in integers,

it

is

impossible to find a fraction that

will indicate the exact value of the ratio of the given quanti
ties.

It is possible,

however, by taking the unit sufficiently


from the true value

small, to find a fraction that shall differ


of the ratio

by

as little as

we

please.

93

RATIO.

Thus, suppose a and b to denote two

lines,

V5= 1.41421356

Now
but

such that

.....

.-

a value greater than 1.414213,

than 1.414214.

less

then, a millionth part of b be taken as the unit, the value

If,

of the ratio

lies

and there-

and

between

from either of these fractions by less than


carrying the decimal farther, a fraction may be found

fore differs

By

that will differ from the true value of the ratio by less than a
billionth, a trillionth, or any other assigned value whatever.

Expressed generally, when a and b are incommensurable,

and

divided into any integral number

is

(ri)

of equal parts,

one of these parts is contained in a more than


less than
-f 1 times, then
if

m times,

but

n
that

is,

the value of %

lies

between

The
-

error, therefore, in

is less

than

-.

made

to

and

taking either of these values for

But by increasing n

decrease indefinitely,

and

to

indefinitely.

become

assigned value, however small, though


absolutely equal

w+

it

- can be

than any
cannot be made
less

to zero.

Hence, the ratio of two incommensurable quantities cannot


be expressed exactly by figures, but it may be expressed ap
proximately within any assigned measure of precision.
255,

The

ratio of

an incommensurable
its

two incommensurable quantities is called


ratio ; and is a fixed value toward which

successive approximate values constantly tend.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

94

THEOKEM. Two incommensurable

256.

when

measure

the unit of

is indefinitely

II.

ratios are

equal

if,

diminished, their ap

proximate values constantly remain equal.


Let a b and a

values

when

b be

two incommensurable

between the approximate values

lie

the unit of measure

is

much

as

thev cannot

Now
and a

differ so

is

if

is

d has any

value, however small, -, which

n
diminished, can be made

a b
:

=a

1
:

by hypoth-

less

d cannot have any value;


is,
no difference between the ratios a b and a
that

Therefore

fore

n
Then

indefinitely diminished.

d<-.

can be indefinitely

there

and

a
(if any) between the fixed values
a fixed value. Let d denote this difference.

Then

esis

whose true

the difference
:

But

ratios

than

d
:

0,

d.

and

there

1
.

THE THEORY OF

LIMITS.

257, When a quantity is regarded as having a/zec? value


but
throughout the same discussion, it is called a constant;
conditions
under
the
when it is regarded,
imposed upon it, as

having

it is called a variable.
different successive values,
it can be shown that the value of a variable, measured

When

by continuing the series


a given constant by less than any
however small, but cannot be made abso

at a series of definite intervals, can

be

made

to differ from

assigned quantity,
is called the limit
lutely equal to the constant, that constant
of the variable, and the variable is said to approach indefi
nitely to its limit.

If the variable is increasing, its limit is called a superior

limit

if

decreasing, an inferior limit.

THEORY OF

LIMITS.

Suppose a point to move from


ditions that the first

second

it

shall

95

toward B, under the con

M?

tr

move

one-half the distance from

to

B, that

is,

to

M;

the next

second, one-half the remaining distance, that is, to


next second, one-half the remaining distance, that is, to

the

M"

and so on indefinitely.
Then it is evident that the moving point may approach as
near to
as we please, but will never arrive at B.
For, how
ever near

may

it

be to

at

any

instant, the next second

it

it must,
will pass over one-half the interval still remaining
therefore, approach nearer to B, since half the interval still
;

remaining

is

some distance, but

will not reach

B, since half

remaining is not the whole distance.


Hence, the distance from A to the moving point

the interval

still

is

an in

creasing variable, which indefinitely approaches the constant


as its limit ; and the distance from the moving point to
is a
decreasing variable, which indefinitely approaches the

AB
B

constant zero as

its limit.

If the length of

denoted by
limit,

by v

x,

AB

and the

is

two inches, and the variable


and

difference between the variable

after one second,

after

two seconds,

= 1,
=1+
= 1 -f

x
a?

=1
v = ^\
^ = ^
v = %\
v

-J,

after three seconds,

a?

after four seconds,

#=l-}-^-f-^-|--J-,

and

is

its

-J-

-f

-J-,

so on indefinitely.

+ + +

Now

the sum of the series 1


etc., is less than
J
but by taking a great number of terms, the sum can be
made to differ from 2 by as little as we please. Hence 2 is

-j-,

the limit of the

sum

of the series,

when

increased indefinitely and


ference between this variable sum and

terms

is

is

2.

the

number

of the

the limit of the dif

96

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

Consider the repetend 0.33333

TG + dhr

II.

which may be written

+ nflnr + ydhnr +

However great the number of terms of this series we take,


sum of these terms will be less than
but the more
terms we take the nearer does the sum
Hence
approach
the sum of the series, as the number of terms is increased,
the

approaches indefinitely the constant

as a limit.

In the right triangle ACE, if the vertex


the base BO, the angle

258.

indefinitely

diminishes,
nitely

if

and

zero

approaches

the vertex

A approaches

indefi

moves away from

the base indefinitely, the angle

increases

and approaches a right angle indefinitely


but
cannot become zero or a right angle,
;

so long as

comes

A OB is

a triangle

for if

be

BC

becomes the straight line


and if
becomes a right angle, the triangle becomes two parallel
zero, the triangle

AC&ud AB perpendicular to BO.


B must lie between and 90 as limits.

lines

Hence the value

of

BOD inscribed in a circle,


Again, suppose a square
the middle points of the arcs subtended by
the sides of the square.
If we draw
259.

and E, F, H,

the straight lines AE, EB, BF, etc.,


we shall have an inscribed polygon of

double the number of sides of the

K[

square.

The length
polygon,
lines,

is

of the perimeter of this

represented

by the dotted

greater than

that

of

the

square, since two sides replace each


side of the square and form with it a triangle, and two sides
of a triangle are together greater than the third side; but less

than the length of the circumference, for

it

is

made up

of

THEORY OF
which

straight lines, each one of

circumference between

its

97

LIMITS.
is

less

than the part of the

extremities.

By continually repeating the process of doubling the num


ber of sides of each resulting inscribed figure, the length of
the perimeter will increase with the increase of the number
but it cannot become equal to the length of the cir
cumference, for the perimeter will continue to be made up of
straight lines, each one of which is less than the part of the
of sides

circumference between

The length

its

extremities.

of the circumference

is

therefore the limit of the

length of the perimeter as the number of sides of the inscribed


figure is indefinitely increased.
260,

THEOREM. If two variables are constantly equal


limit, their limits are equal.

and each approaches a

A:

________^^

N ~~
~C

Let

AM

and

AN

be two variables which are con

stantly equal and which approach indefinitely


and AC respectively as limits.

AB = AC.
If possible, suppose AB
AC,

AB

To prove

AD = AC.
Then the variable AMm&y assume values between AD and

Proof,

AB,
But

while

>

t*he

variable

always be

less

than

AD.

this is contrary to the hypothesis that the variables should

continue equal.
.*.

In the same way


.

AN must

and take

it

AB cannot be

>

AC.

may be proved that

AB and AC are two values

than the other.

Hence

AC cannot be

neither of which

AB = AC.

is

>AB.

greater

PLANE GEOMETRY.

98

BOOK

II.

MEASURE OF ANGLES.
PROPOSITION XVI.

THEOREM.

261. In the same circle, or equal circles, two angles


at the centre have the same ratio as their intercepted

arcs.

CASE

I.

When

the arcs are commensurable.

In the circles whose centres are G and D, let ACB and


EDF be the angles, AB and EF the intercepted arcs.

Z AOB =
~ arc AB
Z.EDF arc EF

To prove

m be a common measure of AB and EF.


Suppose m to be contained in AB seven times,
and in EF four times.
arc AB __1
Then
(1)
4
arc EF
At the several points of division on AB and EF draw radii.

Proof.

Let

These radii will divide


.

EDF into four parts,


(in the

From

same O, or equal

(1)

and

<D,

/.

ACB

into

seven parts, and

229

equal each to each,


equal arcs subtend equal

EDF

EDF

arc

at the centre).

(2)

(2),

EF

MEASURE OF ANGLES.
CASE

II.

When

99

the arcs are incommensurable.

In the equal circles ABP and A B P* let the angles


intercept the incommensurable arcs

ACB and A C S
AB and A B

Z ACB
AB
______

arc

To prove

AB

into any number of equal parts, and


Divide
as many
these
one
of
parts as a unit of measure to A
apply
times as it will be contained in A
Proof,

Since

AB and AB

DB

are incommensurable, a certain number


to some point, as D, leav

of these parts will extend from

ing a remainder

less

than one of these parts.

Draw C D.
Since

AB and A D are commensurable,


Z ACB arc AB
A C D arc A D

Case

I.

If the unit of measure is indefinitely diminished, these ratios


continue equal, and approach indefinitely the limiting ratios

Z AGE
ACB

Z.

and

arc

arc

AB
AB

^,-^fr

1260
.

(If two variables are constantly equal, and each approaches a limit, their
limits are equal.)
Q.I.Q.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

100

II.

like the angular magnitude about


into
360
divided
a point,
equal parts, called degrees. The
is subdivided into 60 equal parts, called minutes ;
arc-degree
and the minute into 60 equal parts, called seconds.

262,

The circumference,
is

Since an angle at the centre has the same number of anglethe intercepted arc has of arcdegrees, minutes, and seconds as

and seconds, we say

degrees, minutes,

An

angle at the centre

measured by its intercepted arc ; meaning, An angle at the


centre is such a part of the whole angular magnitude about

is

the centre as

its

intercepted arc

is

of the whole circumference.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XVII.

An inscribed angle is measured by one-half


arc
the
intercepted between its sides.
263,

CASE I. When one side of the angle is a diameter.


In the circle PAB (Fig. 1), let the centre C be in
one of the sides of the inscribed angle B.
To prove

/.

B is measured by J arc PA.


Draw CA.

Proof.

CA = radius

Eadius

.\Z.B =

CB.
154

A,

(being opposite equal sides of the

PCA = Z

But
(the exterior

Z of a A

Z PCA

But
(the

is

at the centre
.

./.

to the

equal

is

sum

CAB).

+ Z.A,

measured by PA,

is

.145

of the two opposite interior A).

measured by

measured by

the intercepted arc).

PA.

262

MEASURE OF
CASE

When

II.

To prove

>,

\i

J.Q1

\>>\

the centre is within the angle.

In the circle BAE (Fig.


within the angle EBA.

Z EBA

Proof,

AJKiLIJSI

let the centre

2),

fall

EA.

is

measured by

-J

Draw

the diameter

EGP.

arc

Z PEA is measured by \ arc PA,


Z PBE is measured by arc PE,
/. Z PEA + Z PEE is measured by \ (arc PA + arc
or Z EBA is measured by
arc -ZL4.

Case

I.

Case

I.

PE),

-|

CASE

When

III.

the centre is without the angle.

In the circle BFP (Fig. 3), let the centre C fall


without the angle ABF.
To prove Z
is measured by -J arc AF.

ABF

Draw

Proof,

the diameter

BOP.

Z PEF is measured by \ arc PF,


Z PEA is measured by \ arc PA.
./. PEF-/. PEA is measured
by
(arc PF~ arc
or Z AEF is measured by
arc AF.
-J-

Case

I.

Case

I.

P^4),
Q.E.D.

FIG.

264,

1.

FIG.

2.

FIG.

3.

An

COR.

1.

For

it is

angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right


measured by one-half a semi-circumference.
COR. 2. An angle inscribed in a
segment greater than a
semicircle is an acute angle. For it is measured
by an arc less
angle.
265,

than half a semi-circumference


266,

COR.

semicircle is

3.

an

An

as,

Z CAD.

obtuse angle.

For

it

greater than half a semi-circumference


267,

equal.

Fig. 2.

angle inscribed in a segment


is
;

less than a
measured by an arc

as,

Z GBD.

Fig. 2.

All angles inscribed in the sam.e


segment are
For they are measured by half the same arc.
Fig. 3.

COR.

4.

*LANE GfEQMETRY.

102

PROPOSITION XVIII.

BOOK

II.

THEOREM.

268, An angle formed ~by two chords intersecting


within the circumference is measured by one-half
the sum of the intercepted arcs.

Let the angle AOC be formed by the chords AB


and CD.

Z AOC is measured by %(AC+ BD).

To prove

Draw AD.

Proof,

(the exterior

of a

Z.COA = /.D + ^A,


A is equal to the sum of the two

145
opposite interior A}.

Z D is measured by % arc AC,


Z A is measured by % arc BD,

But
and

(an inscribed

,-.Z

COA

Z. is

is

measured by %

measured by \

263

the intercepted arc).

(AC+ BD).
Q.E.D.

Ex.

83.

The opposite angles

of

an inscribed quadrilateral are sup

plements of each other.


Ex. 84. If through a point within a circle two perpendicular chords
are drawn, the sum of the opposite arcs which they intercept is equal to
a semi-circumference.

Ex.

85.

The

line joining the centre of the square described

upon the

of the rt. Z, bisects the right angle.


hypotenuse of a rt. A, to the vertex
HINT. Describe a circle upon the hypotenuse as diameter.

MEASURE OF ANGLES.

PROPOSITION XIX.

103

THEOREM.

269, An angle formed by a tangent and a chord


measured by one-half the intercepted arc.

is

ill-

MAH

the angle formed by the tangent

fee

MO

and chord AH.


To prove

Z MAH is measured by J arc A EH.


Draw

Proof.

the diameter

ACF.

Z MAFiszrt.
(the radius drawn

MAF being

ference

240

Z,

a tangent at the point of contact

Z,

rt.

is

measured by

is JL to it).

the semi-circum

AEF.

Z HAF is

But

(an inscribed
.%

to

-is

measured by J arc

measured by % the intercepted

Z MAF-/. HAF is measured


or

MAH

is

by

measured by

263

HF,
arc).

(AEF- HF)

A EH.
Q. E. D.

Ex.

86.

If

two

circles

touch each other and two secants are drawn

through the point of contact, the chords joining their extremities are
HINT. Draw the common tangent.
parallel.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

104

PROPOSITION

BOOK

XX.

II.

THEOREM.

An angle formed by two secants, two tangents,


a tangent and a secant, intersecting without the
circumference, is measured by one-half the difference
270,

or

of the intercepted arcs.

FIG.

CASE

I.

1.

Angle formed by two

Let the angle


cants OA and OB.

To prove

(Fig. 1)

secants.

be formed by the two se

measured by

is

AB

EC).

Draw CB.

Proof,

^ACB = Z.O + Z.B,


(the exterior

By

taking

of a

A is

away

equal

ZB

Z AGE

But

(an inscribed
.-.

Z. is

is

sum

from both

is

Z B is

and

to the

145

of the two opposite interior A).

sides,

measured by \

AB,

measured by \ OE,

measured by $

measured by

the intercepted arc).

%(AB

CE\

263

MEASURE OF ANGLES.
CASE

Angle formed by two

II.

Let the angle


gents OA and OB.
To prove

tangents.

formed by the two tan

(Fig. 2) be

measured by

is

105

-|

(AMJ3

ASH).

Draw AB.

Proof.

OAB,
Z

(the exterior

By

of a

A is

sum

equal to the

of the

Z OAB from both

taking away

145

two opposite interior A}.

sides,

Z ABO is measured by AMB,


Z OAB is measured by % ASB,

But

269

-J-

and

(an Z formed by a tangent and a chord is measured by


.

CASE

measured by 1 (A

is

the intercepted arc}.

ASB).

Angle formed by a tangent and a

III.

Let the angle

OA.

measured by %

is

secant.

formed by the tangent

(Fig. 3) be

OB and the secant


To prove

MB

Draw

Proof.

(ADS

CES).

OS.

ZACS=ZO + ZCSO,
(the exterior

By

Z of a A is

taking

away

equal

to the

sum

Z GSO from both

Z ACS is measured

But

(being

Z CSO is

and

(being
.

an

sides,

by |

ADS,

263

inscribed Z),

measured by

$CES,

an /.formed by a tangent and a


is

145

of the two opposite interior A}.

measured by

%(ADS

269

chord).

CES).
Q.E.D.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

106

BOOK

II.

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

XXL

PROPOSITION

At a given point in a

271.

perpendicular to that

PROBLEM.
straight line, to erect a

line.

HOB
FIG.
I.

Let

To

erect

JS\ ________ ,-- B


FIG.

1.

be the given point in AC. (Fig.


a A.

to the line

From

Construction,

AC at the point

2.

1).

0.

as a centre, with

any radius OB,

AC

describe an arc intersecting


in two points 77 and B.
From .ZTand
as centres, with equal radii greater than

OB,

describe

Then the

two arcs intersecting

OR is the _L

line

R.

and
are two points
Since
and B, they determine the position

Proof.
7?"

at

the line

HE at

its

at equal distances from


of a perpendicular to

middle point 0.

123

II.
When the given point is at the end of the
Let B be the given point. (Fig. 2).

To

erect

a J_

Construction,

to

the line

without

AB

and from

as a radius, describe an arc

AB at E.
it

to

meet the arc again at D.

BD the J_ required.
The Z. B inscribed in a semicircle, and

BD, and

Proof.

O
CB

Take any point

Draw EC, and prolong


Join

line.

AB at B.

as a centre, with the distance

intersecting

OR.

Join

required.

is

is

is

therefore

264

a right angle.

Hence

BD

is

_L to

AB.

o. E F
.

PROBLEMS.

107

PKOPOSITION XXII.

PROBLEM.

From a point without a straight


a perpendicular upon that line.

272,

fail

line, to let

--.

,.,

Let AB be the given straight line, and C the given


point without the line.
To

let fall

_L to the line

From C

Construction,

AB from the point

as a centre, with a radius sufficiently

great, describe an arc cutting

From .ZTand

Q.

AB in two points,

.5"

and K.

as centres, with equal radii greater than

\HK,

describe two arcs intersecting at 0.

Draw CO,
and produce

CM
Proof, Since

C and

is

it

to

meet

AB

at

the _L required.

are two points equidistant from


at its middle point.

K) they determine a _L to

HK

______
NOTE.

Given lines of the figures are

long-dotted,

and auxiliary

M.

full lines,

lines are short-dotted.

J?"and

123
Q. E.

F.

resulting lines are

108

273,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXIII.

PROBLEM.

To bisect a given straight

Let AB be the given straight


To

bisect the line

Construction,

greater than

line.

line.

AB.

From

AB,

II.

and

as centres, with equal radii

describe arcs intersecting at

C and

E.

Join GE.

Then the

line

GE bisects AB.

Proof, G and
are two points equidistant from A and B.
Hence they determine a J_ to the middle point of AB.
123
Q.E.

Ex. 87. To find in a given line a point


tant from two given points.

F.

X which shall be equidis

which shall be equidistant from two


To find a point
from a third given point.
distance
and
at
a
given
given points
Ex.

88.

Ex. 89. To find a point


two given points.
Ex.

90.

To

given points.

find a point

X which
X

shall be at given distances from

which shall be equidistant from three

PKOBLEMS.

PROPOSITION

XXIV. PROBLEM.

a given

arc.

Let ACS be the given

arc.

274,

To

To

bisect

bisect the

arc

ACB.
Draw

Construction,

From

AB,

and

109

AB.

the chord

as centres, with equal radii greater than

describe arcs intersecting at

D and E,

Draw DE.

Proof,

Since

DE bisects the arc ACB.


D and E are two points equidistant from A

and B, they determine a

_L erected at the middle of chord

AB.

123

And a _L erected at the middle of a chord passes through


the centre of the O, and bisects the arc of the chord.
234
Q.E.F.

Ex.

91.

To construct a

circle

having a given radius and passing

through two given points.

To construct a circle having


passing through two given points.
Ex.

92.

its

centre in a given line and

PLANE GEOMETRY.

110

To

275,

PKOPOSITION

XXV.

a given

angle.

bisect

BOOK

II.

PROBLEM.

Let AEB be the given angle.


To Used Z AEB.

E as

From

Construction.

a centre, with any radius, as

describe an arc cutting the sides of the

From

and

E at A and

EA,

B.

as centres, with equal radii greater than


to B, describe two arcs inter

one-half the distance from

secting at C.

Join EC, AC, and EG.

Proof,

and

In

EC bisects the Z E.
the A AEC an& BEG
AE = BE, and AG= BC,
EC = EC.
.-.A AEC^&BEC,
(having three sides equal each
.-.

Cons.

Men.
160

to each).

Z AEG =Z. BEG.


Q. E.

Ex.

93.

To divide a

Ex.

94.

To construct an

Ex.

95.

To

F.

right angle into three equal parts.

find a point

equilateral triangle, having given one side.

X which shall be equidistant from two given

points and also equidistant from two given intersecting lines.

PROBLEMS.

PROPOSITION

Ill

XXVI.

PROBLEM.

At a given point in a given straight


an angle equal to a given angle.

276,

line, to

construct

Let C be the given point in the given line CM, and


A the given angle.
To construct an
Construction,

/. at

From

equal

to the Z.

as a centre, with

describe an arc cutting the sides of the

From O as a

any radius, as
at
and F.

HCm

/.

(in equal

arc

(in equal

triangle.

Hm are equal.

Cons.

Hm,

230

.ZC=ZA,

229

equal arcs subtend equal

draw
in

DB + EC.
If an interior point
C, the angle

and

the required angle.

EF= arc

Ex. 96. In a triangle ABC,


ting the sides of the triangle
97.

EF,

HG at m.

equal chords subtend equal arcs).


.

is

The chords jEFand

Proof,

Ex.

AE,

as a centre, with a radius equal to the distance

Draw Cm, and

AE,

CM at H.

describe an arc intersecting the arc

tices

ZA

centre, with a radius equal to

describe an arc cutting

From

A.

BOG

Q. E.

F.

DE parallel to the base BC, cut


and E so that DE shall equal
t

of a triangle
is

at the centre}.

ABC

is
joined to the ver
of the
greater than the angle

BAG

PLANE GEOMETRY.

112

XXVII.

PROPOSITION

Two angles of a

277,

BOOK

II.

PROBLEM.

triangle being given, to find

the third angle.

Let A and B be the two given angles of a


To find the third
Construction,

triangle.

of the A.

Take any straight

line,

as JEF,

and at any

point, as If,

construct

and

Then
Proof.

Z a equal

Zb

sum

since

the third

two

A of

of the

the

Z A,

276

Z B.

Z required.

of the three

and the sum of the three

and

equal to

Z. c is the

Since the

to

A a,

b,

of a

and

A = 2 rt. A,
2

c,

are equal to the

will be equal to the

rt.

138
92

A\

A a and b,

c.

Ax.

3.

Q. E.

Ex.
to 37

F.

In a triangle ABC, given angles A and B, equal respectively


13 32" and 41 17 56". Find the value of angle C.
98.

H3

PROBLEMS.

PROPOSITION XXVIII. PROBLEM.

Through a given point, to draw a straight


a given straight line.

278,

line

parallel to

D
Let AB be the given

line,

To draw through the point

the point

Then

C construct

Z.

FCHis

the line

\\

the

to

.\HFia
(when two straight

lines,

II

to

AB.

Z EDB.

ECF= Z EDB.

276

AB.

Z ECF= Z EDB.

Proof.

point.

line parallel to the line

Draw DOE, making

Construction,

At

and C the given

A3,

Cons.

108

lying in the same plane, are cut by a third straight


are equal, the lines are parallel).

line, if the ext.-int.

Q.E.F.

Ex.

99.

To

also equidistant

find a point

X equidistant

from two given parallel

from two given points and

lines.

Ex. 100. To find a point


equidistant from two given intersecting
and also equidistant from two given parallels.

lines

PLANE GEOMETRY.

114

BOOK

II.

XXIX. PROBLEM.

PROPOSITION

To divide a given straight line into equal

279,

parts.

-0

Let AB be the given straight


To divide

AB into equal parts.


A

From

Construction,

Take any convenient


times as the line

From

II

line.

AB

is

draw the

length,

and apply

or
(if three

more

A C is
\\s

to

it

AO

as

many

AO,

as

(7,

draw CB.

AO

draw

lines

AB into equal parts.


divided into equal parts, AB
also,

187

Through the several points


CB, and these lines divide

Proof. Since

AO.

to be divided into parts.

the last point thus found on

to

line

of division on

is

intercept equal parts on any transversal, they intercept


equal parts on every transversal).
Q. E.

Ex.

101.

To divide a

line

into four equal parts

by two

F.

different

methods.

Ex. 102. To

find a point

distant from the other

two

X in one side of a given triangle and equi

sides.

Ex. 103. Through a given point to draw a line which shall


equal angles with the two aides of a given angle.

make

115

PROBLEMS.

XXX.

PROPOSITION
280,

Two

and

sides

PROBLEM.

the included angle of a trian

gle being given, to construct the triangle.

D
7)

Let the two sides of the triangle be


included angle A.
To construct a
tively,

and

Construction,

At A,
given

having two sides equal

the included Z.

Take

to

and

= /. A.

AB equal to the side

the extremity of

AB,

c,

and

and the

c respec

c.

construct an angle equal to the

276

A.

On^Dtake A C equal

to b.

Draw CB.
Then

A AGE is the A

required.
Q. E.

F.

Ex. 104. To construct an angle of 45.


Ex. 105. To

find a point
which shall be equidistant from two
given intersecting lines and at a given distance from a given point.

Ex. 106. To draw through two


given length.

a triangle a line
to the
between the sides shall have a

sides of

third side so that the part intercepted

||

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

XXXI.

PROPOSITION

PROBLEM.

281,
side and two angles of
given, to construct the triangle.

Let

be the given side,

To construct the
Construction,

[I.

A and B

a triangle being

the given angles.

triangle.

Take

EC equal

to

c.

At

the point

E construct the Z.CEH equal to Z A.

At

the point

C construct

Let the sides

EH and

A COE

Then

the /.

is

the

276

EQK equal to Z B.
GK intersect at 0.

required.
Q. E. F.

REMARK.

one of the given angles is opposite to the


given
find the third angle by g 277, and proceed as above.
If

side,

Discussion, The problem is impossible when the two


given
angles are together equal to or greater than two right angles.

Ex. 107. To construct an angle of 150.

Ex.

108.
straight railway passes two miles from a town.
place
four miles from the town and one mile from the
railway. To find by
construction how many places answer this description.
is

Ex. 109. If in a circle two equal chords intersect, the segments of one
chord are equal to the segments of the other, each to each.

Ex. 110.

AB is any chord

and

line cutting the circumference in

that the triangles

ACD and EAB

AC tangent to a circle at A, CDE a


D and E and parallel to AB; show
is

are mutually equiangular.

PROBLEMS.

117

PROPOSITION XXXII.

The three

282,

sides of

PROBLEM.

a triangle being

given>

to

construct the triangle.

7
A*-A

^BB
and

o.

AB equal to

o.

Let the three sides be m,


To construct the
Construction.

From
arc

?i,

triangle.

Draw

as a centre, with a radius equal to n, describe an

and from

B as a centre,

with a radius equal to m, describe

an arc intersecting the former arc at

C.

Draw GA and GB.

A GAB is the A

Then

required.
Q.E.F.

Discussion,

to or greater

The problem is impossible when one side


than the sum of the other two.

is

equal

Ex. 111. The base, the altitude, and an angle at the base, of a tri
angle being given, to construct the triangle.
Ex. 112. Show that the bisectors of the angles contained by the oppo
(produced) of an inscribed quadrilateral intersect at right angles.
Ex. 113. Given two perpendiculars, AB and CD, intersecting in 0, and
a straight line intersecting these perpendiculars in
and F\ to construct
a square, one of whose angles shall coincide with one of the right angles

site sides

at O,

and the vertex of the opposite angle of the square

(Two

solutions.)

shall lie in

EF.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

118

PROPOSITION XXXIII.

II.

PROBLEM.

Two sides of a triangle and the angle opposite


one of them being given, to construct the triangle.
283,

CASE

If the side opposite the given angle

I.

is

than the

less

other given side.

Let

be greater than

and A the given

a,

angle.

To construct the triangle.


Construction.

DAE to the given Z A.


On AD take AB =

Construct

276

b.

From

B as a centre,

with a radius equal to

describe an arc intersecting the line

BO and

Draw
Then both the

A ABC and ABC

the conditions, and hence


This
have two constructions.
fulfil

called the

ambiguous

Discussion,

to the JL

BH,

,D
.-

JD /

is

is

and there

^L.

x --...

a
--

will be
tri-

,D

ABH.

angle
If the given side a is less than the
JL from B, the arc described from

B^-

/^/

is

but one construction, the right

hence the problem

Cand C

we

equal
the arc described from

will not intersect or touch

a,

case.

If the side

B will touch AE,

AE at

AE, and

impossible,

-.

\a
i--

THE CIKCLE.

119

ZA

If the
is right or obtuse, the
problem is impossible for the
side opposite a right or obtuse angle is the greatest side.
159

CASE

If a

II.

If the Z.

is

is

to b.

equal

acute,

and a = b, the arc described from

a centre, and with a radius equal to a, will


cut the line
at the points
and O.

AE

There

is

isosceles

therefore

but one solution

B ,P
Vx

the
J[

If the

Discussion,

ZA

is

is

impossible
opposite them, and a
obtuse A.

III.

If a

is

greater than

b.

ED

from

the acute Z. A.
solution

If the

from

There

namely, the

ZA

is

then only one

is

y^

A ABC.

If the /.

from

sides of

A ABC

ED

/?\

^
C

~~-rA

ED

A, at the points

C and

<?

\B

The

not contain the obtuse


;

^\
*

is obtuse, the arc described


cuts the line
on opposite

<j/

v
answers the required conditions,
^_
c
but the AA.BC does not, for it does

tion

right, the arc described

the line

sides of

does not contain

on opposite
A, and we have two equal right
which fulfil the required conditions.
cuts

B will cut
A ABO

The

answers the required conditions, but the


it

~^c~

A have equal
cannot have two right
or two

does not, for

right or obtuse,
for equal sides of a

If the given Z.
is acute, the arc described
on opposite sides of A, at
the line
and

A ABC*

i>/

AEG.

the problem

CASE

B as

namely, the

A.

A A BO.

There

is

-"

"~

.....

^
v<1

"

then only one solu


Q.E.

F.

120

PLANE GEOMETEY.

PROPOSITION

Two

284,

sides

BOOK

II.

XXXIV. PROBLEM.

and an included angle of a paral

lelogram being given,

to construct the

parallelogram.

/
/
/
/

Let m and

be the two sides, and C the included

angle.

To construct a parallelogram.

AB equal to

Draw

Construction,

At

construct the Z.

and take

From

o.

equal to

(7,

276

AH equal to m-

T&s a centre, with a radius equal

From

to

o,

describe an arc.

B as a centre, with a radius equal to m,

describe an arc, intersecting the former arc at E.

EH and EB.

Draw
The quadrilateral
Proof.

/.

ABEH\$>

required.

AB = HE,

Cons.

^#= 5^7.

Cons.

the figure

(having

the

its

ABEHis a O,

183

opposite sides equal).


Q. E.

F.

PEOBLEMS.

PROPOSITION

XXXV.

PROBLEM.

To circumscribe a circle about a given

285,

angle.

tri

Let ABC be the given


.

121

To circumscribe a

circle

Construction,

Since

BO is

tersect at

From

about

Bisect

At

triangle.

ABC,

AB and

not the prolongation of

some point

The point

AB,

271

Js.

these J

will in

0.

A B C is

and

273

the points of bisection erect

0, with a radius equal to

Proof.

BO.

is

the

OB,

describe a circle.

required.

equidistant from

also is equidistant

from

and B,

B and

122

(7,

(every point in the _L erected at the middle of a, straight line is equidistant


from the extremities of that line).
.

and a

OB,

the point

is

equidistant from A, B, and

O,

described from

will pass

as a centre, with a radius


equal to
through the vertices A, B, and C.
ae<F .

286, SCHOLIUM. The same construction serves to describe a


circumference which shall pass through the three points not
in the same
also to find the centre of a
straight line
given
;

circle or of a

given arc.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

122

XXXVI.

PROPOSITION

Through a given

287,

point, to

II.

PROBLEM.

draw a tangent

to

circle.

given

>iJ

CASE

I.

When

the given point is

Let C be the

To draw a tangent

to

From

Construction,

CASE

II.

draw the radius 00.

the centre

AM

Proof,

circle.

the circle at C.

Through
Then
gent to the

on the

given, point on the circle.

straight line

C draw

AM

to

271

00.

the tangent required.

is
_!_

to a radius at its extremity is tan

239

circle.

When

the given point is without the circle.

be the centre of the given circle, E the given


point without the circle.
To draw a tangent to the given circle from the point E.

Let

Join

Construction,

On

OE.

OE as

a diameter, describe a circumference intersecting


and H.
the given circumference at the points

Draw
Then

EM

is

OM and EM.
the tangent required.

Z OME is

Proof,

264

a right angle,

(being inscribed in a semicircle).


.

EM

is

In like manner, we

tangent to the circle at

may

prove

M.

239

HE tangent to the given

O.

Q. E.

F.

123

PROBLEMS.

PROPOSITION

To inscribe a

288,

From E, with
The
Since

tant from the sides


(7,

it is

EH J. to the line AC.

radius

EH

EH,

describe the

O KHMis the O
is

AB and AC;

and

an

centre,

O KMH.
A,
is

it is

BC,

SCHOLIUM. The intersec


formed byangles of a triangle,
the sides of the tri
producing
are the centres of three
angle,

each of which will touch


one side of the triangle, and the
two other sides produced. These

circles,

three circles are called escribed

162

the sides of the Z).

with a radius equal to

A and be inscribed in

tions of the bisectors of exterior

equidis

in the bisector

AC and

equidistant from

/. is

E as

will touch the sides of the

circles.

since

the sides
equidistant from

described from

272

required.

in the bisector of the

in the bisector of
(every point
.-.

275

C.

the intersection of these bisectors,

draw

triangle.

A ABC.
Bisect A A and

From E,

of the

triangle.

circle in the

Construction,

Proof,

a given

circle in

Let ABC be the given


To inscribe a

PROBLEM.

XXXVII.

it.

124

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PKOPOSITION

BOOK

XXXVIII.

II.

PROBLEM.

290, Upon a given


straight line, to describe a seg
ment of a circle which shall contain a given angle.

Let AB be the given

line,

and

M the given

angle.

AB which shall contain Z M.


Construction, Con struct Z ABE
276
equal to Z.M.
Bisect the line AB by the _L FO.
273
From the point B draw BO
to EB.
271
To describe a segment upon

_i_

FO

From

and BO, as a cen


0, the point of intersection of
tre, with a radius equal to OB, describe a circumference.

Proof,

The segment

AKB

The point

is

(every point in

and B,
122
equidistant from
middle of a straight line is equidistant

the extremities of that


line).

the circumference will pass


through A.

But

BE -L to OB.
BE tangent to the O,
is

/.

/.

a radius at

Z ABE is

(being

t *.

its

extremity

measured by

is

239

tangent

arc

an ^.formed by a tangent and a

inscribed

Cons.

is

to

(a straight line

An Z

the segment required.

JL erected at the

from
.

is

in

the

segment

segment

AKB

AB,

to the

O).

269

chord).
is

AKB contains Z M.

measured by
263
Ax. 1
0. E.

F.

125

PROBLEMS.

PROPOSITION

XXXIX.

PROBLEM.

To find the ratio of two commensurable straight

291,

lines.

F
Let AB and CD

"be

two straight

lines.

To find the ratio of AB and CD.


Apply CD to AB as many timesjas possible.

Suppose twice, with a remainder

Then apply

EB to CD as many

EB.

times as possible.

Suppose three times, with a remainder

Then apply

FD to EB as many

Suppose once, with a remainder

Then apply

FD.

times as possible.

HB.

HB to FD as many times as possible.

Suppose once, with a remainder

KD.

KD to HB as many times as possible.


KD
contained just twice in HB.
Suppose
measure of each
referred to KD as a unit, will

Then apply

is

The

line,

then be as follows

HB = 2KD-,
EB = FD+HB = 5KDCD = 3 EB -f FD = 18 KD
AB = 2 CD + EB = 41

CD

18

/.the ratio

CD

18

Q.E.F.

126

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

II.

THEOREMS.
114.

The shortest

line

and the longest

line

which can be drawn from

a given exterior point to a given circumference pass through the centre.


115. If through a point within a circle a diameter and a chord _L to
the diameter are drawn, the chord is the shortest cord that can be drawn
through the given point.

116.

In the same

or in equal

circle,

circles,

two arcs are each

if

greater than a semi-circumference, the greater arc subtends the

less

chord, and conversely.


117.

If

in the arc

ABC

is

BC, then

On PA

HINT.

an inscribed equilateral

PA = PB + PC.

take

PIT equal

to

triangle,

PB, and

join

BM.

In what kinds of parallelograms can a


Prove your answer.

circle

"118.

119.

The radius of the

and Pis any point

be inscribed?

an equilateral triangle

circle inscribed in

is

equal to one- third of the altitude of the triangle.


120.
121.

A
A

circle

can be circumscribed about a rectangle.

circle

can be circumscribed about an

isosceles trapezoid.

-- 122. The tangents drawn through the vertices of an inscribed rec


tangle enclose a rhombus.
-f^ 123.

The diameter of the

circle inscribed in

rt.

A is

equal to the

between the sum of the legs and the hypotenuse.


124. From a point A without a circle, a
straight line AOB is drawn
through the centre, and also a secant ACD, so that the part A C without
difference

the circle

the

is

Prove that

equal to the radius.

DAB

Z.

equals one-third

Z DOB.

125.

All chords of a circle which touch an interior concentric circle

are equal, and are bisected at the points of contact.


126.

If

two

circles intersect,

and a secant

is

drawn through each

point of intersection, the chords which join the extremities of the secants
are parallel.
HINT. By drawing the common chord, two inscribed
quadrilaterals are obtained.
127.

If

an equilateral triangle

is

inscribed in a circle, the distance of

each side from the centre of the circle


128.

is

equal to half the radius.

Through one of the points of

diameter of each circle

is

drawn.

intersection of two circles a


Prove that the straight line joining

the ends of the diameters passes through the other point of intersection.

EXERCISES.

A circle touches two sides of an angle BAG at B, C\


the arc BC a tangent is drawn, meeting AB

129.

point
at F.

127

D in

Prove

(i.)

all positions of

through any

J^and

at

AQ

that the perimeter of the triangle ^.EFis constant for


in BC\ (ii.) that the angle EOF\& also constant.

Loci.
130.

131.

Find the locus of a point at three inches from a given point.


Find the locus of a point at a given distance from a given

circumference.
132.

Prove that the locus of the vertex of a right

given hypotenuse as base,


hypotenuse as diameter.
r

is

triangle,

the circumference described

upon

having a
the given

133. Prove that the locus of the vertex of a triangle, having a given
base and a given angle at the vertex, is the arc which forms with the
base a segment capable of containing the given angle.

134.

Find the locus of the middle points of

length that can be drawn in a given


135.

Find the locus of the middle points of

drawn through a given point


jv
t>e

136.

137.

chords of a given

all

chords that can be

in a given circumference.

Find the locus of the middle points of

drawn from

all

circle.

a given exterior point

all straight lines

that ca.n

to a given circumference.

A straight line

and touches

at one

moves so that it remains parallel to a given line,


end a given circumference. Find the locus of the

other end.

138.
1
fi&ed rods

139.

straight rod

which are

In a given

moves

_L to

so that its ends constantly touch two


each other. Find the locus of its middle point.

circle let

the perpendicular from


locus of the point J/as

AOB

be a diameter,

00 any

C to AB. Upon 00 take OM=CD.


00 turns about 0.

radius,

CD

Find the

CONSTRUCTION OF POLYGONS.
To construct an
140.

142.

To construct an
144.

equilateral A,

The perimeter.
The altitude.

The angle

141.

having given
The radius of the circumscribed

143.

The radius

isosceles triangle,

at the vertex

having given:

and the

circle.

of the inscribed circle.

base.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

128
145.

The angle at the vertex and the

146.

The base and the radius

BOOK

II.

altitude.

of the circumscribed circle.

147.

The base and the radius of the inscribed

148.

The perimeter and the

circle.

alti

tude.

ABC be the A re
EF the given perimeter.

Let

HINTS.

quired, and
The altitude

CD passes through the


middle of EF, and the A AJSG,
FO&Te

,.
.-

isosceles.

To construct a

right triangle, having given

150.

The hypotenuse and one


The hypotenuse and the

151.

One

153.

The radius

of the inscribed circle

and one

154.

The radius

of the inscribed circle

and an acute angle.

155.

An
An

149.

leg.

altitude

upon the hypotenuse.


the
the
altitude
and
upon
hypotenuse as base.
leg
%152. The median and the altitude drawn from the vertex of the

l||

156.

acute angle and the

sum

of the legs.

acute angle and the difference of the legs.

To construct a

triangle,

having given

base, the altitude, and the

V157. The

at the vertex.

**

158.

The

159.

base, the corresponding median,

and the

at the vertex.

160.

The perimeter and the angles. vQ


One side, an adjacent Z, and the sum of

161.

One

162.

The sum of two

163.

One

164.

The angles and the radius of the circumscribed O.


The angles and the radius of the inscribed O.

165.

rt. Z..

leg.

side,

side,

sides

and the

angles.

an adjacent Z, and radius of circumscribed O.

166.

An

167.

Two

168.

The three medians.

angle, the bisector,


sides

the other sides.

an adjacent Z, and the difference of the other sides/-

and the altitude drawn from the vertex.

and the median corresponding

To construct a square, having given:


169. The diagonal.
170^The sum

to the other side.

of the diagonal

and one

side.

129

EXERCISES.
To construct a

rectangle, having given:

173.

Z formed by the diagonals.


The perimeter and the diagonal.
The perimeter and the Z
the diagonals.

174.

The

171.
172.

One

side

and the

"of

difference of the

two adjacent

sides

and the

of the

diagonals.

To construct a rhombus, having given


175. The two diagonals.

...

176.

One

177.

One angle and the radius


One angle and one of the

178.

To

side

and the radius of the inscribed

circle.

of the inscribed circle.


diagonals.

construct a rhomboid, having given:

179.

One

side

and the two diagonals.

The diagonals and the Z formed by them.


181. One side, one Z, and one diagonal.
180.

182.

The base, the

To construct an

altitude,

and one

isosceles trapezoid,

angle.

having given:
The bases and the

183.

The bases and one

185.

The bases and

186.

The bases and th radius of the circumscribed

To construct a
187.

184.

angle.

altitude.

the diagonal.
circle.

having given
The two bases and the two diagonals.
The bases, one diagonal, and the Z formed by the
diagonals.

The four

trapezoid,

sides.

188.

CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCLES.
Find the locus of the centre of a
190.

191.

circle

Which has a given radius r and passes through a given


point P.
Which has a given radius r and touches a given straight line AE.

P and

192.

Which

193.

Which touches a given straight line AB at a given point P.


Which touches each of two given parallels.
Which touches each of two given intersecting lines.

194.

195.

passes through two given points

Q.

130

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

To construct a

circle

which has the radius

II.

and which

AB and

also

CD.

196.

Touches each of two intersecting

197.

Touches a given line

198.

Passes through a given point -P and touches a given line

199.

Passes through a given point

To construct a

circle

AB and

which

shall

lines

a given circle K.

P and

AB.

touches a given circle K.

Touch two given parallels and pass through a given point


201. Touch three given lines two of which are parallel.
200.

202.
203.
204.

205.
206.

207.

Touch a given
Touch a given

line

P.

A B at P and pass through a given point


P and pass through a given point Q.

Touch two given lines and touch one of them at a given point
Touch a given line and touch a given circle at a point P.
Touch a given line AB at P and also touch a given
To inscribe a circle in a given sector.

208. To construct within a given circle three equal


each shall touch the other two and also the given circle.
*

X209. To describe

Q.

circle at

circles

P.

circle.

circles, so

that

about the vertices of a given triangle as

centres, so that each shall touch the

two

others.

CONSTRUCTION OF STRAIGHT LINES.


210.

211.

To draw a common tangent to two given circles.


To bisect the angle formed by two lines, without producing the

lines to their point of intersection.

212. To draw a line through a given point, so that


j
the sides of a given angle an isosceles triangle.

213.

through

it shall

form with

P between the sides of an angle BAC. To draw


terminated by the sides of the angle and bisected at P.

Given a point

P a line

Given two points P, Q, and a line AB; .to draw lines from P
^214.
and Q which shall meet on AB and make equal angles with AB.
HINT. Make use of the point which forms with P a pair of points
symmetrical with respect to AB.

215.
,

216.

To find the shortest path from Pto Q which shall touch a line AB.
To draw a tangent to a given circle, so that it shall be parallel

to a given straight line.

BOOK

III.

PROPORTIONAL LINES AND SIMILAR


POLYGONS,
THE THEORY OF PROPORTION.

292,
proportion
equal ratios.

proportion
ing forms

is

may

an expression of equality between two

be expressed in any one of the follow

a:b = c:d; a:b


-=-;
b
d
and

"

is

read,

the ratio of

::c:d;

to b equals the ratio of c to

d"

The terms of a proportion are the four quantities com


pared the first and third terms are called the antecedents, the
second and fourth terms, the consequents ; the first and fourth
terms are called the extremes, the second and third terms, the
293,

means.
294,

In the proportion a b
:

tional to a, b,

and

In the proportion

a and

=c

d,

is

a fourth propor

c.

a:b

= b:c,

c is a third proportional to

a:b

= b :c,

b.

In the proportion
between a and c,

is

mean

proportional

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

132

PROPOSITION

III.

I.

In every proportion the product of the extremes


equal to the product of the means.
Let a:b = c-.d.

295,
is

ad

To prove

be.

a=C

AT

Now

7
b

-y

whence, by multiplying both sides by bd,

ad =

be.

PROPOSITION

o. E. D.

II.

two

A mean

quantities
-proportional between
their
root
product.
is equal to the square
of
296,

In the proportion a

=b

c,

V = ac,

the extremes
(the product of

is

equal

Whence, extracting the square


1)

295

to the

product of the means).

root,

a E. D.

Va<?.

PROPOSITION

III.

is equal to the
// the product of two quantities
two may be made the
product of two others, either
in which the other two are
a
extremes
297,

made

proportion
of
the -means.

To prove

Let ad=bc.
a:b

= c:d.

bd.
Divide both members of the given equation by

Then

=c
Q.E.D.

THEORY OF PROPORTION.

133

PROPOSITION IV.
298,

If four quantities of the same kind are in pro

portion, they will be in proportion by alternation ;


that is, the first term will be to the third as the sec

ond

to the fourth.

Let a:b =

= b:d.

a:c

To prove

c:d.

f-j
Multiply each

member

of the equation

by

-.

=*

Then

a:c = b:d.

or,

Q.E.D.

PROPOSITION V.
299, If four quantities are in proportion, they will
be in proportion by inversion ; that is, the second term
will be to the first as the fourth to the third.

Let a:b = c:d.


b:a = d:c.

To prove

Now
Divide each

bo

member

295

of the equation

by

ac.

*=

Then

a
or,

= ad.

a=d

c.

at.*

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

134

III.

PROPOSITION VI.
300, If four quantities are in proportion, they will
be in proportion by composition ; that is, the sum of
the first two terms will be to the second term as the

sum

term.
of the last two terms to the fourth
Let a:b = c:d.

a + b :b

To prove

Now
Add

T
b

1 to

each member

-f-

In like manner,

f
a+

is,

or,

~y

of the equation.

+lr= | +1
d
b _c

Then
that

= c + d:d.

~~d~
=c+d

d.
+b b
d:c.
b
:a=c
+
+
:

^^

PROPOSITION VII.
will
// four quantities are in proportion, they
the
that
division
is,
difference
;
be in proportion by
be to the second term as
of the first two terms will
the difference of the last two terms to the fourth
301,

term.
To prove

Let a:b =
a b:b = c
h~"f7

Subtract 1 from each

member

of the equation.

- 1=1-1;

Then

a-b__c-d
7

is,

In like manner,

d:d.

a_c

Now

that

c:d.

-5

a=c

d .c.

135

THEORY OF PROPORTION.
PROPOSITION VIII.

In any proportion the terms are in proportion

302,

by composition and division ; that is, the sum of the


as the sum of
ftrst two terms is to their difference
their
to
two
terms
the last
difference.
Let a-.b = c: d.
Then, by

And, by

v
By

,.

300,

301,

cd

c-}-d: c

division,

a-\-b

or.

d.
Q.E. D.

PEOPOSITION IX.

In a

series of
tecedents is to the
303.

antecedent

is to its

equal ratios, the sum of the an


sum of the consequents as any

consequent.

Let a:b = c:d = e :f= g


To prove

a+ c+ e+g

Denote each

ratio

by

Then

Whence,

Add

br,

b.

= ? = = i = f.
c

= dr,

=fr,

g=

hr.

these equations.

Then

a+c+e+g

Divide by

Then

h.

r.

a=

+ d+f+h = a

(b

= (b + d+f+ h)r.

+ d+f+h).

or,
Q. E. D.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

136

BOOK

III.

PROPOSITION X.

The products of the corresponding terms of

304,

two or more proportions are in proportion.

Leta:b = c:d, e:f=g:h,


To prove

aek

= cgm

bfl

a c e
T =T 7
b
d f

vr

NOW

= m-.n.

dhn.

=m
--

Ic

hi

k:l

Whence, by multiplication,

_ cgm

aek ~~

dhn

bfl

aek bfl

or,

= cgm

dhn.
Q.E.D.

PROPOSITION XI.

Like powers, or like

305,

of the terms of

roots,

proportion are in proportion.

Let
n

I
n

and

Q>

NT

NOW
By

raising to the nth power,

^-=~
n
b
dn
By

= c:d.

= cn :d n
I
1
i
b = C* d*.
a=c
7
-y

a :b

To prove

a-.b
n

or

extracting the nth root,

or,

,1
:

= ci

,1

Q.E.O.

the products ob
Equimultiples of two quantities are
same number.
the
them
tained by multiplying each of
by
306,

Thus,

ma and mb

are equimultiples of

a and

b.

THEORY OF PROPORTION.

137

PROPOSITION XII.

Equimultiples of two quantities are in the

307,

same
Let

ratio as the quantities themselves.


a

and

be any two quantities.

To prove

ma :mb

a:b.

HMultiply both terms of first fraction

by m.

ma- = a-

mi

Then

mo

ma :mb = a:b.

or,

Q.E.D.

SCHOLIUM. In the treatment of proportion it is as


may be found which will represent the
It is evident that the ratio of two quantities may be
ratios.
represented by a fraction when the two quantities compared
can be expressed in integers in terms of a common unit. But
when there is no unit in terms of which both quantities can be

sumed

that fractions

expressed in integers, it is possible to find a fraction that will


represent the ratio to any required degree of accuracy.
(See

251-256.)
Hence, in speaking of the product of two quantities, as for
instance, the product of two lines, we mean simply the product
of the numbers which represent them when referred to a com

mon

unit.

An
of

interpretation of this kind must be given to the product


any two quantities throughout the Geometry.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

138

BOOK

III.

PROPORTIONAL LINES.
PROPOSITION

If a line

309,

angle

is

I.

THEOREM.

drawn through two

sides of

tri

parallel to the third side, it divides those sides

proportio nally.

FIG.

1.

In the triangle

FIG.

ABC

let

EF

2.

be drawn parallel to BC.

EB = FC
Toprove
ZS Zp
CASE
When AE and EB (Fig. 1) are commensumble.
Find a common measure of AE and EB, as BM.
Suppose BMiQ be contained in BE three times,
and in AE four times.
I.

Then

At

AE

(1)

the several points of division on

straight lines

II

to

contain three, and A.

(if parallels intercept

draw

AC mto seven

These lines will divide

FC will

BE and AE

BC.
ill

equal parts, of which


187
contain four,

equal parts on any transversal, they intercept equal


parts on every transversal).

FC

AF
Compare

(1)

and

(2)

(2),

AE

Ax.

1.

139

PROPORTIONAL LINES.
CASE

When

II.

Divide

AE

AE and EB (Fig. 2) are incommensurable.


any number of equal
measure to

into

parts,

and apply one

EB as many times as it

of these parts as a unit of


will be contained in EB.

AE and EB are incommensurable, a certain number


E
K, leaving a
KB

Since

to a point
of these parts will extend from
less than the unit of measure.
remainder

Draw

KH

II

to

BO.

the
Suppose the unit of measure indefinitely diminished,
ra tios =?==

AE

and =-== continue equal


AJb
Tt

Therefore

T-?

- and

Jf

COR.

1.

by a straight

One

indefi-

nitely the limiting ratios

310,

and approach

side of

-,

respectively.

26

a triangle

is to either

part cut

off

line parallel to the base as the other side is to the

corresponding part.

For

EB AE= FC: AF, by the theorem.


EB + AE .AE=FC+AF:AF,
AB:AE=AO:AF.
:

300

/.

or

COR.

311.

2.

If two

lines are cut

by any number of parallels,

the corresponding intercepts are proportional.

Let the

Draw
and N.

lines

AN

II

be
to

AB and CD.
CD, cutting the

Us at

AL= GG, LM= GK, MN= KD.


By

L,

M,

Then
187

the theorem,

AIT: AM= AF:AL = FIT: LM= HB MN.


AF:CG= FH: GK= HB KD.
That
If the two lines AB and CD were parallel, the correspond
:

is,

ing intercepts would be equal, and the above proportion be true.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

140

PROPOSITION

BOOK

III.

THEOREM

II.

>

// a straight line divides two sides of a

312,

angle proportionally,

In the triangle

ABC

tri

parallel to the third side.

it is

EF be drawn
AB = AC
AE AF

let

so that

Proof,

EF \\toBG.
From E draw EH

Then

AB AE-= AC:

To prove

to

II

A is

(one side of a

to either

part cut

off

BO.

AH,

by a line

II

310

to the base,

as the other

side is to the corresponding part).

AB AE = AC

But
The
each to

AF.

Hyp.

two proportions have the first three terms equal,


each therefore the fourth terms are equal that is,

last

AF=AH.
.*.

.KFand

EH\s

But
/.

EF, which

EH coincide.
II

to

BC.

coincides with

EH,

Cons.
is

||

to

BC.
Q.E.Q.

141

PROPORTIONAL LINES.

PROPOSITION

III.

THEOREM.

313, The bisector of an angle of a triangle divides


the opposite side into segments proportional to
other two sides.

A
Let

CM

the angle C of the triangle GAB.

"bisect

MA MB = CA CB.
Proof, Draw AE
to MC to meet BC produced at E.
to AE of the A BAE, we have
Since MC
To prove

II

is

II

MA:MB=CE:CB.
Since

MC

is

II

(1)

AE,

to

ZACM=ZCAE,
(being alt.-int.

of\\ lines)

Z BCM= Z

and

(being

But

ext.-int.

104
;

CEA,
of

II

A CM= Z BCM.
the Z CAE = Z CEA.

.-.

/.

Putting

two

CA

of a

for

A are

CE in

CE=

106

lines).

the Z.

(if

309

Hyp.
Ax.

156

CA,

equal, the opposite sides are equal),

(1),

we have

MA:MB=CA:

CB.
Q.E.D.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

142

III.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION IV.

314, The bisector of an exterior angle of a triangle


meets the opposite side produced at a point the dis

tances of which

from the extremities of this side are


proportional to the other two sides.

A
ACE

CM bisect the exterior angle


angle CAB, and meet BA produced at
Let

M A M B = CA

To prove

Draw

Proof,

Since

AFis

Since

AF

is

II

of the tri

f
.

OB.

BC&t F.
AF to CM
to OH of the A BOM we have
WA\WB=CF\CB.
to

II

meet

II

to

(being ext.-int.

the

CM

bisects the

:.

the

Putting

II

of

I!

Z AFC = Z

A of a A are
CA for CF in

two

of

lines)

106

CAF,

104

lines).

Z ECA,

/.
(if

Z M CA = Z

(being alt.-int,

Since

(1)

CM\

theZM CE = ZAFC,
and

309

CAF.

CA = CF,

Ax.

156

are equal).
equal, the opposite sides
(1),

we have

WA M B = CA
:

CB.
Q.E.D.

PROPORTIONAL LINES.
SCHOLIUM.

315,

If a given line

AB

143

is

and B, it
and
divided internally into the segments
divided at

MA

MB

MA

be

said to

is

a point in the prolongation of AB,


and
to be divided externally into the segments
is

M,

divided at

point between the extremities

and

if it

it is

said

M B.
f

In either case the segments are the distances from the point
If the line is divided

of division to the extremities of the line.

to the line
and
internally, the sum of the segments is equal
if the line is divided externally, the difference of the segments
;

is

equal to the

line.

required to divide the given


Suppose
and
externally in the same ratio; as,
nally
ratio of the two numbers 3 and 5.
it is

cc.

___

We

AB

divide

parts from

into 5

inter

.i.i......
A
B
M

AB

line

for example, the

y;

+ 3,

we then have

or 8, equal parts, and take 8


the point J/j such that

MA: MB = 3: 5.
Secondly, we divide

AB

into

two equal

on the prolongation of AB, to the


equal parts we then have the point
;

(1)

left of

f
,

M A M B -3:5.
:

Comparing

(1)

and

parts,

and lay

off

A, three of these

such that
(2)

(2),

316, If a given straight line is divided internally and


the line is
externally into segments having the same ratio,
said to be divided harmonically.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

144
COR.

317.

1.

The

bisectors of

BOOK

an

III.

and an

interior angle

a triangle
divide the opposite side harmoni
313 and 314, each
cally. For, by

exte

rior angle at one vertex of

\o

bisector divides the opposite side


into segments proportional to the

318.

COR.

2.

If

the points

harmonically, the points


monically.
For,

by

M and M
and

The

M and M
M and M

from

from
1

AB
har

298

four points A, B, M, and


points, and the two pairs, A, B, and

MM

M B,
M

the ratio of the distances of

is,

equal to the ratio of the distances of

divide the line

divide the line

MA MB = M A
MA M A = MB

if

alternation,

That

o^her two sides of the triangle.

is

are called harmonic

M,

M\

are called con

jugate harmonic points.

SIMILAR POLYGONS.
Similar polygons are polygons that have their homol

319.

ogous angles equal, and their homologous sides proportional.

ED
Thus,

if

the

ABODE and A B C D E are similar


C etc.
etc., are equal to A A

the polygons

A A,

B,

C,

CD

and
320.

A JB

etc.

In two similar polygons, the ratio of any two homol


is called the ratio of similitude of the polygons.

ogous sides

145

SIMILAR TRIANGLES.

SIMILAR TRIANGLES.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION V.
321,

Two mutually equiangular

ilar.

triangles are

sim

In the triangles*
equal to angles A

ABC and A B C
B C

Apply the

Proof,

so that

AABC
Z

Now

similar.

C* to the

A AEG,
Z

shall coincide with

will take the position of

AEJI(ssime
:.

as

Elf is

Z B)=Z

A.

A AEH.

B.

108

ioBC,

II

lying in the same plane, are cut by a third straight


are equal the lines are parallel).
if the ext.-int.

(when two straight


Line,

AAB

ZA

G be

respectively.

A ABC and A B C

To prove

Then the

let angles A, B,

lines,

AB AE= AC: AH,


AB:A B = AC:A C

/.

310

or

AABC

In like manner, by applying


shall coincide with Z B, we

ZB

may

the two

Therefore

A ABC,

so that

prove that

AB A B = BC: J3
:

to

<7

A are similar.

319
Q. E. D.

322,

COR.

1.

Two

triangles are similar if two angles of the


to two angles of the other.

one are equal respectively

2.
Two right triangles are similar if an acute
one
the
is
equal to an acute angle of the other.
angle of

323,

COR.

146

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION VI.

THEOREM.

III.

If two triangles have their sides respectively


proportional, they are similar.
324,

In the triangles

To prove
Proof,

ABC and A B let


AB = AC = BC
AB A C B C
f

C>

A ABC and A B C similar.


Take AE= A B and AH= A O

Draw EH.
Then from the given

proportion,

AB = AC

AE AH

:.
(if

line divide

Hence

Effis

two sides of a

in the

II

to

312

BC,

A proportionally,

it is

II

to the

third

side).

A ABC&nd. AEH
106

and
(being ext.-int.
.-.

of

A ABC and AEH

II

lines).

A of one are equal respectively


(two A are similar if two
other).

.:AB\
that

AE=

AB A B =
1

is,

322

are similar,
to

two

of the

SIMILAR TRIANGLES.

147

But by hypothesis,

The

last

two proportions have the

each to each

Hence

first

three terms equal,


that is,

therefore the fourth terms are equal

in the

AE=A B

160
(having three sides of the one equal respectively

But
.-.

to three sides

A AEH is similar to A ABC.


A A 3 is similar to A ABO.

of the other).

aE

SCHOLIUM. The primary idea of similarity is likeness


and the two conditions necessary to similarity are
ofform
I.
For every angle in one of the figures there must be an
325,

equal angle in the other, and


II.

The homologous

sides

must be

in proportion.

In the case of triangles, either condition involves the other,


it does not follow that if one

but in the case of other polygons,

condition exist the other does also.

Thus in the quadrilaterals Q and Q the homologous sides


are proportional, but the homologous angles are not
equal.
In the quadrilaterals
and It 1 the homologous
are
1

equal, but the sides are not proportional.

angles

PLANE GEOMETKY.

148

PROPOSITION VII.

BOOK

III.

THEOREM.

If two triangles have an angle of the one equal


the other, and the including sides pro
portional, they are similar.
326,

to

an angle of

In the triangles

ABC and A B C
AB ~
= AC
AB

Proof,

Apply

the

shall coincide with

AB

so that

A AEH.

AC
AC

AB__

Therefore the line

AC^

EH divides the

sides

AB

and

A C pro

toC,
(if a

ZA

AE AH

is,

portionally

A ABC,

to the

will take the position of

AB

Now

similar.

A.

AABC

Then the

That

AABC

let

AC

A ABC and A B C

To prove

line divide

Hence the
and similar.

A ABC and AEH are


.-.

AABC

312

A proportionally,

two sides of a

is

similar to

it is

\\

to the

third side}.

mutually equiangular

A ABO.
Q. E. D.

149

SIMILAR TRIANGLES.

PROPOSITION VIII.

THEOREM.

// two triangles have their sides respectively


parallel, or respectively perpendicular, they are sim
327,

ilar.

be
In the triangles A B C and ABC let A B A C B
respectively parallel, or respectively perpendicular,
to AB, AC, BC.
,

AABC

To prove
Proof,

and

The corresponding

ABC similar.

A are either equal

jf
or supplements
112, 113

of each other,
(if

two

<y

have their sides

II,

or

_L,

they are equal or supplementary).

Hence we may make three suppositions

A + A = 2rt.A, B + B = 2rt.A
B + B = 2rt.A
A=A
2d.
C= C
B= B\
A-A
3d.
Since the sum of the A of the two A cannot
1st.

right angles, the third supposition only


. .

the two

is

A ABC and A B C

(two mutually equiangular

&

140

exceed four

admissible.

138

are similar,

321

are similar).

150

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION IX.

THEOREM.

III.

328, The homologous altitudes of two similar tri


angles have the same ratio as any two homologous

sides.

A o

A
ABC and A B C

In the two similar triangles


altitudes be CO and C O

let the

CO
CO

To prove
In the

Proof,

rt.

AC

AB

AC

AB

CO A and C O A

ZA=Z A
(being homologous

.-.

(two

rt.

&

A CO A

of the similar

and

having an acute Z

319

COA

& ABC and A B C

323

are similar,

of the one equal to

an acute

}.

of the other

are similar).

AC
AC

CO
CO
In the similar

A AB C and A B C
AC
AC

Therefore,

CO

_
~=

319

AB
AB

AC = _.
AB
=_
Q. E. O.

151

SIMILAR TRIANGLES.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION X.

drawn through

Straight lines

329,

the

same point

intercept proportional segments upon two parallels.

/B

ABC

E
A E cut the straight

Let the two parallels AE and


lines OA, OB, OC, ODt and OE.

_ = ---_=
AE

Toprove
Proof,

\E

\D

/C"

Since

OA B OBC
,

is

to

II

OB C

and

similar,

BO

DE

CD

A OAB

AE,

etc.,

the pairs of
are mutually equiangular

and
and

AS
"

OB

ff

sides of similar

(homologous

&

are proportional).

Ax
In a similar way

BC
BO

it

may

be shown that

_ CD
CD

DE

CD

D
Q. E. D.

REMARK.

condensed form of writing the above

AB

\OB

_^
B C \00

=
J

is

==== D E^
^

\OD

where a parenthesis about a ratio signifies that this ratio is used to


and following it.
prove the equality of the ratios immediately preceding

152

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PBOPOSITION XI.

THEOREM.

III.

more non-parallel
straight lines intercept proportional segments upon
two parallels, they pass through a wmrrwn, point.
If three or

CONVERSELY:

AC

Let AB, CD, EF, cut the parallels AE and

AC BD=CE
:

To prove that
Proof,

AB, CD,

that

Prolong

EF prolonged meet in a point.

AB and CD until they meet in


Join

we

If

BF so

DF.

designate by
shall have by
329,

F the

0.

OE,
point where

AC:BD=CE:DF

OE

cuts

BF, we

But by hypothesis

AC:BD = CE.DF.

These proportions have the first three terms equal, each to


therefore the fourth terms are equal that is,

each

..

.-.

F coincides with F.

.EF prolonged

AB, CD, and

O.
passes through

EF prolonged meet in the point

0.

153

SIMILAR POLYGONS.

SIMILAR POLYGONS.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XII.

If two polygons cure composed of the same num


ber of triangles, similar each to each, and- similarly
placed, the polygons are similar*
331,

In the two polygons ABODE and A B C D E let the


triangles AEB, BEG, CED be similar respectively to
the triangles A E B B E C C E D*.
,

ABODE similar to A B C D E
ZA=ZA

To prove

319

(being homologous

Also,

of similar A).

Z ABE = Z A B E
Z EEC = Z E B C
Z ABC = Z A B C
we may prove Z BCD = Z B C D

319

and

By

Proof,

adding,

In like manner

etc.

Hence the two polygons are mutually equiangular.

Now

AE = AB ^( EB\

AE

AB

(the

BO ^( EC\
B
C \E &)
\E &)

homologous

sides of similar

Hence the homologous


(having their

CD = ED
C

ED

A are proportional).

sides of the polygons are proportional.

Therefore the polygons are similar,


319
homologous A equal, and their homologous sides proportional).
Q. E. D,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

154

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIII.
332,

of the

If two polygons

cure

III.

THEOREM.

similar, they are composed


to each,

same number of triangles, similar each

and similarly

B
Let the

placed.

B
DE
B
ABODE
A
C
and
polygons
C

From two homologous

vertices, as

E and E

1
,

be similar.
draw diagonals

EB EC
A EAB, EEC, ECD
To prove
A EAB EB C E CD
similar respectively
Proof, In the A EAB and E A B
EB, EC, and

to

Z.A=/.A
(being homologous

and

319

of similar polygons)

AE

AB

AE

AB

319

(being homologous sides of similar polygons ).


.

(having an

A EAB and E A B

are similar,

and

of the one equal to an /. of the other,


proportional).

ZABC=ZA B C

Also,

(being homologous

And

Subtract (2) from

(1)

of similar polygons).

ABE= Z A B E

(being homologous

326

the including sides

of similar A).

/.

EBC

(2)

(1),
1
.

Ax. 3

SIMILAR POLYGONS.

155

EB _ AB

Now

(being homologous sides of similar A).

BO = AB
BC A^

And

(being homologous sides of similar polygons).

Av
XIA.

(having an

-r~ttT~\i

*~T\I

A EBCw& E B C

we may prove

326

are similar,

of the one equal to an


of the other,
proportional).

In like manner

1
JL

~7f"

and

the including sides

A ECD and E C D

similar.
Q. E. D.

PROPOSITION XIV.

The perimeters of two similar polygons have


ratio as any two homologous sides.

333,

the

THEOREM.

same

Let the two similar polygons be ABODE and A B C D E


and let P and P represent their perimeters.

P P = AB A B
= CD
AB A B = EG:

To prove

(the
.-.

(in

homologous

AB+BC,etc.

AB

CD

319

etc.,

polygons are proportional).

+B C

etc.

=AB: A B

303

equal ratios the sum of the antecedents is to the sum of the


n
conse
equents as any antecedent is to its consequent).

series of
"

That

P:f = AB:A B
t

is,

sides of similar

PLANE GEOMETRY.

156

BOOK

III.

NUMERICAL PROPERTIES OF FIGURES.


PROPOSITION XV.

THEOREM.

If in a right triangle a perpendicular is drawn


vertex of the right angle to the hypotenuse :
the
from
The perpendicular is a mean proportional be
I.
tween the segments of the hypotenuse.
334,

leg of the right triangle is a mean pro


between
the hypotenuse and its adjacent
portional
segment.
II.

Each

F
In the right triangle ABC, let BF be drawn from the
vertex of the right angle B, perpendicular to AC.
I.

AF: BF= BF: FO.


A BAFwd BAC

To prove
In the

Proof,

rt.

the acute /.

is

common.

A are similar.

In the

rt.

the acute /.

Hence the

Now

as the

rt.

(7 is

II.

and

AF,
BF,
BF,

CBF,

the shortest side of the one,

the shortest side of the other,


the

FO, the

To prove

323

A ABF and CBF&re both similar to ABO,


A

common.

A are similar.

they are similar to each other.


ABFsiul
In the similar

323

Hence the
OF and BCA

medium
medium

side of the one,

side of the other.

AC AB = AB
:

AF,

NUMERICAL PROPERTIES OF FIGURES.


In the similar

157

A ABO and ABF,

AB,
AB,

longest side of the one,


the longest side of the other,
the shortest side of the one,

A F,

the shortest side of the other.

AC, the
:

Also

in the similar

A AfiCand FBC,

AC, the longest side of the one,


BC, the longest side of the other,
EC, the medium side of the one,
FCj the medium side of the other.

Q E
.

o.

The squares of

the two legs of a right triangle


are proportional to the adjacent segments of the hypotenuse.

COR.

335,

1.

The proportions

in II. give,

AB* = ACxAF,
By

by
and

295,

BC* = ACxCF.

we have

dividing one by the other,

AGx CF
COR.

336,

2.

are proportional

The squares of
to

l^
COR.

337,

angle

3.

264).

the hypotenuse and either


leg
and the adjacent segment.

the hypotenuse
-^L

-r^

OF

An

_/lL/ /\ ^J_

I77>o4>

_/T_

ZF

angle inscribed in a semicircle

is

a right

Therefore,

The perpendicular from any point in


the circumference to the diameter of a circle
I.

is

a mean proportional between

the segments ^_

of the diameter.
II.

&

_^

The chord drawn from the point to either extremity of the


is a mean proportional between the diameter and the

diameter

adjacent segment.
REMARK. The pairs of corresponding sides in similar triangles may be
called longest, shortest, medium, to enable the beginner to see quickly
these pairs but he must not forget that two sides are homologous, not
;

because they appear to be the longest or the shortest


they

lie

opposite corresponding equal angles.

sides,

but because

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

158

III.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION XVI.

The sum of the squares of the two

338,

triangle

is

to the

equal

legs of a right

square of the hypotenuse.

Let ABC

fee

a right triangle with its right angle at B.


= AC*AB* +

B&

To prove

BF to AC.
=
A& ACxAF

Draw

Proof,

Then

= ACX OF
= AC(AF+
By adding, AB* + SO*
BC*

and

339,
to

334

COR.

The square

of either leg

CF)

= AC\

the difference of the squares of the hypotenuse


340,

The
is

square
ber V2.

ABCD,

For

if

AC

and the other leg.

ratio of the diagonal of a


the incommensurable num

SCHOLIUM.
to the side

is

a E. D.

is equal
of a right triangle

the diagonal of the square

then

AC* = IB* + BC\


Divide by AJ3\

we have

AC = 2
2

or

AC*
~

= 2,

or

AC
-^-g

=--

V2.

Since the square root of 2 is incommensurable, the diagonal


and side of a square are two incommensurable lines.
341.

The projection of a

line

CD

upon a straight

AB

that part of the line


comprised
and
between the perpendiculars
let fall from the extremities of

CP

DR

PR

CD.

Thus,

CD

upon AB.

is

the projection of

A~

line

AB

is

NUMERICAL PROPERTIES OF FIGURES.

PROPOSITION XVII.

159

THEOREM.

342, In any triangle, the square of the side opposite


an acute angle is equal to the sum of the squares of

the other two sides diminished Ijy twice the product


of one of those sides and the projection of the other
upon that side.

Let G be an acute angle of the triangle ABC, and


the projection of AC upon BC.

DC

To prove
Proof,

If

AB* ^ BC* + AC* -2BCx DO.

fall

upon the base

(Fig. 1),

DB = BC- DCIf

D fall upon the base produced (Fig.


DB = DC- BC.

2),

In either case,

JOB*

Add

AD

= BC* + DC* -2BCx

to both sides of this equality,

DC.

and we have

AD* + DB* = BC* + AD*+DC*-2BCx DC.


But
AD* + DB = AB\
338
and
AD* + DC* = AC*,
A is equal to the square
(the sum of the squares of the two legs of a
2

rt.

of the hypotenuse}.

Put

AH* and AC*

for their equals in the

BC* -}- AC*-

2BCx

above equality,

DC.
Q. E. D.

160

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XVIII.

THEOREM.

III.

triangle, the square of the side


obtuse
the
angle is equal to the sum of the
opposite
squares of the other two sides increased by twice the
product of one of those sides and the projection of
the other upon that side.
343,

In any obtuse

Let C be the obtuse angle of the triangle ABC, and


projection of AC upon BC produced.

CD be the
To prove

+ Iff + 2Cx
DB = BC+DC.

A3* =

Proof,

Squaring,

Add Alf

DB* =

C*

to both sides,

AD* + 52? =

+ DO* + 2Cx

DO.

DO.

and we have

W*+AD +D
i

AD* + ~DS = AB\

But

338

and
(the

sum

Put

a rt.
of the squares of the two legs of
of the hypotenuse).

A is equal to

the square

AS and AC? for their equals in the above equality,


AW = C + AC* + 2Cx DC.
2

Q.E.O.

NOTE. The last three theorems enable us to compute the lengths of


if the lengths of the three sides of a triangle are known.

the altitudes

NUMERICAL PROPERTIES OF FIGURES.

PROPOSITION XIX.

161

THEOREM.

The sum of the squares of two sides of a tri


angle
equal to twice the square of half the third
side increased ~by twice the square of the median upon
344,

I.

is

that side.
II.

The difference of the squares of two sides of a

triangle is equal to twice the product of the third


side by the projection of the median upon that side.

the triangle ABC let AM


the median, and
the projection of AM upon the side BO. Also let
be greater than AC.
In.

"be

I.

Toprove

II.

Since

Proof,

the

A& + AC* = 2 3M* + 2 AM\


A?-A(T = 2CxMD.
AB>AC,

AME

will be obtuse,

=M + AM + 2JBMx MD,

and
152
343

any obtuse A the square of the side opposite the obtuse /. is equal to the
sum of the squares of the other two sides increased by twice the product
of one of those sides

and
(in

the

AMC will be acute.

Then
(in

MD
AS

and

the projection of the other

on that

side)

AC = MC + AM-2MCx MD,

342

the square of the side opposite an acute


is equal to the sum
of
the squares of the other two sides diminished by twice the product
of one
of those sides and the projection of the other upon that side).

any

Add
Then

these two equalities, and observe that


i

Subtract the second equality from the

Then

BM=- MC.

AS + AC = 2 BM + 2AM\
2

first.

Z&-AO* = 23Cx MD.

aE D
NOTE. This theorem enables us to compute the lengths of the medians

if

the lengths of the three sides of the triangle are

known.

162

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION XX.

BOOK

III.

THEOREM.

345, If any chord is drawn through a fixed


point
within a circle, the product of its segments is constant in whatever direction the chord is drawn.

Let any two chords AB and CD intersect at

OAxOB=ODx

To prove

Draw

Proof.

In the

0.

00.

A O and ED.

A AOC and BOD,


^C=Z.B,

263

(each being measured by j arc

Z A - Z D,

AD}.

263

(each being measured by % arc BC).

A are similar,

(two

&

are similar

Whence
:

/. the
when two A of

322

the one are equal to two

of the other).

the longest side of the one,


the longest side of the other,
00, the shortest side of the one,

OA,
OD,

OB,
.-.

the shortest side of the other.

OAxOB = ODxOO.

295
Q.E. D.

346,

SCHOLIUM.

This proportion

OA = 00

OD

OB

OA

may

be written

OD~OB
00

is, the ratio of two corresponding segments is equal to


the reciprocal of the ratio of the other two corresponding

that

segments.

In this case the segments are said to be reciprocally

proportional.

163

NUMERICAL PROPERTIES OF FIGURES.

XXL

PROPOSITION

THEOREM.

If from a fixed point without a circle a secant


drawn, the product of the secant and its external
segment is constant in whatever direction the secant
is drawn.
347,

is

Let OA and OB be two secants drawn from point


OA X 00= OB X OD.
To prove

0.

EC and AD.
OBC

Draw

Proof.

In the

A OAD and

is

common,

A = Z.B,

263

(each being measured by % arc CD).


.

(two

the two

A are similar when

Whence
:

two

A are similar,

322

of the one are equal to two

of the other).

OA, the longest side of the one,


OB, the longest side of the other,
OD, the shortest side of the one,
0(7,
/.

the shortest side of the other.

OA x 00= OB x OD.

295
Q. E. D.

EEMABK. The above proportion


about

until

B and D approach

the theory of limits,

it is

true

continues true

if

the secant

each other indefinitely.

when

and

D coincide

at

OA x 00= OH\
This truth

is

demonstrated directly in the next theorem.

OB

turns

by
Whence,

Therefore,

H.

164

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXII.

THEOREM.

III.

348, If from a point without a circle a secant and


a tangent are drawn, the tangent is a mean propor

and

tional between the whole secant

the external

segment*

Let OB

a tangent and OG a secant drawn from


the circle MBC.

"be

the point

to

OG OB = OB

To prove

Draw

Proof.

In the

M.

EM and BO.

A OB M and OBO
/.

OEM

Z.

(being

an

Z.

is

is

common.

measured by % arc

Z C is

measured by

(being

an

-J-

263

O.

of the one equal to two

322

of the other).

OB,
OB,

the longest side of the one,


the longest side of the other,
the shortest side of the one,

OM,

the shortest side of the other.

OC,
:

B M,

A OBC and OEM are similar,

(having two

Whence

arc

269

chord).

inscribed Z).

.\/.OBM=Z.
.-.

MB,

formed by a tangent and a

Q. E. D.

165

NUMERICAL PROPERTIES OF FIGURES.


PROPOSITION XXIII.

THEOREM.

bisector of an angle of a
product of the sides of this
angle diminished by the product of the segments
determined by the bisector upon the third side of the

The square of the

349,

triangle

is

equal

to the

triangle.

AD

Let

bisect the angle

AD* =

To prove
Proof,

BAG

of the triangle ABC.

ABxAC~DBx DC.

Circumscribe the

O ABO about the A

AD to meet the circumference in


Then in the A ABD and AEC,
Produce

ABO.

^BAD = ZCAE,
Z.B =

285

E, and draw EG.

Hyp.
263

E,

(each being measured by ^ the arc AC}.


.-.

(two

A ABD and AEC are similar,

are similar if two

Whence
:

But

322

of the one are equal respectively to two


the other).

AB,
AE,
AD,

the longest side of the one,


the longest side of the other,
the shortest side of the one,

A 0,

the shortest side of the other.

.-.

(the

AB x A0= ADxAE
= AD(AD+DE)
= AI?+ADxDE.

of

295

ADxDE=DBxDC,

345

product of the segments of a chord drawn through a fixed point in

Q is

constant).

.-.ABxAC=AD + DBxDC.
AD* = AB X AC DB x DC.
i

Whence

NOTE. This theorem enables us


of the angles of a triangle

if

E D
.

compute the lengths of the bisectors


the lengths of the sides are known.
to

PLANE GEOMETRY.

166

PROPOSITION
350,

BOOK

XXIV.

III.

THEOREM.

In any triangle the product of two

sides is

product of the diameter of the circum


equal
scribed circle by the altitude upon the third side.
to the

Let ABC be a triangle, AD the altitude, and


the circle circumscribed about the triangle ABC.
Draw the diameter AE, and draw EG.

AB xAC=AEx AD.
In the A ABD and A EC,
Z BDA a Z,

ABO

To prove
Proof,

is

Z EGA

is

(being inscribed in

and
.-.

(two

rt.

&

rt.

Z B-Z

264

Z,

semicircle),

263

E.

A ABD and AEG are similar,

having cm acute

Whence

Cons.

rt.

/.

of the one equal to


are similar).

an acute

AB,
AE,
AD,

the longest side of the one,


the longest side of the other,

AC,

the shortest side of the other.

.:.

323
Z.

of the other

the shortest side of the one,

ABxAC^AExAD.

295
Q.E. D.

NOTE. This theorem enables us to compute the length of the radius of


a circle circumscribed about a triangle, if the lengths of the three sides
of the triangle are

known.

167

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION

XXV.

PROBLEM.

To divide a given straight line into parts pro


portional to any number of given lines.
351,

7?

and p, be given straight

Let AB,

m,

To divide

AB into parts proportional

n,

Draw AX, making an

Construction,

On

AX take AC=m,

lines.

m,

n,

and p.

acute

with

to

AB.

CE=n, EX^p.

Draw EX.
From

E and
JTand

(a line

draw
.5"

UK and GH

to

II

BX.

are the division points required.

drawn through two

sides of

II

to the

third side divides those

sides proportionally).

/.

AH UK KB = AC
:

Substitute m, n, and

Then

AIT

CE EX.
:

for their equals

HK KB - m
:

AC, CE, and EX.

n p.
:

Q. E.

F.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

168

PROPOSITION

BOOK

XXVI.

PROBLEM.

a fourth proportional

352, To find
straight lines.

Let the three given lines be

m,

n,

To find a fourth proportional

m,

n,

Draw Ax and Ay
Construction,

III.

On Ax

to

to three

given

andp.

andp.

containing any acute angle.

take

On Ay

AB equal to m, BQn.
take

AD=p.

Draw BD.
From C draw

DF

is

\\

to

BD,

to

meet

Ay

at F.

the fourth proportional required.

Proof,
(a line

CF

AB

drawn through two

BG = AD

sides of

II

309

DF,

to the

third side divides those

sides proportionally}.

Substitute m, n,

Then

and^>

for their equals

=p

AB,

JBC,

and

AD.

DF.
Q. E. F.

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

XXVH.

PROPOSITION

To

353,

PROBLEM.

a third proportional

-find

169

to

two given

straight lines.

Let m and

two given straight

n be the

To find a third proportional

Construct any acute angle A,

Construction,

and take
Produce

AB

AB to D,

D draw DE

making

CE is the
(a line

A E ED = A C
:

drawn through two

sides of

=--

AC.

EC.

third proportional to

Proof,

ED

0to meet

to

II

AC=n.

m,

Join

Through

lines.

m and n.

to

II

AC produced
AB and AC.

CE.

to the

at

E.

309

third side divides those

sides proportionally}.

AC for its equal ED.


Then AB AC = AC CE.
That
m:n= n CE.

Substitute, in the above proportion,


:

is,

Q.E.

Ex. 217. Construct

x, if (1)

=
,

(2)

Special Cases

2,

(4)

(1)

2,

3, c

= 3,
;

(5)

= 4;
a = 2c.
c

F.

c
(2)

= 3,

7,

c=ll;(3)

PLANE GEOMETRY.

170

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXVIII.

To find a

354,

mean

III.

PROBLEM.

proportional between two given

straight lines.

H
m
A~--

ra

-^

-TT

Let the two given lines be m and


To find a mean proportional between

On

Construction,

the straight line

AC= m,

take

and

n.

m and n.

AE

OB = n.

AB as a diameter describe a semi-circumference.


At erect the _L CH to meet the circumference at H.

On

CHis
Proof,

.-.

AC CH = CH

337

CB,

to the

diameter of a

a mean proportional between the segments of

the diameter).

(the _L let fall


is

n.
proportional between in and

mean

from a point in a circumference

Substitute for

A O and OB

their equals

m CH = CH

Then

circle

m and n.

n.
Q. E.

355,

mean

straight line

ratio,

when

Ex.

21 8.

(1)

is

to the greater

and

segment as

to the less.

is

Construct x
:

said to be divided in extreme

the whole line

the greater segment

Special Cases

is

if

a;

=
= 3; (2)a=l,

2, 6

= 5-

(3)a

F.

3,

7.

171

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION

XXIX.

PROBLEM.

To divide a given line in extreme and mean

356,

ratio.
"

X.

.--

.%"""

A
Let AB be the given

line.

AB in extreme and mean ratio.


At B erect a J_ BE equal to one-half of AB.
Construction,

To divide

From E as a centre, with a radius equal to EB, describe


Draw AE, meeting the circumference in .Fand G.
On AB take A C = AF.
= AG.
BA
On
produced take AC

a 0.

Then

AB

is

divided internally at

extreme and mean

in

AG AB - AB

Proof,

and externally

at

ratio.
:

348

AF,

from a point without a O a secant and a tangent are drawn,


gent is a mean proportional between the whole secant and the

(if

the tan

external

segment).

Then by

301 and

300,

AG-AB:AB = AB-AF

AF,

AG + AB: AG=AB+AF AB.


construction
FG = 2 EB == AB.
By
AG-AB = AG-FG--=AF=AC.
:

(1)

(2)

.-.

Hence
or,

by

(1)

becomes

inversion,

Again, since
(2)

becomes

AC AB = BC AC;
AB AC= AC BC.
C A = AG = AB + AF,
C B C A == C A AB.
:

299

Q.E.F.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

172

XXX.

PROPOSITION

Upon a given

357,

BOOK

line

III.

PROBLEM.
to

homologous

a given side

of a given polygon, to construct a polygon similar to


the given polygon.

Let A E be the given line homologous to AE of the


given polygon ABODE.
To construct on A
a polygon similar to the given polygon.

E
Construction, From E draw the
diagonals EE and EC.
From E draw E B E C and E D\
making AA E B B E C and C E D equal respectively to
1

A AEB,

BEG, and OED.


draw A
A B =^EAB,
making Z
and meeting
B at Bf
From Bf draw
B C = Z EBC,
making Z
and meeting
C at C
= ZECD,
From C draw C
C
making Z
and meeting
at D
Then A B C
is the
required polygon.

From

E D

j5"Z>

DE

The corresponding

Proof,

E B C ECD and
,

(two

^"(7

A A BE and A B E EBC and


,

322

Z) are similar,

are similar if they have two


of the one equal respectively
of the other}.

to

two

Then the two polygons

are similar,

similar
(two polygons. composed of the same number of
similarly placed, are similar).

to

331
each other and

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.

173

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.
219.

To compute the

altitudes of a triangle in terms of

its sides.

At

least

one of the angles

A or B is acute.

Suppose

it is

the angle B.

4 c2

-6 )(2ac-a -c
2

4c3
2 2
2
= {(a + c) b } {b* -(a- c) }

4c2

_ (a

c)

(a

5) (6

+a

c) (6

+ c)

4c2
c = 2s.
b = 2(sc

Let

a-f6 +

Then

-f

a +

Hence

2s

2 (s

a)

2(s

2(s

6),

a).

- 6) x

2(s

-c)

4c2

By

simplifying,

220.

and extracting the square

To compute the medians

root,

of a triangle in terms of its sides.


r

By?

344,

Whence

-Y+ 6 = 2m2 -h2/


-h2-4 m2 = 2 (a 2 + 6 2 - c2
2

(Fig. 2)
.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

174

To compute the

221.

By

I 349,

By

313,

P - ab

III.

bisectors of a triangle in terms of the sides.

- AD x BD.
*

^1=^ =
be
,

J?Z>

a+b

a+b

BD =

and

a + b
abc2

Whence

(a

6)
c2

/!_

ab (a

c)

(a

(a

c)

2
Z>)

a5x2sx2(s-c)
(a

+ by

Whence
222.

To compute the radius of the

circle

circumscribed about a

tri

sides of the triangle.


angle in terms of the

By

350,

ABxAC=AExAD
be

But

R x AD.

(s-a)(s-b}(s-c).
abc

Whence
223.

If the sides of a triangle are 3, 4,

or obtuse
right, acute,

and

5, is

the angle opposite 5

If the sides of a triangle are

7, 9,

and

12, is the

12 right, acute, or obtuse ?


225. If the sides of a triangle are

7, 9,

and

11,

224.

11 right, acute, or obtuse

is

angle opposite

the angle opposite

The legs of a right triangle are 8 inches and 12 inches find the
the projections of these legs upon the hypotenuse, and the dis
of
lengths
tance of the vertex of the right angle from the hypotenuse.
226.

227.

If the sides of a triangle are 6 inches, 9 inches, and 12 inches,


bisec
(3) of the

find the lengths (1) of the altitudes


(2) of the medians
of the radius of the circumscribed circle.
tors
;

(4)

175

EXERCISES.

THEOREMS.
Any two

228.

altitudes of a triangle are inversely proportional to

the corresponding bases.

Two

229.

ing one

circles

circle in

that the triangles

Through P three lines are drawn, meet


and the other in A B / C respectively. Prove

touch at P.

A, B,

C,

ABC,

chord

AB

is

are similar.

intersect at M, and A is the middle point of


remains the same if the
Prove that the product AB X
made to turn about the fixed point A.

^230. Two chords AB, CD


the arc CD.

AB C

AM

HINT. Draw the diameter AE, join BE/qpd. compare the triangles
thus formed.

The sum of the squares of the segments

231.

chords

is

HINT.

AC

233.

234.

that

AC = ED.
ABCD,

In a parallelogram

diagonal
Prove that

in their

two perpendiculai

CD

ED, BD, and prove


232.

of

equal to the square of the diameter of the circle.


are the chords, draw the diameter
If AB,

in F, the side

a line

in G,

DE

and the

BE,

join

AC,

338.
is

drawn, meeting the


AB produced in E.

side

DF* = FGx FE.

The tangents

common chord

intersecting circles drawn from


produced, are equal, (g 348.)

to

two

The common chord

bisect their

BO

Apply

common

of

tangents.

two intersecting

circles, if

any point

produced, will

($ 348.)

two circles touch each other, their common tangent is a mean


proportional between their diameters.
HINT. Let AB be the common tangent. Draw the diameters AC, BD.
Join the point of contact P to A, B, C, and D. Show that APD and BPC
are straight lines _L to each other, and compare A ABC, ABD.
235.

""

If

236. If three circles intersect one another, the

flhrough the same point.


HINT. Let two of the chords

AB and CD

meet at 0. Join the point of intersection


to 0, and suppose that EO produced meets
the same two circles at two different points P

and

Q.

Then prove that OP- OQ; hence,


P and Q coincide,

that the points

common

chords

all

pass

PLANE GEOMETRY.

176
If

two

BOOK

TTI.

tangent internally, all chords of the greater


the point of contact are divided proportionally by the
circumference of the smaller circle.
237.

circle

circles are

drawn from

HINT. Draw any two of the chords, join the points where they meet
A thus formed are similar.

the circumferences, and prove that the

In an inscribed quadrilateral, the product of the diagonals

238.

equal to

th.e

sum

is

of the products of the opposite sides.

HINT. Draw DE, making

& ABD and CDE are

Z CDE= /.ADB. The

similar.

Also the

& BCD and

ADE are similar.


The sum

of the squares of the four sides of


is
equal to the sum of the squares
of the diagonals, increased by four-iimes the square
of the line joining the middle points of the diagonals.
239.

any quadrilateral

HINT. Join the middle points F, E, of the diag


Draw EB and ED. Apply \ 344 to the

onals.

A ABC

BE

and ADC, add the results, and eliminate


1
by applying 343 to the A BDE.

DE

240. The square of the bisector ofan exterior angle of a triangle


equal to the product of the external segments deter

mined by the bisector upon one of the sides.diminished by the product of the other two sides.
HINT. Let

CD

bisect the exterior

BCH

is

II

of

A ABC. Circumscribe a about the A, produce DC to meet the circumference in F, and draw
BCF similar. Apply 347.
the

<

241.

If a point

BF.

Prove

joined to the vertices of a triangle

is

&ACD,

ABC, and

AB is drawn, meeting OB
/through any point A in OA a line parallel to
at B
and then through B f a line parallel to BC, meeting OC at C
and C/ is joined to A the triangle A B C will be similar to the tri
/

angle

ABC.

242.

two circles meets the circumferences at


D, and meets the common exterior tangent at P, then

If the line of centres of

the
t
points A, B,

C,

PAxPD = PBxPC.
243. The line of centres of two circles meets the common exterior
from P, cutting the circles at the
tangent at P, and a secant is drawn
= PFx PQ.
that
H.
Prove
consecutive points E, F, G,

PExPH

EXERCISES.

177

NUMERICAL EXERCISES.

A line is drawn
AC in D, BC in

*P 244.

Cutting
id

DE.

(g

h.

legs

-.

tree casts a

Find the segments made by

313.)

shadow 90

high casts a shadow 4 feet long.


247.

AB of a triangle ABC, and


3, and AB= 20 inches,

HAD DC= 2

sides of a triangle are 9, 12, 15.

bisecting the angles,


i-.2246.

E.

The

245.

parallel to a side

The bases of a trapezoid

when

feet long,

How

high

is

a vertical rod 6 feet

the tree

and the altitude


Find the altitudes of the two triangles formed by producing the

till

\248.

are represented

by

a, b,

they meet.

The

homologous

sides of a triangle are 6,


to 8

is

equal to 40.

7, 8.

In a similar triangle the side

Find the other two

sides.

249. The perimeters of two similar polygons are 200 feet and 300 feet.
-j
If a side of the first polygon is 24 feet, find the
side of the

homologous

second polygon.
**/

^,

How long must a ladder be to reach a window 24 feet high,


lower end of the ladder is 10 feet from the side of the house ?

250.

line

an equilateral triangle

251.

If the side of

252.

If the altitude of an equilateral triangle

a, find

if

the altitude.

h, find

the side.

Find the lengths of the longest and the shortest chord that can
bo drawn through a point 6 inches from the centre of a circle whose
?

253.

radius
7

/
is

254.

equal to 10 inches.

is

The distance from the centre of a

12 inches.
255.

The radius of a

a chord 10 inches
long
chord 24 inches long.

to a

is 5 inches.
Through a point 3 inches from
drawn, and also a chord perpendicular to the
Find the length of this chord, and the distance from one end

the centre a diameter

diameter.

circle to

Find the distance from the centre


circle

is

of the chord to the ends of the diameter.


256. The radius of a circle is 6 inches.
Through a point 10 inches
from the centre tangents are drawn. Find the
lengths of the tangents,
and also of the chord joining the points of contact.

V 257.

If a chord 8 inches long is 3 inches distant from the centre of


the circle, find the radius and the distances from the end of the chord
to
the ends of the diameter which bisects the chord.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

178

The radius of a

258.

fif6m the centre

ments of the chord


be

drawn through

From

259.

circle

any chord
?

is

13 inches.

drawn.

is

What

is

the point

BOOK

What

is

ITI.

Through a point 5 inches


the product of the two seg

the length of the shortest chord that can

the end of a tangent 20 inches


long a secant is drawn
circle.
If the exterior segment of this secant

through the centre of the


is

8 inches, find the radius of the circle.

The radius of a circle is 9 inches the length of a tangent is 12


Find the length of a secant drawn from the extremity of the

^ 260.

inches.

tangent to the centre of the

The

261.

radii of

two

tance between their centres

mon

circle.

15 inches.

is

tangents.

Find the segments of a


and mean ratio.
-

and 3 inches, and the dis


Find the lengths of their com

circles are 8 inches

^262.

The

263.

line 10 inches long divided in exirerne

sides of a triangle are 4, 5, 6.

right, or obtuse

Is the largest angle acute,

PROBLEMS.
To divide one

264.

to the adjacent sides.

265.

To produce a

266.

To

side of a given triangle into segments proportional


(

313.)

line

AB to a point C so that AB AC= 3


-.

5.

find in one side of a given triangle a point whose distances


to each other in a given ratio.

from the other sides shall be

Given an obtuse triangle

267.

to

draw a

line

from the vertex of the

obtuse angle to the opposite side which shall be a


between the segments of that side.

Through a given point

268.

ABso

that

269.

P within

PAB so
271.

PAB so
272.

To draw through a given point

To draw through a point


that

PA:

a given circle to draw a chord

P in the arc subtended by a chord


AB.

P, exterior to a given circle, a secant

AB = 4: 3.

To draw through a point


3
that ZB = PA X PB.
To

proportional

AP:5P=2:3.

AB a chord which shall be bisected by


270.

mean

find a point

P in

P, exterior to a given circle, a secant

the arc subtended by a given chord

AB

so

EXEECISES.

179

273. To draw through one of the points of intersection of two circles


a secant so that the two chords that are formed shall be to each other

in the ratio of 3

5.

To divide a

274.

line into three parts proportional to 2, f, $.

275. Having given the greater segment of a


and mean ratio, to construct the line.
276. To construct a circle which
and touch a given straight line.
277.

To construct a

circle

touch two given straight

line divided in extreme

shall pass through

two given points

which shall pass through a given point and

lines.

278.

To

inscribe a square in a semicircle.

279.

To

inscribe a square in a given triangle.

HINT. Suppose the problem solved, and DEFQ the inscribed square.
to AB, and let
produced meet

AF
CM
CM in M. Draw Gffand MN to AB, and
produce AB to meet MN at N. The & ACM,
AOF are similar; also the A AMN, AFE
Draw

II

are similar.

the figure

By

these

CMNH

triangles

show that

a square. By construct
can be found.
ing this square, the point
is

280.

To

A.

DH E B

inscribe in a given triangle a


rectangle similar to a given

rectangle.
281.

To

inscribe in a circle a triangle similar to a


given triangle.

282.

To

inscribe in a given semicircle a rectangle similar to a


given

rectangle.
283.

To circumscribe about a

circle

a triangle similar to a given

triangle.

284.
285.

To construct the

expression, x

To construct two straight

= ^^

that

~x

is

de

lines,

having given their sum and

their ratio.

286.

and

To construct two

straight lines, having given their difference

their ratio.

287.

and
Having given two circles, with cef*W6s
draw through the point A a straight
B and C, so that AB AC= 1 2.

in their plane, to
circumferences at

HINT. Suppose the problem solved, join

making

OA AD -.

2.

Join

DC;

and a point

line,

meeting the

OA

and produce

& OA 5, ADC are

similar.

it

to D,

BOOK

IV.

AREAS OF POLYGONS.
The area

358,

of a surface

is

the numerical measure of the

surface referred to the unit of surface.


The unit of surface is a square whose side

is

a unit of length ;

as the square inch, the square foot, etc.

Equivalent figures are figures having equal areas.

359,

PKOPOSITION

THEOREM.

I.

360, The areas of two rectangles having equal alti


tudes are to each other as their bases.

Let the two rectangles

same

B
be AC and

E
AF, having the

altitude AD.

^t^=4|lect.AF AE

Toprme

AB and AE are commensurable.


Suppose AB and AE have a common measure, as AO,
contained in AB seven times and in AE four times.
which
AB ^7
Then
CASE

Proof,

I.

When

is

Apply

this

measure

points of division erect

The
and the

AE
to AB

(1)

and

AE, and

at the several

Js.

rect.

A C will

rect.

AF will be divided into four rectangles.

be divided into seven rectangles,

AREAS OF POLYGONS.
These rectangles are

181

all equal.

186

Hence

From

(1)

CASE

II.

and

(2)

When

Ax

AE

AB and AE are incommensurable.

Dl

F
B

AB into any number of equal parts, and apply one


AE as often as will be contained in AE.
Since AB and AE are incommensurable, a certain number
Divide

of

them

to

it

of these parts will extend

remainder

Draw
Since

from

to a point

KE less than one of the parts.

KH

II

to

K, leaving a

EF.

AB and AK &TQ commensurable,


Case

These ratios continue equal, as the unit of measure


nitely diminished,

rect.AF

and

and approach

AE respectively.
..

-_

(if

indefi

indefinitely the limiting ratios

AB

is

I.

rect.

AF AE

two variables are constantly


equal, and each approaches a
limits are
equal).

limit, the

Q E D
COB. The areas of two
bases
are
rectangles having equal
to each other as their altitudes.
For
and
be
con
may
sidered as the altitudes,
and
as the bases.
361,

AB
AD

AD

NOTE.
"

In propositions
relating
etc., are often used for

triangle,"
angle,"

etc.

to
"

areas,

area of

AE

the

words

"rectangle,"
"

rectangle,"

area of

tri

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

182

PROPOSITION

IV.

THEOREM.

II.

362, The areas of two rectangles are to each other


as the products of their bases l)y their altitudes.

Let R and E be two rectangles, having for their


bases b and b and for their altitudes a and a
.

m
To

E = aXb-E a Xb

prove

Construct the rectangle S, with its base the same as


that of E, and its altitude the same as that of
Proof,

Then

a
a

361
1

rectangles having equal bases are to each other as their altitudes)

Sb

and

360

(rectangles having equal altitudes are to each other as their bases)

By

multiplying these two equalities,

E
E
Ex. 288.

Find the

aXb
a

ratio of a rectangular
by 14 inches.

Q. E. O.

lawn 72 yards by 49 yards

to a grass turf 18 inches

Ex. 289. Find the ratio of a rectangular courtyard 18 yards by 15


yards to a flagstone 31 inches by 18 inches.
Ex. 290. A square and a rectangle have the same perimeter, 100 yards.

The length of the rectangle is 4 times its breadth. Compare their areas.
Ex. 291. On a certain map the linear scale is 1 inch to 5 miles. How
many acres are represented on this map by a square the perimeter of
which is 1 inch ?

AREAS OF POLYGONS.

PROPOSITION
363,

of

its

THEOREM.

III.

The area of a rectangle


base

and

183

is

equal to the product

altitude.

Let E be the rectangle, b the base, and a the alti


tude; and let U be a square whose side is equal to
the linear unit.

R=aX
a X o=
aXb,

the area of

To prove

Jii,

b.
c

IXl

(two rectangles are to each other as the product of their bases

But
..

364.

SCHOLIUM.

= the area of R.
the area of R = a X
When

and

altitudes).

358
b.

Q. E. D.

the base and altitude each contain

the linear unit an integral number of times, this proposition is


rendered evident by dividing the figure into squares, each

equal to the unit of measure.


linear units,

and the altitude

Thus,

if

the base contain seven

four, the figure

may

be divided

into twenty-eight squares, each equal to the unit of measure


units of surface.
and the area of the figure equals

7x4

184

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION IV.

THEOREM.

The area of a parallelogram

365,

product of

its

IV.

is

equal to the

and altitude.
C F

base

BE

Let AEFD be a parallelogram, AD

its base,

and CD

its altitude.

H AEFD = ADx CD.


AB to DC to meet FE produced.
ABCD will be a rectangle, with the same

To prove the area of the

From

Proof,

Then the

figure

draw

II

base and altitude as the

In the

rt.

AEFD.

A ABE and DCF


AB = CD and A E = DF,
(being opposite sides of a

179

ZZ7).

.-.AAJBE=ADCF,

(two

rt.

A are equal when


respectively to

Take away the


Take away the
.-.

A DCF, and we have left the rect. ABCD.


A ABE, and we have left the O AEFD.
rect.

But the area


.-.

161

hypotenuse and a side of the one are equal


the hypotenuse and a side of the other).
tlic,

ABCD
of the

the area of the

=c=

O AEFD.

rect. ABCD = axb,


O AEFD = axb.

Ax. 3

363
Ax.

Q. E. D.

366,

COR.

1.

Parallelograms having equal bases and equal

altitudes are equivalent.


367,

COR.

2.

Parallelograms having equal bases are

are
to

to

to

each

parallelograms having equal altitudes


each other as their bases ; any two parallelograms are

other as their altitudes

each other as the products of their bases by their altitudes.

185

AREAS OF POLYGONS.

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION V.
368,

The area of a triangle

is

equal to one-half

the product of its base by its altitude.

Let ABC be a

AB

triangle,

its base,

and DC

its

altitude.

To prove the area of the


Proof,

CH

AH

From
The

&ABC=%ABx DC.

From C draw

figure
(hawing

and

draw

ABCHis
its

II

to

BA.

II

to

BO.
168

a parallelogram,

opposite sides parallel),

AC

is its

diagonal.

178
(the

The area
base,

diagonal of a CU divides

of the

O ABCH

is

it

into two equal A).

equal to the product of

its altitude.

by

Therefore the area of one-half the


the

A ABC,

is

its

365

equal to one-half the

O,

that

the area of

is,

product of its base

by

its

altitude.

Hence,

the area of the

A ABC= %AB X

369, COR. 1
Triangles having equal bases
tudes are equivalent.
.

370,

COR.

2.

DC.
Q. E. D.

and equal

Triangles having equal bases are

to

alti

each other

;
triangles having equal altitudes are fo each
other as their bases ; any two triangles are to each other as the

as their altitudes

their altitudes.
products of their bases by

186

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION VI.

THEOREM.

IV.

371, The area of a trapezoid is equal to one-half


the sum of the parallel sides multiplied by the alti
tude.
TT
EJ)

.A
F
B
b
Let ABCH be a trapezoid, and EF the altitude,

To prove

area of

ABCH =

Draw

Proof,

(J3~C+

the diagonal

AB) EF

AC.

ABC= % (AB X EF),


AHC= \ (HUX EF).
area of ABCH= \ (AB + HO) EF.

Then the area of the A


and
the area of the A

By

adding,

372,

COR. The area of a trapezoid

median by the altitude.


l(HG+AB)\ and hence
of the

the area of
373,

SCHOLIUM.

For,

is

by

equal
191,

to

368

E D
.

the product

OP is equal

to

ABCH= OP X EF.

The area

of an irregular polygon

may

be

found by dividing the poly

gon into

triangles,

and by

finding the area of each of


these triangles separately.
But the method generally

employed in practice is to
draw the longest diagonal,
and to let fall perpendiculars upon

this diagonal from the


other angular points of the polygon.
The polygon is thus divided into right triangles and trapezoids the sum of the areas of these figures will be the area
;

of the polygon.

AEEAS OF POLYGONS.

PROPOSITION VII.

187

THEOREM.

The areas of two triangles which have an angle


one equal to an angle of the other are to each
the
of
other as the products of the sides including the equal
374,

angles.

Let the triangles ABC and ADE have the common


angle A.

A ABC ABxAC
A ADE ADxAE

To prove

Draw BE.

Proof,

A ABC AC
A ABE ~AE
A ABE AB
A ADE AD

Now

and
(& having

By

the

same

370

altitude are to each other as their bases).

multiplying these equalities,

AABC_^ABxAO
A ADE AD x AE
Q. E. D.

Ex. 292. The areas of two triangles which have an angle of the one
to an angle of the other are to each other as the products

supplementary

of the sides including the supplementary angles.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

188

BOOK

IV.

COMPARISON OF POLYGONS.
PROPOSITION VIII.

THEOREM.

375, The areas of two similar triangles are to each


other as the squares of any two homologous sides.

A o

Let the two triangles be ACB and A O B

A ACB
AA CB

To prove

Draw
T

the perpendiculars

A ACB

(fo;o

are

to

AB

CO and C O

ABx

A^L^ -^

CO

1
.

AB

XW = :Z^ X W
CO

o 7n

each other as the products of their bases by their altitudes).

But
(the

homologous altitudes of similar A have the same ratio as


gous bases).

Substitute, in the above equality, for

then

A ACB

AB

AA C B

AB

AB

CO

its

their

equal

homolo

Al?

AB
Q. E. O.

189

COMPARISON OF POLYGONS.
THEOREM.

PROPOSITION IX.

376, The areas of two similar polygons are to each


other as the squares of any two homologous sides.

Let S and 8 denote the areas of the two similar


polygons ABC etc., and A B C etc.

To prove
Proof,

vertices

/S"

= A$

1*1?.

the diagonals from the homologous


By drawing
and
the two similar polygons are divided into
all

E\

triangles similar

AB*

332

and similarly placed.

A ABE

ABOE
AJJ C E

fBE*\

AA J?
A CPE
A CDE
(similar

& are

to

each other as the squares of any two homologous

A ABE
AA B E*

ABCE
AB O E

A ABE+ BCE+ ODE


E +B CE +CDE
(in

375
1

_~

A ODE
A ODE

A ABE = AB
AA B E ^ B
1

equal ratios the sum of the antecedents is to the


consequents as any antecedent is to its consequent).

series of

.:

8:8 = 13*: AW

sides).

*
1

sum

of the

377. COR. 1. The areas of two similar polygons are


other as the squares of any two homologous lines.

to

E D
.

each

378, Con. 2. The homologous sides of two similar polygons


have the same ratio as the square roots of their areas.

190

379.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION X.

THEOREM.

IV.

The square described on the hypotenuse of a

right triangle is equivalent to the


on the other two sides.

sum

of the squares

Let BE, CH, AF, be squares on the three sides of the


right triangle ABC.
To prove

C*

=c=

Proof,
Through
CE, and draw

AS -f AC*.
A

draw AL\\io

AD and FO.

A BAG, BAG,

Since
are

rt.

A,

GAG

and

CAH

and

BAH

are

straight lines.

BD =

Since
BG, being sides of
the same square, and
BF,
for the same reason, and since

BA =

Z ABD = Z FBC,
sum

of a

rt. Z.

each being the

and the

Z.

ABC,

A ABD = A FBC.
double the A ABD,
rectangle BL
the

Now

the

150

is

(having the same base

BD, and
Us

the

AL

same

altitude, the distance between the

and

D),

and

the square-4-Fis double the


FBC,
(having the same base FB, and the same altitude, the distance between the
\\s FB and
OG).
Hence the rectangle
is
equivalent to the square AF.

BL

In like manner, by joining

AE and BK,

it

may

be proved

that the rectangle CL is equivalent to the


square CH.
Therefore the square BE, which is the sum of the rectangles

BL
^

and CL,

380,

is

equivalent to the

sum

of the squares

CH and

COR. The square on either leg of a right triangle

equivalent

to

the other leg.

the difference of the


squares

is

on the hypotenuse and

191

COMPAEISON OF POLYGONS.

Ex. 293. The square constructed upon the sum of two straight lines
these two lines,
equivalent to the sum of the squares constructed upon
increased by twice the rectangle of these lines.
their sum.
Con
and BC be the two straight lines, and
Let

is

AC

AB

struct the squares

ACGK

AB

Prolong

respectively.

meet

KG

square

CG

and

EFGH,

Then
respectively.
with sides each equal to

ACGK

the square

ABED upon AC and


BE and DE until they

and

is

the

sum

BC.

DEHK and

EFGH,

to

the

Hence,

of the squares

and the rectangles


the dimensions of which are equal

and

we have

AB and

ABED

I)

BCFE,
**

BC.

Ex. 294. The square constructed upon the difference of two straight
these two
is
equivalent to the sum of the squares constructed upon

lines

lines,

diminished by twice the rectangle of these lines.


AB and A C be the two straight lines, and BC their difference.

Let

Construct the square

ABFG

ACKHnyon. AC, and

the square

shown

Prolong

in the figure).

upon AB, the square


BEDC upon BC (as

ED until

it

meets

H K

AG

in L.

The dimensions of the rectangles


AB and AC, and the square
the difference between the whole
are

LEFG and HKDL


BODE is evidently

figure and the sum

F
G
that
the square constructed
the
sum
of
the
to
constructed
AB
BC
squares
equivalent
upon
upon
and AC diminished by twice the rectangle of AB and AC.
of these rectangles

is,

is

Ex. 295. The difference between the squares constructed upon two
is
equivalent to the rectangle of the sum and difference of

straight lines
these lines.

Let

ABDE and BCGF be the squares constructed


AB and BC. The difference between

straight lines
these squares

ACGFDE,

which poly
to
is seen to be
CG
H,
by
prolonging
composed of
gon,
and
the rectangles ACHE and GFDH. Prolong
is

the polygon

upon the two

_,

K
H

AE

CHto Jand

^"respectively,

making Eland

HK each

The rectangles GFDH


The difference between the

equal to BC, and draw IK.

EHKI are equal.


squares ABDE and BCGF
and

rectangle

ACKI, which

AB- BC.

is then
equivalent to the
has for dimensions AI

AB + BC,

C
and

EH

PLANE GEOMETRY.

192

BOOK

IV.

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROPOSITION

XL

PROBLEM.

To construct a square equivalent


two
given squares.
of
381,

sum

to the

Let R and R be two given squares.


To construct a square equivalent
Construction,

Construct the

Take

AB equal

AC equal

to

rt.

It

-f-

to a side of

to a side of

1
,

and draw BC.

Construct the square S, having each of

S is

R.

A.

its

sides equal to

the square required.

Proof,

on the hypotenuse of a rt. A


squares on the two

(the square

BC.

379
equivalent to the

sum

s).

:.& +

Ex. 296. If the perimeter of a rectangle

of the

Q.E.F.

is

72

feet,

and the length

is

"

to twice the width, find the area.


tiles 9 inches long and 4 inches wide will be
8
feet wide surrounding a rectangular court 120
a
pave path
feet long and 36 feet wide ?

How many

Ex. 297.

required to

Ex.
is

298.

equal to

The bases of a trapezoid are 16 feet and 10


Find the area of the trapezoid.

feet.

feet;

each leg

193

PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROBLEM.

PROPOSITION XII.

382, To construct a square equivalent to the differ


ence of two given squares.

s
i

-J-

._

%/_

"""

Let R be the smaller square and R the


1

To construct a square equivalent


Construct the

Construction,

Take

From

to

rt.

JR.

A.

AB equal to a side

of

describe an arc cutting the line

Construct the square S, having each of

R.

(the square

on

AX

&\>

its sides

R\

O.

A 0.

equal to

the square required.

AC

Proof.

larger.

JB as a centre, with a radius equal to a side of

is

~?7*,~~~-A

=0=

W - A3

380

either leg of a rt.


is equivalent to the difference of the
squares on the hypotenuse and the other leg).

==

R - R.
1

Q. E.

Ex. 299. Construct a square equivalent


whose sides are 3 inches and 4 inches.

to the

sum

Ex. 300. Construct a square equivalent to the


whose sides are 2 inches and 2 inches.

of

two squares

difference of

Ex. 301. Find the side of a square equivalent to the


squares whose sides are 24 feet and 32 feet.

F.

sum

of

two
two

Ex. 302. Find the side of a square equivalent to the difference of two
squares whose sides are 24 feet and 40 feet.

Ex. 303.
diagonal

is

A
10

rhombus contains 100 square feet, and the length of one


Find the length of the other diagonal.

feet.

194

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIII.

TV.

PROBLEM.

To construct a square equivalent


any number of given squares.

383,

of

Let

m,

n, o, p,

sum

to the

be sides of the given squares.

To construct a square

=c=

-f n* -f o -f

-f r

2
.

Take AB = m.
Draw AC = n and _L to AB at A, and draw BG.
Draw GE = o and J_ to BG at O, and draw BE.
Draw EF =p and _L to BE at E, and draw BF.

Construction,

Draw

FH= r

and

J_ to

The square constructed on

BF at ^,

BH\s

and draw

BH.

the square required.

Proof,

^ FIT + EF +

^F + EF* + ^C
2

=0=

* FH* + EO
(the

sum

That

of the squares

is,

-^r

EF + CA* + AB\

on the two leas of a rt. A


on the hypotenuse).

BH*

=c=

m + n*

-f-

o -f

is

379

equivalent to the square

+ r.
Q.E.F,

195

PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION XIV.

PROBLEM.

384, To construct a polygon similar to two given


similar polygons and equivalent to their sum.

"

A!

B"

.......
"Li

Let E and R be two similar polygons, and AB and


A B two homologous sides.
To construct a similar polygon equivalent
Construct the

Construction.

Take

PH= A

Draw OH, and


Upon
Then
Proof,

A"H",

J?"

is

homologous to

and

AB,

IV.

Z P.
PO = AB.

rt.

take

to JR-\-

A""

OH.

construct

It"

similar to

E.

the polygon required.

PO*

\r

fr=^

and

&"

(similar polygons are

:**

By

addition,

each other as the squares of their homologous sides).

^^ = ^ + ^ =1
to

B76

A""*

-B"

A""

.Sf-o-K +

Sf.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

19G

PROPOSITION XV.

IV.

PROBLEM.

385, To construct a polygon similar to two given


similar polygons and equivalent to their difference.

/*

A!

13

A"

Let R and R be two similar


A B two homologous sides.
f

polygons,

To construct a similar polygon equivalent

and take

H.

R*

rt. Z P,
PO = AB.

as a centre, with, a radius equal to

describe an arc cutting

Take

to

and AS and

Construct the

Construction,

From

B"

A""

= PIT,

and on

construct

Then

R"

PX at IT,

is

P"

A B\

and join OH.

homologous
similar to R.
A"J3",

to

AB,

the polygon required.

Proof,

E
other as the squares of their homologous sides).
(similar polygons are to each

By

subtraction,

72

E F
.

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION XVI.

197

PROBLEM.

To construct a triangle equivalent

386,

polygon.

to

a given

Let ABGDHE be the given polygon.


To construct a triangle equivalent
Construction,

to the

given polygon.

From D draw DE,


and from J7draw EF to DE.
II

HF at F, and draw DF.

AEto

meet
Again, draw CF, and draw
duced at K, and draw CK.
Produce

DK

CF

to

II

to

meet

AF pro

In like manner continue to reduce the number of sides of


we obtain the
CIK.

the polygon until


Proof,

polygon

The polygon

ABGDHE,

ABCDF

For the part


and the A
(for the base

DE

is

ABODE

ABCK

II

their vertices
to the
base}.

common,

and

369

H are in

the line

has one side less than the


polygon

but the two are equivalent.

ABCF common,
CFK^ A CFD,
369
base CF
K and D are in the
common, and their
KD
the
In like manner the A CIK^= ABCK.
For the part
and the A

(for the

is

DEF^ A DEE,

common, and

FH

The polygon

ABCDF,

has one side less than the

but the two are equivalent.

is

is

vertices

II

to

line

base}.

Q. E.

F,

198

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XVII.

PROBLEM.

IV.

To construct a square which shall have a given


a given square.

387,

ratio to

/ /
m

IB

"V..

R be the given

square, and

___^

To construct a square which shall be

the given ratio.

R as n

to

is to

AB

Take
equal to a side of R, and
AB.
with
acute
angle
making any
Construction,

On Ay

take

AE=m, EF

n,

and join

m.

draw Ay,

EB.

FG to EB to meet AB produced at C.
On A C as a diameter describe a semicircle.

Draw
At

B erect

\\

the J.

BD,

meeting the semicircumference at D.

a side of the square required.


Then BD
and BD by x.
Denote AB by a, BO by
is

Proof.

b,

Now

a x
:

that

Hence, a will have the same


Therefore

(a straight line

2
:

is,

= ab.

ratio to x*

= a ab = a
:b = m:n,
2

x2

and

337
to ab.

b.

309

sides of a A, parallel to the third side,


divides those sides proportionally).

drawn through two

2
Therefore a

By

inversion, x*

Hence the square on


n has to m.

BD will

= m n.
a = n m.

x2

have the same ratio to

R as
Q. E.

F.

PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROBLEM.

PROPOSITION XVIII.
388,

To construct a polygon similar

gon and having a given

199

ratio to

a given poly

to

it.

^x

\
_ ./

V.

A
Let R he the given polygon and
n

To construct a polygon similar


m.

to

the given ratio.

H, which shall be

R as

to

is to

Construction,

structed upon
as n is to m.

Upon
gon

AB

S similar

Find a
it

line

AB

such that the square con

shall be to the square constructed

upon

AB
387

as a side
to

homologous to

AB,

construct the poly

R.

Then

S is the polygon required.


S R = A B AB\
2

Proof,

376

(similar polygons are to each other as the squares of their homologous sides).

AB =n:m.
S R = n m.

AB

But
Therefore

Cons.

Q. E. F.

Ex. 304. Find the area of a right triangle


is 17 feet, and the length of one
leg is 8

nuse

if

the length of the hypote

feet.

Ex. 305. Compare the altitudes of two equivalent


base of one

is

triangles, if the

three times that of the other.

Ex. 306. The bases of a trapezoid are 8 feet and 10 feet, and the alti
Find the base of an equivalent rectangle having an equal
is 6 feet.

tude

altitude.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

200

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIX.

IV.

PROBLEM.

To construct a square equivalent

389.

a given

to

^parallelogram.

f)

Let ABCD be a parallelogram,

b its

altitude.

To construct a square equivalent


Construction,

Upon

and

a its

O ABCD.

to the

the line J/lTtake

base,

MN=

a,

and

N0 = b.

MO as a diameter, describe a semicircle.


At N erect NP -L to MO, to meet the circumference at P.
Upon

Then the square R, constructed upon a


is

equivalent to the

O ABCD.

MN NP = NP

Proof,

(a JL let fall

line equal to

337

NO,

from any point of a circumference

to the

NP,

diameter

is

a mean

the diameter).
proportional between the segments of

That
390,

ABCD.

is,

COR.

1.

square

may

be constructed equivalent to a
side a mean proportional be-

its
given triangle, by taking for
tween the base and one-half the altitude of the triangle.

square may be constructed equivalent


the polygon to an equivalent
polygon, by first reducing
to the
then
constructing a square equivalent
triangle, and
391,

i>m

<7z

triangle

COR. 2

to

201

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION XX.

PROBLEM.

To construct a parallelogram equivalent to a


given square, and, having the sum of its base and
altitude equal to a given line.
392,

J JV

Let R be the given, square, and let the sum of the


base and altitude of the required parallelogram be
equal to the given line MN.

To construct a

and

equivalent

Construction,

At

Upon

erect a J_

Draw

PQ

II

MN&s

MP,

to

having
equivalent to R.

the

sum

of

equal to a side of the given square R.

MN cutting the circumference


t

CM for

its

to

at 8.

MN.

altitude

and

ON for

its

80= PM.

Proof,

MC:SC=SC:

But

ON.

NOTE. This problem

sum and product

may

be stated

of which are known.

is

337

ON,

any point in the circumference lo the diameter


proportional between ilic, segments of the diameter).

Then

base

100, 180

(a J_ let fall from

the

base

its

a diameter, describe a semicircle.

Draw SO A.

Any.O

R, with

to

MN.

altitude equal to

is

a mean

Q. E. F.

To construct two straight

lines

PLANE GEOMETKY.

202

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXI.

IV.

PROBLEM.

To construct a parallelogram equivalent to a


given square, and having the difference of its base
and altitude equal to a given line.
393,

s
\

Afp-

JN

Let R be the given, square, and let the difference of


the base and altitude of the required parallelogram
be equal to the given line MN.
To construct a
base

and

Construction.

equivalent

Upon

to

with the difference of the

MN.

altitude equal to

the given line

JOTas

a diameter, describe

circle.

From

M draw

MS, tangent

of the given square

to the

O, and equal to a side

R.

Through the centre of the O draw SB intersecting the cir


(7 and B.
Then any O, as R having SB for its base and SC for its

cumference at

R.

altitude, is equivalent to

SB

Proof,
(if from

a point without

SM= SM

348

SO,

aQa secant and a tangent are drawn, the tangent

a mean proportional between

the whole secant

and

the

is

part without the O).

SM - SB X SC,
1

Then
and the

-difference

O, that

MN.

NOTE.

is,

between

SB

and

SO

is

the diameter of the


Q.E.F.

To construct two straight


This problem may be stated
and product of which are known.

the difference

lines

PKOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION XXII.

203

PROBLEM.

394, To construct a polygon similar to a given poly


gon P, and equivalent to a given polygon Q.

fr

m-

W
Let

P and

Q be two polygons, and AB a side of P.


to P and
equivalent to Q.
Find squares equivalent to P and Q,
391

To construct a polygon similar


Construction,

and

let

AB
Upon A B
Find

m and n respectively

a fourth proportional to m, n, and

homologous

Then
Proof.
.

But

denote their sides.

P
m
m
1

,2

is

n
^2

AB,

to

construct

AB.

P similar

351
to

P.

the polygon required.

= AB A B\
:

Cons.

P=c=m

P: Q=--m

and

Cons.

:tf--=

But

376

(similar polygons are to each other as the squares of their homologous sides).

:.P:Q=P:P.
/.

is

equivalent to Q, and

is

similar to

Ax.

P by construction.
Q. E.

F.

PLANE GEOMETRY.

204

BOOK

IV.

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.
Ex. 307. To find the area of an equilateral triangle in terms of

its

side.

Denote the side by

a,

the altitude

by

h,

and the area by

S.

O ~2

_5>

Then

axh

But

\/3~

Ex. 308. To find the area of a triangle

By Ex.

219,

= f V7(s -

-X-

Hence,

a)

(s

in terms of its sides.

- b) (s -

Vs(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)

Vs (s

a)

(s

b) (s

c).

Ex. 309. To find the area of a triangle


circumscribing
Tf

c).

in terms of the radius of the

circle.

R denote

of the triangle,

the radius of the circumscribing circle, a*nd h the altitude

we

have, by Ex. 222,

A
Multiply by

But

a,

and we have

2 S.

abc

NOTE. The radius of the circumscribing

circle is

equal to

48

EXERCISES.

205

THEOREMS.
310. In a right triangle the product of the legs is equal to the product
of the hypotenuse and the perpendicular drawn to the hypotenuse from
the vertex of the right angle.

311.

If

BD a line

ABC

a right triangle, C
of the right angle,
the_vertex_
~
rr
D, then BD* + AC* = AB* +

is

cutting

AC in

312. Upon the sides of a right triangle as homologous sides three


similar polygons are constructed.
Prove that the polygon upon the
hypotenuse is equivalent to the sum of the polygons upon the legs.

Two

313.

of

its

altitude of one

is

each

equal to half the base of the other.

The area of a circumscribed polygon

314.

.>\

isosceles triangles are


equivalent if their legs are equal

and the

to each,

is

perimeter by the radius of the inscribed

equal to half the product

circle.

315. Two parallelograms are equa^it-jfa^ adjacent sides of the one


are equal respectively to two adjacent sidjfcf the other, and the included
^**^^m$\
angles are supplementary.
316.

divides

Every
it

317.

into

straight line

two equal

If the middle points of

318. If

sum

\\
the, centre of a parallelogram

parts.

joined, a triangle is formed


entire parallelogram.

the

^"^

Hf~

drawn through

two adjacent

which

is

sides of a parallelogram are


equivalent to one-eighth of the

any point within a parallelogram is joined to the four vertices,


having parallel bases is equivalent to

of either pair of triangles


one-half the parallelogram.

319. The line which joins the middle


points of the bases of a trapezoid divides the trapezoid into two equivalent
parts.
320. The area of a trapezoid is equal to the
product of one of the
and the distance from this leg to the middle point of the other leg.
-

321.

The

lines joining the

middle point of the diagonal of a quadri

lateral to the opposite vertices divide the


quadrilateral into
lent parts.
\,

322.

The

figure

any quadrilateral

legs

two equiva

whose

is

vertices are the middle points of the sides of


equivalent to one-half of the quadrilateral.

323. ABC is a triangle, M the middle point of AB, P any point in


AB between A and M. If MD drawn parallel to PC, and meeting
BC at D, the triangle BPD is equivalent to one-half the triangle ABC.
is

206

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

IV.

NUMERICAL EXERCISES.
324. Find the area of a rhombus,
4,
and their ratio is 3 5.

Find the area of an

325.
is

20 feet

sum

is

13

and 35

A house

its

feet

feet,

is

40

feet long,

30

feet,

is

feet.

if

one side

if

the

= b, and leg = c.
= 8. /(rU
altitude = h.

feet

to the eaves,

25

feet wide,

high

Find the number of squarefeet

high to the ridge-pole.

The

12

hypotenuse

one leg

Y>

in f

^S

entire exterior surface.

331.

is

isosceles triangle if the base

Find the area of an equilateral triangle


329. Find the area of an equilateral triangle

328.

330.

diagonals

Find the area of an

327.

its

isosceles right triangle if the

In a right triangle, the hypotenuse

326.

Find the area.

of

the

if

^fl^T

sides of a right triangle are as 3


Find the area.
is 12 feet.

5.

The altSrae upon

the hypotenuse

Find the area of a right triangle

332.

the hypotenuse

upon

*"^

Find the area of a triangle


111 feet, and 175 feet.

333.
feet,

feet respectively.

335.
feet,

ABCD

336.

What

whose radius
is

is

is

"/

and the

altitude

V-.

the lengths of the sides are 104

^i=S7

AC=* 200 feet.

feet,

Find the

BC= 119

feet,

feet

CD = 41

area.

the area of a quadrilateral circumscribed about a circle


is 400 feet?
feet, if the perimeter of the quadrilateral

25

hexagon having an equal perimeter and circum


same circle ?

the area of a

scribed about the

337. The base of a triangle


the perimeter of an equivalent

338.

if

= a,

is 700
square feet. The bases are 30
Find the distance between the bases.

a trapezium;

is

DA = 169 feet,

What

one leg

The. area of a trapezoid

334.

and 40

if

h.

Upon

is

15

feet,

rhombus

and
if

its

altitude

the altitude

is

is

8 feet.
feet.

Find
c

the diagonal of a rectangle 24 feet by 10 feet a triangle


What is its altitude?
is constructed.

equivalent to the rectangle


339.

Find the side of a square equivalent to a trapezoid whose bases


and 44 feet, and each leg is 10 feet.
$

are 56 feet

a line is
Through a point Pin the side AB of a triangle ABC,
drawn parallel to BC, and so as to divide the triangle into two equiva
Find the value of AP in terms of AB.
lent parts.
340.

207

EXERCISES.
341.

What

cut off by a line


part of a parallelogram is the triangle
to the middle point of one of the opposite sides ?

drawn from one vertex


342.

25

feet.

In two similar polygons, two homologous sides are 15 feet and


The area of the first polygon is 450 square feet. Find the area

of the other polygon.

What is
343. The base of a triangle is 32 feet, its altitude 20 feet.
the area of the triangle cut off by drawing a line parallel to the base
and at a distance of 15 feet from the base ?
344. The sides of two equilateral triangles are 3 feet and 4
the side of an equilateral triangle equivalent to their sum.

345.

another,
346.

the

If the side of one equilateral triangle


what is the ratio of their areas ?

The

al^K

angle^^ed by

which the triangle


two sides.

the

first

trapejaoid,

one base

is

10

feet,

v Find

is

348.

and 21

feet.

Find

feet.

divided by bisecting the

the altitude

the length of a line


and distant 1 foot from it.
parallel to the base
is

equal to the altitude of

sides of a triangle are 10 feet, 17 feet,

of the parts, into

347. In a
32 square

is

Find

feet.

is

feet,

the area

drawn between the

legs

If the altitude A of a triangle is increased by a length m, how


the base a in order that the area may remain

much must be taken from


the same

Find the area of a right triangle, having given the segments p,


into which the hypotenuse is divided by a perpendicular drawn to the
q,
hypotenuse from the vertex of the right angle.
349.

PROBLEMS.
350.

To construct a triangle equivalent

having one side equal

to a given. length

to

a given triangle, and

I.

an equivalent right

351.

To transform a triangle

into

352.

To transform a triangle

into an equivalent isosceles triangle.

353.

To transform a triangle

ABO

ing one side equal


HINTS. Upon

CD, and

to

a given length

I,

triangle.

into an equivalent
and one angle equal

triangle,
to angle

hav

BAG.

AB (produced if necessary), take AD = draw BE to


meeting AC (produced if necessary) at E\ A BED^&BEC.
I,

II

To transform a given triangle into an equivalent right triangle,


one
leg equal to a given length.
having
354.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

208

IV.

To transform a given triangle into an equivalent right triangle,


the
hypotenuse equal to a given length.
having
355.

356. To transform a given triangle into an equivalent isosceles


angle, having the base equal to a given length.

tri

To construct a triangle equivalent to


The sum of two given triangles.

357.

two given

358.

The

359.

To transform a given

difference of

triangles.

triangle into an equivalent equilateral

triangle.

To transform a parallelogram
360.
361.

362.

A
A
A

363.

An

364.

A
A

into

366.

y^

equilateral triangle.

right triangle having one leg equal to a given length.

rectangle having one side equal to a given length.

To construct a square equivalent

>867.

rectangle having a given altitude.

To transform a square

365.

into

parallelogram having one side equal to a given length.


parallelogram having one angle equal to a given angle.

to

Five-eighths of a given square.


Three-fifths of a given pentagon.

To draw a

line through the vertex of a given triangle so. as to


divide the triangle into two triangles which shall be to each other as 2:3.
""368.

5* 369.
To divide a given triangle into two equivalent parts hy drawing
a line through a given point
in one of the sides.

370.

To

find

a point within a triangle, such that the lines joining this

point to the vertices shall divide the triangle into three equivalent parts.
"""371.

To divide a given

triangle into

two equivalent parts by drawing

a line parallel to one of the sides.


372. To divide a given triangle into two equivalent parts by drawing
a line perpendicular to one of the sides.

To divide a given parallelogram into two equivalent parts by


drawing a line through a given point in one of the sides.
374. To divide a given trapezoid into two equivalent parts by draw
^>373.

ing a line parallel to the bases.


"^375.
To divide a given tranezoid into two equivalent parts by draw
ing a line through a given point iu one of the bases.

BOOK

V.

REGULAR POLYGONS AND


395,

regular polygon

and equiangular

CIRCLES.

a polygon which

is

is

equilateral

as, for example, the equilateral triangle,

and

the square.

PROPOSITION
396,

An

THEOREM.

I.

equilateral polygon inscribed in

circle is

a regular polygon.
c

Let ABC

etc.,

be an equilateral polygon inscribed in

a circle.
To prove
Proof,

t fie

polygon

The

arcs

(in the

Hence
and

ABC

etc.,

regular.

AE, EC, CD,

etc.,

are equal,

same O, equal chords subtend equal

arcs

the

ABO, BCD,

A, B,

etc.,

230

arcs).

are equal,

Ax. 6

C, etc., are equal,

(being inscribed in equal segments).

Therefore the polygon

ABC,

equilateral and equiangular.

etc., is

a regular polygon, being

aE

Dt

210

PLANE GEOMETRY.

PROPOSITION
397,

circle

V.

THEOREM.

and a
any regular polygon.

be circumscribed about,

may

circle

may

II.

BOOK

be inscribed in,

Let ABODE be a regular polygon.


I.

To prove

that

circle

may

be

circumscribed about

ABODE.
Proof,

A, B,

be the centre of the circle passing through

Let

a
OA, OB, 00, and OD.

Join
Since the polygon

is

equiangular, and the

A OBCis isosceles,
154

and

By

Z OB A = Z. OCD.

subtraction,

Hence

in the

A OB A and OCD
Z OB A = Z OCD,
radius OB = the radius

the

the

AB=OD.
OAB = A OCD,

and
.-.A
(having two sides

and

OC,

the included

included
,

Z of the one equal


Z of the other).

395
to

two sides

.OA = OD.

Therefore the circle passing through A, B, and

D.
passes through

150
and the

C,

also

REGULAR POLYGONS AND


In like manner

it

through

C,

be proved that the circle passing


E\ and so on

may

and D,

Therefore a circle described from

II.

211

also passes through


all the vertices in succession.

through

radius

CIRCLES.

OA,

as a centre,

and with a

will be circumscribed about the polygon.

To prove that a

may

circle

be inscribed in

ABODE.

Since the sides of the

Proof,

regular polygon are equal


chords of the circumscribed circle, they are equally distant

from the centre.


Therefore a circle described from
the distance from

to a side of the

236
and with

as a centre,

polygon as a radius, will

be inscribed in the polygon.

The radius

398,

Q. E.D.

of the circumscribed circle,

OA,

called

is

the radius of the polygon.

The radius

399,

of the

apothem

scribed circles

is

side, as

is

called the

of the circumscribed

and

in

called the centre of the polygon.

The angle between

401,

OF,

polyyon.

The common centre

400,

any

of the inscribed circle,

angle

AOB,

is

radii

drawn

to the extremities of

called the angle at the centre of the

polygon.

By joining the centre to the vertices of a regular polygon,


the polygon can be decomposed into as many equal isosceles
Therefore,
triangles as it has sides.
1.
The angle at the centre of a regular polygon is
four right angles divided by the number of sides of

COR.

402,

equal

to

the polygon.
403,

polygon
404,

Con.

2.

The radius drawn

bisects the

COR.

3.

to

any

vertex of

a regular

angle at the vertex.

The

interior angle of

a regular polygon

is

the

supplement of the angle at the centre.

Z ABC = 2 Z ABO = Z ABO + /.BAO.


Z ABC is the supplement of the Z AOB.

For the
the

Hence

PLANE GEOMETRY.

212

PROPOSITION

BOOK

V.

THEOREM.

III.

If the circumference of a circle is divided into


parts, the chords joining the

405,

any number of equal

form a regular inscribed


and the tangents drawn at the points of
form a regular circumscribed polygon.
H
I
D

successive points of division

polygon,
division

F
Let the circumference be divided into equal
AJ3,
I.

arcs,

BC, CD, etc., be chords, FBG, GCH, etc., be tangents.


To prove that
is a regular
polygon.

ABODE

Proof,

The

(in the

sides

same

AB, EC, CD,

etc.,

230

are equal,

equal arcs are subtended by equal chords).

Therefore the polygon

is

396

regular,

O is regular).
II. To prove that the polygon FGIIIKis a regular
polygon.
Proof, In the A AFB, BGC, CUD, etc.
(an equilateral polygon inscribed in a

AB - BC= CD,

Also,

Z BAF= Z

395
269

etc.

ABF= Z CBG = Z BOO,

etc.,

(being measured by halves of equal arcs).

Therefore the triangles are

Hence

all

equal isosceles triangles.

Z.F=/.G = Z.H,

etc.

FB = BG=GC = CH, etc.


Therefore FG = GH, etc.
a regular polygon.
/. FGH1K

Also,

is

395
Q. E. D.

1. Tangents to a circumference at the vertices of a


inscribed
regular
polygon form a regular circumscribed poly
gon of the same number oj

406.

COR.

REGULAR POLYGONS AND CIRCLES.


407,

COR.

the tangents

2.

213

If a regular polygon is inscribed in a


at the middle points

circle,

drawn

of the arcs subtended by the sides of the

polygon form a circumscribed regular


polygon, whose sides are parallel to the
polygon and whose
on the radii (prolonged) of
the inscribed polygon. For any two cor
sides of the inscribed
vertices lie

AB

and A B perpendicular to OM,


and the tangents
and
intersecting at a
from
&nd
0_ZV( 246), intersect upon the
point equidistant
bisector of the Z. MON( 163)
that is, upon the radius OB.
sides, as

responding

MB

are parallel,

NB

OM

If the vertices of a regular inscribed


are joined to the middle points of the arcs sub
tended by the sides of the polygon, the joining
408,

COR.

3.

lines form a regular inscribed polygon


double the number of sides.

of

409, COR. 4. If tangents are drawn at the


middle points of the arcs between adjacent

points of contact of the sides of

a regular

polygon

D K

cir

cumscribed polygon, a regular circumscribed

polygon of double the

number of

sides

is

formed.

SCHOLIUM. The perimeter of an inscribed polygon is


than the perimeter of the inscribed polygon of double the
number of sides; for each pair of sides of the second polygon
410,

less

is
(

greater than the side of the

first

polygon which they replace

137).

The perimeter of a circumscribed polygon is greater than


the perimeter of the circumscribed polygon of double the num
ber of sides for every alternate side FG, HI, etc., of the
poly
;

gon FGJTI,

etc., replaces portions of two sides of the circum


scribed polygon ABCD, and forms with them a
triangle, and
one side of a triangle is less than the sum of the other two sides.

214

411,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION IV.

THEOREM.

same number of

the

Two regular polygons of

V.

sides are similar.

Let Q and Q be two regular polygons, each having


1

n sides.

Q and Q

To prove

The sum

Proof,

similar polygons.

of the interior

A of each polygon

205

O-2)2rt,Zs,
(the

sum

of the interior
times

Each angle
(

for the

to 2 rt.
of a polygon is equal
less 2 as the polygon has sides).

of either polygon

equal to

is

= (n
*

2) 2

taken as

rt.

R
S

all equal and hence each


of a regular polygon are
divided by their number).
to the sum of the

many

is

nA
AJO
equal

Hence the two polygons


Since

AB = BO,

etc.,

AE\ A

Q and Q
and

are mutually equiangular.

AB =
C:

Hence the two polygons have

BC

their

395

etc.,

etc.

homologous sides

proportional.

319

Therefore the two polygons are similar.

412,

number

COR.

The areas of two regular polygons of

of sides are

homokgous.

sides.

to

a E. D.
the

same

each other as the squares of any two

REGULAR POLYGONS AND

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION V.
413,

215

CIECLES.

The perimeters of two regular polygons of the

same number of sides are

to

each other as the radii

of their circumscribed circles,


of their inscribed circles.

and

A M B

also as the radii

Let P and P denote the perimeters,


centres, of the two regular polygons.
From

P P = OA

To prove
Proof,

draw OA, O

0,

OB, O

OA

and

= OM: O M

and
Ja

O>

OM, O

the

411

Since the polygons are similar,

333
In the

isosceles

A OAB and

and
.

OAB

OA OB = O A O B

A OAB and O A B are similar.


.:A:A =OA:0 A

the

AB A B = OM:

Also
(the

homologous altitudes of similar


/.

P:P =OA:

O
A have the same ratio
O A = OM: OM

326
319

328

as their bases).
.

Q. E. D.

COR. The areas of two regular polygons of the same


number of sides are to each other as the squares of the radii
414,

of their circumscribed circles,


radii of their inscribed circles.

and

also as the squares of the

376

216

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION VI.

THEOREM.

V.

The difference between the lengths of the perima regular inscribed polygon and of a similar
circumscribed polygon is indefinitely diminished as
415.

eters of

the

number of the sides of

the polygons is indefinitely

increased.

Let P and P denote the lengths of the perimeters,


corresponding sides, OA and OA the
r

AB and A B two

radii, of the polygons.

To prove
indefinitely
Proof,

that,

number

as the

P
increased, f

of the sides of the polygons


diminished.

is

is indefinitely

Since the polygons are similar,

P:P=OA
P

Whence

OA(P

Now OA

is

:OA.

P P OA

Therefore

333

OA

P) = P(OA

OA.

301

- OA).

295

the radius of the circle, and P,

though an

increasing variable, always remains less than the circumference


of the circle.

Therefore
is

Pis

indefinitely diminished,

if

OA

OA

indefinitely diminished.

Draw

the radius

In the

A OA C,

Substituting

OA

00 to
OA

the point of contact of

for its equal

OA

AC.
00, we have

OC<

OA<A O.

A JB

137

REGULAR POLYGONS AND

217

CIRCLES.

But as the number of sides of the polygon is indefinitely


increased, the length of each side is indefinitely diminished
and consequently
that is,
C, is indefinitely diminished.
;

AE

Therefore

OA

OA, which

P P

is

is less

than

C, is

indefinitely

diminished.
1

Therefore

The

COR.

416,

indefinitely diminished.

E D

areas of a regular

difference between the

and

inscribed polygon

of a similar circumscribed polygon

is

the number of the sides of the poly


indefinitely diminished as

gons

increased.

is indefinitely

if

For,

and

S
By division, S

denote the areas of the polygons,

8= OZ OA = OA
- S: S= OA - 00*
2

*
:

00\

414

00*.

S -8= 8x OA *IL OC = 8x 4
00
OO

Whence

C can be indefinitely diminished by increasing the


of the sides, /S
can be indefinitely diminished.

Since

number

SCHOLIUM. The perimeter P is constantly greater


and the area S is constantly greater than 8\ for the
than
radius OA is constantly greater than OA. But
constantly
decreases and
constantly increases ( 410), and the area S
constantly decreases, and the area S constantly increases, as
1

417,

the

number

of sides of the polygons

Since the difference between

we

small as
since

P
is

and

is

please, but cannot

is

indefinitely increased.
can be made as

and

be made absolutely

the length of the circumference.


Also, since the difference between the areas

made
zero,

as small as

and since

evident that

common

zero,

and

is
decreasing while
increasing, it is evident that
This common limit
tend towards a common limit.

limit

is

/S"

we
is

and

259

and

S can

be

please, but cannot be made absolutely


decreasing, while S is increasing, it is

tend towards a

the area of the circle.

common

limit.

This

218

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION VII.

THEOREM.

Two circumferences have

418.

the

V.

same

ratio as

their radii.

Let C and C be the circumferences, R and R the


two circles Q and Q

radii, of the

C\C = E\

To prove

Iff.

two similar regular polygons, and


and P.
perimeters by

Inscribe in the

Proof,

denote their

P-P = R:R

Then

P= R

X P.
413) that is, Iff X
Conceive the number of the sides of these similar regular
polygons to be indefinitely increased, the polygons continuing
to have an equal

RXP

Then
will

approach

(l

number

of sides.

Rx

will continue equal to


and
P, and
and C 1 as their respective limits.
indefinitely

R XC= RxC

/.

260)

that

C:

is,

=R

Iff.
Q. E. D.

419.

COR.

diameter

is

The

ratio of the circumference of a circle to its


For, in the above proportion, by doubling

constant.

both terms of the ratio

J3

By

This constant ratio


is

we have

C:2R=C

alternation,

whose diameter

=2:2

C:C

is

2 J2

denoted by

IT,

so that for

R and circumference
-- = or

SCHOLIUM. The

ratio

C,

any

circle

we have

C=2>rrR.

ir,

420,

TT is

incommensurable, and there

fore can be expressed in figures only approximately.

REGULAR POLYGONS AND CIRCLES.

219

THEOREM.

PROPOSITION VIII.

421, The area of a regular polygon is equal to onehalf the product of its apothem by its perimeter.

Let P represent the perimeter, R the apothem, and


8 the area of the regular polygon ABC etc.

8= % E X P.

To prove

Draw OA, OB, OC,

Proof.

The polygon

The apothem
and the area

is
is

divided into as
the

common

many

A as

it

altitude of these

is

equal to

of all the

is

of each

etc.

-J

has

A,

R multiplied

base.

Hence the area


the

sum

sides.

by the
368

equal to ^ It multiplied by

of all the bases.

But the sum

of the areas of all the

is

equal to the area

of the polygon.

and the sum

of all the bases of the

is

equal to the perim

eter of the polygon.

Therefore

S=

RX P.
Q. E. D.

422,

In different circles similar arcs, similar

sectors,

and

similar segments are such as correspond to equal angles at


the centre.

220

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION IX.

THEOREM.

The area of a

423,

equal to one-half the


circumference.

circle is

radius by

its

product of

V.

its

BMC

Let E represent the radius, C the circumference,


and S the area, of the circle.

S=%RxC.

To prove

Circumscribe any regular polygon about the


and denote its perimeter by P.
Proof,

Then the area

of this polygon

=|EX

P,

circle,

421

Conceive the number of sides of the polygon to be indefi


then the perimeter of the polygon approaches
nitely increased
the circumference of the circle as its limit, and the area of the
;

polygon approaches the circle as its limit.


But the area of the polygon continues to be equal to onehalf the product of the radius by the perimeter, however great
the

number

of sides of the polygon.

Therefore

S - %R X &

260
Q. E. D.

COR.

424.

of

its

1.

radius by

circle as its arc

425,

COR.

2.

The area of a sector equals one-half the product


For the sector is such a part of the
its arc.
is

of the circumference.

The area of a

of its radius.
For the area of the

circle equals

IT

O = | R X O= $ E X

times the square

REGULAR POLYGONS AND


The areas of two

426, COE. 3.

squares of their radii.


and JR the radii,

For,

are

circles

8 and S

if

221

CIRCLES.

each other as the

to

denote the areas, and

Con.

427,

4.

Similar arcs, being like parts of their respective


to each other as their radii ; similar sectors,

circumferences, are

being like parts of their respective circles, are

to

each other as

the squares of their radii.

PROPOSITION X.

THEOREM.

428. The areas of two similar segments are to each


other as the squares of their radii.

^.4^

JL~

JB
P

Let AC and A C be the radii of the two similar seg


ments ABP and A B P
1

ABP A B P = AC* A C

To prove
Proof.

The

A* C B are
centre, C and C

ACB and

sectors

*.

422

similar,

A at the
equal).
In the A ACBsuiAA C B
Z.0=/. C AC= CB, and A C = C B
Therefore the A ACB and A C B are similar.
Now sector ACB sector A C B = AC* A C
(having the

and
TT n

That

AACJ3:AA C B = AC: A^
sector ACS- A AC3
_ AC*
~~
-A
sector A C

ABP A B P = AC
1

is,

326
427

*,

375

qm

AW
Q.E.O.

222

PLANE GEOMETKY.

BOOK

V.

PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
PROBLEM.

PROPOSITION XI.

To inscribe a square in a given

429.

Let
To

be the centre of the given

inscribe

a square in the

Draw

Construction,

circle.

circle.

circle.

the two diameters

AC

and

ED

J_ to

each other.
Join

AE, EC, CD, and DA.

AECD
The A ABC,

Then
Proof.

the square required.

is

BCD,

etc.,

are

rt,

264

A,

(being inscribed in a semicircle),

and the
(in the

same

sides

AE, EC,

etc.,

230

are equal,

equal arcs are subtended by equal chords ).

Hence the

figure

A BCD

is

5m

a square.

Q. E. F.

COR.

430.

polygon

By

bisecting .the arcs

of eight sides

may

AE, EC,

etc.,

a,

regular

be inscribed in the circle ; and, by

continuing the process, regular polygons of sixteen, thirty-two,


sixty-four,

etc.,

sides

may

be inscribed.

Ex. 376. The area of a circumscribed square

is

equal to twice the

area of the inscribed square.

Ex. 377. If the length of the

what

is

side of

an inscribed square

the length of the circumscribed square

is

2 inches,

223

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROBLEM.

PROPOSITION XII.
431,

To inscribe a regular hexagon in a given

Let

be the centre of the given

To inscribe in the given

From

Construction,

From

(7

circle

circle.

circle.

a regular hexagon.

draw any

radius, as OC.

as a centre, with a radius equal to 00,

describe an arc intersecting the circumference at F.

Draw O^and OF.


Then
Proof,

CF is

The

Hence the

And

a side of the regular hexagon required.

A OFC

is

Z FOO is
FO is

the arc

-jt

equilateral
of 2

rt.

and equiangular.

A, or \ of 4

of the circumference

rt,

138

ABCF.

Therefore the chord FC, which subtends the arc FC,


side of a regular hexagon

is

and the

figure

times as a chord,

COR.

CFD
is

etc.,

formed by applying the radius

a regular hexagon.

By

joining the alternate vertices A, O, D,


inscribed in the circle.
equilateral triangle
432,

1.

six
E F
.

an

is

433,

COR.

2.

By

bisecting the arcs

AB, BO,

etc.,

a regular

polygon of twelve sides may be inscribed in the circle ; and, by


continuing the process, regular polygons of twenty-four, fortybe inscribed.
eight, etc., sides may

224

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIII.
434,

V.

PROBLEM.

To inscribe a regular decagon in a given

circle.

B
Let

be the centre of the given circle.


To inscribe a regular decagon in the
given circle.

Draw

Construction,

and divide
be to OS. as

OS is

From C as

the radius OC,

extreme and mean

in

it

ratio, so that

00 shall
356

to SO.

a centre, with a radius equal to OS,

describe an arc intersecting the circumference at B,

and

draw EG.

Then BC\$ a

side of the regular decagon required.

Draw

Proof,

BS and

BO.

OC:OS=OS: SO,
BC=OS.

construction

By
and

OC\BC--=BC:SC.

Z 0GB = Z SCB.
0GB and BC8 are similar,

Moreover, the

Hence
(having an

the

of the one equal

But the
(its sides
.

A BCS,

is

and

A 0GB

00 and OB

which

an

of the other,
proportional).
to

is

and

Iden.

isosceles,

being radii of the same

A OCB,
CB^BS^OS.

similar to the

326

the including sides

circle).

is

isosceles,

225

PEOBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.
the

. .

But the

Hence

the

is isosceles,

and the

#<?.(=

and
/.

Z = Z SBO.
145
ext. Z CSB = Z
+ Z 50 = 2 Z 0.
Z OS5) - 2Z 0,
Z
154
154
Z OBC(= Z flCS) = 2 Z 0.
= 2 rt. A,
of the A of the A OCB = 5 Z

A SOB

sum

and

of 2

Therefore the arc

and the chord BCia a

rt.

A, or

of 4

BG is -fa of the

rt.

circumference,

side of a regular inscribed decagon.

Hence, to inscribe a regular decagon, divide the radius in


extreme and mean ratio, and apply the greater segment ten
times as a chord.
Q.E.

435,

COR.

1.

By

inscribed decagon,

F.

joining the alternate vertices of a regular

a regular pentagon

is

inscribed.

436, COR. 2. By bisecting the arcs BG, OF, etc., a regular


polygon of twenty sides may be inscribed; and, by continuing
the process, regular polygons offorty, eighty, etc., sides may be
inscribed.

Let R denote the radius of a regular inscribed polygon, r the apothem,


the angle at the centre show that
a one side, A an interior angle, and
;

Ex. 378. In a regular inscribed triangle a

= R \/3,

r =

R,

A = 60,

C= 120.
Ex.379. In an inscribed square a

= R V2,

Ex. 380. In a regular inscribed hexagon a =

= %ftV2,

= %R V3, A = 120,

^1

0=60.
Ex. 381. In a regular inscribed decagon
,

A=

144,

(7=36.

= 90,

226

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XIV.

PROBLEM.

V.

To inscribe in a given circle a regular pentedecagon, or polygon of fifteen sides.


437,

E
Let Q be the given

To inscribe in
Construction,

F
circle.

a regular pentedecagon.

Draw

EH equal to a side of a regular inscribed


431

hexagon,

and

EF equal to a side of a regular inscribed decagon.


Join

Then

434

FH.

FH will be a side of a regular inscribed pentedecagon.


The

Proof,

arc

EH\&

and the arc

Hence the

arc

EF

FJIis

and the chord FIT

is

J-

is

of the circumference-,

-^

of the circumference.

y^, or

-j^,

of the circumference,

a side of a regular inscribed pente

decagon.

By

applying

FH

fifteen times as a

chord,

we have

the

polygon required.
438,

COR.

By

bisecting the arcs

polygon of thirty sides

may

FH, HA,

etc.,

a regular

be inscribed; and, by continuing

the process, regular polygons of sixty, one


sides, may be inscribed.

hundred twenty,

etc.>

PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION.

PROPOSITION

XV.

227

PROBLEM.

To inscribe in a given circle a regular polygon


similar to a given regular polygon.
439,

Let ABCD etc., be the given regular polygon, and


C D E the given circle.
To inscribe in the

a regular polygon similar

circle

to

ABCD,

etc.

Construction,

From

0, the centre of the given polygon,

draw

From

OD

and 00.

the centre of the given circle,

draw

aO

making

the

and

Then C

is

CDE

will

have as many
rt. A.

contained times in 4

Therefore the polygon

gon

will be a side of the regular poly^

Each polygon

Proof,

(= Z

=Z 0.

Draw C

OD

DE

etc., is

similar to the poly

411

etc.,

(two regular polygons of the same

number of sides are

similar).

228

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XVI.

PROBLEM.

V.

440, Given the radius and the side of a regular


inscribed polygon, to find the side of the regular
inscribed polygon of double the number of sides.

LetAB be a side of the regular inscribed polygon.


To find the value of AD, a side of a regular inscribed poly
gon of double

the

number of sides.

D draw DH through the centre 0, and draw OA, AH.


DITis _L to AB at
middle point C.
123

From

its

Inthert.A(L4<?,

That

OC*= OA* - A0\

339

OC=

is,

hence
Therefore,

In the

rt.

00=
A DAH,

264
334

= 20A(OA-OC),
AD = V2 OA (OA-00).

and
If
for

we denote

the radius by R, and substitute

Vj?

00, then

AD =Q.E.F.

229

PROBLEMS OF COMPUTATION.
PROPOSITION XVII.
441,

PROBLEM.

To compute the ratio of the circumference of a


diameter approximately.

circle to its

Let C be the circumference, and

the radius.

To find the numerical value of IT.

419
Therefore

We

when

E = I,

ir

= %C.

make

the following computations by the use of the


formula obtained in the last proposition, when
1, and

R=

AB = 1

(a side of a regular hexagon).

No.

Form

Bides.

of Computation.

Length of Side.

Length of Perimeter.

=2-V4-

0.51763809,

6.21165708

ca

=V2-V4-(0.5176380l^

0.26105238

6.26525722

48

c,

= V2 - V4~- (0261052^7

0.13080626

6.27870041

96

=2-4-

0.06543817

6.28206396

12

24

0.03272346

6.28290510

c6

= V2- V4^(0706543817f
= V2 - V4 - (0.03272346)

0.01636228

6.28311544

cT

=V2-Vi- (0.016362217

0.00818121

6.28316941

192

Cft

384
768

Hence we may consider 6.28317


cumference of a

Therefore
442,

whose radius
TT

as approximately the cir

unity.

= -J(6.28317) = 3.14159 nearly.

SCHOLIUM. In
<*

is

practice,

= 3.1416,

we

generally take

1 = 0.31831.
7T

aE

F.

BOOK

PLANE GEOMETRY.

230

MAXIMA AND MINIMA.


443,

Among
is

greatest

the

of a circle

inscribed straight lines

all straight lines

is

the

maximum among

all

and a perpendicular is the minimum


drawn from a point to a given line.

Isoperimetric figures are

444,

SUPPLEMENTARY.

magnitudes of the same kind, that which is


maximum, and that which is smallest is the

minimum.
Thus the diameter

among

V.

figures

which have equal

perimeters.

PROPOSITION XVIII.

THEOREM.

445, Of all triangles having two given sides, that


in which these sides include a right angle is the

maximum.

Let the triangles ABC and EEC have the sides AB


and EG equal respectively to EB and EC ; and let the

ABC

angle

be a right angle.

To prove
Proof,

A ABC
From

E let

>

fall

A EEC.
the -L

ED.

A ABC

and EEC, having the same base BO, are to


The
370
and ED.
each other as their altitudes

Now
By

AB
EB ED.
EB = AB.
AB ED.

114

>

hypothesis,
.-.

>

Q.E.O

MAXIMA AND MINIMA.

PROPOSITION XTX.

231

THEOREM.

446, Of all triangles having the same base and equal


perimeters, the isosceles triangle is the maximum.

Let the A ACB and


let the

&ACB

To prove
Proof,

circle

equal perimeters, and

A A CB A ADB.
AC to H, making CH= AC, and join HB.
>

Produce

ABH\&

ADB have

be isosceles.

a right angle, for

whose centre

is C,

it

will be inscribed in the semi

and radius CA.

HB, and take DP= DB.


Draw CK and DM\\ to AB, and join AP.
Now AH= AC+ CB = AD+DB = AD + DP.
Produce

Rut

AD +

Z>P>AP,

Therefore

But

KB = HB
i

Hence

By

180,

KB = CE

and

hence

HB
and

>

AH>

AP.

BP.

120

MB =IBP.

121

JT.>Jf..

MB = DF,

the altitudes of the

& ACB and ADB.


Therefore

ABC>

A ADB.

370
Q. E. D.

232

Of

447,

the

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XX.

THEOREM.

V.

all polygons with sides all .given


can be inscribed in a semicircle

one,

"but

maximum

has the undetermined side for

which

diameter.

its

Let ABODE be the maximum of polygons with sides


AB, BC, CD, DE, and the extremities A and E on the
straight line MN.
To prove
Proof,

The

ABODE can be inscribed in a semicircle.

From any

vertex, as C,

A AGE must

be the

draw

CA

maximum

and CE.

of all

having the

given sides

CA

increase the

A ACE, while the rest of the polygon will remain

and CE; otherwise, by increasing or diminish


the
Z
ACE,
keeping the sides CA and CE unchanged, but
ing
A and along the line MN, we can
the
extremities
sliding

unchanged, and therefore increase the polygon.

But
the

this is contrary to the hypothesis that the

maximum

Hence the
maximum.

polygon.

A ACE with the given sides CA

Therefore the
(the

maximum

of A

C lies

CE

a right angle,

having two given sides is the


including a rt. Z).

Therefore

Hence

Z ACE is

and

polygon
is

is

the

445

A with the two given sides

on the semi-circumference.

264

that is, the


every vertex lies on the circumference
can be inscribed in a semicircle having the
;

maximum polygon
undetermined side

for a diameter.

o. E. D.

MAXIMA AND MINIMA.

PROPOSITION XXI.
448,

Of

233

THEOREM.

all polygons ivith given sides, that


circle is the maximum.

which

can be inscribed in a

Let ABODE be a polygon inscribed in a circle, and


be a polygon, equilateral with respect to
which
cannot be inscribed in a circle.
ABCDE,

AB CDE

ABCDE greater than A B

To prove

Draw

Proof,

the diameter

Join

Upon O

(= CD)

OS"

and

construct the

and draw

Now

ABCH>

and
(of all

AH.

DIL

AB CH

AEDH>A

= A CHD,

C IT D

447

E D IF,

polygons with sides all given but one, the maximum can be inscribed
in a semicircle having the undetermined side for its diameter).

Add

these

two

ABCHDE>

Take away from the two

Then

inequalities, then

A B C IT D E

A CHD and C H D
ABCDE
Q E D

figures the equal

ABCDE

>

234

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

PROPOSITION XXII.
449,

V.

THEOREM.

Of isoperimetric polygons of the same number

of sides, the

maximum

is equilateral.

Let ABCD etc., be the maximum of isoperimetric


polygons of any given number of sides.
To prove
AB, EC, CD, etc., equal.
Draw^(7.
Proof,
The A ABC must be the maximum of all the
which are

formed upon

AC with

a perimeter equal to that of


AEG.
a greater
could be substituted for

A AKC

Otherwise,
ABC, without changing the perimeter of the polygon.
But this is inconsistent with the hypothesis that the poly

gon

ABCD

(of all

etc., is

the

maximum

/.

the

A AEG

having the same base and equal perimeters, the

In like manner
450,

The

COR.

same number

it

may

of sides

maximum

maximum).
be proved that

maximum
is

446
isosceles

EG= CD,

etc.

is

the

E D
.

of isoperimetric polygons of the

a regular polygon.

449
equilateral,
sides is
number
the
same
of
polygons
of
of isoperimetric
For,

(the

polygon.

is isosceles,

it is

equilateral).

448
circle,
maximum of all polygons formed of given sides can be inscribed in a O).
That is, it is equilateral and equiangular,
395
and therefore regular.
.
Also

(the

it

can be inscribed in a

Q. E. D.

MAXIMA AND MINIMA.

PROPOSITION XXIII.

Of isoperimetric regular

451,

235

THEOREM.
polygons, that which
is the maximum.

has the greatest number of sides


o

Let Q be a regular polygon of three sides, and Q


a regular polygon of four sides, and let the two polygons have equal perimeters,
f

To prove

greater than Q.

CD from
A CD A and

Draw

Proof,

Invert the

D fall at

C"to

any point

place

it

in

AB.

in the position

DCE

let

D, and A at E.
The polygon DBCE is an irregular polygon of four sides,
which by construction has the same perimeter as Q and the
same area as Q.
Then the irregular polygon DBCE of four sides is less than
450
the regular isoperimetric polygon Q of four sides.
In like manner it may be shown that Q is less than a regular
Q E- Dp
isoperimetric polygon of five sides, and so on.

ting

C,

C at

452,

Con. The area of a

any polygon

circle is greater

than the area of

of equal perimeter.

382. Of all equivalent parallelograms having equal bases, the rec


tangle has the least perimeter.

-"

383.

Of

all

rectangles of a given area, the square has the least

perimeter.
384. Of all triangles upon the same base,
tude, the isosceles has the least perimeter.
385.

To divide a

shall be a

straight line into

maximum.

and having the same

two parts such that

alti

their product

PLANE GEOMETRY.

236

XXIV.

PROPOSITION

BOOK

V.

THEOREM.

453, Of regular polygons having a given area, that


which has the greatest number of sides has the least

perimeter.

Let Q and Q be regular polygons having the same


and let Q have the greater number of sides.
1

area,

To prove the perimeter of


Proof,

eter as

Q greater

than the perimeter of

Let Q be a regular polygon having the same


Q and the same number of sides as Q.

perim

>

451

Q",

which has the greatest


(of isoperimetric regular polygons, that
sides is the maximum).

But
.:

But

>

Q = the perimeter of

the perimeter of

the perimeter of

>

that of

The circumference of a

perimeter of any

oj

Q".

>

number

the perimeter of

COR.

To

Q= Q
Q

the perimeter of

/.

386.

Then

454,

circle

Q
is

Q".

Q".

Cons.

a E. D.
less

than the

polygon of equal area.

inscribe in a semicircle a rectangle having a given area;


maximum area.

a rectangle having the

387. To find a point in a semi-circumference such that the sum of


distances from the extremities of the diameter shall be a maximum.

its

237

EXERCISES.

THEOREMS.
388. The side of a circumscribed equilateral triangle is equal to twice
the side of the similar inscribed triangle. Find the ratio of their areas.

The apothem

389.

of an inscribed equilateral triangle

is

equal to half

is

equal to half

the radius of the circle.


390. The apothem of an inscribed regular
the side of the inscribed equilateral triangle.

hexagon

391. The area of an inscribed regular hexagon


fourths that of the circumscribed regular hexagon.

is

equal to three-

392. The area of an inscribed regular hexagon is a mean proportional


between the areas of the inscribed and the circumscribed equilateral
triangles.

The area of an inscribed regular octagon is equal to that of a


rectangle whose sides are equal to the sides of the inscribed and the cir
393.

cumscribed squares.
394. The area of an inscribed regular dodecagon
times the square of the radius.

^ 395.
lar

Every

equal to three

equilateral polygon circumscribed about a circle

has an odd number of

if it

is

396. Every equiangular polygon inscribed in a circle


has an odd number of sides.

is

regu

regular

Every equiangular polygon circumscribed about a

397.

is

sides.
if it

circle

is

regular.
398. Upon the six sides of a regular hexagon squares are constructed
outwardly. Prove that the exterior vertices of these squares are the ver
tices of

a regular dodecagon.

The alternate vertices of a regular hexagon are joined by straight


Prove that another regular hexagon is thereby formed. Find the
ratio of the areas of the two hexagons.
399.

lines.

400.

The radius
between

tional

its

of an inscribed regular polygon is the mean propor


apothem and the radius of the similar circumscribed

regular polygon.
401.

The area

diameter
402.
to the

is

of a circular ring

a chord of the outer

The square of the

sum

circle

is

equal to that of a circle whose


to the inner circle.

and a tangent

side of an inscribed regular


pentagon is equal
of the squares of the radius of the circle and the side of the

inscribed regular decagon.

238
If

PLANE GEOMETRY.

BOOK

V.

R denotes the radius of a circle, and a one side of a regular inscribed

polygon, show that

403.

In a regular pentagon, a

~ VlO
=R

404.

In a regular octagon,

405.

In a regular dodecagon, a

2\/5.

406. If on the legs of a right triangle, as diameters, semicircles are


described external to the triangle, and from the whole figure a semicircle
on the hypotenuse is subtracted, the remainder is equivalent to the given
triangle.

NUMERICAL EXERCISES.
407.

The radius

of a circle

408.

The radius of a

= r.

circle

If the radius of a circle

polygon

is

polygon

is

a,

Find one

side of the circumscribed

Find one

side of the circumscribed

^Vv^

regular hexagon.
409.

= r.

-^ y-5

equilateral triangle.

show that the

is r,

and the

side of

an inscribed regular

side of the similar circumscribed regular

2ar

equal to

V4r -a2
= r\ Prove

410.

The radius

regular octagon
411.

The

is

of a circle

that the area of the inscribed

2
equal to 2r \/2.L-

sides of three regular octagons are 3 feet, 4 feet,

and 5

feet,

Find the side of a regular octagon equal in area to the


respectively.
sum of the areas of the three given octagons.

What

is the width of the


ring between two concentric circum
whose lengths are 440 feet and 330 feet?
413. Find the angle subtended at the centre by an arc 6 feet 5 inches

412.

ferences

long, if the radius of the circle

414.

whose length
415.

is

8 feet 2 inches.

Find the angle subtended at the centre of a

What

is

is

equal to the radius of the

circle

by an

arc

circle.

the length of the arc subtended by one side of a regular


in a circle whose radius is 14 feet?

dodecagon inscribed
416.

56

feet.

Find the

side of a square equivalent to a circle

whose radius

is

239

EXERCISES.
Find the area of a

417.

a square containing 196

circle inscribed in

feet.

square
418.

The diameter of a

circular grass plot

is

28

feet.

Find the diam

eter of a circular plot just twice as large.

419.

Find the

cular piece of
420.

The radius

times as large
421.

side of the largest square that can be cut out of a cir


radius is 1 foot 8 inches.

wood whose
?

of a circle

^ as large

The radius of a

is

What

3 feet.

-^ as large

circle is 9 feet.

is

the radius of a circle 25

What

are the radii of the con

centric circumferences that will divide the circle into three


equivalent

parts?

22.
feet.

423.
inches.

The chord of half an arc is 12


Find the height of the arc.

feet,

and the radius of the

The chord of an arc is 24 inches, and the height


Find the diameter of the circle.

424. Find the area of a sector,


and the angle at the centre 22J.
425. The radius of a circle = r.

if

circle is

of the arc

the radius of the circle

28

is

is

feet,

Find the area of the segment sub

tended by one side of the inscribed regular hexagon.


426.
If the

Three equal

common

radius

circles are described,


is r,

each touching the other two.


between the circles.

find the area contained

PROBLEMS.
To circumscribe about a given
427.

An

428..

equilateral triangle.

circle

429.

430.

square.

A
A

regular hexagon.
regular octagon.

To draw through a given point a line so that it


given circumference into two parts having the ratio 3 7.
132. To construct a circumference
equal to the sum
431.

shall divide

of

two given

(^jumferences.

sum

433.

To construct a

circle

equivalent to the

434.

To construct a

circle

equivalent to three times

435.

To construct a

circle

equivalent to three-fourths of a given

of

two given
a given

circles.

circle.

To divide a given circle by a concentric circumference


Into two equivalent parts.
437. Into five equivalent

circle.

436.

parts,

PLANE GEOMETRY.

240

BOOK

V.

MISCELLANEOUS EXEKCISES.
THEOREMS.
The

line joining the feet of the perpendiculars dropped from the


extremities of the base of an isosceles triangle to the opposite sides is

438.

parallel to the base.

439.

AD bisect the angle A of triangle ABC, and BD bisect the


CBF, then angle ADB equals one-half angle ACB.

If

a,

exterior angle
440.

The sum

pointed star)

(five-

441.

The

bisectors of the angles of a parallelogram form a rectangle.

442.

The

altitudes

of the triangle

D,

of the acute angles at the vertices of a pentagram


equal to two right angles.

is

AD, BE, CF of the

triangle

ABC bisect the angles

DEF.

HINT. Circles with AB, BO, AC as diameters will pass through


D and F, respectively.
an^

E and

443.

the portions

of

any

cumferences of two concentric

straight line intercepted between the cir


circles are equal.

AB

of the
444. Two circles are tangent internally at P, and a chord
Prove that PC bisects the
larger circle touches the smaller circle at C.

angle

APB.
Draw

HINT.

common tangent

at P,

and apply \\ 263, 269, 145.

445. The diagonals of a trapezoid divide each other into segments


which are proportional.
446. The perpendiculars from two vertices of a triangle upon the

opposite sides divide each other into segments reciprocally proportional.


447.

If through a point

P in

the circumference of a circle two chords

are drawn, the chords and the segments between


to the tangent at Pare reciprocally proportional.
448.

The perpendicular from any point

and a chord parallel

of a circumference

upon a

mean proportional between the perpendiculars from the same


point upon the tangents drawn at the extremities of the chord.
449. In an isosceles right triangle either leg is a mean proportional
chord

is

between the hypotenuse and the perpendicular upon

it

from the vertex

of the right angle.

The area of a triangle is equal to half the product


by the radius of the inscribed circle.

450.
eter

of

its

perim

241

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES.
The perimeter of a triangle

451.

from the opposite vertex

The sum

452.

is

to one side as the perpendicular

to the radius of the inscribed circle.

is

of the perpendiculars from any point within a convex


upon the sides is constant.

equilateral polygon

453.

diameter of a circle

divided into any two parts, and upon

is

these parts as diameters semi-circumferences are described on opposite


sides of the given diameter. Prove that the sum of their lengths is equal

and that they divide the


two parts whose areas have the same ratio as the two parts

to the semi-circumference of the given circle,


circle into

into

which the diameter

divided.

is

Lines drawn from one vertex of a parallelogram to the middle


points of the opposite sides trisect one of the diagonals.
454.

If

455.

any secant

two

is

straight lines BC,

drawn

BD,

limited

are to each other as the diameters of the circles.

If three straight lines

456.

A and B, and through A


by the circumferences at C and D, the

circles intersect in the points

CAD

A A BB CC f
,

drawn from

ABC

to the opposite sides, pass through a


of a triangle
within the triangle, then

OB
BE

OA

AA

the vertices

common

PC = l
CC*

Two diagonals of a

regular pentagon, not drawn from a


vertex, divide each other in extreme and mean ratio.
457.

point

common

!?

Loci.
458.

points
459.

Find the locus of a point


and B are in a given ratio

OP

is

any straight

cumference of a fixed
is

constant.

circle

line

in

Find the locus of

whose distances from two given

(ra

ri).

drawn from a

OP

a,

point

is

to the cir

fixed point

taken such that

OQ:

OP

Q.

AB

is
a straight line
460. From a fixed point
in a given straight line CD, and then divided at
(m n). Find the locus of the point P.

drawn

in

to

any point

a given ratio

461.

Find the locus of a point whose distances from two given straight
(The locus consists of two straight lines.)

lines are in a given ratio.

462.

Find the locus of a point the sum of whose distances from two

given straight lines

is

equal to a given length

k.

(See Ex. 73.)

PLANE GEOMETRY.

242

BOOK

Y.

PROBLEMS.
463. Given the perimeters of a regular inscribed and a similar circum
scribed polygon, to compute the perimeters of the regular inscribed and
circumscribed polygons of double the number of sides.
464. To draw a tangent to a given circle such that the segment inter
cepted between the point of contact and a given straight line shall have

a given length.
465.

To draw a

466.

To

straight line equidistant from three given points.

between two given


(See Ex. 137.)

inscribe a straight line of given length

circumferences and parallel to a given straight line.

467. To draw through a given point a straight line so that its dis
tances from two other given points shall be in a given ratio (ra n).
HINT. Divide the line joining the two other points in the given ratio.
:

468.

Construct a square equivalent to the

sum

of a given triangle

and a given parallelogram.


469.

Construct a rectangle having the difference of its base and


and its area equivalent to the sum of a

altitude equal to a given line,

given triangle and a given pentagon.


470.

Construct a pentagon similar to a given pentagon and equiva

lent to a given trapezoid.

471.

To

find a point

shall be as the

472.

numbers

Given two

a secant

whose distances from three given


ra, n, and p.
(See Ex. 461.)

circles intersecting at the point

B AC such

that

AB shall be

to

AC in

HINT. Divide the line of centres in the given


473.

To construct a

straight lines

triangle, given its angles

A.

To draw through

a given ratio

(ra

n).

ratio.

and

its

area.

474. To construct an equilateral triangle having a given area.


475.

To divide a given triangle

into

two equal parts by a

line

drawn

parallel to one of the sides.

7 476. Given three points A, B, C. To find a fourth point


the areas of the triangles
APC, PC, shall be equal.

Psuch

that

AP,

To construct a triangle, given


and the angle included by them.

477.
sides,

478.

To divide a given

circle into

its

base, the ratio of the other

any number of equivalent parts by

concentric circumferences.
479. In a given equilateral triangle, to inscribe three equal
sides of the triangle.
tangent to each other and to the

circles

14

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